Mass communication is the term used to describe the academic study of the various means by which individuals and

entities relay information through mass media to large segments of the population at the same time. It is usually understood to relate to newspaper and magazine publishing, radio, television and film, as these are used both for disseminating news and for advertising. Five characteristics of Mass Communication have been identified by Cambridge University’s John Thompson which is explained below: 1. Firstly, it comprises both technical and institutional methods of production and distribution. 2. Secondly, it involves the commoditisation of symbolic forms as the production of materials relies on its ability to Manufacture and sell large quantities of the work. 3. Mass Communications third characteristic is the separate contexts between the production and reception of information. 4. The fourth is in its reach of those far removed in time and space in comparison to the producers. 5. Finally, Thompson notes fifth characteristics of Mass Communication which involves information distribution. This is a one of many form of communication whereby products are mass produced and disseminated to a great quantity of audiences.

Mass media denotes a section of the media specifically designed to reach a large audience. The term was coined in the 1920s with the advent of nationwide radio networks, mass-circulation newspapers and magazines. However, some forms of mass media such as books and manuscripts had already been in use for centuries. Mass media includes Internet media (like blogs, message boards, podcasts, and video sharing) because individuals now have a means to exposure that is comparable in scale to that previously restricted to a select group of mass media producers. The communications audience has been viewed by some commentators as forming a mass society with special characteristics, notably atomization or lack of social connections, which render it especially susceptible to the influence of modern massmedia techniques such as advertising and propaganda. Newspapers developed from about 1612, with the first example in English in 1620;[2] but they took until the 19th century to reach a mass-

audience directly. During the 20th century, the growth of mass media was driven by technology, including that which allowed much duplication of material. Physical duplication technologies such as printing, record pressing and film duplication allowed the duplication of books, newspapers and movies at low prices to huge audiences. Radio and television allowed the electronic duplication of information for the first time. Mass media had the economics of linear replication: a single work could make money. An example of Riel and Neil's theory. proportional to the number of copies sold, and as volumes went up, unit costs went down, increasing profit margins further. Vast fortunes were to be made in mass media. In a democratic society, the media can serve the electorate about issues regarding government and corporate entities . Purposes Mass media can be used for various purposes:

Advocacy, both for business and social concerns. This can include advertising, marketing, propaganda, public relations, and political communication. Entertainment, traditionally through performances of acting, music, and sports, along with light reading; since the late 20th century also through video and computer games. Public service announcements.

Different types of Mass Media are Television, Radio, Cinema, Internet, Newspapers, Magazines, Journal, Other Print Media (like pamphlets, brochures and posters) and Outdoor Media (which includes bill boards, signs, flying billboards, skywriting and blimps). Creating an identity in today's media drenched world is not a simple task. With a turn of a magazine page or an easy flip of the TV channel there at our disposal is a huge array of potential identity replicas. In contemporary society, identity is continuously unstable; it must be selected, constructed and created with reference to inevitable surrounding media traditions. There are a variety of mediums from which people can pick and access information from such as radio, TV, Internet, or even cell phones. Consequently, the media holds a very powerful capacity to set a social issue for mass audience to assume and talk about. Often, media do not intentionally set the agenda and resolve the pros and cons of that particular matter, so it repeatedly causes terrible consequences towards public as well as establishes 'moral panics', which can sometimes direct to mob violence. This writing will argue that identity is a social construction, managed primarily by the

contemporary media and created in relation to others and is it continually being changed in order to keep up with the altering society. An individual's identity is formed by society in which media plays a predominant role. There is a daily interactive relationship between the subject and the object, that is, human agents and the conditions of their subsistence, respectively. Theories of the individual emphasize on differences between people and deem these differences as natural. Individuals are "constituted" as the possessors of positions throughout the effects of social relations. Alternatively, other theories of the topic concentrate on people's general experiences in society through watching TV, surfing the internet or reading the newspaper. It is these general experiences that are the most significant way of distinguishing who we are. Thus, subject identity is a social construction, not an ordinary one. When we connect with the media, we act and are acted upon, use and are used by the system. .

Positive Influences
Positive influences of mass media can be seen from several aspects or points of view: 1. From media technology side itself 2. From the side of the owner and sponsor of the media 3. Unintended influences of the media technology and sponsors a. The influences of media technology

 Media technology makes the reduces the distance between human beings. The world is smaller due to increased communication and access to information.It makes human being closer to each other in terms of space and thinking. We are exposed to a broad range of ideas and thought from all kinds of people from all over the world.  Media technologies allows us as to take part ‘virtually’ in occasions and activities in other parts of the world. Through the media we know immediately about earthquakes, tsunamis, avian influenza outbreaks, etc that strike any areaon earth. We know about the results of champions league which is tacking place far away in Europe.   It allows us to learn more easily and faster by using the internet. It help us to get the best results of pictures and sounds.


The Influences of the owner and sponsor

 Men can use the media to create and invite the people concerned with certain world issues like AIDS, drug abuse, mass killing, totalitarian government, etc.  Media can help to create a positive and educated opinion. Media can be used to fight for freedom, truth and justice.  c.  Media can help us to relax by listening music, dance, etc. Unrealized influence of media. Media can create a new cultures

 Media can changes people’s way of thinking about life, culture, existence,etc.


Negative Influence of Media
Negative influences caused by the media technology itself:

 Information is power and those who control the media empires have great power and a great responsibility to use that power positively. Those who have power over the media have real power in the modern world.  Media could create new cultures which change the old and original ones from the community. This could be both good and bad  Media could create new cultures which change the old and original ones from the community. This could be both good and bad b. Negative Influences that caused by the owner and sponsor

 Media is business. In order to exist media providers must make a profit. The owners and sponsors tend to create a media environment that is driven by materialism, consumerism, and hedonism.  Media can create the wrong perception of prosperity. Prosperity is made out to be having an excess of material goods (cars, houses, jewelry, etc). Men are not measured by their character and dedication but by what things they have in life .It is promoted by advertising in most kinds of media.

 Media can create stereotypes of beauty and style which is then imitated by citizens, like fashion and hairstyles, for instance.  Media can create a sensation of sex, violence, and horror which may be popular with the audience.  The owner, ruler, and media sponsor can make up any trick for their own business and politics interest. c. Unrealized negative influence of media

 People’s daily schedules and work schedules can be interrupted if most of our time is used by listening to music or watching TV. Communications between family members can also be reduced.  The trend towards urbanization creates a constant flow of people coming from the villages to the city and is at least partly caused by the unrealistic glamour of urban life as shown on TV. Meaning of advertisement •The word advertising is derived from Latin Words ‘Ad’ and ‘Verto’. •Ad – towards •Verto – I turn •Literally it means to turn the people’sattention to a specific thing. Definition-•Advertising is any form of paid nonpersonal presentation of ideas, goods, or services for the purpose of inducing people to buy. Function of advertising  To differentiate the product from their competitors • To communicate product information • To urge product use • To expand the product distribution • To increase brand loyalty and preference • To reduce overall sales cost • To increase demand of product or sercvise Advantage of advertising  For manufacturers • Increases and stabilizes the sales turnover • Maintains the existing market and explores the new • Control product prises

 • • • •  • • •

For middlemen Quck sales Minimum efforts Sales forecasting Publicity For consumers Driving force in decision making Saves good deal of time Get information they want

 For society • • • • Uplifts the living standard Generates gainful employment opportunities Provides new horizons of knowlwdge Upholds the culture of nation

Limitations • Limited capacity • Rigid • Unbelievable • Conditional Who uses advertising?  Several kinds of organization use advertising as a medium of communication  Among them are manufacturing ,trading,servise firms  Also non profit and government organizations. Categories of advertisement A. B. C. D. E. F. G. Public awareness advertising Product advertising Consumer advertising Industrial product advertising Service advertising Corporate advertising Public relation advertising

Rational appeals in advertising

Emotional Appeal

An emotional appeal is related to an individual’s psychological and social needs for purchasing certain products and services. Many consumers are emotionally motivated or driven to make certain purchases. Advertisers aim to cash in on the emotional appeal and this works particularly well where there is not much difference between multiple product brands and its offerings. Emotional appeal includes personal and social aspects.
1. Personal Appeal

Some personal emotions that can drive individuals to purchase products include safety, fear, love, humor, joy, happiness, sentiment, stimulation, pride, self esteem, pleasure, comfort, ambition, nostalgia etc.
2. Social Appeal

Social factors cause people to make purchases and include such aspects as recognition, respect, involvement, affiliation, rejection, acceptance, status and approval.
3. Fear Appeal

Fear is also an important factor that can have incredible influence on individuals. Fear is often used to good effect in advertising and marketing campaigns of beauty and health products including insurance. Advertising experts indicate that using moderate levels of fear in advertising can prove to be effective.
Humor Appeal

Humor is an element that is used in around 30% of the advertisements. Humor can be an excellent tool to catch the viewer’s attention and help in achieving instant recall which can work well for the sale of the product. Humor can be used effectively when it is related to some benefit that the customer can derive without which the joke might overpower the message.
Sex Appeal

1. Sex and nudity have always sold well. Sexuality, sexual suggestiveness, over sexuality or sensuality raises curiosity of the audience and can result in strong feelings about the advertisement. It can also result in the product appearing

interesting. However use of sex in types of advertising appeals can have a boomerang effect if it is not used carefully. It can interfere with the actual message of the advertisement and purpose of the product and can also cause low brand recall. If this is used then it should be an integral part of the product and should not seem vulgar. The shift should be towards sensuality.
Music Appeal

2. Music can be used as types of advertising appeals as it has a certain intrinsic value and can help in increasing the persuasiveness of the advertisement. It can also help capture attention and increase customer recall.
Scarcity Appeal

3. Scarcity appeals are based on limited supplies or limited time period for purchase of products and are often used while employing promotional tools including sweepstakes, contests etc.
Rational Appeal

4. Rational appeals as the name suggests aims to focus on the individual’s functional, utilitarian or practical needs for particular products and services. Such appeals emphasize the characteristics and features of the product and the service and how it would be beneficial to own or use the particular brand. Print media is particularly well suited for rational appeals and is often used with good success. It is also suited for business to business advertisers and for products that are complex and that need high degree of attention and involvement.

Masculine Feminine Appeal

Used in cosmetic or beauty products and also clothing. This type of appeal aims at creating the impression of the perfect person. The message is that the product will infuse the perfection or the stated qualities in you. Coulours and advertising in newspapers Newspaper is the very old medium. In addition, people are in a habit of taking day’s first cup of tea sip with newspaper. For the promotion of business through newspaper advertising, there are three physical criteria to consider - distribution, size and readers. It is easy to target millions of people at a moment. Now, various types of ads are in newspapers like display ads, classified ads, situation vacant, property ads, matrimonial, remembrance ads etc. Through this, you can convey any kind of message, service or good. Newspapers are not so flexible. With the help of pictures and words, only you can disseminate your message to your target audience. In newspaper, ads can only use limited special effects like font size and color. Therefore, the advertiser must have such creativity or imagination to express message, which differentiate ads from their competitors. The advertising world revolves around the principle of attraction. Whatever the product, in the end, the advertisement should attract the consumer. How do ads manage to attract attention? One of the first things you notice about any advertisement is the colors. In ads that don’t have a multimedia advantage (like ads in the newspaper or on a billboard), the colors and design are the only things holding the ad together. Colors, therefore, are one of the things that advertising experts study, especially since they can have so many different connotations in different contexts. It’s essential to use colors to project an image of the product—is it a warm, family oriented-thing? Is it a bright, colorful kiddy thing? Is it a novelty? Is it a cool teen thing? All of these factors are portrayed by the color schemes of advertisement, which connects the colors to the simple, hardcore human factor. Black and white, colour or spot colour Finally there is full colour. This can be very effective — however, there are a number of downsides. First and foremost is the expense. Full colour comes at a price and generally it is quite a lot more than the other options (I have seen it double the price). Secondly, most newspaper printing is reasonably low quality and as a result the reproduction can be quite poor. The paper used is the cheapest available, which is pretty reasonable for a product with a shelf life of perhaps one or two days before it is used to wrap vegetable peels, so full colour advertisements can be a little flat in

appearance. Sometimes they can be a little blurry. In all fairness the printing presses, papers and inks being used are getting better but they are nowhere near the quality of glossy magazines. Advertisers are therefore often disappointed with their full-colour newspaper advertisements because they had unrealistic expectations of the quality. Have a look through your bundle of newspapers and see the quality for yourself. Full-colour advertisements can be used very well in newspapers but the advertisement needs to be well designed and the fact that the printing process is not as sharp as laser printers or glossy magazines needs to be taken into consideration. Use colour to draw attention to the advertisement rather than highlight what is in the advertisement. Make youradvertisements less complex colour wise and don’t clutterthe advertisement. Creating and designing a successful product advertisement, or any kind of successful advertisement, is not an easy task. It requires years of experience in the field, but it also requires a great deal of knowledge. No, we are not talking about technical knowledge here. Anybody can learn how to use Photoshop, or any other tool pretty fast, but it takes years to learn how to successfully transfer the message, grab the attention, or provoke the reaction. That’s where colors play the important part, because people react to colors in a predictable way. What we will do here today, and within following weeks, is not something revolutionary or new, as it has been done countless times before. We will merely provide you with a simple guide for each commonly used color, how people react to it, and hopefully give you some good examples along the way. Use of color in most design for marketing and advertising is dictated by certain obvious requirements; the need to reflect a specific brand, as well as the attempt to communicate a certain mood dictated by the product itself. Apart from advertisements also colours play an important role in everyday life and have significant impact in our general life. The power of colours cannot be denied, so as it is soul instance of the life on earth.Each colur has its own significance and has a pscyological impact on us. Different perceptions are also their according to significance of a colour. Colour has a impact on choice we make. Our reaction to color is instantaneous and this lens is a quick look at general responses based on research, historical significance of color and word association studies.

I have also included links to color personality tests that may give you some insight into your own color associations as well as how you react to different colors. For diff people simple meaning of color is diff..due to diff in their age,sex,demography,culture. Meaning of blue colour
• • • • • • • • •

Depth and stability → colour of the sky and sea Symbol of freedom Symbolic of cleanliness, technology and security Associated with tranquillity, wisdom and loyalty Slows human metabolism → calms and soothes Masculine colour China - associated with immortality Hindus - the colour of Krishna Jews - holiness

Meanig of red colour Red has more personal associations than any other color. Recognized as a stimulant red is inherently exciting and the amount of red is directly related to the level of energy perceived. Red draws attention and a keen use of red as an accent can immediately focus attention on a particular element.eaning of red colour
• Highly erotic

• • •

Symbol for violence blood and war High visibility so used for road signs Indicates courage

Meaning of white colour 2.) White is innocence. It gives out a clean aura. This can be applied in areas of medicine or health-related ads. But this can also be used to connote fashion. White, on the other hand, is the cool airy shade of purity. Used a lot to depict cleaning substances, it’s also often used to give a calm look to a room shown in an advertisement. Modern and abstract, white remains a favorite where clear-cut lines play a role. Meaning of green colour 5). Green looks fresh and healthy. It has a calming effect and it is easy on the eyes. Green is the nature color. In today’s world, green has a very strong association with the get-green fad and environment

movements. As a result, green portrays health and nature more than ever. Along with this, green has the nurturing and tranquil effect, as it happens to be the easiest color for the eye to see. Green is synonymous with harmony, and is a very, very utile color in advertising. If you can recollect those green check marks and the red x marks you see in advertisements, you’ll agree that green also stands for the right thing. In some contexts, green is like the green traffic light signaling go; so that’s another way ads can subtly manipulate green. Of course, the lighter shades of green are strongly connected to freshness and vitality. A lot of revitalizing creams and refreshing drinks like tea are advertised in green. On the other hand, green is also associated with money and financial power—think about the US dollars—meaning that sometimes it can be used to depict fast-earning schemes and investment plans. Meaning of yellow • • • • • Colour of sunshine Energy,optimism,joy ,hope, warmth Seen before other colours whwn placed aginst black Symbol of spontaneity Dull yellow is associated with dullness, sickness, deceit, decay

Asia- symbol of royalty and sacrednessYellow is a two-faced advertising color. Although it is the most eye-catching color, yellow can be fatiguing to the eye and overbearing to the mind. The use of yellow for important things, though, can be a good property as well. Yellow is a happy, energetic color, that sometimes symbolizes rejuvenation; hence the use of the color yellow in beauty products. But somehow, the color remains distasteful to men, maybe because of its conventional “cheap” connotation. Yellow is also used to show the scrumptious attraction of buttery food products, the sunshiny cheerfulness of toys and such, and the happy child atmospheres in general. People tend to associate yellow to sunshine and happiness, so towards that effect, it remains a good advertising color tool.

The list of colours and their significance doesnot only end here but from the above we can be introduced to the interesting and fasinating world of colurs which have a great impact on human lives because colurs have a pscyological as well as symbolic meaning which also effects our lives.

Significance of the study

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