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Modern English part II—Sentence & Complex Structures

Exercises for Non-native Speakers


1-4 JOINING SENTENCES WITH CONJUNCTIVE ADVERBS

pp. 7~10

Most conjunctive adverbs are found in formal writing rather than in informal
conversation. Some of the more common conjunctive adverbs are listed
below.

Addition moreover, in addition, besides, furthermore


Condition otherwise
Concession however, still, nevertheless
Result therefore, consequently, thus

Besides, still are less formal than the other conjunctive adverbs;
nevertheless, consequently are more formal.

The position of conjunctive adverbs is like that of other adverbs. They


may appear:

At the beginning He doesn’t like his job; however, he won’t leave until he
finds another job.
With the verb He doesn’t like his job; he won’t leave, however, until he
finds another job.
At the end He doesn’t like his job; he won’t leave until he finds
another job, however.
(Note that this final position is less desirable because the
relationship intended by however is suspended too long.)

The punctuation of conjunctive adverbs is also like that of other adverbs. The
writer uses commas to reflect a pause in speech.

A. Combine each group of sentences with one of the conjunctive adverbs.


Use a semicolon to replace the period of the first sentences; use a comma
to cut off the conjunctive adverb if the comma reflects a pause in speech
for you. Note which of the three adverbial positions seems most desirable
for the conjunctive adverb.

EXAMPLE: a. Mr. Smith is an intelligent and stimulating teacher.


Also, he is interested in his students. (omit also)
Mr. Smith is an intelligent and stimulating teacher; moreover

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Modern English part II—Sentence & Complex Structures
Exercises for Non-native Speakers
1-4 JOINING SENTENCES WITH CONJUNCTIVE ADVERBS

(or in addition), he is interested in his students.


b. We must all eat the proper food.
If we don’t, we’ll get sick. (omit if we don’t)
We must all eat the proper food; otherwise(,)5 we’ll get sick. or
…; we’ll get sick otherwise.
(an acceptable choice because the second clause is short.)
c. There are many people who like to buy on the installment
plan.
I prefer to buy for cash.
There are many people who like to buy on the installment
plan; however, I prefer to buy for cash. or
…; I prefer, however, … or
…; I, however, prefer … or
…; I prefer to buy for cash, however.
d. There is no demand in the United States for the type of car
you sell.
I cannot give you an order for this car
There is no demand in the United States for the type of car
you sell; therefore, I cannot give you an order for this car. or
…; I therefore cannot … or
…; I cannot (,) therefore(,) …

1. John is a very lazy student.


Also, he always comes late to class.
John is a very lazy student; moreover(/in addition), he always comes late
to class.

2. She didn’t study hard enough.


If she had, she would have passed the examination. (略去 if she had)
She didn’t study hard enough; otherwise(,) she would have passed the
examination.

5
In a grammar text, parentheses around a comma indicate that the comma
can be omitted. A comma is more common with words like however and less
common with otherwise.
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Modern English part II—Sentence & Complex Structures
Exercises for Non-native Speakers
1-4 JOINING SENTENCES WITH CONJUNCTIVE ADVERBS

3. He seems to be a very intelligent and able man.


I don’t think he is suited for this particular job.
He seems to be a very intelligent and able man; however(/still/
nevertheless), I don’t think he is suited for this particular job.
4. There is very little rain in this region.
We often have crop failures.
There is very little rain in this region; therefore(/consequently), we often
have crop failures.
5. Keep away my property.
If you don’t, I’ll have you arrested. (omit if you don’t)
Keep away my property; otherwise(,) I’ll have you arrested.
6. Jim’s mother doesn’t like animals in the house.
She has refused to let him get a dog.
Jim’s mother doesn’t like animals in the house; therefore(/consequently),
she has refused to let him get a dog.
7. It’s too late to go to the movies.
Also, I don’t like the picture they’re playing. (omit also)
It’s too late to go to the movies; besides, I don’t like the picture they’re
playing.
8. Recreation is good for everyone.
As in all things, we must not go to extremes.
Recreation is good for everyone; however(/still/nevertheless), as in all
things, we must not go to extremes.
9. The weather has been extremely cold all winter long.
They are going to Miami Beach to get some sunshine.
The weather has been extremely cold all winter long; therefore(/
consequently), they are going to Miami Beach to get some sunshine.

10. Their car is very cold.


It has never given them any trouble.
Their car is very cold; however(/nevertheless), it has never given them
any trouble.
11. You should get the license right away.

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Modern English part II—Sentence & Complex Structures
Exercises for Non-native Speakers
1-4 JOINING SENTENCES WITH CONJUNCTIVE ADVERBS

If you don’t, you’ll have to pay a fine. (omit if you don’t)


You should get the license right away; otherwise(,) you’ll have to pay a
fine.
12. The philanthropist made a large contribution for the university library.
Also, he gave some money for a scholarship fund for needy student.
(omit also)
The philanthropist made a large contribution for the university library;
moreover(/in addition), he gave some money for a scholarship fund
for needy student.
13. You must do as the doctor says.
If you don’t, you may get sick again. (omit if you don’t)
You must do as the doctor says; otherwise(,) you may get sick again.
14. He’s studying harder now.
His grades in school are still poor.
He’s studying harder now; however(/still/nevertheless), his grades in
school are still poor.

B. Coordinate conjunctions provide the most informal means of connecting


sentences. Unlike conjunctive adverbs, coordinate conjunctions can only be
placed before the second part of the sentence.

Join the groups of sentences in A by the coordinate conjunctions and, or,


but, so or for.

1. John is a very lazy student.


Also, he always comes late to class.
John is a very lazy student, and he always comes late to class.

2. She didn’t study hard enough.


If she had, she would have passed the examination. (omit if she had)
She didn’t study hard enough, or she would have passed the
examination.
3. He seems to be a very intelligent and able man.
I don’t think he is suited for this particular job.

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Modern English part II—Sentence & Complex Structures
Exercises for Non-native Speakers
1-4 JOINING SENTENCES WITH CONJUNCTIVE ADVERBS

He seems to be a very intelligent and able man, but I don’t think he is


suited for this particular job.
4. There is very little rain in this region.
We often have crop failures.
There is very little rain in this region, so we often have crop failures.
5. Keep away my property.
If you don’t, I’ll have you arrested. (omit if you don’t)
Keep away my property, or I’ll have you arrested.
6. Jim’s mother doesn’t like animals in the house.
She has refused to let him get a dog.
Jim’s mother doesn’t like animals in the house, so she has refused to let
him get a dog.
7. It’s too late to go to the movies.
Also, I don’t like the picture they’re playing. (omit also)
It’s too late to go to the movies, and I don’t like the picture they’re
playing.
8. Recreation is good for everyone.
As in all things, we must not go to extremes.
Recreation is good for everyone, but as in all things, we must not go to
extremes.
9. The weather has been extremely cold all winter long.
They are going to Miami Beach to get some sunshine.
The weather has been extremely cold all winter long, so they are going to
Miami Beach to get some sunshine.

10. Their car is very cold.


It has never given them any trouble.
Their car is very cold, but it has never given them any trouble.
11. You should get the license right away.
If you don’t, you’ll have to pay a fine. (omit if you don’t)
You should get the license right away, or you’ll have to pay a fine.
12. The philanthropist made a large contribution for the university library.

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Modern English part II—Sentence & Complex Structures
Exercises for Non-native Speakers
1-4 JOINING SENTENCES WITH CONJUNCTIVE ADVERBS

Also, he gave some money for a scholarship fund for needy students.
(omit also)
The philanthropist made a large contribution for the university library,
and he gave some money for a scholarship fund for needy students.
13. You must do as the doctor says.
If you don’t, you may get sick again. (omit if you don’t)
You must do as the doctor says, or you may get sick again.
14. He’s studying harder now.
His grades in school are still poor.
He’s studying harder now, but his grades in school are still poor.

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