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Primary Sources

2018. Afe.Easia.Columbia.Edu. Accessed October 14 2018. http://afe.easia.columbia.edu/ps/


china/mao_peasant.pdf.

This is a translated version of the report written by Chairman Mao on the investigation of
the Peasant Movement in Hunan. Since the creation of the Communist Party cooperation
with the Nationalist Party (Guomindang), they created an alliance called the “First
United Front” in order to eradicate the warlords and unify China. Within this alliance
program, they started up the peasant movement and Chairman Mao went to investigate it
first-handedly. This informs the basis and foundations of the yet-to-be massive peasant
movement that became an icon of the uprising voice of the farmers and connecting bond
between the party and the people. Supporting my understanding of my topic, this gives
me Mao’s perspective on how he viewed peasants and allowing us to understand the
attitude of Mao on the situation. Were the goals of the farmers and peasants equivalent to
the CCP’s goals and visions?

"A Red Guard Rebels Against Her Teacher (1966)". 2015. Chinese Revolution. Accessed
October 21 2018. https://alphahistory.com/chineserevolution/red-guard-rebels-teacher-
1966/.
This document from the memoir Spider Eaters, published in the year 1997, was written
by Rae Yang who had experienced the every aspects of the Cultural Revolution as a Red
Guard under Chairman Mao. This document was written for the residents of China and to
the general public in order to explain her actions through her support towards Chairman
Mao’s permit to rebel against the authorities. Because this document only portrays the
rebellious movement the Red Guards had done, there are many biases presented in terms
of the downside of the higher authorities. Rae Yang’s description of her rebellious acts to
her authorities is able to influence readers by having a clue on the complexity the
Cultural Revolution created and the requirements of the Red Guards. This document
strongly supports our research question by explaining how students could accuse a higher
authority leading to their remorse and despair which shows the tragedy of the people
even when social hierarchy is regarded. The details about the revolt towards higher
authority by Rae Yang bring up questions about how the higher authorities had to deal
with these rebels and how they react to it.
"A Teenage Girl Denounces Her Parents (1968)". 2015. Chinese Revolution. Accessed
October 7 2018. https://alphahistory.com/chineserevolution/girl-denounces-parents-1968/.

Alpha History is an online source with qualified historian writers that provides insightful
historical documents and memoirs that traces the Cultural Revolution from many
perspectives. The memoir by Fan Cao was publicly published in 2005 despite facing
book censorships under Mao’s regulation during the Cultural Revolution. This memoir is
written for the publics to grasp the naivety of a wealthy teenager’s point of view and
understanding of a “revolution” and how effective the revolution can affect a person’s
mindset. Fan Cao’s description of her life is able to influence readers on the challenges
innocent people had to live under Mao’s reign. This memoir strongly supports the overall
theme as it gives information from an innocent girl’s view which reveals the downside of
the Cultural Revolution including details about important elements such as Red Guards
and Dazhibao. Thus, this memoir leads to a compelling question−−−was there a clear
social hierarchy between the rich and poor during the revolution?

"Interview H0000: With Setrong Wangye [Tib. Gser Grong Dbang Rgyal], (China, May
1993)". 2018. The Library Of Congress. Accessed October 20 2018.
https://www.loc.gov/item/tohap.H0000/.
The “Interview H0000: With Setrong Wangye” is an interview recorded in the year 1993
and found in The Library Of Congress online site. Setrong Wangye was a rich man
during the Cultural Revolution and from this interview, he not only introduces another
group of people during the movement but also elaborates on the lifestyles as a
government taxpayer serf and how the Cultural Revolution affected his life. In this
interview, Setrong Wangye struggles to live in the country after he moved away from his
original house. He also talks about the destruction of the four olds and provides details of
how the youths “killed” the old. This source extends my knowledge as it introduces a
new group of people to my research: the rich. Before knowing about this source I thought
that the rich were destroyed because they were “anti-revolutionary”; but Setrong
Wangye’s life wasn’t that miserable which makes me wonder: Was there a specific group
of people harmed the most?

"INTERVIEW WITH THE BRITISH JOURNALIST JAMES BERTRAM ".


2018. Marxists.Org. Accessed October 21 2018.
https://www.marxists.org/reference/archive/mao/selected-works/volume-
2/mswv2_05.htm.

The interview was conducted on October 25, 1937, between British journalist, James
Bertram, and Chairman Mao. Since the summer of 1937, the second Sino-Japanese War
broke out between China and Japan, leading the disputes and battles in WWII. Bertram
interviews Mao about how the CCP has prepared before and after the war, understanding
how Mao believes the CCP could have aided to reduce the tension, and even avoid the
battle as a whole. The interview shows great detail of the structure of the political parties
within China through Mao’s viewpoint, creating a dynamic contrast to my other primary
sources. Extending my understanding, the source allowed me to understand how the
beliefs of the CCP has changed throughout the Sino-Japanese War and to what extent it
has dealt with the Japanese; which all are new information to me. Did the growing CCP
flourish and bloom its authority through the Sino-Japanese War?

Jiang, Ji-li. Red Scarf Girl. New York City: Harper Collins, 1998.

Red Scarf Girl is also a memoir, which was written by Ji-li Jiang and first published in
the year 1998. In this memoir, Ji-li is a supportive follower to Mao and believed that he
was right at first. However, as the government officials try to ruin her family by arresting
her dad and even kicking her grandma, she changed her mind. As she develops her way
of thinking, much damage occurred at the background and with the majority of the story
portrayed with the red guards negatively. The source extends my thoughts because unlike
the Spider Eaters this memoir shows some dates that can be useful as I research. A new
question that can either support or challenge my research is: Why were the rich land
lords criticized for being rich?

Lin Biao, Indonesia. 2018. "Report To The Ninth National Congress ". Marxists.Org.
Accessed December 3 2018. https://www.marxists.org/reference/archive/lin-
biao/1969/04/01.htm.

This report written by Lin Biao, Marshal of the People’s Republic of China and Mao’s
closest allies, in April 1969 to the 9th National Congress of the Communist Party of
China regarding the process of the Cultural Revolution. Lin Biao’s report was written for
the officials to acknowledge the fact that the counter-revolutionaries and bourgeois
reactionaries who lack in contributing to the changes made in Cultural Revolution may
potentially receive punishments and ramification. The purpose of this report is to notify
the National Congress on the severity of the policies conducted by Mao and his comrades
to the civilians on this country. This report informs my research by providing an insight
on the various policies and how it outplays the citizens of China in every aspect. This
source supports my research by emphasizing the rules made by Mao and showing the
effects of the non-participants or counter-revolutionaries of this Revolution.

Ling, Ding. The Sun Shines over the Sanggan River. Beijing: Foreign Languages Press, 1984.

The Sun Shines over the Sanggan River is a memoir, first published in the year 1984,
written by Ding Ling in the year 1948. Ding Ling had been through the Cultural
Revolution and in this story she not only illustrates the life of a woman during the
movement, but also the life during the Communist Party, right before the Cultural
Revolution. In this memoir, she shows her life in jail two times because she questioned
the different roles of gender. In the story, Ding Ling also slightly shows the class struggle
during the Cultural Revolution and focuses mainly about women’s rights. She showed
great courage to face the party with criticism and explicitly telling the story from her
view. This source supports my understanding because it shows the life in jail and also
adds on to my knowledge about the Communist Party. A new compelling that can be
questioned is: What led to the class struggle during the Cultural Revolution? And what
happened due to this struggle?

"Mao And Lin Criticise Leaders Of The Red Guards (1968)". 2013. Chinese Revolution.
Accessed October 14 2018. https://alphahistory.com/chineserevolution/mao-lin-leaders-
red-guards-1968/.

This official meeting between Mao Zedong, Lin Biao, and other major representatives of
the Red Guards was held on July 28th ,1968 to open up a discussion to criticize Red
Guards for their failure in actions. This meeting was held for the leaders of the Red
Guards and minor Red Guards to recognize their own mistakes from the directions and
orders and possible consequences the Red Guards may receive. This meeting was able to
influence the Red Guards to become more heedful and cautious in order to successfully
carry out the Cultural Revolution of China under the mobilization of Mao. Despite the
fact that Mao and Lin Biao only significantly pointed out the failure the Red Guards
made, there are evident biases that lie in this meeting that disregards the positive aspects.
This source informs my research profoundly since it remarks important participants’
(Mao and Lin Biao) perspectives on how conscious they were on every detail during this
movement. This source extends my research by indicating examples on the issues the
Red Guards have make and by analyzing the Red Guard’s responsiveness. Thus, this
source leads to a compelling question−−− How effective were the Red Guards under the
control of chairman Mao?

"Mao Zedong: '16 Points On The Cultural Revolution' (1966)". 2013. Chinese Revolution.
Accessed November 18 2018. https://alphahistory.com/chineserevolution/mao-zedongs-
16-points-on-the-cultural-revolution-1966/.

This official document was written by the former Chairman of China, Mao Zedong,
supported by the CCP Central Committee to formally articulate the objectives and
political principles as his primary goals of the Cultural Revolution. This document was
conducted to inform the proletariats to accustom every new habits, ideas, and norms to
fully create a new outlook of the society and not follow any typical bourgeoisie
ideologies as their goal. Since Chairman Mao specifically pointed out the wrongs of the
bourgeoisie in terms of their behaviors and usage with old customs, there are evident
biases present in this document. However, this source informs my research by providing
insightful objectives such as the transformation of education and literature from the main
leader of this revolution. This source extends my research by emphasizing on the
facilitation of a new socialist system through unprecedented objectives and intentions.
Thus, this document leads to a compelling question −−− How were proletariats able to
reinforce these objectives stated by Chairman Mao to assist on the development of
Cultural Revolution?

" SPEECH AT THE CHINESE COMMUNIST PARTY's NATIONAL CONFERENCE ON


PROPAGANDA WORK ". 2018. Marxists.Org. Accessed November 18 2018.
https://www.marxists.org/reference/archive/mao/selected-works/volume-
5/mswv5_59.htm.
The speech given by Chairman Mao during the party’s national conference on
propaganda work doubted the intellectuals of China and their contribution in correlation
to Marxism and how the proposed propaganda would help achieve the party’s goal. Just
around the rise of socialism of China, the Chinese Communist Party is starting to
develop ways to ensure its support from the people. Understanding the ways of
propaganda, Chairman Mao also needed the agreement in establishing the project,
which would become a main aspect of the Revolution. This source creates a viewpoint
on the rigid way how the party views intellectuals that do not agree with them as a
threat. This brings up a question, how does the Chinese Communist Party specifically
define the intellectuals and their characteristics?
"‘There Still Linger A Number Of Ghosts’: An Interview On The Cultural Revolution |
Commonweal Magazine". 2016. Commonwealmagazine.Org. Accessed October 7 2018.
https://www.commonwealmagazine.org/blog/interview-cultural-revolution-yiju-huang-
fordham-alain-badiou-yiching-wu

This interview with Professor Yiju Huang of Fordham University was conducted on May
9, 2016 which marks the 50th anniversary of the Cultural Revolution. After the Cultural
Revolution ended in 1976, there were several controversial thoughts on the politically
side. This interview was made to raise awareness to the public if people should retrieve
the legacy the revolution has created. This interview was done in order to describe why
the society should engage with the legacy then believing that revolution has resulted in
absolute tragedy. It was spoken from a reliable interviewee that has published Tapestry of
Light: Aesthetic Afterlives of the Cultural Revolution in which it explains the literature
and art produced in the beginning of the Cultural Revolution using the Freudian trauma
theory. This source extends my understanding of the changes the revolution has brought
to today’s China. Therefore, this interview helps me to come up with a new compelling
question −−− Were the changes after the Cultural Revolution affecting today’s China?

Yang, Rae. Spider Eaters. Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1997.

Spider Eaters is a memoir, first published in the year of 1997, written by Rae Yang who
had been through the Cultural Revolution. In this historical story, she depicts the life of a
child from 1950 to 1980. In this memoir, she shows the concerns from both Red Guard
and a girl herding pigs and sheep. In the story, Rae Yang struggles to be like the other
Red Guards because of her family being richer than others before the Cultural
Revolution. She records her life during the interval of 30 years and provides details of
the harms created by the red guards to others. This source extends my knowledge as it
gives thorough background information of China throughout the Cultural Revolution and
a brief story after it. A new compelling question that came to my head is: Was it
necessary to prison the people who are considered “different”?

Secondary Sources

Dernberger, Robert F. "Radical Ideology and Economic Development in China: The Cultural
Revolution and Its Impact on the Economy." Asian Survey 12, no. 12 (1972): 1048-065.
doi:10.2307/2643023.

The Asian Survey article “Radical Ideology and Economic Development in China: The
Cultural Revolution and Its Impact on the Economy” is produced by Robert F.
Dernberger. This source is reliable because the writer Robert F. Dernberger was a scholar
and majored on the Chinese economy. The Asian Survey is also widely known, making
the article a credible source. Also, throughout the article there were no biased phrases or
words seen. In the article, Mr. Robert F. Dernberger focuses on the Chinese economy
during and after the Cultural Revolution. From the start of the First Five-Year Plan, the
economy showed growth in industry. However, the rate of growth in the agricultural
production was relatively low compared to the high rate of industrial growth. To add on,
the Chinese government wasn’t able to control the issue of the agricultural production,
making the economy fall. The source supports my understanding because even though
the economy was growing for the first 3 years, it crumbled when the government wasn’t
able to handle the issue. After reading this journal article, another question that comes up
is: How did the agricultural production affect the Chinese people?

Deshpande, G. P. "China's Great Cultural Revolution." Economic and Political Weekly 1, no.
11 (1966): 453-55. http://www.jstor.org/stable/4357141.

This article from Economical and Political Weekly in 1996 founded on JSTOR provides
insightful information about the main drive and purpose of the Chinese Cultural
Revolution. This is a reliable source because JSTOR is a verified digital library that
attributes the author. Furthermore, the reporter Govind Purushottam Deshpande is an
academic that have taught in Jawaharlal Nehru University in New Delhi for many years
and now works for Economic and Political Weekly. Deshpande constructs his own thesis
on why he believes the Cultural Revolution drove people to have awareness on the
problems in China or more simply, how the Cultural Revolution benefitted the people.
He further uses key terms such as the Sixteen- Point Programme to carry out his overall
argument and to support each element. This source informs my research because it
presents a great overall understanding of the movement about how it positively impacted
the citizens of China in modern day. However, this source challenges my research
because it argues the affirmative outcomes the Chinese Cultural Revolution created to
the residents which contradicts my research question. Thus, this source leads to a
compelling question−−− Were citizens willing to accept the Cultural Revolution when
Mao launched it?

Deshpande, G.P. “China’s Great Cultural Revolution.” Economic and Political Weekly 1, no.
11 (1966): 453-55. http://www.jstor.org/stable/4357141.

The Economic and Political Weekly article “China’s Great Cultural Revolution” is
produced by G.P. Deshpande and found on Jstor’s website. This source is reliable
because the writer G.P. Deshpande has studied procurement, logistics, and compliance
for more than 20 years and was also a consultant in these majors. The Economic and
Political Weekly is popularly known, which makes the article a credible source. Also,
throughout the article there were no biased phrases or words seen. In the article, Mr. G.P.
Deshpande provides the facts with some background information, making it easier for
the readers to understand what he is trying to say. He also gives some examples of what
the main concern during the Cultural Revolution was and how the Chinese officials
handled the cases. The source both supports and challenges my understanding; it
supports by showing how increasing production, red guards, etc. were parts of the
movement which led to a tragedy. However it also challenges my knowledge because the
Cultural Revolution was planned well to help mobilize the people. After reading this
article, another question that comes up is: Was helping the people mobilize really
beneficial? And was it beneficial to all of the people in China or just some parts?

Durdin, Tillman. 1971. "China Transformed By Elimination Of ‘Four Olds'". Nytimes.Com.


Accessed November 17 2018. https://www.nytimes.com/1971/05/19/archives/china-
transformed-by-elimination-of-four-olds.html.

This is the archived newspaper by The New York Times, published in May 17, 1971. A
longtime foreign journalist for the Times, Tillman Durdin is an American reporter who
reported on the collapse of colonial rule upon China and the rise of the People’s Republic
of China. He is also known for having a granted visa to reenter China for an American
journalist. The source talked about the visual observations one would see if they were in
China, allowing me to know the atmosphere of the nation with the eyes of a pedestrian in
China. The colonial rule and its effects on China has been a great problem to how The
CCP could continue to develop its new socialism, but nothing would stop its way in
reaching the goal. Extending my knowledge of the topic, Durdin’s article seems to
inform us on the changed vibe passed around the cities. Were all of the people agreeing
on the belief of the Revolution?

Heaslet, Juliana Pennington. "The Red Guards: Instruments of Destruction in the Cultural
Revolution." Asian Survey 12, no. 12 (1972): 1032-047. doi:10.2307/2643022.

The article “The Red Guards: Instruments of Destruction in the Cultural Revolution” is
produced Juliana Pennington Heaslet and found in a peer-reviewed scholarly article
published in Asian Survey. This source is credible because the journal article Asian
Survey is popularly known throughout the world. The source is also reliable because of
the author’s authority and there were no biased phrases of words seen. In this article,
Miss Juliana Pennington Heaslet focuses mostly on the red guards and the purpose of the
movement made by the followers of Mao. She also questions the practices made by the
Red Guards and gives supporting evidence and thoughts to help the readers get a clear
image. This source supports my understanding because it helps me learn more about the
Red Guards and what made them a powerful weapon. After reading this article, another
question that comes up is: In the beginning of the Cultural Revolution only the “five red
categories” were able to gain membership as a Red Guard; how did the rule change?
What made the rich landlords’ descendants gain the membership too?

Israel, John. "The Red Guards in Historical Perspective: Continuity and Change in the
Chinese Youth Movement." The China Quarterly, no. 30 (1967): 1-32.
http://www.jstor.org/stable/651860.

This journal article from The China Quarterly in 1967 presents a comprehensive
complicated historical perspective on the Red Guards in Cultural Revolution. This is a
reliable source because The China Quarterly covers in-depth analysis of the history of
contemporary China and the publisher Cambridge University Press, is the winner of
eighty-one nobal prizes and ranked as one of the most innovative research institutions in
the world. Futhermore, the author John Israel is a Professor of History at the University
of Virginia and does not have an obvious bias in the article. This article informs my
research by emphasizing on the complex relationship the CCP had with the young radical
intellectuals and the process of how the CCP manipulated the Red Guards for political
activities and other usages. This source extends my research by analyzing on the relation
with the Red Guards and how the Red Guards further impacted the different exploits the
CCP undertook.

LI, CHOH-MING. "What Happened to the Great Leap Forward?" Challenge 11, no. 10
(1963): 4-7. http://www.jstor.org/stable/40718606.

The article, What Happened to the Great Leap Forward, is produced by Choh-Ming Li
and found on Jstor's website. This source is reliable because of its author, Choh-Ming Li,
who was a Professor of Business Administration and Chairman of the Center for Chinese
Studies at the University of California. Professor Li was also an economist making him
an expert in the field of economics and throughout the article; there were no biased
words. He provides specific statistical facts of the economy in China right before the
Cultural Revolution and massive investment program with the help from different
countries like Soviet Union, Hungary, Bulgaria, and so forth. This source extends my
understanding because it gives a brief idea of China’s economic state before the Cultural
Revolution. A new question that should be answered as I research is: What was the
economic state during the Cultural Revolution and how did it change/stay?

"Oldest Veteran Of Anti-Japanese War Dies At 113-Eastday". 2018. English.Eastday.Com.


Accessed October 2 2018. http://english.eastday.com/World/auto/u1ai8578052.html.

This online article is produced by China daily and found on the east day website.
Although there is no clear information about the writer, the source is quite reliable
because there is a picture of the historical person issued in the article and there are exact
dates to help prove the details. The website doesn't give out any information about the
writer, making it less reliable in a sense that we don't know if the author is credible or not.
In the article, there are historical dates of when something occurred like when Dong
Jimin was forced to move out of Beijing. This source supports my current understanding
of the Cultural Revolution because this article proves that due to the communist
movement, Dong had to leave his family and move to a province which was few hundred
kilometers away from their home. A new question that comes up is: Why were the
communist governors so cruel? Why were they so radical?

Phillips, Tom. 2016. "The Cultural Revolution: All You Need To Know About China's
Political Convulsion". The Guardian. Accessed October 6 2018.
https://www.theguardian.com/world/2016/may/11/the-cultural-revolution-50-years-on-
all-you-need-to-know-about-chinas-political-convulsion.

This source is an article produced by Tom Philips and published on The Guardian. The
Guardian is reliable because it is trustworthy for its statistics and factual evidences for
every remarkable events, incidents, and news reports. Philips is a Latin America
correspondent that has stayed in Beijing for a while in his life to investigate the history
around the revolution. Philips presents neutrally on the basic information about the
Cultural Revolution with broad questions that are based off of facts. He traces the
timeline of the revolution and how each small event occurred. Not only did he include
basic information, Philips answered controversial questions on how each element of the
Revolution has impacted today’s China. This source extends my current understanding of
the China’s Cultural Revolution which also serves as a useful source for my compelling
questions.

Ramzy, Austin. 2017. "China’S Cultural Revolution, Explained". Nytimes.Com. Accessed


October 6 2018. https://www.nytimes.com/2016/05/15/world/asia/china-cultural-
revolution-explainer.html.

This source is an article produced by Austin Ramzy and published on The New York
Times. Austin Ramzy is a Hong Kong correspondent that launched the China blog on
New York Times who was also a Beijing correspondent for Time magazine. The New
York Time is highly reliable for its unusual bias on reports and factual information it
publishes. This source explains the major participants, the Red Guards, the “sent-down
youth”, and how/when the revolution began briefly. This information informs my
research by adding historical data through the use of timeline which helps me connect
each key event together. This source extends my comprehension on the major small
events that occurred throughout the revolution and how it relates to the overall research
question.

Starr, John Bryan. "On Mao's Self-Image as a Marxist Thinker." Modern China 3, no. 4
(1977): 435-42. http://www.jstor.org/stable/188825.

This is a research paper written about Mao’s Self Image as a Marxist Thinker by John
Bryan Starr. Starr, a Chinese politics professor in numerous well-known colleges, has a
M.A. and Ph.D. in Political Science. With occupations in connection to China, Starr has
travelled to Hong Kong, Taiwan, and Mainland China countless times, allowing his in
depth knowledge of Chinese politics be witnessed in first-hand. The paper talks about the
relationship of Chairman Mao’s personality, ideology and viewpoint about his vision in
contrast to Marx’s traditional way of thinking. Extending my understanding, this reaches
out to raise the question of what personal desires or influences happened upon Mao into
him being the person he was. A new compelling question would arise as what influenced
Mao to become the person he was and how that also influenced his decisions and
viewpoint.
Tang, Peter S. H. "Mao Tsetung Thought since the Cultural Revolution." Studies in Soviet
Thought 13, no. 3/4 (1973): 265-78. http://www.jstor.org/stable/20098574.

The journal article “Mao Tsetung Thought since the Cultural Revolution” is produced by
Peter S. H. Tang and found in a peer-reviewed scholarly article published by the Studies
in Soviet Thought. This source is a credible source because the journal article Studies in
Soviet Thought is an educational article and popularly known throughout the world. The
journal article is also reliable because of the author is already a credible source and
throughout the pages, there were very few biased words seen. In this article, Peter S. H.
Tang focuses on how Mao thought about Marxism and Communism and a deeper
understanding of the relationship between Mao and the Great Proletarian Cultural
Revolution. The passage also focuses on Mao’s relationship with the Communist Party
of China and how they together propagated China to make the people trust their side of
the story. This source supports my understanding about the Cultural Revolution because
it gives me additional knowledge about Mao, who was a very important person during
that time period, and the CPC. After reading this article, I wonder what caused Mao to
take in the belief of Marxism and use it to control China.

Unger, Jonathan. "Cultural Revolution Conflict in the Villages." The China Quarterly, no. 153
(1998): 82-106. http://www.jstor.org/stable/655831.

This article from The China Quarterly, published in the Cambridge University Press,
explores the dissension in the villages that often erupted and led to violence during the
Cultural Revolution. The journalist Jonathan Unger is an expert of China who’s a
professor at ANU and The China Quarterly is a British peer reviewed academic journal
that only focuses on the contemporary history of China and Taiwan. Furthermore, the
publisher Cambridge University Press is the winner of eighty one Nobel prizes and
ranked as one of the most innovative research institutions in the world. Unger traces
down cases that occurred in different villages of China to delineate the different types of
traditional hostilities between villages that led to more aggravated conflicts at that time
period. This source informs my research significantly since Unger provides many
interviewees’ experiences to recount that there is more than one conflict of between both
villages after the violence. This source supports my understanding of the topic by
examining the different issues villagers encountered which shows the tragedy of the
people. Thus, this source leads to a compelling question −−− Were the conflicts resolved
after the violence between the villages ended?