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Biological Materials

Unit 2

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Human body is constructed of bone,
cartilage, ligament, tendon, muscle and
other connective tissues.
Anatomical components

Active: which Passive: which do


produce force not produce force

Muscles : Active
Bones, cartilage, ligaments, tendons:
Passive.
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BONE
• Hard part of connective tissue which
constitutes majority of the skeleton.
Bone is composed of

organics Inorganic
components components
(the cells and matrix) (minerals)

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• Organic matrix is 95% collagen fibers
which gives limited flexibility.
• Fibers are strengthened by deposits of
calcium and phosphate salts which gives
bone its strength, hardness and rigidity.
• Performs mechanical and physiological
functions.

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Mechanical functions of bone
• Provides mechanical integrity for static
posture and locomotion.
• Provides support for body against external
forces (ex. gravity)
• To act as a lever system to transfer forces
(ex. Muscular forces)
• To supply protection to vital internal
organs (ex. brain)
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Physiological functions
1. To form blood cells (Hematopoiesis)
• Hematopoiesis occurs in red bone marrow.
• In adults it is found in bones like vertebrae or
femur.
2. To store calcium (Mineral homeostasis)
• Bone is the body’s largest reservoir of
calcium(99%).
• Other minerals like phosphorus, sodium,
potassium, magnesium are also stored in bone.
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Two types of Bone in human
1) Cortical bone, also known as compact bone and
2) Trabecular bone, also known as cancellous or
spongy bone.
These two types are classified as on the basis of
porosity and the unit microstructure.
Cortical bone is much denser with a porosity
ranging between 5% and 10%.
Found in the shaft of long bones and forms the
outer shell around cancellous bone at the end of
joints and the vertebrae.
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8
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• Cancellous bones is named after thin bony
spicules called trabeculae.
• Trabeculae orient themselves in the
direction of force applied to the bone.
• These bones are resistant to compressive
loads.
• Red bone marrow that produces red, &
white blood cells and platelets are found in
this bone
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Types of Bones
• Long bone or Flat bone based on gross
anatomy

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Bone types as per their shapes
shape example function

Long femur, tibia, To act as levers and to


radius transmit longitudinal forces
Short Carpal, To provide strength and
tarsal transmit longitudinal force
Flat Sternum, To provide protection and
ribs, skull points of attachment for
bones, ilium, tendons and ligaments
scapula
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Irregular Vertebrae, Various
ischium functions
Sesamoid patella Improved
lever
situation

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15
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Summary table of bones
Name Number
Vertebral column, 26
sacrum, coccyx
Cranium 8
Face 14
Auditory ossicles 6
Hyoid,sternum, ribs 26
Upper extremities 64
Lower extremities 62
total 206 18
Bone modeling
• Process by which bone mass is increased
is bone modeling
• Modeling occurs through modeling drifts
• This occurs in children which thickens
cortices and trabeculae.
• Modeling of cortical bone is inefficient in
adults.

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Bone remodeling
• Process by which bone mass is maintained
or decreased is called bone remodeling.
• Bone remodeling occurs in both cortical and
trabecular bone at basic multi-cellular units .
• This occurs on all bone surfaces throughout
the life at varying rates.
• When bone is in contact with marrow, re-
sorption exceeds formation.
• This results in gradual enlargement of
marrow cavity and decreases trabecular
bone volume.
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• Two types of bone can be identified
microscopically according to the pattern of
collagen
• 1) woven bone characterized by
haphazard organization of collagen fibers
and is mechanically weak, and
• 2) lamellar bone which has a regular
parallel alignment of collagen into sheets
(lamellae) and is mechanically strong.
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Woven bone

22
Lamellar Bone

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• Woven bone is produced in all fetal bones.
• In adults woven bone is created after fractures .
• Woven bone is weaker, with a smaller number of
randomly oriented collagen fibers, but forms
quickly;
• It is soon replaced by lamellar bone, which is
highly organized in concentric sheets.
• After a fracture, woven bone forms initially and is
gradually replaced by lamellar bone during a
process known as "bony substitution."
• These terms are histologic, in that a microscope
is necessary to differentiate between the two.

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Bone fracture

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Bone repair
• First is constant repair of micro damage due to
physiological loads.
• If the repair mechanism in tissue level is inhibited by
pharmacological agent, microdamage will
accumulate and fatigue fracture may result.
• The process of repair is initiated with blood flow into
the fracture region that normally coagulates to form
hematoma.

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Bone repair

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• The fracture ruptures the periosteum, stimulating
rapid formation of woven bone (callus).
• It provides temporary strength and support for the
fractured bone.
• Mineralization of callus takes six weeks in human
adults and then it is remodelled to produce lamellar
bone.
• The final orientation of the broken bone ends will
depend in part on similarity to original and on the
orientation of loads applied during healing process.

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Physical properties
• The structural and mechanical properties of
bone change with the force acting on the bone.
• Wolff’s law of functional adaptation (1870)-
• The shape of the bone is determined only by
static stressing
• Stress has different effects on bone
• Stress may affect growth as seen in healing
process of a fracture in a child.
• Growth of bone is influenced by heredity.
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Selected properties of bone
Variable Bone magnitude unit
Density Cortical bone 1700-2000 Kg/m3
Lumbar vertebrae 600-1000
Water 1000
Mineral content Bone 60-70 %
Water content Bone 150-200 Kg/m3

Elastic modulus Femur (cortical) 5-28 GPa


Tensile strength Femur 80-150 MPa
Tibia 95-140
Fibula 93

Compressive Femur 131-224 MPa


strength Tibia 106-200
Wood 40-80
steel 370 30
• E represents the stress needed to double the
length of the object.
• In general for spongy bone E=1GPa
» compact bone E=20 GPa
» Metals E= 100 GPa
• As a thumb rule elongation required to
cause fracture is a small fraction of
doubling length:
• F fracture= (1:200) F double
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Example 1
• Estimate the ultimate tensile force to break a
trabecular bone in general and a tibia in
particular.
• E=1GPa
• A= 1sq mm
• dL/L=1/200
• A tibia= 800sq.mm.
• F(trabecular bone)= (dL/L).E.A= 5N
• F (tibia)= 4000N
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Spongy
Tension
Compr.

compact

Shear

Tension

compr

0 50 100 150 200


Ultimate stress (MPa) 33
Bone Mechanics
• Bone Anisotrpy
- Its non homogeneous and anisotropic
- Properties change as a function of location
and direction of force
- Stiffness in tension for axial forces is twice
that of perpendicular forces

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Maximal stress on bone surface
Cross section Bending stress Shear stress
due to torsion
General M.y/ I T.R/J

Full circle 4 M/πR3 2T/ π R3

Hollow circle 4.M.R/ π(R4-r4) 2.T.R/ π(R4-r4)

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Example 2
• A simplified bone is assumed to have
circular cross section. R=1cm and F=
4000N. Estimate the maximum stress at
the location A and B of the F

cross section.
R R

A B

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Assumptions
• Weight of the bone is neglected
• Bone is isotropic
• Problem is treated two dimensionally
Stress at B = axial+ bending
Stress at A = axial – bending
Axial stress= F/ πR2
Bending stress = 4 M/ πR3 = 4 F.2R/ πR3
Stress at B= 115 MPa
Stress at A= 89MPa

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• The ultimate compressive stress is 30 %
higher than ultimate tensile stress.
• Magnitude of bending stress is much
higher compared to that of axial stress.
• Thus, point of action of force is very
important.
• If resultant force is not acting along the
axis of bone, total stress can increase
drastically.
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Practical implications
• Joint forces (bone to bone contact) that do not
act along the bone axis are compensated by
muscular forces that reduce the stress.
• Misalignment of skeleton may necessiate
increased muscular compensation to reduce the
maximum stress on the bone.
• Muscular atrophy as a consequence of injury or
aging may disturb the muscular balance and
excessive stresses on the bone surface, which
may lead to fractures.
• Movements in which external forces do not act
along the bone axes in the human body may
produce high internal stress (different shoes)
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Example 3
A bone with hollow structure has outer
radius 1 cm and inner 0.5 cm. Determine
the stresses and compare the results with
the result for the full structure. F

R R

A B

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• Stress at B= 126 MPa (for solid structure=
115 MPa)
• Stress at A= 92 MPa (for solid structure=
89 MPa)
• The stresses are higher by 10 %.
• Hollow structure has less mass will
therefore have smaller inertia.
• This helps in quick and easy movement in
extremities.
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• A hollow cylinder proves efficient when
mass strength ratio is examined.
• Efficiency depends on ratio of column
diameter to wall thickness.
• For pure bending maximal ratio is efficient.
• For eccentric loading and failure due to
combined loading, a minimal ratio is
efficient.
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Joints
• Place where two or more bones come
together.
• 1. Fibrous or fixed joint (stability)
• 2. Cartilaginous or slightly movable
(bending)
• 3. Synovial or freely movable (movement)

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• Fibrous joint: immovable joints which have
some fibrous tissues
• Ex: bones of skull or between tibia & fibula
teeth of maxilla or mandible.

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• Cartilaginous or slightly movable joints
• There is a pad of fibrocartilage between
the ends of the bones.
• This allows slight movement caused by
compression of pad.

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• Synovial or freely movable joints

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Characteristics of synovial joint
• Articular cartilage: Ends of the bones are always
covered with this type of cartilage.
• It provides the smooth surface and is strong
enough to bear the weight of the body
• Capsular ligament: The joint is surrounded and
enclosed in a sleeve of fibrous tissue which holds
the bone together.
• It is sufficiently loose to allow the free motion but
strong to protect from injury.

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Synovial membrane
1. acts as a lining to the capsule
2. covers the parts of the bones within the
joint which are not covered by articular
cartilage
It secrets thick sticky fluid called synovial
fluid in the cavity. The fluid:
1. Provides nutrition
2. Acts as lubricant
3. Maintains joint stability
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Articular cartilage
• Thin layer of fibrous connective tissue on the
articular surface of bones in synovial joints.
• Its behaviour is visco elastic and in
conjunction with synovial fluid provides
extremely low coefficient of friction (0.0025)
to joints.
• There are three major functions.

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1. transferring forces between bones
2. distributing forces in joints
3. allowing relative movement between
articular surfaces with minimal friction.
• Tissue fluid, the main constituent of
cartilage mostly contains water and is
found in form viscous gel.
• The majority of tissue fluid is free to move
inside or outside the cartilage body.
• The pores of cartilage are very small of the
order of 2.5 to 6.5 nm.
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Properties
• Density= 1300 kg/m3
• Water content 75 %
• Behaviour of cartilage under tension varies.
• Tensile properties are highly anisotropic and
depends on orientation of collagen fibrils.
• Tensile strength is much smaller compared to
equivalent tendons and ligaments.
• This is because of non homogenous structure
and less collagen content.
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• Compressive properties vary with the zone
tested.
• Related to proteoglycan (group of glycoproteins)
concentration.
• Higher the concentration more the stiffness.
• Compressive stiffness is least at cartilage
surface and most at middle zones.
• Surface of cartilage cannot resist compression
where as deeper zones can.

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Layers of cartilage

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Viscoelasticity
• This property is mainly associated with the
movement of water in the tissues.
• Fluid flow is proportional to pressure
gradient in the pore water.
• Described by coefficient of hydraulic
permeability

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• Inverse of this coefficient is a measure of
material’s resistance to fluid flow.
• This is known as diffusive drag coefficient.
• More the proteoglycan concentration
higher the frictional drags.
• Thus permeability is greatest at surface
and least at deeper zones.
• Permeability α 1/ diffusive drag coefficient
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Mechanics
• Compressive loads are experienced when
two opposing cartilaginous surfaces come
into contact with each other.
• With static compression fluid does not flow
towards the contact surface but flows
laterally away. bone

Opposing
Fluid
articular
flow
cartilage
bone 57
• In normal activity (running & walking) the
forces come on and off very rapidly.
• Hence, there is little fluid flow to the sides
of contact zone.
• Forces are transmitted mainly by the fluid
in each cartilage.

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Shear forces
• Magnitude of frictional shear stress is usually
ignored because coefficient of friction is small.
• Intersurface frictional shear is initially carried
in superficial zone as tensile stress.
• This stress is transmitted to the bone by
tensing the collagen fiber in the middle and
deeper zones of cartilage.

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Example
• Estimate the superficial tensile stress
generated by friction between two moving
cartilage surfaces. σc
Superficial τ
tangential σt
zone d

Cartilage

Bone

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• Normal contact stress σc= 1.5 MPa
• Length of contact zone L= 25mm
• Dynamic friction coefficient μ= 0.002
• Thickness of superficial zone d= 200 μm
• Shear force per unit width F
• Tensile stress for superficial zone σt

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• F =τ. L
• = μ σc. L
• = 0.075
• σt = F /d
• = 0.375 MPa

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Failure of cartilage
• Mechanical loading and unloading keep
the tissue healthy.
• By causing the influx of nutrients and
efflux of waste as well as lubrication.
• Disuse has been associated with
degeneration.
• When cartilage damages, they fail to
restore.
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Failure acute Active loading

Impact loading

Chronic Interfacial

Fatigue

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• Acute failure occurs when stress exceeds
the strength.
• Active forces produce excessive local
stress in a joint (ex. Heavy lifting).
• Impact forces produce excessive stress
due to collisions (ex. accidents)
• Acute failure with impact loading is most
frequent.
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• Chronic failure develop due to interfacial
problems or fatigue.
• Interfacial wear is a lack of lubrication at
the bearing surface.
• Fatigue wear occurs when collagen matrix
is damaged by cyclic stressing

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Ligament
• It consists of elastin and collagen fibers.
• It attaches one bone to another across a joint.
• Major functions:
1. To attach bones
2. To guide joint movements
3. To maintain joint congruency
4. To act as a positional bend or strain sensor

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figure
• 2.5.1

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• Collagen is the main protein present in the
ligaments.
• It is found in fibrillar form oriented such
that it will resist tensile forces.
• The hierarchical structure includes fibers,
fibrils, subfibrils, microfibrils and
tropocollagen.
• The surface of ligament comprises of
loose envelope called epiligament
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Figure
• 2.5.3

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• Epiligament : It protects the midsubstance of
ligament from abrasion.
• Fibroblast- Ligament cells usually ovoid or
spindle like, oriented longitudinally along the
length.
• Structure of ligament where they insert into bone
are different from the midsubstance.
• Insertions anchor the ligaments into the rigid
bone.

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Nerves & Blood vessels
• Recent years have seen research in role of
neural components in ligaments.
• Ligaments permit the sensing of joint position,
monitoring of ligament tension and integrity.
• They initiate protective reflexes.
• In the epiligament lies the fine network of blood
vessels.
• The blood supply nourishes the ligament and
enables it to remain metabolically active

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Properties
• Stiffness of ligaments varies non linearly with
force.
• This non linear behavior allows ligaments to
permit initial joint deformation with minimal
resistance.
• Together with other ligaments, bone and active
muscles work within their low force range to
guide bones through normal movements.
• At higher forces, ligaments become stiffer,
providing more resistance to increasing
deformations.
• Such stiffening protects the joints. 73
Knee joint application
• Knee is a weight bearing joint, fundamentally
concerned with mobility over stability.
Anatomical terms
• Anterior: towards front part
• Posterior: towards the back part
• Internal rotation: frontal aspect of body rotates
inside
• External rotation: frontal aspect of body rotates
outside
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Patella or knee cap
• This is a sesamoid bone associated to the
knee joint.
• Its posterior surface articulate with patellar
surface of femur.
• Its anterior surface is in the patellar
tendon.

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76
77
• There are also two shock absorbers in knee on
either side of the joint between the cartilage surfaces
of the femur and the tibia.
• These two structures are called the medial meniscus
and the lateral meniscus.
• The menisci are horseshoe-shaped shock absorbers
that help to both center the knee joint during activity
and to minimize the amount of stress on the articular
cartilage.
• The combination of the menisci and the surface
cartilage produces a nearly frictionless gliding
surface.

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• Varus: bent inward with respect to
proximal bone (O shape) (bow-legged)
• Valgus: bent outward with respect to
proximal bone (X shape) (knock-knees)

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• In a varus alignment, the distal
segment deviates medially with respect
to the proximal segment.
• In a valgus alignment, the distal
segment deviates laterally with respect
to the proximal segment.

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Six
DOF

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Figure
• 2.5.11
• 2.5.13

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Ligament Primary restraint Secondary
restraint
Anterior cruciate Anterior tibial Internal tibial
ligament ACL displacement rotation
posterior cruciate posterior tibial external tibial
ligament PCL displacement rotation
Medial collateral Valgus angulation Anterior tibial
ligament MCL & external tibial displacement
rotation

Lateral collateral Varus angulation posterior tibial


ligament LCL & internal tibial displacement
rotation
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Injury and failure
• Accidental ligament rupture results from
excessive forces.
• Strain rate affects the type of ligament
failure.
• Ligaments heal by red blood cells and
inflammatory WBC entering the wounds.
• Within days a fragile scar composed of
blood clot and water appears on wound.
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• After about a week, metabolically active
fibroblast migrate into wound.
• They form extra cellular scar matrix.
• Fluid and blood gradually dissipate.
• And fibroblast become predominant cell
type.
• Even 40 weeks after injury, collagen fibrils
of injured ligaments are different from
healthy ligaments.
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Disorder of joints
• Arthritis (inflammatory diseases of joints)
• Rheumatoid arthritis is due to systemic
disorder in joint.
• Ex. Erosion of articular cartilage, adhesion
between the bones etc.
• Osteoarthritis is a degenerative non
inflammatory disease.
• Articular cartilage becomes thinner or
there is abnormal outgrowth of cartilage.
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Arthritic knee

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Tendons
• Dense fibrous tissue that connects muscle
to bone.
• Variety of shapes and sizes depending on
characteristics.
• Tendon is glistening and pearly white in
colour, take the shape of thin cord or band
or broad sheet.
• Composed primarily of collagen fibers
embedded in aqueous gel like substance
93
94
• To be able to produce movement at a
joint, a muscle or its tendon must stretch
across the joint.
• When a muscle contracts, the fibers of
tendons shorten and pulls one bone
towards another (elbow).
• It consist of external tendon referred to as
tendon;
• Internal tendon referred to as aponeurosis.
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Figure

96
• A tendon may be constrained as it crosses the
joint.
• Either due to bone or due to specialized tissues
(sheaths).
• These constraints help to maintain the
orientation of tendon during joint motion.
• Particularly in hands and feet when tendons
pass distally towards small joints(fingers or toes)
• They are susceptible to injury if allowed to
displace during finger or toe movements.

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98
• External tendon connects the muscle
proper to bone;
• Aponeurosis provides the attachment area
for muscle fiber.
Three distinct regions of organization:
• Muscle tendon junction (myotendinous)
• Tendon proper (tendon)
• Bone- tendon junction (osteotendinous)
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• Muscle tendon junction have folded
structure.
• Longitudinal folds facilitate the transfer of
load by shear rather than by tension.
• Engg. Adhesives are stronger in shear
rather than in tension.
• Similarly, bio materials constitute the
junctions at the ends of muscle fiber that
may be stronger in shear than in tension.
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Properties
• Primary role of tendons is to transmit the
force of its associated muscle to bone.
• It needs to be relatively stiff and strong in
tension.
• Besides being relatively stiff and strong,
tendons are also highly resilient.
• They are capable of storing and releasing
significant amount of elastic strain energy.
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Failure
• Depending on the function, a tendon may
be subjected to prolonged static loads
(postural) prolonged repetitive cyclic loads
(locomotion).
• Former suffers from creep failure
• Latter suffers from fatigue failure.
• Tendons are capable of self healing.

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Testing
• Mechanical testing is a challenge.
• Specimen tends to slip out of the machine
grips.
• If the specimens are tightly squeezed
between the grips, stress concentration
causes premature failure.
• Recently cryogrips are introduced.
• Specimen are frozen at the grip location.
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Muscle
• Basic Property is ability to produce force.
• Muscles are highly structured and
organized material.
• Every structure has a specific function.

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105
• There are some 500 separate muscles in
the human body.
• They make up about half its weight.
• They are of many different shapes, and of
sizes ranging from a large muscle in the
back that weighs several gm/kg to the tiny
muscles that move the eyelids.

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Histology
• Epimysium consists of irregularly
distributed collagenous and elastic fibres,
fat cells.
• Next smaller bundle is called fascicle.
• It consist of no. of muscle fibre surrounded
by perimysium.
• Then comes muscle cells surrounded by
endomysium.
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108
• It is a thin sheath of connective tissues
consisting of reticular fibres which binds
individual fibres together.
• The reticular (netlike) fibres are composed
of randomly oriented collagenous fibrils.
• The fibrils are not oriented in orderly
bundles, as are collagenous fibres;
• Hence they show slightly different
chemical responses.

109
• Under microscope, it is found to be composed of
a great number of tiny muscle fibers, each 1-1.5
inch long and 1/2500 to 1/250 of an inch thick .
• (somewhat the shape of a long leather shoe
string).
• Each of these fibers can contract; and when all
the fibers of a muscle contract together, the
whole muscle shortens.
• It is this contraction, or shortening, of the
muscles which causes movement.
• The larger muscles are fixed, at one or both
ends, to bones or other parts of the body, by
means of tough whitish strings called tendons.

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• These tendons help to make the machinery of
movement simple and efficient
• There are, for example, many different muscles
which move the fingers.
• Instead of running down into the wrist to make it
bulky and awkward, the larger muscles stop in
the arm and are attached to tendons which
extend down to the bones in the hand.
• They do not themselves contract but are pulled
by the shortening of the muscles in the arm.

111
TYPES OF MUSCLE CONTRACTION
A. Isotonic contraction
• without appreciable change in the force of
contraction; the distance between the muscle's
origin and insertion becomes lessened.
B. Isometric contraction
• without appreciable shortening or change in
distance between its origin and insertion.

112
Types of Muscle work:
i) Static Muscle work:
Muscles contract isometrically to balance opposing
forces and maintain stability.
ii) Concentric Muscle Work:
the muscles contract isotonically in shortening to
produce movement.
iii) Eccentric Muscle Work:
the muscles contract isotonically in lengthening. The
muscle attachments are drawn apart.
An eccentric contraction is used as a means of
decelerating a body part or object, or lowering a load
gently rather than letting it drop.
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Concentric (shortening)
contraction
• The muscles shorten while generating force.
• This occurs when the force generated by the
muscle exceeds the load opposing its contraction.
• This occurs throughout the length of the muscle,
generating force at the musculo-tendinous
junction, causing the muscle to shorten and
changing the angle of the joint.
• In relation to the elbow, a concentric contraction of
the biceps would cause the arm to bend at the
elbow as the hand moved from the leg to the
shoulder (a biceps curl). 114
Eccentric (lengthening)
contraction
• The muscle elongates while under tension due to
an opposing force greater than the muscle can
generate.
• Rather than working to pull a joint in the direction of
the muscle contraction, the muscle acts
to decelerate the joint at the end of a movement or
otherwise control the repositioning of a load.
• This can occur involuntarily (when attempting to
move a weight too heavy for the muscle to lift) or
voluntarily (when the muscle is 'smoothing out' a
movement).
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Case Study Project
Estimation of precise characteristics of
Human skeletal muscle
Types of contractions
1. Isometric Contraction - without change in length of muscle.
2. Isotonic Contraction - with change in its length.
a) Concentric contraction
b) Eccentric contraction
3.onstant.

Muscle strength and Muscle fatigue are


the characteristics
Figure. chosen
Types of muscle for present
contractions
11/28/2018 116
research.
OBJECTIVES

The main goal of the study is to characterize skeletal


muscle in terms of muscle strength and muscle fatigue.
I. To establish EMG-driven mathematical model to estimate
muscle strength for isotonic contraction.
II. To estimate of the exact material properties of skeletal
muscle by in-vitro test.
III. To assess muscle fatigue in isometric and isotonic muscle
contractions using S-EMG signals
VI. Clinical Validation on Total Knee Replacement patients.

11/28/2018 117
IN VITRO
Problems during testing
TEST Sample during the test

Slip of specimen Damage due to over-


tightening at grips

11/28/2018
Fiber orientation in muscle model for FEA
1.6
(b) FEA
1.4
1.2
1

Stress (MPa)
0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2
(a) Fiber direction orientation
0
) Fiber direction 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2 0.25 0.3 0.35 0.4
Strain
orientation Sample Brea Tensile Modulus (MPa)
k Strength Mean ± S.D.
Load (MPa)
(N)
Fiber
110 0.44 ± EP:
along the
N 0.22 1.59 ± 0.33
length
45°
0.23 ± EI:
Inclined 43 N
0.14 0.621 ± 0.13
orientation
11/28/2018 Cross fiber EC:(By119
FEA)
43 N ____
orientation 0.43 ± 0.13
MATHEMATICAL MODEL
Model development
▪ Mathematical model is used for simulating behaviour of
muscle for eccentric and concentric type of contraction
(Isotonic contraction).
▪ Hyperelastic behaviour is modelled by using Contractile
Element, Series Elastic Element, and Parallel Elastic Element
𝐹 1 − 𝑣 𝑣0
For
=
𝐹0 1 + 𝑐(𝑣 𝑣0 )

𝐹 1 − 𝑣 𝑣0
= 𝑑− 𝑑−1
𝐹0 1 + 𝑐(𝑣 𝑣0 )

Results
❖Muscle force
For untrained subjects Concentric contraction : 51.46 N
Eccentric contraction : 95.38 N
For trained subjects
11/28/2018 Concentric contraction : 53.76 N 120
Eccentric contraction : 106.49N
S-EMG based Muscle Strength

Prerequisite for experimentation


❖ Ethical Approval
❖ Participants [healthy subjects]
▪ Sample size: 28 subjects
▪ Groups : 2 groups Labelled as T and UT (14 subjects in each
group)
▪ Inclusion criterion : Age :- 18-25 yrs and BMI :- 18.5-22.5
Kg/m2

11/28/2018 S-EMG Electrodes 121


Workstation Stickers
S-EMG recording
▪ Bipolar surface electrodes with contact material 99.9% silver
▪ Placed on the belly of the biceps brachii, at 1/3 length from elbow
▪ 10 mm (center to center) inter-electrode distance
▪ Contact area of electrode bar: 5mm x 1mm
▪ All EMG data recordings are carried out using a Power Lab 2/26 (AD Instruments,
Australia).
▪ EMG signals are sampled at a rate of 1 kHz

▪ The force was computed from intensity of CWT coefficients.

𝑠ℎ
1
𝐹𝑘 = 𝐸𝑘 𝑠 ∗ 𝑅(𝑠)
𝑠
Where , 𝑠=𝑠𝑙

S: the total number of wavelet scales,


sh and sl were the highest and lowest scale,
R(s) was the ratio between MVC and RMS electrical activity for each data
size for isotonic contraction.

 Matlab code was developed to


11/28/2018 compute muscle force for isotonic 122
contraction.
Variation between mean peak strength of trained and untrained
subjects
▪ Concentric contraction : 19.4521%
▪ Eccentric contraction : 24.6150%
Concentric
Conentric (T) Eccentric (T)
160 (T)
Concentric (UT) Eccentric (UT)

140

120
Muscle Force (N)

100

80

60

40

20

0
0 1 2 3 4 5 6
Time (s)
Figure 3. Variation in muscle strength
11/28/2018 for non-stationery contraction 123
DETECTION OF MUSCLE FATIGUE
Experimental Protocol
Test was carried out in two types of contraction.
1] Isometric contraction
2] Isotonic contraction [Concentric & Eccentric
contraction]
1 Isometric contraction
▪Performed at an elbow angle maintained
at 1100 for 60 sec.
L 1: 50% MVC, L 2: 75% MVC and L 3:
100% MVC
[MVC- Maximal Voluntary Contraction].
2 Isotonic contraction
▪50% MVC loaded concentric and eccentric
contraction
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▪10 cycles of each contraction type and for 5
▪ Muscle fatigue is quantified into four levels:
1. Slope of regression -0.1 = Level 1
2. Slope of regression -0.2 = Level 2
3. Slope of regression -0.3 = Level 3
4. Slope of regression -0.4 = Level 4
-

Figure 4.
11/28/2018 Muscle fatigue quantification based on regression slope of MDF
125
CLINICAL VALIDATION

❖ Subjects : Total knee replacement patients (TKR)


Method
1. Participant selection
▪ Invited all patients undergone primary unilateral or bilateral
TKR surgery between the duration of 15 November 2014 to
15 March 2015 and operated by a single surgeon Dr. Alankar
A. Ramteke, M.S. (Ortho.).
2. Ethical approval
▪ Ethical Committee of Care Hospital, Nagpur

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Images during recording of S-EMG signal of one of the patient pre
and post TKR surgery (Pre-surgery to post surgery 45th day )

Pre-surgery Post-surgery 3

Post-
surgery 4

Post-surgery 1 Post-surgery 4

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Post-surgery 2 Post-surgery
14
Post-surgery 45
Muscle Force (N)
Estimated Predicted
Days of Recording Mean SD Mean SD
PR-S Post-surgery 3
32.99606 11.22596 35.74715 12.16207
PO-S1 36.37909 8.745972 39.41228 9.475284
PO-S2 46.56077 11.29705 50.44299 12.2391
PO-S3 51.79861 7.751042 56.11761 8.397389
PO-S4 57.7054 3.778742 62.51695 4.093845
PO-S14 60.1394 7.7869 69.5475 9.0214
PO-S45 79.34832 6.59394 85.96465 7.143798
Healthy Leg 256.4744 26.82556 277.8609 29.0625
11/28/2018 128
RMSE 9.06 %
CONCLUSION
1. Muscle tissue is stiffer in fiber direction.
2. Biceps brachii muscle of trained subjects produces 19.45% more force
compared to untrained subjects to perform the 50% MVC loaded
concentric contractions.
3. Variation in mean eccentric strength of trained & untrained subjects is
found to be 24.61%.
4. The strength of biceps brachii was found to be more in case of trained
subjects by 13.41 % than untrained subjects.
5. Most of the untrained subjects felt exhausted at 46.8 s for 75% MVC,
but trained sustained it for 60 sec.
6. At 100% MVC, untrained felt fatigue at 26.3 sec while some of trained
subjects felt the same at 42.5 sec.
7. Trained subjects show 2nd level of fatigue, while untrained subjects
show of 3rd level of fatigue at 100% MVC.

11/28/2018 129
Achievements

DST project

SB/FTP/ETA-369/2012 (14 Lakhs)

Patent 201621017236

Presentation at IISC, Bangalore

International Conference at Korea

11/28/2018 130
Structure & architecture of skeletal muscle

Sacromere Structure
11/28/2018 131
Action Potential (AP)
Electrical membrane potential of a cell rapidly rises and falls
▪ A motor neuron and the muscle fibres it innervates are
collectively called a motor unit (MU)
▪ Skeletal muscles are activated through electrical impulses
from motor nerves.

Figure 3. Action-Potential
illustration of skeletal muscle Figure 4. Motor Unit (MU) of skeletal
11/28/2018 contraction muscle 133
• Range of Muscle Work:

Types of range are


• Inner range – muscle in its shortest position
• Outer range – muscle in fully extended
position
• Middle range – muscle is neither fully
shortened nor fully extended.

134
Group Action of Muscles
Integrated activity of many muscle groups is required
for production of efficient functional movement. They
are
i) Agonists: Group of muscles which contract to
provide the force required to produce the movement.
ii) Antagonists: These muscles oppose the action of
agonists and relax progressively for permitting the
movement.
Ex: When the biceps are contracting, the triceps are
relaxed, and stretches back to its original position

135
iii) Synergists:
These groups of muscles work with agonists to
provide a suitable activity and facilitates the
movements
Ex: knee cap or jaw muscles
iv) Fixators:
These muscles stabilize the bones of origin of
the agonists and increases their efficiency for
production of movement.

136
Ex: Riding a bike:
Quadriceps and calf muscles are the
agonists (contracting muscles).
The antagonists are the muscles of your
hamstring and shins.
Other leg muscles act as synergists and
Muscles of your back and abdomen act as
fixators to stop you falling off.
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138
139
140
141
142
Muscle

Striated Non- Striated


(produce movements) (do not produce
movement)
Smooth muscles
skeletal Cardiac
(stomach and abdominal
(direct voluntary (Controlled by muscles)
control) nervous system)
143
Skeletal Muscles
• Skeletal muscle forms the muscle's attached to
the skeleton, which move the limbs and other
body parts.
• Connective tissue coverings (endomysium,
perimysium, and epimysium) enclose and
protect the muscle fibers and increase the
strength of skeletal muscles.
• Skeletal muscles make up the muscular system.
• When they contract, substances (food, urine, a
baby) are moved along internal pathways.

144
Cardiac muscles
• Cardiac muscle cells are striated, branching
cells that fit closely together and are arranged in
spiral bundles in the heart.
• Their contraction pumps blood through the blood
vessels.
• Control is involuntary.
• The sole function of muscle tissue is to contract
or shorten.
• As it contracts, it causes movement, maintains
posture, stabilizes joints, and generates heat.

145
Skeletal Muscle Activity
• ATP, the immediate source of energy for muscle
contraction,
• It is stored in small amounts in muscle fibers and is
quickly used up.
• If muscle activity is strenuous and prolonged, muscle
fatigue occurs
• due to an accumulation of lactic acid in the muscle
and a decrease in its energy (ATP) supply.

146
Energy source for muscular
contraction
• Chemical energy required by muscle is derived
from breakdown of carbohydrate and fat.
• Protein molecules inside the fibers are used to
provide energy when supplies of carbohydrate and
fat is insufficient.
• Each molecule undergoes a series of change and
with each change a small quantity of energy is
released.
• For complete breakdown of these molecules,
adequate supply of oxygen is required.
• After exercise, the oxygen debt is repaid by rapid
deep breathing. 147
148
149
Thankyou

150