Industrial Training Report | Anti Lock Braking System | Internal Combustion Engine

Industrial Training Report

Jasdev Singh Sandhu Institute of Engineering & Technology
Kauli (Patiala)

Training At

MALHOTRA MOTORS
Sirhind (Fathegarh Sahib)

Submitted To :Submitted By:Mechanical Engg. Deptt. Surinder Singh

Roll No. 90431175333 nch Mechanical Bra

PREFACE
This vocational training report on “Malhotra Motors” Sirhind has been carried out to undertaken the various machines and knowledge of automobile parts. In the report on approach has been mode to understand the basic information to service of car. I will be thankful to him. At the end I would like to say that it was an excellent experience for me.

Engine Turbocharging CRDI System in Cars • How does CRDI works ABS System Working of ABS Services of a Car       . C.INDEX    Tools Used Machines Used Engine • Internal Combustion Engine • External Combustion Engine Four Stroke I.

Pliers 6. Ring Spanners 11.   Tyre Rotation Wheel Balancing Wheel Alignment TOOLS USED 1. Hacksaws 15. Oil Filter Clamps . Spanners 10. Chisels 9. Ring Compressor 14. Nose Pliers 7. Tappet Gauge 12. L – key 3. Hammers 5. Bench Vice 8. Screw Driver 2. Torque Wrench 13. T – rod 4.

Files 17.16. Air Compressor 5. Hydraulic Crane 3. Grinder . Wheel Balancing Machine 2. Car Lift 4. L Key Set 18. Air Gun 6. Pipe Wrenches MACHINES USED 1.

Car Washer 8. It may also serve as a "prime mover". but may be used to refer to any engine. Wheel Alignment Machine ENGINE An engine is a machine designed to convert energy into useful mechanical motion. An automobile powered by an internal combustion engine may make use of various motors and pumps. such as the steam roller and motor roller. but ultimately all such devices derive their power from the engine. The term "motor" was originally used to distinguish the new internal combustion engine-powered vehicles from earlier vehicles powered by steam engines. .7. a component that transforms the flow or changes in pressure of a fluid into mechanical energy.

External combustion engine An external combustion engine is a heat engine where working fluid is heated by combustion of an external source. or dumped. which are produced by the combustion. through the engine wall or a heat exchanger. by expanding and acting on the mechanism of the engine produces motion and usable work. generates useful mechanical energy. such as the pistons or turbine blades or a nozzle.Internal combustion engine The internal combustion engine is an engine in which the combustion of a fuel (generally. The fluid then. compressed and reused. In an internal combustion engine the expansion of the high temperature and pressure gases. and cool fluid pulled in (open cycle air engine). fossil fuel) occurs with an oxidizer (usually air) in a combustion chamber. The fluid is then cooled. . directly applies force to component of the engine. and by moving it over a distance.

compression. aircraft. The cycle begins at top dead centre (TDC). . when the piston is farthest away from the axis of the crankshaft. A stroke refers to the full travel of the piston from Top Dead Center (TDC) to Bottom Dead Center (BDC). and exhaust strokes that occur during two crankshaft rotations per working cycle of the gasoline engine and diesel engine. Engine The internal combustion engines in cars. motorcycles. C. construction machinery and many others. trucks. most commonly use a four-stroke cycle. combustion (power).Four Stroke I. The four strokes refer to intake.

COMPRESSION Stroke: With both intake and exhaust valves closed. the compressed air–fuel mixture is ignited. which is the main source of the engine's torque and power. This is known as the compression stroke. reducing the pressure inside the cylinder.: During the exhaust stroke.1. EXHAUST Stroke. INTAKE Stroke: On the intake or induction stroke of the piston. This action evacuates the . 3. the piston returns to the top of the cylinder compressing the fuel-air mixture. usually by a spark plug (for a gasoline or Otto cycle engine) or by the heat and pressure of compression (for a diesel cycle or compression ignition engine). The intake valve(s) then close. 2. the piston once again returns to top dead center while the exhaust valve is open. the piston descends from the top of the cylinder to the bottom of the cylinder. 4.: While the piston is close to Top Dead Center. POWER Stroke. The resulting massive pressure from the combustion of the compressed fuel-air mixture drives the piston back down toward bottom dead center with tremendous force. This is known as the power stroke. A mixture of fuel and air is forced by atmospheric (or greater) pressure into the cylinder through the intake port.

It consists of a two piece. the turbocharger is not engaged and the engine operates in a naturally-aspirated manner. and the other side that is powered by the exhaust gas outflow. When idling. Turbocharging The turbocharger was designed as a part-time method of compressing more air into the cylinder head. high-speed turbine assembly with one side that compresses the intake air. the engine speed is increased until the exhaust gases are sufficient to 'spin up' the turbocharger's turbine to start . When much more power output is required.products of combustion from the cylinder by pushing the spent fuel-air mixture through the exhaust valve. and at low-to-moderate speeds.

but there is a design limitation known as turbo lag. before the turbo starts to do any useful air compression. . due to the need to sharply increase engine RPM to spin up the turbo. Turbocharging allows for more efficient engine operation at low-to-moderate speeds. Conventional Diesel Engines (non-CRDI engines) are sluggish. noisy and poor in performance compared to a CRDI engine. CRDI System In Cars CRDI is an intelligent way of controlling a diesel engine with use of modern computer systems. The increased engine power is not immediately available. CRDI helps to improve the power.compressing much more air than normal into the intake manifold. performance and reduce harmful emissions from a diesel engine.

CRDI or common rail direct injection system is also sometimes referred to by many similar or different names. All these systems work on same principles with slight variations and enhancements here and there. This is a called a common rail because there is one single pump which compresses the diesel and one single rail which . Some brands use name CRDe / DICOR / Turbojet / DDIS / TDI etc. How does CRDI works :CRDI system uses common rail which is like one single rail or fuel channel which contains diesel compresses at high pressure.

In CRDI. there will be as many pumps and fuel rails as there are cylinders. 4 fuel rails each feeding to one cylinder. for a conventional 4 cylinder diesel engine there will be 4 fuel-pumps. . The fuel is injected into each engine cylinder at a particular time interval based on the position of moving piston inside the cylinder. but in a CRDI system this time interval and timing etc are all controlled by a central computer or microprocessor based control system. In conventional diesel engines. there will be one fuel rail for all 4 cylinders so that the fuel for all the cylinders is pressurized at same pressure. As an example. this interval and the fuel quantity was determined by mechanical components. In a conventional non-CRDI system.contains that compressed fuel.

The input sensors include throttle position sensor.To run a CRDI system. The use of sensors and microprocessor to control the engine makes most efficient use of the fuel and also improved the power. crank position sensor. fuel-economy and performance of the engine by managing it in a much better way. pressure sensor. . lambda sensor etc. the microprocessor works with input from multiple sensors.

ABS System An anti-lock braking system. or ABS is a safety system which prevents the wheels on a motor vehicle from locking up (or ceasing to rotate) while braking. ABS offers improved vehicle control and decreases stopping distances on dry and . A rotating road wheel allows the driver to maintain steering control under heavy braking by preventing a skid and allowing the wheel to continue interacting tractively with the road surface as directed by driver steering inputs.

On others. is known as electronic brakeforce distribution (EBD). traction control system. on loose surfaces like gravel and snow-on-pavement. but also electronically control the front-torear brake bias. it can slightly increase braking distance while still improving vehicle control.especially slippery surfaces. Since initial widespread use in production cars. depending on its specific capabilities and implementation. emergency brake assist. However. antilock braking systems have evolved considerably. it may not improve control at all. This function. or electronic stability control. . Recent versions not only prevent wheel lock under braking.

The ECU constantly monitors the rotational speed of each wheel. thus reducing the braking force on that wheel. The wheel then turns faster. a condition indicative of impending wheel lock — it actuates the valves to reduce hydraulic pressure to the brake at the affected wheel.Working of ABS The anti-lock brake controller is also known as the CAB (Controller Anti-lock Brake) A typical ABS is composed of a central electronic control unit (ECU). one for each wheel and two or more hydraulic valves within the brake hydraulics. and when it detects a wheel rotating significantly slower than the others. . four wheel speed sensors.

.when the ECU detects it is turning significantly faster than the others. brake hydraulic pressure to the wheel is increased so the braking force is reapplied and the wheel slows. a warning light will usually be illuminated on the vehicle instrument panel. the two wheels towards the center of the curve turn slower than the outer two. and can be detected by the driver via brake pedal pulsation. and the ABS will be disabled until the fault is rectified. If a fault develops in any part of the ABS. because when the car is turning. A typical anti-lock system can apply and release braking pressure up to 20 times a second. For this same reason. This process is repeated continuously. a differential is used in virtually all roadgoing vehicles. The ECU is programmed to disregard differences in wheel rotative speed below a critical threshold.

000 km ( Brake oil change. Plug & oil filter change.Services of a Car  First service---------------------1000 km ( Oil change. air filter and nut bolt checking and cleaning )  Third service----------------------10. Oil change. air filter check and tyre rotation )  Fourth service----------------------15.000 km ( Oil change. air filter check and tyre rotation )  . general checking ) Second services------------------5000 km ( Oil change.000 km ( Oil change. air filter checking and cleaning )  Fifth service-------------------------20. Plug & oil filter change. Plug & oil filter change.

Tyre Rotation .

To balance a wheel. usually between 50 and 70 mph. A tire is out of balance when one section of the tire is heavier than the others. the technician will mount it on a balancing machine which spins the wheel to locate .Wheel Balancing Out-of-balance tires will cause a car to vibrate at certain speeds. One ounce of imbalance on a front tire is enough to cause a noticeable vibration in the steering wheel at about 60 mph.

If the vibration is mostly in the seat. Many people are pleasantly surprised at how smooth their car drives after balancing all four wheels. Most high quality tires will hold their balance fairly well and go out of balance very gradually.the heavier part. . the problem is most likely in a front wheel. For those of you who are very sensitive about vibrations and your shop can't seem to get that last bit of vibration out.5 ounces heavier than the other lug nuts which translates to about 1/2 ounce at the wheel rim. He will then compensate for the heavy part by attaching a lead weight on the opposite side. Try putting a 1/2 ounce weight opposite the locking lug and see if it helps. If you notice a vibration that wasn't there the day before. Some locking lugs are as much as 1. If you feel the vibration mostly in the steering wheel. it is possible that one of the lead balancing weights fell off. the problem is probably in the rear. check to see if you have locking wheel lugs.

To find out if you need an alignment. If the tread is deeper in the center than the edges. • • . take a coin and insert it in the tread at the inside. At each tire. the tire is under inflated. center and outside. first check each tire and look for uneven wear patterns. The purpose of these adjustments is maximum tire life and a vehicle that tracks straight and true when driving along a straight and level road.Wheel Alignment Wheel alignment consists of adjusting the angles of the wheels so that they are perpendicular to the ground and parallel to each other. the tire is over inflated. If the tread is deeper on the edges than in the center.

Have the alignment checked as soon as possible as this condition causes rapid tire wear. The best type of wheel alignment is a four wheel alignment. After the wheel alignment is finished. Many cars today have adjustable rear alignment settings. but jagged in the other you have what is called a "saw-tooth" wear pattern which is caused by a toe-in problem. have your wheel alignment checked soon. a four wheel alignment will allow the technician to identify any rear tracking problems and compensate for them with adjustments to the front.• If the tread is deeper on one side than the other. • . being careful not to cut yourself on any debris or exposed steel belt wire. Run your hand back and forth across the tread. you should drive the car on a straight and level road and check that the car goes straight and that the steering wheel is in the proper position with the spokes level. but even for cars without adjustments in the rear. If the tread is smooth in one direction.

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