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SAP Business Workflow

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Course Content

 Introduction
 Workflow architecture
 Workflow Definition and workflow Template
 Workflow steps in details
 Task
 Business Objects and Methods
 Container Structure and Container Programming
 Events
 Organisational structure and role resolution
 Different types of Agent
 Workflow and ALE

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SAP Business Workflow

 SAP Business Workflow® is a cross-application tool that makes it possible


to integrate business tasks/processes between applications.

 This tool was introduced in R/3 Release 3.0A, and received a substantial
facelift in the Enjoy Release, 4.6A,which warranted the new name Workflow
Builder.

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Need of Workflow
2 I wonder who
approves buying
this stuff?
Hmm ! Time to put in a 3
purchase requisition
request
1

TIME IS I guess I’d better send


off some inter-office

5 MONEY!!! mail to ask the


approvers to approve
my requisition.

4 Meanwhile, in
Time drags on . . . Mr. Manager’s office . . .
“What shall I do next?”

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Drawbacks

 Inefficiency.

 Each lacks a way to trace where a task is.

 Who executed or is executing it.

 How much time it required.

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Why SAP Workflow

 Workflow ensures that the right work is sent to the right person at the

right time in the right sequence with the right information.


 Tool for the automization of business processes
 Not tied up to any paricular application
 Operates uniformly accross applications
 Coordinate all participating tasks
 Provide users with active support
 Intelligent routing

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SAP Business Workflow


Architecture

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Workflow Architecture
Organisational
Level

Process Level

Business
Object
Level

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Workflow Definition

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Workflow Definition

A workflow definition describes the workflow process

Workflow definition consists of

3. Basic Data
4. Information about triggering events
5. Initial Values
6. Containers
7. Bindings

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Workflow Builder
The workflow definition is created in the Workflow Builder and displayed graphically in a network.

Transaction: SWDD
Menu Path:
Tools  Business Workflow  Development  Definition tools  Workflow Builder.

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Workflow Definition - Steps


A workflow definition is made up of individual modular steps.

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Example: Workflow Definition

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How are Workflows Created in a System

 Within workflow templates, there is a key with the following structure:


- A WS task abbreviation for the workflow template
- An 8-digit sequence number

 From the structure of the 8-digit number, the system knows whether the
template is a standard template delivered by SAP or one created by the
customer.

 Customer-defined templates start with the prefix number that was defined in
Customizing for the system and client.

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Working with Workflow

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Workflow Design

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How workflow gets executed

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Workflow Toolbox - SWUS


Transaction: SWUS.
Menu Path: Tools -> Business Workflow -> Development -> Runtime Tools-> Start
Workflow (Test Environment).

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Workflow Steps

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Workflow definition steps

Workflow definition is made up of individual steps. When creating a step in a


workflow definition, the step type must be specified first.

There are
- Steps which refer to business activities (activities & user decision)

- Steps which are used for internal process control and monitoring
(condition, multiple condition, loop, etc)

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Business Activities Steps


 Activity
- Can be a single step task with basic business functionality
- Can be a multi-step task, which reference to a workflow definition

 User Decision
- This provides an opportunity for user interaction with the system.
- The response to this decides the selection of the subsequent step.

 Document from template


- PA document is created from a document template using variables in the text that are
filled during program execution.

 Web Activity
- Selected container elements are posted using http protocol in XML or SOAP
message

 Subworkflow
- An activity which refers to a workflow rather than a task
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Internal process control Steps


 Condition
- Branch on the basis of control information from the runtime dependent
context of the workflow.
- An attribute of this object can also be accessed for condition evaluation
- Condition evaluation can be done by

 Field comparison e.g constants , object attribute, system fields

 Multiple condition
- In contrast to condition, multiple condition makes it possible for the workflow
definition to branch in more than two branches.

- For evaluation of the multiple condition, the value of the basis of


comparison is checked at runtime against the comparison values and
branched accordingly.

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Internal process control (contd.)

WHILE Loop
- Steps are processed repeatedly until the conditions contained in the WHILE
step no longer apply.

 Until Loop
- Steps are processed repeatedly until the condition contained in the UNTIL
step is true.

 Fork
- Used for parallel processing branches.
- Only a part of the parallel processing branches actually has to run to
continue the workflow.
- Dynamic parallel processing is also possible

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Internal process control (contd.)

Send mail
- Text entered in this step can be used to send a mail to the agent assigned

 Container operations
- Used to perform arithmetic operation of value assignment to workflow
container elements using constants and data in the workflow container .

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Internal process control (contd.)

 Event Creator
- An event is created when this step in the workflow is reached.

- Other workflows can be started as a reaction to the event created in this


step. This event must be the triggering event of the relevant workflow tasks
and/or templates.

 WAIT for event


- Used to stop the whole execution of the workflow until the event is created
in the system.
- Used to wait for events for parallel processing

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Task & Workflow Definition

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Tasks are used to describe a business process

Standard Task(TS)

Single step

Customer Task(T)
Tasks

Workflow Template(WS)

Multistep

Workflow Task(WF)

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Similarities and differences of task types

Customer Task (Type T) Standard Task (Type TS)


Workflow Task (Type WF) Workflow Template (Type WS)

Created by customer Created by SAP and


customer

With validity period Without validity period

Client-dependent Client-independent

Must be linked to its possible Must be linked to its


possible
agents when it is defined agents when it is defined

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Single and Multistep Tasks


Transaction : PFTC
Menu Path -> Tools -> Business Workflow -> Development -> Definition tools ->Tasks

References one object type


Single step method and displays one step
in the business process

Tasks

Represents the business


process and is a sequence of
Multistep individual tasks and control
steps

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Single-step tasks

ƒ Single-step tasks describe elementary business activities.

ƒ Single-step tasks operate on an object and refer to one object method


each

ƒ Single-step tasks are linked to their possible and permitted agents


whose organizational assignments are described in the organizational
plan of the enterprise.

ƒ Executable single-step tasks are represented by work items at runtime.

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Workflow definition - Multistep tasks


ƒ A workflow definition has a modular structure consisting of individual
steps which are linked together.

ƒ The multistep tasks form the business framework for a workflow definition
and each references one workflow definition.

ƒ A step in a workflow definition can be an activity.

ƒ An activity always refers to one task (= single-step task or multistep task).

ƒ An activity with one simple triangle refers to a task.

ƒ An activity with three triangles refers to a workflow (subworkflow).

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Task Definition – Synchronous and


Asynchronous Methods

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Defining a Task

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Settings for Tasks


Task executed in At runtime user can create
background attachments
depending on
object method User explains explicitly
that work item is no longer
is to be processed

Background Confirm end of


SAPphones processing

The workflow dials


the telephone
number attached to
the current customer
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Important Task Attributes

 General

-Workitems can be executed and forwarded to any SAP User


 General Forwarding Allowed

-Workitems can be forwarded to any user


 General Forwarding Not Allowed

-Work items can be forwarded to possible users


 Forwarding not allowed

-No forwarding allowed

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Work Item
ƒ Executable single-step tasks are represented by work items at
runtime.

ƒ Object that represents a task or action in the workflow system at


runtime.

ƒ Depending on the work item type, some of these work items are
displayed in a user's work list. Other work items, on the other hand,
are only used and processed internally.

ƒ The work items are displayed in the integrated inboxes of their


selected agents, and can be reserved and executed from there.

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Work Items Types

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Workitem Types
W: Dialog work item
Runtime display for a single step task with a user dialog

D: Missed deadline work item


The message recipient for the missed deadline is informed.

F: Workflow work item


Runtime representation of a multi step task

B: Background work item


Runtime display for a task executed in the background.

E: Wait step work item:


Runtime display for a wait step in the workflow definition.

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Workitem Text

ƒ Title of workitem in the Business Workplace

ƒ First create the workitem text and position the cursor to include a varible

ƒ Choose the 'Insert variable' icon under the workitem text

Example
Processes request from &_WI_Object_ID.CreatedBy&

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Task and its various component in SAP

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Business Object Definition


and Implementation

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Object Types & Workflow

ƒ SAP Business Workflow has been developed on an object-


oriented basis.

ƒ The business object types are identified and described with their
object methods in the Business Object Repository(BOR) of the
R/3 System.

ƒ Generally one object is created in the system and then processed in


a workflow over several steps by various employees.

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Object Types & Objects


 Workflow deals with object types. Object types are definitions of
data. In order to access database data, workflow uses the object
type interface.

 Most of the information represented by object types is available in


the ABAP/4 Dictionary.

 Objects are created at runtime and are specific instances of


defined object types.

 Many object types are delivered by SAP. In addition, the customer


can create new object types or extend SAP objects by creating
subtypes (child objects). New customer objects or subtypes may
be desired if the delivered SAP object does not contain all the
characteristics (attributes) or processing options (methods) desired.

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Object Type - Definition

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Interfaces
 Interfaces are a combination of attributes, methods, and events to be used in
common among multiple object types. The purpose of interfaces is to define
common functionality in one object type, and to assign that common
functionality via an interface to multiple object types across the Business
Object Repository. This avoids redundancy of data and functionality
definition.

 Each new object type automatically receives the interface IFSAP, the SAP
standard interface. IFSAP provides every object type with the following:
- Method Display

- Method ExistenceCheck

- Attribute ObjectType

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Key Fields

Key fields are designed to uniquely identify the object type.

If the key field has a data type reference of a dictionary table field, the runtime
system will look to that table field to retrieve the value of the key when
processing the object. When the key field is created, the ABAP/4 program code
is generated automatically when the object type is generated.

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Attributes
Attributes provides access to data.

ABAP Dictionary Field Virtual

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Methods
Methods incorporate the permitted functions available for an object.
Methods have importing and exporting parameters as well as exceptions.

Methods can be created using :

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Methods

u lt
es
R

Import METHOD
Export
Parameters Parameters

Ex n
ce s
pt
io
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Methods - Call attributes


–Dialog / or background :

Execution of the method is via a work item in a user’s


integrated inbox or in background by the workflow runtime
system. Background methods cannot use messages or
exceptions because they cannot be processed by the
background system and will result in termination of the
program.

–Synchronous / Asynchronous

•Synchronous methods finish executing before handing


control back to the calling program. These types of
methods can return export parameters, results and
exceptions. Asynchronous methods do not return control to
the calling program immediately. Once executed, they
depend upon events to communicate the results of the
method back to the calling program. Asynchronous object
methods cannot have results, export parameters or
exceptions.
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Methods - Call attributes

- Result:

Synchronous methods may return an export parameter as a result. A


result can be defined like a dictionary field or an object type .

- Instance independence:

Indicates whether an object reference is passed to the method by binding


at the time of execution. Methods that generate and return an object
reference, such as Create, or methods that generate a report listing should
be instance independent.

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Import /Export Parameters

•The method parameter container contains references to all import,


export and result parameters which need to be exchanged back and
forth between the calling program (single-step task) and the
method. Binding is necessary between the single-step task and the
method parameter container to accomplish the data transfer.
•Import parameters are those values which are necessary to
execute the method. Import parameters are retrieved from the
container CONTAINER using the macro instructions
SWC_GET_ELEMENT (single-line) or SWC_GET_TABLE (multiline).
•Export parameter values are passed to the container CONTAINER using the
macro instructions SWC_SET_ELEMENT (single-line) or SWC_SET_TABLE
(multiline). The result parameter is passed to the CONTAINER element
RESULT via the same macro instructions.

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Exceptions
•Error handling is accomplished through the use of method exceptions
(synchronous methods only).

•The workflow definition can branch according to these possible error


states and allow for subsequent steps to handle these conditions.
Messages and exceptions cannot be used with background methods
because they will terminate the program.

•Number of the exception:


•0001-1000: exceptions defined for interfaces
•1001-7999: application-specific exceptions (free for SAP
development)
•8000-8999: exceptions raised by the object manager
•9000-9999: exceptions defined by the customer (free for
customers)

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Exceptions

•Exceptions are implemented within a method, between the macro


instructions BEGIN_METHOD and END_METHOD.
–EXIT_RETURN Code Variable1 Variable2 Variable3 Variable4.
•Code = the 4-digit number of the exception
•Variable1 through Variable4 correspond to up to 4 variables
which can be derived from the message issued with the
exception.
•The following exceptions (for temporary errors) are also available to
allow exiting of the program:
–EXIT_OBJECT_NOT_FOUND = object not found
–EXIT_CANCELLED = cancelled by the user

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Events
Events describe the change in the status of an object.
Workflow are usually started using events

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Object Type - Release Status


ƒ Not accessible at runtime.

ƒ Only in test or internal use, possibly unstable.

ƒ Released for use by the customer.

ƒ The functionality has been replaced. The old


functionality is still supported for two releases.

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Subtype
The subtype inherits all attributes, methods and events of the supertype and is
open for new customer-specific attributes, methods and events. The key fields
of the supertype and subtype must be identical. This means that any methods
and attributes defined on the parent can be executed and accessed on the
child object.

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Delegation

Transaction: Menu Path: SW01


Tools  Business Workflow - Development - Definition tools - Business Object
Builder - Settings - Delegate

This delegation is powerful because it lets you implement your own business logic
without modifying any SAP code. As long as the objects are properly delegated,
your method will be executed.

KNA1 ZKNA1
Calling Method: Method:
Program
Change password Change password

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Objects in the workflow

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Business Object Repository (BOR)

Transaction: Menu Path: SW01


Tools  Tools - Business Workflow – Defination tool –Busniness Object Builder

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Containers and Bindings


- Workflow -

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Types of Containers

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Workflow Container

ƒ The workflow container contains


workflow-specific system variables
and other elements which are
defined explicitly.
ƒ As part of the definition of the
workflow task, the import and export
parameters of the workflow are
defined as elements of the workflow
container.
ƒ When the workflow is defined in the
workflow editor, elements can also
be added to the workflow container.
These elements are then "local
variables" within a workflow definition
and can be used, for example, to set
up a counting loop.

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Task Container

ƒ Each task container already


contains the workflow system
variable and any additional elements
for the method parameters of the
referenced object method.

ƒ You have to add additional elements


to the task container for additional
values are required for variable
replacement in the work item text or
in the long texts

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Other Types of Containers

Event parameter container


Contains an element which can take the (object) reference to the object
whose change of status is announced via the event.

Role parameter container


Contains the elements required as input in connection with the role
resolution to be run at runtime.

Method parameter container


Contains elements which will be required as import and export parameters
in connection with the method execution.

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What is a Container?

Container Container
Definition Instance R/3

• Field values Application


Data
• Multiline lists
of field values

• Object
references

Definition Runtime

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Defining Container Elements

Element name Data type Description Multi-line Value


reference

Element 1 Database Field Description 1


Element 2 Database Field Description 2 X
Element 3 Object Type Description 3 X

Definition Runtime

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Binding
ƒ A binding is simply the art of of pouring selected container elements from
one container into another.

ƒ The binding editor is available when defining:


Workflow definitions
Triggering events
Workflow steps
Workflow steps ( Standard roles/ Object methods with parameters)

ƒ The binding editor always references the container to receive the


application data. Binding definitions can reference:
Constants
Variables (container elements)
System fields

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Container & Dataflow


Workflow Task Role Method Event
Container Container Container Container Container
1
2 triggering
event
3 4
sync sync
6 task 5 metho
d
7 9
sync sync
task metho
11 10
d
8
role
12 13
async async terminating
task metho event
15 d 14
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Container Data Structure

SWC_CONTAINER Declare
Container

SWC_CREATE_CONTAINER Initialize
Container

Release
SWC_RELEASE_CONTAINER
Container

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Writing/Reading Container Elements Defined


as Field Values

Container
Instance

Variable SWC_GET_ELEMENT
Variable SWC_SET_ELEMENT
Internal SWC_GET_TABLE
Table
Internal SWC_SET_TABLE
Table SWC_DELETE_ELEME delete value
NT

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Writing to Container Elements Defined as Object Types

Container
Declare a variable as the key of your object: Instance:
DATA: MATNR LIKE MARA-MATNR. CONTAINER
Fill the key with a value:
MATNR = ‘123456’. Object
Element:
Declare a variable as an object: MATRL
DATA: MATERIAL TYPE SWC_OBJECT.

Create an instance of your object in your program:


SWC_CREATE_OBJECT MATERIAL ‘MARA’ MATNR.
Object type from B.O.R.
Key of object you previously defined

ransfer value of your object instance to the container element:


SWC_SET_ELEMENT CONTAINER ‘MATNR’ MATERIAL
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Reading Container Elements


Defined as Object Types

Container
Declare a variable as an object:
DATA: MATERIAL TYPE SWC_OBJECT.
Instance:
CONTAINER
Read value of container element to your object:
SWC_GET_ELEMENT CONTAINER ‘MATRL’ MATERIAL.

Object
Declare a variable as the key of your object:
Element:
DATA: MATNR LIKE MARA-MATNR.
MATRL
Read the object type key into your variable:
SWC_GET_OBJECT_KEY MATERIAL MATNR.

Declare a variable to hold the object type:


DATA: OBJTYPE LIKE SWOTOBJID-OBJTYPE.

Obtain the object type from your object type variable:


SWC_GET_OBJECT_TYPE MATERIAL OBJTYPE.
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Writing to Container Elements Defined as Multiline Object


Types

Container
Declare a variable as an internal table object: Instance:
DATA: REQITEMS TYPE SWC_OBJECT OCCURS 0. CONTAINER
Since this internal table has no header, declare a
work area: DATA: REQITEM TYPE SWC_OBJECT.

Declare key fields of the object Element:


(e.g. called PREQKEY) and fill them PRItems
(e.g. within a select loop).

Create an instance of your object for each table line:


SWC_CREATE_OBJECT REQITEM ‘BUS2009’ PREQKEY.

Append the object instance to the internal table:


APPEND REQITEM TO REQITEMS.

Once the internal table is filled, transfer the internal table to the
multiline container element:
SWC_SET_TABLE CONTAINER ‘PRItems’ REQITEMS.
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Reading Container Elements


Defined as Multiline Object Types

Container
Read value of multiline container element Instance:
into your internal table object: CONTAINER
SWC_GET_TABLE CONTAINER ‘PRItems’ REQITEMS.

Declare your object:


DATA: REQITEM TYPE SWC_OBJECT.
Object
Declare a variable to hold the object type: Element:
DATA: OBJTYPE LIKE SWOTOBJID-OBJTYPE.
PRItems
Loop through your internal table object
REQITEMS into individual REQITEM entries.
Perform operations as needed.

Use this macro to get the keys of each entry:


SWC_GET_OBJECT_KEY REQITEMS PREQKEY
Use this macro to get the object type of each entry:
SWC_GET_OBJECT_TYPE REQITEMS OBJTYPE.
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Events

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Event

 An event describes a possible status change for an object in the SAP


System.

 Before an event can be used in a workflow, it must be defined in the


Business Object Repository for the object type.

 Events must be triggered explicitly. The application itself can be the


triggering agent.

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Types of Event Creation

Status Message
Change
Management Control
Document

ABAP Code
Specific
In User Exit
HR Tables

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Using Customizing for event trigger


Menu Path :Basic menu -> Tools -> Business Workflow -> Development -> Definition tools
-> Events

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Event Creation of Change Document

Change logged Event linkage is


Changing Event creation
using done to connect to
Master data (SWEC)
change documents the workflow/ task

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Event Creation of Status Management

Event linkage is
Status Event creation
done to connect to
Management (BSVW )
the workflow/ task

When user status


changes to E002 ,
event is triggered

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Event Creation of Message Control


Triggering an event using message control occurs with NAST.

Create Message type and define


workflow as transmission medium

Create Condition Table


Maintain the processing program RSWEMC01

Create Access Sequence with the FORM routine CREATE_EVENT for


the output type EVEN and transmission
Assign Access Sequence
to defined message type medium 9.

Define Condition Records

Assign message type To procedure

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Using ABAP Code


This is using done by writing custom code e.g. by using SAP FM like
SWE_EVENT_CREATE inside user exits, BADI etc.

CALL FUNCTION 'SWE_EVENT_CREATE'


EXPORTING
OBJTYPE = OBJTYPE
OBJKEY = OBJKEY
EVENT = EVENT
CREATOR = APPLICANT
START_WITH_DELAY = ' '
IMPORTING
EVENT_ID = EVENTID
TABLES
EVENT_CONTAINER = CONTAINER
EXCEPTIONS
OBJTYPE_NOT_FOUND = 01.

IF SY-SUBRC = 0.
COMMIT WORK.
ENDIF.

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Event Creators, Receivers and Event Linkage

Anybody want
this event?

Event

Published
Events

Linkage

Receivers Creator
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Type Linkage Entry

Transaction: SWE2
Menu Path :Basic menu -> Tools -> Business Workflow -> Utilities > Other tools >Event linkage

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Event Trace
Transaction: SWEL
Menu Path :Basic menu -> Tools -> Business Workflow -> Development -> Utilities ->
Events -> Event Trace.

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Organisational Structure

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Organizational Structure Business Scenario

ƒ An organizational plan in SAP describes the organizational structure


of a company.

ƒ The workflow system finds the agents of the individual tasks by


evaluating the organizational plan

ƒ The functions to create and maintain organizational plans are part


of the Personnel Planning and Development (PD) part of the SAP
HR module

ƒ You must connect this organizational structure to the workflow

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Organizational Management
ƒ Organizational units contain positions, occupied by employees.

ƒ Jobs are abstract descriptions of task assignments.

ƒ Positions can be linked to jobs. They inherit all the tasks assigned to
that job.

ƒ Users. A user is an SAP logon user ID. It thus represents a single


person.

ƒ Persons. A person is a specific employee created in the HR module.

ƒ Workflow tasks can be assigned to organizational units, positions,


jobs or users.

ƒ The workflow system uses organizational structure to route work items


to the correct recipients

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Create Organisational Plan


Transaction: Menu Path: PPOCW
Tools  Business Workflow - Development - Environment - Organizational Management -
Simple Maintenance – Org plan basic data - Create

Create root organizational unit Create Executive Board

Additional organizational units Create Sales region , Production

Create jobs Administrator , Sales Manager

Create positions Sales Manager – eastern Zone

Assign Holders

Assign tasks Create Sales Order

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Assigment Workflow Task Organizational


Objects
Organizational unit: FI department
Manager job Task

Position: Head of FI depatment User 1

Job for secretary Task


Position: Secretary
User 2

Position: FI administrator 1
User 3

Job for FI employee Task


Position: FI administrator 2
User 2

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Agent Assignment and


Role Resolution
- Workflow -

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Agent

 Agent is an executor of a work item.

ƒ Agent is responsible for executing a task in a workflow.

ƒ Agent is determined by the system either through organizational chart


or directly if user is assigned as agent for a particular task.

ƒ If the agents of the individual workflow steps are determined using the
customer-specific organizational chart, your agent assignment in the
workflow remains flexible to change.

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Types of Agents

Processing Agents
Possible agents
are a collection of
agents who qualify to Deadline Agents
execute a work item

Notification Agents

Selected agents
Actual agent is the
are those possible
agents who are agent among those
elected to execute a selected agents who
task at runtime actually processes the
work item

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Role Resolution

A role defines rules by which selected agents can be determined at runtime through
role resolution. Role resolution restricts the number of possible agents.

Role
Resolution

List of possible agents Role = Rules


(Supervisor of Selected Agent(s)
(executors) of a task
User PBACON) (Mr. Banning)
(All supervisors in a dept.)
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Standard Rules

A rule container is defined for each rule.

The rule parameters determine which information is required for the rule resolution
to be executed at runtime.

If an error occurs during rule resolution, setting the termination indicator for the rule
resolution determines how the workflow will continue:
Flag is selected - the workflow assumes an Error status and a notification is sent
to the workflow administrator.
Indicator is not activated - the workflow forwards this work item to ALL possible
agents.

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Rule Basics
Transaction : PFAC_INS(Create)
Menu Path: Tools – Business Workflow – Development – Definition tools – Rules for Agent
Assignment – Create/Change/Display.

Each rule gets a 8 digit generated by the system prefixed with AC


Rules can be tested using PFTC or by function module ‘RH_GET_ACTORS’

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Rule Definition in a Activity Step Type


Various options to create standard rules :

3. Responsibility (Pure configuration no ABAP coding)


 Defined Value ranges are assigned to Agents
 Data is filled from workflow container at runtime

 Evalution paths (Pure configuration no ABAP coding)

 Organizational data (Pure configuration no ABAP coding)


 Jobs , positions

6. Functions to be executed – ABAP Code – Function Module

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Rule Definition with Responsibility: Example

Employee Names A-K

Jones Smith

Mr. Miller George Anna


Position : Administrator Mr. Andrew
Peter
HR Position : Administrator
Michael HR
David

William
Ross

Employee Names L-Z

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Rule Definition with Responsibility: Example

Rules Container Definition


Container Element Data Type Name
Element Uname Name

Areas of Responsibility
Value From From To Name Mr. Miller
A* K* Employees from A-Z

L* Z* Employees from L-Z Mr. Andrew

Which Value? Which Agent

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Evaluation path as Rule

Transaction : OOAW
Menu Path:

Evaluation path describes how to find one or more organizational objects based
On an initial organizational units
Example
Evaluation path Meaning

WF_ORGUN Get organization unit for a user id/person id


WF_ORGUS All users of a organization unit,job, position
US_CHEF Superiors of a users

SAP_HOLD Holder of a position

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Evaluation path as Rule contd.

Here are the basic steps:


2. Determine the evaluation path that needs to be used
3. Create a rule setting the type ‘Function to be executed’.
4. Enter function module RH_GET_STRUCTURE
5. Enter the evaluation path determined in step 1 above
6. Following rule container needs to be created

Name Data type ref Description Example

OTYPE OBJEC-OTYPE Type of organizational management object US


OBJID OBJEC_REALO ID of organizational management object SMITH
ORG_AGENT WFSYST_AGENT Organizational management object USSMITH

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Role Resolution with Function Modules


Role resolution with function module should be done only for complex criteria

Here are the basic steps:


4. A function module with the following interface is created
Parameter Name Data Type Ref Meaning
Type
Table AC_CONTAINER SWCONT Incoming rule container
Table ACTOR_TAB SWHACTOR Outgoing list of agents in agent format
Exception NOBODY_FOUND Exception indication no agents found

1. Create a rule setting the type ‘Function to be executed’.


2. Enter the created function module name
3. Create container elements.

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Execution of a Role Resolution


via Organizational Objects
Via organizational objects: Role resolution utilizing organizational data
analyses
the assignment of an organizational object (plant, laboratory, MRP
controller,
planner group, shipping point, sales office) to a position or
organizational unit.

Plant Laboratory Sales Office

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Tasks: Possible Agents & Default Roles

Possible agents
User Position Job Org. Unit Person

Default role
Business
Workplace
TASK

The workplace displays the


work items for a agent

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How are Selected Agents Determined With and


Without a Default Role?

Possible Agents
Triggering
Event
Task definition with
no default role

Task definition with


default role

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How are Selected Agents Determined With a


WF Agent?

Triggering
Event All possible agents who
qualify to execute task
Task definition with
no default role

Task definition with


default role

Step definition at workflow


defn. level with an agent
specified. This overrides
default role at task defn. level

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Workflow and ALE

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Workflow and ALE

 Error Notification

 Active Monitoring

 IDOC Processing

 Notification of successful posting

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Workflow and Error Notification

B u s in e s s U s e r A n a ly s is

U s e r/G ro u p U s e r c h e c k s in b o x
E x c e p tio n D e te r m in e
g e t s n o t if ie d a n d e x e c u te s th e
R a is e d R e c ip ie n ts
v ia a w o r k ite m w o r k ite m

R e s ta rt th e Yes C a n e rro r b e
F ix th e e r r o r
p ro c e s s f ix e d ?

N o

End P u rg e th e ID o c

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ALE error handling


User action R/3 action

Error in inbound function module

ALE triggers error event

input Error Occurred

Workitem appears in user's Inbox

Execute Workitem

Display IDoc for user processing


(IDoc method "InputForeground")

Fix error and reprocess IDoc


or
Flag IDoc for deletion
ALE triggers end event

input Finished

Workitem completed

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ALE error handling- Example


The example below of an inbound error for a material master message shows the steps
in ALE error handling:
3. The inbound function module passes message to the ALE layer that an error has
occurred.
4. ALE triggers the object event "inputErrorOccurred" from the IDCOMATMAS
category.
5. This event is linked to standard task number 00007947, "MATMAS_inbound error“
6. A work item appears in the user’s inbox, the work item’s short text is the first fifty
characters of the error message contained in the IDoc’s status record.
7. When the user processes the work item, the IDOCMATMAS method
"IDOC.InputForeground" is processed.
8. IDoc status record is displayed and the user can display the error message's long
text. If the user was able to remedy the error, the IDoc can be submitted for
updating. If the error cannot be remedied, the user can flag the IDoc for deletion.
9. If the IDoc was either successfully submitted or flagged for deletion,
IDOCMATMAS’s event "inputFinished" is triggered indicating that the task has been
carried out.

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Active Monitoring

Active monitoring allows to specify threshold values for the state of the system
For e.g threshold can be on the number of IDocs in error or the time limit

Report Program RSEIDOCA can be executed periodically


 Selection screen takes as input the threshold values and persons to be notified
 When defined threshold is exceeded Single Step Task TS30200088 is executed

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Setting up Inbound Process via Workflow

 The standard system can be configured to start a WF for an incoming IDoc.


 Useful when review is essential before posting
 Custom. SAP does not deliver standard.
 The settings are:
--Create the custom task or WF
--Create a new process Code ( WE42) and attach this
custom WF/Task.
--In the Partner Profile, attach the new Process code

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Notification of Successful Posting

 The ALE/EDI interface can raise events on successful posting of an IDOC.


The settings are:
--Identify the Appl.Obj created by the Idoc. Txn: WE57
--Identify the event that needs to be raised.
--Go to BD67, select Process code and populate Object
type and Event.
--Identify/Create tasks/WF and enable event linkage.

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Business Workflow
Customization
- Workflow -

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Workflow Customizing - SWU3

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