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JAWAHAR NAVODAYA VIDHYALAYA

KHAREDI, DAHOD

TOPIC – ONCOLOGY/CANCERLOGY
MADE BY – SUMIT DARJI
CLASS- TWELTH (SCI)
GUIDED BY- S.P CHANDDL MADAM
AKNOWLEDGENT

I would like to express my special thanks of


gratitude to my teacher s.p
chandel madam as well as our principal sumanlata
medam who gave me the golden opportunity to do
this wonderful project on the topic oncology
/cacerlogy which also helped me in doing a lot of
Research and i came to know about so many new
things I am really thankful to them.
Secondly i would also like to thank my parents and
friends who helped me a lot in finalizing this project
within the limited time frame.
Certificate
This is certify that I am sumit darji of class 12th of Jawahar Navodaya

Vidhyalaya, kharedi Dahod has successfully completed biology

Invetigetory project as prescribed by All India Seniour Secondary

Certificate Examination (AISSCE) for the academic year 2018-19

DATE:

Principal’s Signature

Signature of external Signature of internal


Examiner Examiner
INDEX
Introduction 4
Description of Human Cancer Cells 5
Difference between healthy and cancer 6-7
CELL

Cancer cell division 8-9

Causes of Cancer 10
Cancer types- Symptoms, Prevention 11-
Cancer Treatment 13 14

Acknowledgement 15
Bibliograph 16
y
INTRODUCTION
Cancer is a group of diseases involving abnormal
cell
growth with the potential to invade or spread to
other parts of the body.
Not all tumors are cancerous; benign tumors do
not spread to other parts of the body. Possible
signs and symptoms include a lump, abnormal
bleeding, prolonged cough, unexplained weight
loss and a change in bowel movements. While these
symptoms may indicate
cancer, they may have other causes.
Over 100 types of cancers affect humans.
These diseases are characterized by a
cellular
malfunction. Healthy cells are programmed to
‘know
what to do and when to do it’. Cancerous cells
do not have this programming and therefore
replicate and grow out of control.
Cancerous cells in together are
called Neoplasm.
Neoplas
m
HUMAN CANCER CELLS
Cancer cells are cells that divide relentlessly,
forming
solid tumors or flooding the blood with abnormal
cells.

Cancer cells have distinguishing histological


features visible under the microscope. The nucleus is
often large and irregular, and the cytoplasm may also
display abnormalities.
The shape, size, protein composition, and
texture of the nucleus are often altered in
malignant cells. The nucleus may acquire grooves,
folds or
indentations, chromatin may aggregate or disperse,
and
the nucleolus can become enlarged.
Different combinations of abnormalities are
characteristic of different cancer types, to the extent
that nuclear appearance can be used as a marker in
cancer diagnostics and staging.
DIFFERENCE BETWEEN
NORMAL AND
CANCER
CELLS
Normal Cells Cancer Cells
Cell
Reproduction
Cell reproduction is needed to These cells may have gene
the cell population that ages or
replenish
becomes mutations or chromosome
damaged or destroyed. Normal
cells
reproduce properly. mutations that affect the
reproductive properties of the
cells. They don't experience
Cell
biological aging and maintain
Communication
their abilitycells
to replicate and to
Cells communicate with Cancer lose the ability
through
other cellschemical signals. grow .
These communicate with other cells
help signals
normal cells to know
when to
reproduce and when to stop through chemical signals. They
reproducing. also lose sensitivity to anti-
Cell signals are usually growth signals from
transmitted into a cell by specific Cellsurrounding cells. These signals
proteins. normally restrict cellular
Specialization
Normal cells have the ability to Cancer cells are unspecialized
differentiate or develop into growth.
specialized and do not develop into cells of
cells. For example, cells can
into heart cells, brain cells, lung a specific type. Similar to stem
develop
cells
anyorother cell of a specific type. cells, cancer cells proliferate or
replicate many times, for long
Cell
periods of time.
Death
Normal cells have the ability When the genes in a normal
to self destruct when they cell are damaged beyond
become damaged or diseased. repair, certain DNA checking
Cells break down and are mechanisms signal for cell
disposed of by white blood destruction.
cells.

Morphological DIFFERENCE BETWEEN Normal


AND

C
CANCER CELL DIVISION
Cell division is a normal process used by the
body for
growth and repair. A parent cell divides to
form two
daughter cells, and these daughter cells are
used to
build new tissue, or to replace cells that have
died as a result of ageing or damage. Healthy
cells stop dividing when there is no longer a
need for more daughter cells, but cancer cells
continue to produce copies.
Cancer is unchecked cell growth. Mutations
in genes can cause cancer by accelerating cell
division rates or inhibiting normal controls on
the system, such
as cell cycle arrest or programmed cell death.
As a
mass of cancerous cells grows, it can develop
into a
tumor.
Tumor formation Cancer
Development

Four basic stages of cancer


Differentiating between normal cell
division and
cancer cell
division

Causes of CANCER
Tobacco use is the cause of about 22% of cancer
deaths.
Another 10% is due to obesity, poor diet, lack of
physical activity, and excessive drinking of
alcohol.

Other factors include certain infections, exposure


to ionizing radiation and environmental
pollutants.

In the developing world nearly 20% of cancers


are
due to infections such as hepatitis B, hepatitis
C and human papillomavirus (HPV).

Approximately 5–10% of cancers are due to


inherited
genetic defects from a person's parents.

These factors act, at least partly, by changing


the genes of a cell. Typically many genetic changes
are
required before cancer develops.
Types of cancer and symptoms
Most Common types of Cancer:

Lung Cancer
A cancer that begins in the lungs and most
often occurs in people who smoke.
Symptoms- Cough (often with blood),
Chest pain, Wheezing and
weight loss.
Prevention- Avoid smoking and carcinogens at
work,
Eat diet full of fruits and
vegetables, Exercise most days
of the week.
Breast Cancer
A cancer that forms in the cells of
breasts. Symptoms- Bloody nipple
discharge, discomfort,
inverted nipple, lump formation
near breast
Prevention- Keep weight in check and be
physically fit.
Avoid alcohol and smoking.
Avoid birth control pills and regular
screening. Avoid post-menopausal
hormones.

Prostate Cancer
A cancer in a man's prostate, a small walnut-
shaped gland that produces seminal fluid.
Symptoms- Urinary problems, Blood in the
urine and semen. Pain in the hips,
pelvis, spine or upper leg. Pain or
discomfort during ejaculation.
Prevention- Enough exercise. Maintaining a
healthy and a
Balanced diet. Ensuring regular
ejaculation.
Having green tea regularly.

Throat Cancer
Throat cancer refers to cancer of the voice box,
the vocal cords, and other parts of the throat,
such as the tonsils
and oropharynx.

Symptoms: Respiratory symptoms like coughing,


Blood wheezing, or shortness of
breath, weight loss, weakness, fever, a
change in voice,
Chest pain, ear pain, hoarseness
swollen lymphnodes in the neck,
difficulty in swallowing.
Prevention: Don’t smoke, check for radon at
home, regular exercise; eat variety of
fruits and vegetables, limit the intake
of alcohol, have a cup of green tea.

Lung Cancer
Breast Cancer
Prostate Cancer Throat Cancer
+

CANCER TREATMENT
Cancer can be treated in the following ways:

Surgery
Surgery, when used to treat cancer, is a
procedure in which
a surgeon removes cancer from the patient’s
body.
Radiation Therapy
It is a type of cancer treatment that uses high
doses of radiation to kill cancer cells and shrink
tumors.
Chemotherapy
It is a type of cancer treatment that uses
drugs to kill cancer cells.
Immunotherapy
It is a type of cancer treatment that helps
your immune system fight cancer.

Thank you
BIBLIOGRAPHY
www.google.com

www.canceresearchuk.org

www.thoughtco.com

www.bing.com

www.healthtap.comhttp://bandible.com/acknowledgement-sample-for-school-
project/acknowledgement-sample-for-school-project-2/

www.mayoclinic.org

www.About.com

www.dogpile.com

www.Cancer.Net

www.Cancer.gov