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College of Engineering and Information Technology

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1.1 Introduction

A classroom normally uses a natural light source for the lighting scheme with additional
artificial lighting when needed. RS-113 classroom in U-shape building of Caraga State
University Cabadbaran Campus have a low illuminance which has been linked to slower reading,
reduced concentration, poor posture and long term weakened vision.

Illuminance or illumination often called as brightness, it refers to the average light level
in an area. It is a measure of how much the incident light illuminates the surface, wavelength-
weighted by the luminosity function to correlate with human brightness perception.

A motion sensor is a main device that alarm your system when it detects a movements in
your house when you are on outside.

This new illumination design of the classroom RS-113 project with correct illumination
will be operated by the Passive Infrared (PIR) motion sensor and can be override when needed. It
will automatically switch on the light when it sense a movement and will automatically switch
off when it cannot sense a motion within a few minutes.

1.2 Objectives

 To design an exact illumination controlled by the PIR motion sensor in the RS-113
 To be able to implement the designed project.
2. Review of Related Literature

Classroom Illumination

An effective classroom lighting scheme will make use of any natural light that is
available, with the addition of artificial light where it is necessary. Incorporating natural light can
provide physical and physiological benefits to students, teachers and administrators. Natural light
is shown to benefit the health, concentration and even test scores of pupils. Lighting is an
important consideration in effective classroom design.

Illuminance refers to the average light level in an area. Low illuminance has been linked
to slower reading, reduced concentration, poor posture and long term weakened vision. An
excessive variation of illuminance can also be an issue – this has been shown to actually reduce
visual performance, causing discomfort and hyperactivity. A level of uniformity needs to be
achieved to avoid excessive contrast and distraction.

Motion Sensor act as a Switch

A motion sensor (or motion detector) is the linchpin of your security system, because it's
the main device that detects when someone is in your home when they shouldn't be. A motion
sensor uses one or multiple technologies to detect movement in an area. If a sensor is tripped, a
signal is sent to your security system's control panel, which connects to your monitoring center,
alerting you and the monitoring center to a potential threat in your home.

The main purpose of motion detection is to sense an intruder and send an alert to your
control panel, which alerts your monitoring center. Sensors work when you are not home, or
when you tell the system you are not there. Some security systems can be programmed to record
events via a security camera when motion is detected.
3. Methodology

3.1 Design

3.1.1 Calculation of Illumination

Classroom RS-113 measures 26ft of width and 30.83ft of length with a floor to ceiling
height of 12.9 ft. It has a long windows on the one side and small window on the other side
providing an average level of daylight. The walls are light in color with a flat, white suspended

Converting the dimension unit into meter we get,

1meter = 3.28feet
𝑤𝑖𝑑𝑡ℎ = 26𝑓𝑡 (3.28𝑓𝑡) = 7.93𝑚
𝑙𝑒𝑛𝑔𝑡ℎ = 30.83𝑓𝑡 (3.28𝑓𝑡) = 9.4𝑚
ℎ𝑒𝑖𝑔ℎ𝑡 = 12.9𝑓𝑡 (3.28𝑓𝑡) = 3.93𝑚

Total area is,

𝑎𝑟𝑒𝑎 = 𝑙𝑒𝑛𝑔𝑡ℎ ∗ 𝑤𝑖𝑑𝑡ℎ
𝒂𝒓𝒆𝒂 = (𝟕. 𝟗𝟑𝒎)(𝟗. 𝟒𝒎) = 𝟕𝟒. 𝟓𝒎𝟐
Table 3.1 Typical utilization factor data for nominal
Spacing to height ratio, SHR (NOM)
C = appropriate reflection factors for ceiling
W = appropriate reflection factors for wall
F = appropriate reflection factors for floor

To find the utilization factor (UF), first we need to find the Room Index (RI) and then we
will refer to the table 3.1 to get the UF.

Fig 3.1 Dimensions of working plane

The arm-chair height which is 0.610m from the floor will be the working plane height.

Working plane to ceiling height (H) = (3.93m) - (0.610m) = 3.32m

The Room Index is,

𝑙𝑒𝑛𝑔𝑡ℎ ∗ 𝑤𝑖𝑑𝑡ℎ
𝑅𝐼 =
𝐻 ∗ (𝑙𝑒𝑛𝑔𝑡ℎ + 𝑤𝑖𝑑𝑡ℎ)

(𝟕. 𝟗𝟑𝒎)(𝟗. 𝟒𝒎)

𝑹𝑰 = = 𝟏. 𝟑
(𝟑. 𝟑𝟐𝒎)(𝟕. 𝟗𝟑𝒎 + 𝟗. 𝟒𝒎)
Taking the reflection factors as 70% ceiling, 50% walls and 20% floor, and using the data
in table 3.1, it can be seen that for a RI of 1.3 the installation will have a UF of 0.43. This is the
value that falls between the value of 0.42 for a RI of 1.25 and a value of 0.46 for a RI of 1.5. This
is called a process of interpolation.

Utilization Factor = 0.43

Table 3.2 Approximate values for well-maintained installations

Taking the average as environmental condition for the classroom, the Maintenance Factor
is 0.8 as we refer to table 2.2.

Maintenance Factor = 0.8

We will be using a T8 18-Watts Fluorescent Lamps which have a 1500 lumens output.

Illuminating Engineering Society (IES) recommends a maintained illuminance of 300-

500 lux for classrooms with arm-chairs and tables. So we will use 300 lux for required
maintained illuminance and each luminaire will have one fluorescent lamp.

Total light output for each luminaire = 1500

Knowing the details of the interior and from this the particular luminaire UF and the
initial lamp light output, and from the situation the maintenance factor, the number of luminaires
required can be deduced using the following formula.
𝐿 ∗ 𝑈𝐹 ∗ 𝑀𝐹

N = the total number of luminaires required
E = the required illuminance in lux
A = the area of the working plane
L = the initial total lamp light output for each luminaire
UF = luminaire utilisation factor
MF = the maintenance factor

The Total Number of Luminaires (N) will be,

300𝑙𝑢𝑥 ∗ 74.5𝑚2
1500𝑙𝑢𝑚𝑒𝑛𝑠 ∗ 0.43 ∗ 0.8

𝑵 = 43.3
𝑵 = 44 luminaires
Fig. 3.2 Luminaires allowable distance to each other.

We used 5 columns and 8 rows arrangement of the 40 luminaires. Dividing 7.93 meters
by 5 columns, the allowable distance is 1.59 meters. And for 9.4 meters divided by 8 rows, the
allowable distance is 1.18 meters. The distance from each luminaires should be based on the
center of the luminaires. Also, the remaining 4 luminaires are placed over the white board which
has a distance of 0.398 meter from the wall. See fig. 3.2.