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Experimental Modal Analysis

Modal Analysis 1

f(t) m c k x(t)

SDOF and MDOF Models Different Modal Analysis Techniques Exciting a Structure Measuring Data Correctly

=

+

+

+⋅⋅⋅+ Modal Analysis Post Processing

Modal Analysis 2

**Simplest Form of Vibrating System
**

Displacement

d = D sinωnt D

Time

Displacement

T m k

1 T

Frequency

**Period, Tn in [sec] Frequency, fn= T in [Hz = 1/sec]
**

n

1

ωn= 2 π fn =

k m

Modal Analysis 3

Mass and Spring

time

ωn = 2πfn =

k m + m1

m1 m

Increasing mass reduces frequency

Modal Analysis 4

Mass. Spring and Damper time Increasing damping reduces the amplitude k m c1 + c2 Modal Analysis 5 .

) K = stiffness (force/disp.) C = damping (force/vel.Basic SDOF Model f(t) m c k x(t) & M&&(t ) + Cx (t ) + Kx (t ) = f (t ) x M = mass (force/acc.) &&( t ) = x & x( t ) = x( t ) = f (t ) = Acceleration Vector Velocity Vector Displacement Vector Applied force Vector Modal Analysis 6 .

SDOF Models — Time and Frequency Domain F(ω) H(ω) X(ω) |H(ω)| f(t) m c k x(t) 1 k 1 ω2m 1 ωc ω ∠ H(ω) 0º – 90º – 180º ω0 = √ k/m ω & f (t ) = m&&(t ) + cx (t ) + kx (t ) x 1 X (ω ) H (ω ) = = F (ω ) − ω 2m + jωc + k Modal Analysis 7 .

Modal Matrix Modal Model (Freq. Domain) ⎧ X 1 (ω )⎫ ⎪ X (ω )⎪ ⎡ H11 (ω ) H 21 (ω ) ⋅ ⎪ 2 ⎪ ⎢ ⋅ H 22 (ω ) (ω )⎪ ⎢ ⎪X3 H 23 (ω ) ⎨ ⎬=⎢ ⋅ ⎪ ⋅ ⎪ ⎢ ⋅ ⎪ ⋅ ⎪ ⎢ ⋅ ⋅ ⎪ ⎪ ⎢ H n1 (ω ) X n (ω )⎭ ⎣ ⎩ ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ ⎧ ⋅ ⎫ H1n (ω )⎤ ⎪ ⎪ ⎥⎪ ⋅ ⎪ ⋅ ⎥ ⎪ F3 (ω )⎪ ⋅ ⎥⎨ ⎬ ⎥⎪ ⋅ ⎪ ⋅ ⎥ ⎪ ⋅ ⎪ H nn (ω )⎥ ⎪ ⎪ ⎦ ⎩ ⋅ ⎭ X2 X1 X3 H22 X4 H21 F3 Modal Analysis 8 .

MDOF Model Magnitude 1+2 d1+ d2 m 2 1 Frequency d1 Phase dF Frequency 0° 1 -90° 2 1+2 -180° Modal Analysis 9 .

Why Bother with Modal Models? Physical Coordinates = CHAOS Modal Space = Γ1 Simplicity Rotor 2σ1 1 q1 2 ω01 Bearing Bearing 1 Γ2 q2 2 ω02 Foundation 2σ 2 Γ3 1 q3 2 ω03 2σ3 Modal Analysis 10 .

Definition of Frequency Response Function F(f) F H H(f) X X(f) f ∠H f f H(f ) = X(f ) F(f ) H(f) is the system Frequency Response Function F(f) is the Fourier Transform of the Input f(t) X(f) is the Fourier Transform of the Output x(t) Modal Analysis 11 .

Random or Transient function of time The test result obtained with one type of excitation can be used for predicting the response of the system to any other type of excitation Modal Analysis 12 .Benefits of Frequency Response Function F(f) H(f) X(f) Frequency Response Functions are properties of linear dynamic systems They are independent of the Excitation Function Excitation can be a Periodic.

Different Forms of an FRF Compliance (displacement / force) Mobility (velocity / force) Inertance or Receptance (acceleration / force) Dynamic stiffness (force / displacement) Impedance (force / velocity) Dynamic mass (force /acceleration) Modal Analysis 13 .

Alternative Estimators F(f) H(f) X(f) H( f )= X ( f ) F( f ) H1( f ) = GFX ( f ) GFF ( f ) H 2 ( f ) = GXX ( f ) GXF ( f ) H3( f ) = G XX GFX ⋅ = H1 ⋅ H 2 GFF GFX 2 GFX G G* H 2 γ ( f )= = FX ⋅ FX = 1 GFF ⋅GXX GFF GXX H 2 Modal Analysis 14 .

H2 or H3 after measurement Modal Analysis 15 .Which FRF Estimator Should You Use? Accuracy Definitions: H1( f ) = GFX ( f ) GFF ( f ) H 2 ( f ) = GXX ( f ) GXF ( f ) H3( f ) = G XX GFX ⋅ GFF GFX Accuracy for systems with: Input noise Output noise Input + output noise Peaks (leakage) Valleys (leakage) H1 Best Best H2 Best Best - H3 Best - User can choose H1.

f(t) m c k x(t) SDOF and MDOF Models Different Modal Analysis Techniques Exciting a Structure Measuring Data Correctly = + + +⋅⋅⋅+ Modal Analysis Post Processing Modal Analysis 16 .

. Operational Modal Analysis – Uses natural excitation of structure.serial or parallel measurements – Excites wide frequency range quickly – Most commonly used technique 2..serial or parallel measurements – Many types of excitation techniques – Often used in more complex structures 3.Three Types of Modal Analysis 1..serial or parallel measurements – ’Cutting’ edge technique Modal Analysis 17 ... Hammer Testing – Impact Hammer ’taps’. Shaker Testing – Modal Exciter ’shakes’ product..

Different Types of Modal Analysis (Pros) Hammer Testing – Quick and easy – Typically Inexpensive – Can perform ‘poor man’ modal as well as ‘full’ modal Shaker Testing – More repeatable than hammer testing – Many types of input available – Can be used for MIMO analysis Operational Modal Analysis – – – – No need for special boundary conditions Measure in-situ Use natural excitation Can perform other tests while taking OMA data Modal Analysis 18 .

Different Types of Modal Analysis (Cons) Hammer Testing – Crest factors due impulsive measurement – Input force can be different from measurement to measurement (different operators. etc. etc. difficult location.) – Usually more equipment and channels needed – Skilled operator(s) needed Operational Modal Analysis – – – – Unscaled modal model Excitation assumed to cover frequency range of interest Long time histories sometimes required Computationally intensive Modal Analysis 19 .) – Tip performance often an overlooked issue Shaker Testing – More difficult test setup (stingers. etc.) – ‘Calibrated’ elbow required (double hits. exciter.

2k 1.Frequency Response Function [m/s²] 80 40 0 -40 -80 0 40m 80m 120m [s] 160m 200m 240m Time(Response) .Input Working : Input : Input : FFT Analyzer FFT Output [m/s²] Output Motion Response H= = = Input Force Excitation Autospectrum(Response) .4k 1.Input Working : Input : Input : FFT Analyzer 10 1 100m Frequency Response H1(Response.Input (Real Part) [(m/s²)/N/s] Working : Input : Input : FFT Analyzer 2k 1k 0 -1k -2k 0 40m 80m 120m [s] 160m 200m 240m 10m 1m 100u 0 200 400 600 800 [Hz] 1k 1.6k Frequency Domain [N] 200 100 0 Time(Excitation) .2k 1.6k 100m [N] 1 100m Autospectrum(Excitation) .Input Working : Input : Input : FFT Analyzer Time Domain FFT -100 -200 0 40m 80m 120m [s] 160m 200m 240m Modal Analysis 20 .6k ⇒ FFT Impulse Response h1(Response.Excitation) .2k 1.4k 1.Input Working : Input : Input : FFT Analyzer 0 200 400 600 800 [Hz] 1k 1.4k 1.Excitation) .Input (Magnitude) [(m/s²)/N] Working : Input : Input : FFT Analyzer 10 Input Inverse 10m 1m 0 200 400 600 800 [Hz] 1k 1.

Hammer Test on Free-free Beam Roving hammer method: Response measured at one point Excitation of the structure at a number of points by hammer with force transducer FRF’s between excitation points and measurement point calculated Modes of structure identified Amplitude Di ce tan s First Mode Second Mode Third Mode Beam Acceleration Force Force Force Force Force Force Force Force Force Force Force Force Freq uenc y Freq uenc y Dom a in V ie w al n od mai w M o ie D V Modal Analysis 21 Press anywhere to advance animation .

..Hnn F1 F2 F3 : Fn Modal Analysis 22 .Measurement of FRF Matrix (SISO) One row One Roving Excitation One Fixed Response (reference) SISO X1 X2 X3 : Xn = H11 H12 H13 .H 3n : Hn1 Hn2 Hn3.H2n H31 H32 H33......H1n H21 H22 H23 ..

.....H1n H21 H22 H23 .H2n H31 H32 H33.Measurement of FRF Matrix (SIMO) More rows One Roving Excitation Multiple Fixed Responses (references) SIMO X1 X2 X3 : Xn = H11 H12 H13 ..Hnn F1 F2 F3 : Fn Modal Analysis 23 ..H 3n : Hn1 Hn2 Hn3..

Shaker Test on Free-free Beam Shaker method: Excitation of the structure at one point by shaker with force transducer Response measured at a number of points FRF’s between excitation point and measurement points calculated Modes of structure identified Amplitude Di ce tan s First Mode Second Mode Third Mode Freq uenc y Beam Acceleration al n od mai w M o ie D V Freq uenc y Dom a in V ie w White noise excitation ∝ Force Modal Analysis 24 Press anywhere to advance animation .

H1n H21 H22 H23 .H2n H31 H32 H33.H 3n : Hn1 Hn2 Hn3.Hnn F1 F2 F3 : Fn Modal Analysis 25 ....Measurement of FRF Matrix (Shaker SIMO) One column Single Fixed Excitation (reference) Single Roving Response or Multiple (Roving) Responses SISO SIMO Multiple-Output: Optimize data consistency X1 X2 X3 : Xn = H11 H12 H13 ......

MIMO Modal Analysis 26 .e.Why Multiple-Input and Multiple-Output ? Multiple-Input: For large and/or complex structures more shakers are required in order to: – get the excitation energy sufficiently distributed and – avoid non-linear behaviour Multiple-Output: Measure outputs at the same time in order to optimize data consistency i.

polyreference. reference DOF with modal deflection for all modes is not available – In both cases more columns or more rows have to be measured .e. symmetrical structures Complex structures having local modes. e.e. i.g. Solutions: – Impact Hammer excitation with more response DOF’s – One shaker moved to different reference DOF’s – MIMO Modal Analysis 27 .i.Situations needing MIMO One row or one column is not sufficient for determination of all modes in following situations: – More modes at the same frequency (repeated roots).

..H 3n : Hn1 Hn2 Hn3...H1n H21 H22 H23 .Hnn F1 F2 F3 : Fn Modal Analysis 28 .....H2n H31 H32 H33.Measurement of FRF Matrix (MIMO) More columns Multiple Fixed Excitations (references) Single Roving Response or Multiple (Roving) Responses MISO MIMO X1 X2 X3 : Xn = H11 H12 H13 .

Modal Analysis (classic): FRF = Response/Excitation Operational Modal Analysis (OMA): Response only! [m/s²] 80 40 0 -40 -80 0 40m 80m 120m [s] 160m 200m 240m Time(Response) .Input Working : Input : Input : FFT Analyzer Time Domain Inverse FFT Output 1 100m 10m Frequency [(m/s²)/N] Response H1(Response.6k Frequency Response Function Impulse Response Function [N] 200 100 Time(Excitation) .4k 1.Input (Real Part) Impulse 1m 0 200 400 600 800 [Hz] 1k 1.Input (Magnitude) Working : Input : Input : FFT Analyzer [(m/s²)/N/s] Response h1(Response.4k 1.2k 1.Input Working : Input : Input : FFT Analyzer FFT [m/s²] 10 Frequency Domain Autospectrum(Response) .Excitation) .6k 10 100m Input [N] 1 Autospectrum(Excitation) .Input Working : Input : Input : FFT Analyzer ⇒ 1.6k Working : Input : Input : FFT Analyzer 2k 1k 0 -1k -2k 0 200 400 600 800 [Hz] 1k 0 40m 80m 120m [s] 160m 200m 240m 100m Natural Excitation 10m 1m 100u 0 200 400 600 800 [Hz] 1k 1.Excitation) .2k 1.Input Working : Input : Input : FFT Analyzer FFT 200m 240m 0 -100 -200 0 40m 80m 120m [s] 160m Response Output Vibration = = H(ω) = Input Force Excitation Modal Analysis 29 .4k 1.2k 1.

f(t) m c k x(t) SDOF and MDOF Models Different Modal Analysis Techniques Exciting a Structure Measuring Data Correctly = + + +⋅⋅⋅+ Modal Analysis Post Processing Modal Analysis 30 .

The Eternal Question in Modal… F1 a F2 Modal Analysis 31 .

Impact Excitation Measuring one row of the FRF matrix by moving impact position H11(ω) H12(ω) ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ H15(ω) ⋅⋅⋅⋅⋅ ⋅⋅⋅⋅⋅ ⋅⋅⋅⋅⋅ ⋅⋅⋅⋅⋅ ⋅⋅⋅⋅⋅ #5 Accelerometer #2 #1 #4 #3 LAN Force Transducer Impact Hammer Modal Analysis 32 .

plastic or rubber) – Dynamic characteristics of surface – Velocity at impact Frequency bandwidth inversely proportional to the pulse duration a(t) 1 2 t Modal Analysis 33 GAA(f) 1 2 f .Impact Excitation a(t) t Magnitude and pulse duration depends on: – Weight of hammer – Hammer tip (steel.

Weighting Functions for Impact Excitation How to select shift and length for transient and exponential windows: Transient weighting of the input signal Criteria Exponential weighting of the output signal Leakage due to exponential time weighting on response signal is well defined and therefore correction of the measured damping value is often possible Modal Analysis 34 .

the measured time constant will be too short and the calculated decay constant and damping ratio therefore too large 1 Window function Original signal Time Weighted signal shift Length = τ W Record length. T Correction of decay constant σ and damping ratio ζ: σ = σm − σ W Correct value Measured value σ σm σ W ζ= = − = ζm − ζ W ω0 ω0 ω0 σW = 1 τW Modal Analysis 35 .Compensation for Exponential Weighting b(t) With exponential weighting of the output signal.

0.3 lb Mini Hammer Hard-drives. turbine blades Modal Analysis 36 .Range of hammers Description 12 lb Sledge Application Building and bridges Large shafts and larger machine tools Car framed and machine tools Components 3 lb Hand Sledge 1 lb hammer General Purpose. circuit boards.

Impact hammer excitation Advantages: – – – – Speed No fixturing No variable mass loading Portable and highly suitable for field work – relatively inexpensive Disadvantages – High crest factor means possibility of driving structure into non-linear behavior – High peak force needed for large structures means possibility of local damage! – Highly deterministic signal means no linear approximation Conclusion – Best suited for field work – Useful for determining shaker and support locations Modal Analysis 37 .

Shaker Excitation Measuring one column of the FRF matrix by moving response transducer H11(ω) ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ H21(ω) ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ H51(ω) ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ Accelerometer #5 #4 #3 #2 #1 Force Transducer LAN Vibration Exciter Power Amplifier Modal Analysis 38 .

Attachment of Transducers and Shaker a F Accelerometer Accelerometer mounting: Stud Cement Wax (Magnet) Force Transducer Shaker Properties of Stinger Axial Stiffness: High Bending Stiffness: Low Advantages of Stinger: No Moment Excitation No Rotational Inertia Loading Protection of Shaker Protection of Transducer Helps positioning of Shaker Force Transducer and Shaker: Stud Stinger (Connection Rod) Modal Analysis 39 .

but .Connection of Exciter and Structure Force Transducer Measured structure Slender stinger Exciter Accelerometer Force and acceleration measurements unaffected by stinger compliance.. m Piezoelectric material Shaker/Hammer mass. M Fm && Fs = (m + M) X && Fm = M X Fs = Fm m+M M Modal Analysis 40 . Minor mass correction required to determine actual excitation Fs Structure Tip mass..

Shaker Reaction Force Reaction by external support Structure Suspension Reaction by exciter inertia Example of an improper arrangement Structure Suspension Exciter Suspension Exciter Support Modal Analysis 41 .

harmonic distortion For broadband excitation: – Sine wave swept slowly through the frequency range of interest – Quasi-stationary condition Modal Analysis 42 A(f1) .Sine Excitation a(t) A RMS Time A Crest factor = RMS = 2 B(f1) For study of non-linearities.g. e.

Swept Sine Excitation Advantages Low Crest Factor High Signal/Noise ratio Input force well controlled Study of non-linearities possible Disadvantages Very slow No linear approximation of non-linear system Modal Analysis 43 .

Random Excitation a(t) Time Random variation of amplitude and phase ⇒ Averaging will give optimum linear estimate in case of non-linearities System Output B(f1) GAA(f). N = 10 Freq. Freq. A(f1) System Input Modal Analysis 44 . N = 1 GAA(f).

Random Excitation Random signal: – Characterized by power spectral density (GAA) and amplitude probability density (p(a)) a(t) p(a) Time Can be band limited according to frequency range of interest GAA(f) Baseband GAA(f) Zoom Freq. Frequency range Frequency range Freq. Signal not periodic in analysis time ⇒ Leakage in spectral estimates Modal Analysis 45 .

Random Excitation Advantages Best linear approximation of system Zoom Fair Crest Factor Fair Signal/Noise ratio Disadvantages Leakage Averaging needed (slower) Modal Analysis 46 .

Burst Random

Characteristics of Burst Random signal : – Gives best linear approximation of nonlinear system – Works with zoom

a(t)

Time

Advantages Best linear approximation of system No leakage (if rectangular time weighting can be used) Relatively fast Disadvantages Signal/noise and crest factor not optimum Special time weighting might be required

Modal Analysis 47

**Pseudo Random Excitation
**

Pseudo random signal: – Block of a random signal repeated every T

a(t) T T T T Time

Time period equal to record length T – Line spectrum coinciding with analyzer lines – No averaging of non-linearities

GAA(f), N = 1 GAA(f), N = 10 System Output B(f1)

Freq.

Modal Analysis 48

Freq.

A(f1) System Input

**Pseudo Random Excitation
**

Pseudo random signal:

– Characterized by power/RMS (GAA) and amplitude probability density (p(a))

a(t) p(a) T T T T Time

**Can be band limited according to frequency range of interest
**

GAA(f) Baseband GAA(f) Zoom

Freq. Freq. range Freq. range

Freq.

**Time period equal to T ⇒ No leakage if Rectangular weighting is used
**

Modal Analysis 49

Pseudo Random Excitation

Advantages No leakage Fast Zoom Fair crest factor Fair Signal/Noise ratio Disadvantages No linear approximation of non-linear system

Modal Analysis 50

and the phase spectrum is smooth Applications: – Measurement of structures with non-linear behaviour Modal Analysis 51 Time .Multisine (Chirp) For sine sweep repeated every time record. Tr Tr A special type of pseudo random signal where the crest factor has been minimized (< 2) It has the advantages and disadvantages of the “normal” pseudo random signal but with a lower crest factor Additional Advantages: – Ideal shape of spectrum: The spectrum is a flat magnitude spectrum.

Periodic Random A combined random and pseudo-random signal giving an excitation signal featuring: – No leakage in analysis – Best linear approximation of system A A A B B B C C C Pseudo-random signal changing with time: T transient response steady-state response Analysed time data: (steady-state response) A B C T T Disadvantage: The test time is longer than the test time using pseudo-random or random signal Modal Analysis 52 .

Hanning. Δ T Δt The line spectrum for a sin x Rectangular pulse has a x shaped envelope curve ΔT Time 1/Δ t Frequency Leakage can be avoided using rectangular time weighting Transient and exponential time weighting can be used to increase Signal/Noise ratio Gating of reflections with transient time weighting Effects of non-linearities are not averaged out The signal has a high crest factor Modal Analysis 53 .Periodic Pulse Special case of pseudo random signal Rectangular. or Gaussian pulse with user definable Δ t repeated with a user definable interval.

This can also introduce leakage Gating of reflections (Transient time weighting) Excitation spectrum follows frequency span in baseband Easy to implement Modal Analysis 54 .Periodic Pulse Advantages Fast No leakage (Only with rectangular weighting) Disadvantages No linear approximation of non-linear system High Crest Factor High peak level might excite non-linearities No Zoom Special time weighting might be required to increase Signal/Noise Ratio .

Guidelines for Choice of Excitation Technique For study of non-linearities: Swept sine excitation For slightly non-linear system: Random excitation For perfectly linear system: Pseudo random excitation For field measurements: Impact excitation For high resolution field measurements: Random impact excitation Modal Analysis 55 .

f(t) m c k x(t) SDOF and MDOF Models Different Modal Analysis Techniques Exciting a Structure Measuring Data Correctly = + + +⋅⋅⋅+ Modal Analysis Post Processing Modal Analysis 56 .

Griffin Feb. Ewins and J.Garbage In = Garbage Out! A state-of-the Art Assessment of Mobility Measurement Techniques – Result for the Mid Range Structure (30 .3000 Hz) – D. 1981 Transfer Mobility Central Decade Transfer Mobility Expanded Frequency Frequency Modal Analysis 57 .J.

Good Distribution of Measurement Points – – Ensure enough points are measured to see all modes of interest Beware of ’spatial aliasing’ 4.. Windowing Remember: FFT Analyzer is a BLOCK ANALYZER! 3. Select Appropriate Excitation – Hammer. or OMA? 2.Plan Your Test Before Hand! 1. Averaging.. Shaker. Resolution. Setup FFT Analyzer correctly – – Frequency Range. Physical Setup – – – – – Accelerometer mounting is CRITICAL! Uni-axial vs. Triaxial Make sure DOF orientation is correct Mount device under test.mounting will affect measurement! Calibrate system Modal Analysis 58 .

Where Should Excitation Be Applied? Hij = Xi Re sponse " i " = Fj Excitation " j " Driving Point Measurement i=j 1 2 j i {X} = [H]{F} ⎧ X 1 ⎫ ⎡H11 H12 ⎤ ⎧F1 ⎫ ⎨ ⎬=⎢ ⎥ ⋅ ⎨F ⎬ ⎩ X 2 ⎭ ⎣H21 H22 ⎦ ⎩ 2 ⎭ X 1= H11 ⋅ F1 + H12 ⋅ F2 X 2 = H21 ⋅ F1 + H22 ⋅ F2 Transfer Measurement i≠j i j Modal Analysis 59 .

Check of Driving Point Measurement Im [Hij] All peaks in & && ⎡ X( f ) ⎤ ⎡ X( f ) ⎤ ⎡ X( f ) ⎤ Im ⎢ ⎥. Re ⎢ F( f ) ⎥ and Im ⎢ F( f ) ⎥ ⎣ F( f ) ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ Mag [Hij] An anti-resonance in Mag [Hij] must be found between every pair of resonances Phase [Hij] Phase fluctuations must be within 180° Modal Analysis 60 .

Driving Point (DP) Measurement The quality of the DP-measurement is very important. as the DP-residues are used for the scaling of the Modal Model DP.Problems: – Highest modal coupling. as all modes are in phase – Highest residual effect from rigid body modes Log Mag⏐Aij⏐ Measured = Re ⏐Aij⏐ ω Without rigid body modes ω Modal Analysis 61 .Considerations: – Residues for all modes must be estimated accurately from a single measurement Ιm ⏐Aij⏐ ω DP.

75 is bordering on poor coherence Modal Analysis 62 .Tests for Validity of Data: Coherence Coherence γ 2( f ) = GFX ( f ) 2 GFF ( f ) G XX ( f ) – Measures how much energy put in to the system caused the response – The closer to ‘1’ the more coherent – Less than 0.

Reasons for Low Coherence Difficult measurements: Noise in measured output signal Noise in measured input signal Other inputs not correlated with measured input signal Bad measurements: Leakage Time varying systems Non-linearities of system DOF-jitter Propagation time not compensated for Modal Analysis 63 .

Tests for Validity of Data: Linearity Linearity X1 = H·F1 X2 = H·F2 H(ω) ⇒ X1+X2 = H·(F1 + F2) a·X1 = H·(a· F1) F(ω) X(ω) – More force going in to the system will equate to more response coming out – Since FRF is a ratio the magnitude should be the same regardless of input force Modal Analysis 64 .

signal-to-noise ratio. force measurement. dynamic range. linear approximation. rigid body modes. phase response) Mass loading of accelerometers Accelerometer mounting Sensitivity to environmental effects Stability Verify suitability of test set-up: – Transducer positioning and alignment – Pre-test: rattling. exciter-input transducer-stinger-structure connection Quality FRF measurements are the foundation of experimental modal analysis! Modal Analysis 65 . Maxwell reciprocity. repeated roots. boundary conditions.Tips and Tricks for Best Results Verify measurement chain integrity prior to test: – Transducer calibration – Mass Ratio calibration Verify suitability of input and output transducers: – – – – – Operating ranges (frequency. excitation signal.

f(t) m c k x(t) SDOF and MDOF Models Different Modal Analysis Techniques Exciting a Structure Measuring Data Correctly = + + +⋅⋅⋅+ Modal Analysis Post Processing Modal Analysis 66 .

From Testing to Analysis H( f ) Measured FRF Frequency Curve Fitting (Pattern Recognition) H( f ) Modal Analysis Frequency Modal Analysis 67 .

From Testing to Analysis H( f ) Modal Analysis Frequency SDOF Models c m k f(t) x(t) c m k f(t) x(t) c m k f(t) x(t) Modal Analysis 68 .

Mode Shape Modal Analysis 69 . Modal Damping 3.Mode Characterizations All Modes Can Be Characterized By: 1. Resonant Frequency 2.

Visually Inspect Data – Look for obvious modes in FRF – Inspect ALL FRFs…sometimes modes will show up in one FRF but not another (nodes) – Use Imaginary part and coherence for verification – Sum magnitudes of all measurements for clues 2. Select Curve Fitter – Lightly coupled modes: SDOF techniques – Heavily coupled modes: MDOF techniques – Stable measurements: Global technique – Unstable measurements: Local technique – MIMO measurement: Poly reference techniques 3.Modal Analysis – Step by Step Process 1. Analysis – Use more than 1 curve fitter to see if they agree – Pay attention to Residue calculations – Do mode shapes make sense? Modal Analysis 70 .

Select Curve Fitter – Lightly coupled modes: SDOF techniques – Heavily coupled modes: MDOF techniques – Stable measurements: Global technique – Unstable measurements: Local technique – MIMO measurement: Poly reference techniques 3. Visually Inspect Data – Look for obvious modes in FRF – Inspect ALL FRFs…sometimes modes will show up in one FRF but not another (nodes) – Use Imaginary part and coherence for verification – Sum magnitudes of all measurements for clues 2. Analysis – Use more than 1 curve fitter to see if they agree – Pay attention to Residue calculations – Do mode shapes make sense? Modal Analysis 71 .Modal Analysis – Inspect Data 1.

Select Curve Fitter – Lightly coupled modes: SDOF techniques – Heavily coupled modes: MDOF techniques – Stable measurements: Global technique – Unstable measurements: Local technique – MIMO measurement: Poly reference techniques 3.Modal Analysis – Curve Fitting 1. Visually Inspect Data – Look for obvious modes in FRF – Inspect ALL FRFs…sometimes modes will show up in one FRF but not another (nodes) – Use Imaginary part and coherence for verification – Sum magnitudes of all measurements for clues 2. Analysis – Use more than 1 curve fitter to see if they agree – Pay attention to Residue calculations – Do mode shapes make sense? Modal Analysis 72 .

How Does Curve Fitting Work? Curve Fitting is the process of estimating the Modal Parameters from the measurements 2σ Find the resonant frequency – Frequency where small excitation causes a large response |H| R/σ ωd 0 Phase -180 ω Find the damping – What is the Q of the peak? Find the residue – Essentially the ‘area under the curve’ Frequency Modal Analysis 73 .

Residues are Directly Related to Mode Shapes! Hij (ω) = ∑ Hijr = ∑ r r Rijr jω − p r + Rijr jω − pr* * Residues express the strength of a mode for each measured FRF Therefore they are related to mode shape at each measured point! Third Mode Beam Acceleration Force Force Force Force Force Force Force Force Force Force Force Force Amplitude ce tan Dis First Mode Second Mode Freq uenc y Modal Analysis 74 .

MDOF Curve Fitters Use SDOF methods on LIGHTLY COUPLED modes Use MDOF methods on HEAVILY COUPLED modes You can combine SDOF and MDOF techniques! SDOF (light coupling) MDOF (heavy coupling) |H| ω Modal Analysis 75 .SDOF vs.

Local vs. and residues are calculated across all FRFs |H| ω Modal Analysis 76 . and residues are calculated for each FRF first…then combined for curve fitting Global means that resonances. Global Curve Fitting Local means that resonances. damping. damping.

Modal Analysis – Analyse Results 1. Select Curve Fitter – Lightly coupled modes: SDOF techniques – Heavily coupled modes: MDOF techniques – Stable measurements: Global technique – Unstable measurements: Local technique – MIMO measurement: Poly reference techniques 3. Visually Inspect Data – Look for obvious modes in FRF – Inspect ALL FRFs…sometimes modes will show up in one FRF but not another (nodes) – Use Imaginary part and coherence for verification – Sum magnitudes of all measurements for clues 2. Analysis – Use more than one curve fitter to see if they agree – Pay attention to Residue calculations – Do mode shapes make sense? Modal Analysis 77 .

Which Curve Fitter Should Be Used? Frequency Response Function Hij (ω) Real Imaginary Nyquist Log Magnitude Modal Analysis 78 .

Which Curve Fitter Should Be Used? Frequency Response Function Hij (ω) Real Imaginary Nyquist Log Magnitude Modal Analysis 79 .

Modal Analysis and Beyond Experimental Modal Analysis Dynamic Model based on Modal Parameters F Structural Modification Hardware Modification Resonance Specification Response Simulation Simulate Real World Response Modal Analysis 80 .

try to use the one that best fits your application Modal Analysis 81 . and Operational Modal Planning and proper setup before you test can save time and effort…and ensure accuracy while minimizing erroneous results There are many curve fitting techniques available. Shaker Testing.Conclusion All Physical Structures can be characterized by the simple SDOF model Frequency Response Functions are the best way to measure resonances There are three modal techniques available today: Hammer Testing.

Ewin Research Studies Press Ltd. Dual Channel FFT Analysis (Part 1) Brüel & Kjær Technical Review # 1 – 1984 Dual Channel FFT Analysis (Part 1) Brüel & Kjær Technical Review # 2 – 1984 Modal Analysis 82 . and Application. Practice.Literature for Further Reading Structural Testing Part 1: Mechanical Mobility Measurements Brüel & Kjær Primer Structural Testing Part 2: Modal Analysis and Simulation Brüel & Kjær Primer Modal Testing: Theory.J. 2nd Edition by D.

Δω3 dB = 2σ 2π Loss factor 1 Δf3 db Δω3 dB = = Q f0 ω0 η Δf3 dB Δω3 dB = = 2 2f0 2ω0 Δω3 dB 2 Damping ratio Decay constant σ = ζ ω0 = π Δf3 dB = Quality factor Q= f0 ω0 = Δf3 dB Δω3 dB Modal Analysis 83 .Appendix: Damping Parameters 3 dB bandwidth Δf3 dB = η= ζ= 2σ .

7 dB Modal Analysis 84 . τ. is determined by the time it takes for the amplitude to decay a factor of e = 2. where the Decay constant is given by e-σt ~ The Envelope is given by magnitude of analytic h(t): h( t ) = h2 ( t ) + h 2 ( t ) 1 τ 1 τ= σ 1 σ ζ= = ω0 2πf0 τ 1 η = 2⋅ζ = πf0 τ σ= h(t) e − σt ∇ Decay constant Time constant : Damping ratio Loss factor Quality Time Q= 1 = πf0 τ η The time constant.Appendix: Damping Parameters h( t ) = 2 ⋅ R ⋅ e − σt ⋅ sin (ω d t ) .72… or 10 log (e2) = 8.

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