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A. Proposed title of the study

This research will be entitled “LOW MOTIVATED STUDENTS

PERCEPTION ON TEACHERS STRATEGIES IN DEVELOPING

CLASSROOM INVOLVEMENT (Survey study at one of Islamic Senior High

School in Ciamis)”.

B. Introduction

In this section, the researcher reviews the point of view of background of

the study, research questions, purposes of the study, significance of the study, and

scope of the study. Moreover, the researcher will also share the definition of key

terms, and research report organization.

a. Background of the study

At present, Indonesia strives to improve the quality of human resources by

increasing the intelligence of existing human resources, all of that is done so that

existing human resources can compete in the era of globalization. To be able to

compete in the global era, English language education is very important to support

the quality of Indonesian students in communication in the world.

According to Bandar Mohammad Saeed Al-Sobhi and Abdul Shakour

Preece (2018) quoted from the International Journal of Education & Literacy

Studies (IJELS), the strong presence of English language has made it the lingua

franca in many countries and the most commonly spoken language in the world.

Nowadays, English plays a prominent role in developing the world’s education

and business.

Learning a foreign language requires investment in the practice of

linguistic skills. Te skill of speaking in the target language has been revealed as
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being the most challenging for language learners due to its interactive nature

(Harumi, 2011; Méndez, 2011; Woodrow, 2006; Zhang & Head, 2010), cited by

Mariza G. Méndez López and Moisés Bautista Tun (2017).

From the 1990s, research on motivation for second (ESL) and foreign

language (EFL) learning has evolved from focusing and describing the

composition of students’ motivation to a detailed list of practical suggestions in

assisting teachers to boost their students’ motivation (for instance, Cheng &

Dornyei, 2007; Dornyei & Csizer, 1998; Dornyei, 2001b; Williams & Burden,

1997). Even so, the amount of research on how to motivate students through the

use of specific strategies or the application of theoretical knowledge centered in

the real classroom has been relatively small in specific situations (Dornyei & Otto,

1998).

ESL/EFL teachers, however, must be aware of the context of any research

of motivation since the findings and the proposed motivational teaching strategies

may not be suitable for all ESL/EFL teaching and learning situations. A strategy

that is highly effective in one context of teaching and learning may not work at all

in another context and vice versa. As Nakata (2006) implies, motivating students

is not as easy in practice as in theory. Since human behaviors are complex, these

strategies are not applicable to every individual and in every context of learning.

Teachers should select the most suitable strategies to be employed in their own

classrooms. With this in mind, this study aims to investigate how lecturers in a

specific study site, through their teaching strategies, build and maintain their

students’ motivation. It will be beneficial for lecturers in this particular university


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to explore the motivational strategies that are most suitable for their own

classroom since many researchers’ suggestions are only general guidelines

generated from literature or different contexts (in terms of geographic location,

socio-economic condition and culture) of teaching and learning.

Furthermore, some of the teaching strategies proposed in the literature are

derived from second language learning and arise specifically from research in a

western cultural context. It means that language is learnt in a location where that

language is typically used as the main tool of everyday communication for most

people. This is not the case in the context of this study, a tertiary classroom in

Indonesia. In this context, exposure to English may only happen in classrooms.

This study drew on student-teachers at senoir high school as its

participants. As a result, this study will be useful to these teachers who work as

English teachers as well as senoir high school students (student-teachers) who can

reflect on their own teaching practices. This study builds on and expands EFL

teacher’s awareness of the importance of students’ motivation and perception on

teachers’ strategies in this foreign language learning context. Student learning

behavior is also influenced by the students themselves, so this research is to know

about “LOW MOTIVATED STUDENTS PERCEPTION ON TEACHER’S

STRATEGIES IN DEVELOPING CLASSROOM INVOLVEMENT”(Survey

Study at one of Islamic Senior High School in Ciamis)”.


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b. Research question

Regarding to the statement elaborations on the aforementioned part, the

present study is addressed to the following question:

1. How is the students perception of the teacher's strategy in involving them in the

classroom?

c. Purpose of the study

The purpose of this study is to find out:

1. Students perception of the teacher's strategy in involving them in the

classroom.

d. Significance of the study

The results of this research are expected to provide many benefits,

especially theoretical, practical, and professional aspects. Theoretically, this

research gives significance in order to Low Motivated Students Perception on

Teachers Strategies in Developing Classroom Involvement. Beside that, this

research will motivate the teacher to improve their quality on teaching and it will

be useful in the future.

Practically, through this research, the researcher will be able to increase

the knowledge in writing papers. In addition, it will provide all the information for

English teacher about the pedagogical strategies on teaching English.

In utilizing the findings of this study, I also hope that tertiary teachers of

English in Indonesia will gain a greater understanding of the importance of

teaching strategies to motivate their students and thereby increase students’

mastery of English. Moreover, by studying the perceptions of student-teachers and

ELT teachers of strategies used in teaching, teachers in similar contexts will be


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able to build their knowledge of possible ways to implement more effective

motivational teaching strategies in tertiary classrooms.

Professionally, through this research, it easier for teachers to teach English

and is very useful to develop the creativity of teaching in classroom. The results of

this study are hopefully beneficial for student, teachers, and lectures.

e. Scope of the study

Based on the research question above, the researcher will limit the

discussion of low motivated students perception on teachers’ strategies in

developing classroom involvement.

f. Definition of key terms

To avoid misunderstanding, the researcher considers it is necessary to

define some key terms. There are some terminologies that will be used in this

study. They are: EFL student, teachers strategies in ELT, and motivation.

a. EFL Students

Al-Ahdal et al. (2014) stated that the foreign language learner (EFL

students or learners) is one who has had the experience of another language

(mother tongue). He tries to learn the foreign language the way acquired the

first language but finds that the environment and the surroundings in which

he acquired his mother tongue (first language) are not available for him now.

He now tries to learn consciously.

b. Teaching Strategies

Hing wa (2017) based on existing research such as from Peterson and

Walberg (1979), Wittrock (1986), Good and Brophy (1991), Westwood


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(2008) and Killen (2013) stated that teaching strategies are activities used by

teachers that aim to facilitate learning.

c. Motivation

Motivation is an internal state that arouses students to action, directs

them to certain behaviors, and assist them in maintaining this action and

direction with regard to behaviors important and appropriate to the learning

environment (Wiesman & Hunt, 2014).

g. Research report organization

This research will be written in paper organization as follow:

Chapter 1 is introduction. In this chapter, the researcher will discusses the

background of the study, research questions, purpose of the study, significance of

the study, scope of the study, definition of key terms, and research report

organization.

Chapter 2 is review of literature. In this chapter the researcher will

discusses EFL students, Teacher strategies in ELT, and Motivation.

Chapter 3 is research methodology. In this chapter, the researcher will

explain research design, population and sample, research site, research

procedures, research instruments, data analysis technique, and ethical

consideration.

Chapter 4 is finding and discussion. In this chapter present the data

gathered and discusses the findings of the study.

Chapter 5 is conclusion and suggestion. In this chapter restate the issue

that being researched and summarizes the findings of the study.


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C. Review of the literature

1. An Overview of EFL Students

"ESL and EFL instructional approaches differ in significant ways. ESL is

based on the premise that English is the language of the community and the

school and that student have access to English models. EFL is usually learned in

environments where the language of the community and the school is not English.

EFL teachers have the difficult task of finding access to and providing English

models for their students."(Lee Gunderson, 2009).

English as a Foreign Language, or EFL, refers to learning and using English

as an additional language in a non-English speaking country. It can be compared

with ESL and ESOL, which refer mainly to learning English as a new resident in

an English-speaking country. EFL materials tend to be written for learners either

studying English in their own country or on a short course in an English-speaking

country. ESL materials tend to focus on ‘survival English' for people now living

in an English-speaking country.

An EFL classroom is in a country where English is not the dominant

language. Students share the same language and culture. The teacher may be the

only native English speaker they have exposure to. Outside of the classroom

students have very few opportunities to use English. For some, learning English

may not have any obvious practical benefit. Students have limited exposure to

English-speaking culture, most often through a distorted lens like TV or music.


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EFL students need:

1. Lots of practice using English, especially orally. Get them speaking in the

classroom, but also teach them where to find opportunities to practice speaking

English outside of class, and reward them for doing so.

2. Exposure to living English. Never lead your students to believe that English is

a set of rules and words to memorize. It is the living, breathing creation of

cultures and communities around the world. Do whatever you can to reveal this

depth. Pen pals, non-traditional teaching materials, and field trips are great

ways to make English come alive for your students.

3. Reasons to learn English, and motivation to stick with it. English can be very

theoretical when you’re growing up in a village in Belarus. Find out about each

student’s other passions and tie English into them. There are so many English

communities online and off that it’s possible to find a tie-in for almost any

other area of interest. Social networks are powerful tools.

1.1 The Characteristic EFL Students

Asher and Price (1967), Olsen and Samuels (1973). Krashen et.al

conclude that “adults are superior to children in the rate of acquisition” and “older

children learn more rapidly than younger children” (Ellis, 1994: 485).Support for

them comes from Larsen Freeman and Long (1991, 155) who stated that older

learners were faster than children, and older children were faster than younger

children. Furthermore, they added that the rate benefit is limited to certain aspects

i.e., early morphology and syntax. Moreover, those aspects also occur just in short
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term as those disappear after a few months. Studies of the effect of age on the rate

of L2 acquisition in general show that to some extent adults perform better than

children in a formal instructional context. This situation may bring significant

information to the L2 education. Children, teenagers and adults learn differently.

Therefore, it is important for the teacher to consider the influence of age and

maturity to the English classroom. The following are the characteristics of 3

groups of learners based on age/maturity:

Tabel 2.1

The Characteristic of EFL Students

Children Teenagers Adults

Need to move Start to keep still for Able to keep still for

longer periods but still longer periods

need to move

Can concentrate for Concentration developing Can concentrate for

shorter periods longer periods

Learn through experience Begin to learn in abstract Learn in more abstract

ways, i.e. through thinking


Ways

as well as experiencing

Have low ability to Begin to control and plan Usually able to control

control and plan their and plan their own


their own behavior
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own behavior behavior

Are not afraid of making May worry about what Not so willing to make

mistakes or taking risks


others think of them mistakes or take risks

Are not aware of Sometimes uncomfortably Aware of themselves

themselves and/or their aware of themselves and/or their actions

actions
and/or their action

Pay attention to meaning Pay attention to meaning Pay attention to form and

in Language meaning in language


and increasingly to form

Have limited experience Begin to increase their Have experience of life

of life
experience of life

Sprat et.al. (2005: 53)

2. An Overview of Teachers Strategies in ELT

English Language Teaching is based on the idea that the goal of language

acquisition is communicative competence. It adopts concepts, techniques and

methods in classroom for recognizing and managing the communicative needs of

the language learners. Learner strategies has contributed strongly to the field of

ELT by highlighting the possibility of learners becoming more self-reliant in their

learning and by generating discussion of how learners can be trained for taking on
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more responsibility for their learning. Further reading Naiman, N., M. Frohlich,

H. H. Stern, and A. Todesco. 1975.

2.1 Types of Strategy

According to Hing wa (2017, p.30) states the term of teaching strategy

results from summaries adopted from Killen's definitions:

(1) Direct Instruction (sometimes called “chalk and talk”): is a teacher-

centred approach in which the teacher delivers academic content in a highly

structured format, directing activities of students and maintaining a focus on

academic achievement. Common forms include lectures, seminars and

demonstrations.

(2) Discussion: is an orderly process of face-to-face group interaction in

which people exchange ideas about an issue for the purpose of solving a problem,

answering a question, enhancing their knowledge or understanding, or making a

decision. When the discussion involves the whole class, the lesson will have some

of the characteristics of direct instruction and some of the characteristics of

student-centred learning.

(3) Small-group work: any time that two or more students are working

together, other than whole-class instruction, can be designated as group work. All

approaches to group work have the distinguishing feature that students are

working together without direct intervention by the teacher (for at least some of

the time). It needs the teacher to structure the learning environment so that the

students can interact productively under indirect guidance.

(4) Cooperative learning: this is both an instructional technique and a

teaching philosophy that encourages students to work together to maximise their


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own learning and the learning of their peers. Usually, students work on a task in

groups of two or more, they are encouraged to help one another to learn, they are

dependent upon the efforts of one another to achieve success, and they are held

accountable for that learning both as a group and as individuals.

(5) Problem solving: it can be defined as any situation in which some

information is known and other information is needed. The problem might be

something that gives rise to doubt or uncertainty, or something that is hard to

understand, or a difficult task or question, or an inquiry that starts from given

conditions to investigate facts or principles. It can be the process of applying

existing knowledge to a new or unfamiliar situation to gain new knowledge. It is

designed to help students apply the knowledge they have already gained to new

situations and to acquire new knowledge.

(6) Student research: is a systematic process of gathering information,

interpreting it, and then reaching some conclusions based on that information.

Teachers must decide why they want student to gather information, make it

possible for them to gather it, help them to interpret the information they find, and

respond to the conclusions they reach. While student research is a student-centred

approach to learning, it is not something that teachers should expect students to do

independently.

(7) Performance activities: those teaching strategies in which one or more

students are required to “act” a part. They may be formal activities (such as a

script play), structured activities (such as debating), and free-flowing activities

(such assimilation games). All share common features. First, students are required

to take on a “role” and to behave in ways that may not be natural to them. Second,
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the activity will usually involve a few “active” participants with the remainder of

the class expected to learn through observation (and later through discussion).

3. An Overview of Students Motivation

Motivation is something important in the learning process because the

success of learning is always influenced by student’s motivation. Wiseman &

Hunt (2014, p. 44) stating that motivation is an internal state that arouses students

to action, directs them to certain behaviors, and assist them in maintaining this

action and direction with regard to behaviors important and appropriate to the

learning environment.

According to Dornyei & Otto (1998, p. 65) as cited in Dornyei & Ushioda

(2011, p. 6) state that in general sense, motivation could be defined as the

dynamically changing cumulative arousal in a person that initiates, directs,

coordinates, amplifies, terminates, and evaluates the cognitive and motor

processes. Where by initial wishes, desires are selected, prioritized

operationalized, and (successfully or unsuccessfully) acted out.

According to Hamer (2001, p. 51) as cited Sulsu (2006, p. 2) state that

motivation defined as some kind of internal drive which pushes someone to do

things in order to achieve something. Motivation to learn is the overall driving

force both from inside and outside the students by creating a series of attempts to

provide certain condition which ensures continuity and provide direction on

learning activities, so that the desired destination by studying subjects that can be

achieve.

According to Jere Brophy (2010, p. 3), Student motivation is the

subjective experience of students, which is related to their willingness to be


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involved in activities and the reasons they do it. The teacher must focus on

encouraging activities with motivation to learn, understand the intention of

students to acquire knowledge or learning activities for the development of their

learning.

Wiesman & Hunt (2014, p. 56), the theories of students motivation can

also categorized much like theories by learning: behaviorist, cognitive, or

humanist. An understanding of these theories in the context of students learning

can be beneficial to the teacher in knowing how to increase students’ motivation

in classroom.

Table 3.1

Theories of student motivation

Theory Definition

Motivation is the result of response to reinforcement. The

effective use of reinforces, either present internally within the


Behaviorist
student or externally as influenced by the teacher, is critical to

behaviorist approaches to motivation

Motivation result from students attempting to find order or

balance, i.e., predictability, and an understanding of the world.


Cognitive Students have a natural motivation of to understand their world

and bring into balance irregularities that they may experience.

These are needs that students have and they are motivated to
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satisfy them.

Motivation results from students attempting to fulfill their full

potential as human beings. Individuals have an innate tendency


Humanist
to develop their talents and to grow, enhance themselves. There

is no such thing as an unmotivated students.

Source : Lefrancois, G. (2000).

Wiesman & Hunt (2014, p. 47) state that the effective teachers not only

understand what motivation is, they also know how to apply this understanding to

motivate their students. From table 2.1 identifies four keys dimensions of

motivation for considerations: interest, relevance, expectancy, and satisfaction.

The understanding of these dimensions is directly related to understanding and

then motivating students in classroom.

Table 3.2

Four dimensions of motivation

Dimensions of Relevant questions in understanding the dimensions of

motivation motivation

Interest Is the student’s curiosity aroused and sustained over time?

Does the student see the teacher’s instruction as satisfying


Relevance
his or her personal needs or goals?
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Does the student believe that it is within his or her control to


Expectancy
be successful in the lesson ?

Is there a positive balance between the student’s intrinsic


Satisfaction
motivation and his or her responses to extrinsic rewards ?

Source : Gagne, R., Wagner, W., Golas, K., & Keller, J. (2005).

The researcher concludes that motivation is something important which

come from inner personal. It gives force and energy to someone for doing

something to achieve their goals in their life. It can get up someone to reach their

destination consciously or unconsciously.

2.1 Types of Students Motivation

According to Dornyei (2011, p. 23) the most common and well-known

type of motivation are intrinsic and extrinsic motivation. Intrinsic motivation is

related to behavior carried out for its own sake in order to experience pleasure and

satisfaction, such as the pleasure of doing certain activities or satisfying someone's

curiosity. extrinsic motivation involves doing behavior as a means of achieving

separable goals, such as receiving extrinsic gifts (eg good grades) or avoiding

punishment. There is also a third type of motivation, amotivation, this motivation

refers to the lack of all kinds of motivation, both intrinsic or extrinsic.

Vallerand and his Ratalle as quoted by Dornyei (2011, p. 23) have recently

posited the existence of three types of intrinsic motivation:


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a. To learn (engaging in a variety for the pleasure and satisfaction of

understanding something new, satisfying one’s curiosity and exploring

the world).

b. Toward achievement (engaging in an activity for the satisfaction of

surpassing oneself, coping with challenges and accomplishing or

creating something).

c. To experience stimulation (engaging in an activity to experience

pleasant sensations).

According to Dornyei (2011, p. 24) there are four types of extrinsic

motivation:

a. External regulation refers to the least self-determined form of external

sources as reward or threats (e.g. teacher’s praise or parental

confrontation)

b. Interjected regulation involves externally imposed ruler that the

students accepts as norms to be followed in order not to feel guilty

(e.g. ruler against playing truant).

c. Identified regulation occurs when the person engages in an activity

because he or she highly values and identifies with the behavior, and

sees its usefulness (e.g. learning a language which is necessary to

pursue one’s hobbies or interest).

d. Integrated regulation is the most developmentally advanced form of

extrinsic motivation, involving chanceful behavior that is fully

assimilated with the individual’s other values, need identify (learning


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English because its proficiency is part of an educated cosmopolitan

culture one has adopted).

A student who intrinsically motivated undertakes an activity for its own

sake, because the activity itself rewarding. In contrast is extrinsic motivation, in

order to obtain a reward, or to avoid punishment, this student is not really

interested in the activity for its own sake, but rather for what it will gain them.

In teaching, not every educational activity will be intrinsically motivated.

When students exhibit minimal motivation, extrinsic motivation can be utilized to

foster the development of intrinsic motivation. In learning English both intrinsic

and extrinsic motivation can be incorporated to become one power.

Based on the explanation above, the researcher concludes the two types of

motivation have strong influences on students learning. With intrinsic motivation,

students will comfort in learning because they learn what they want and extrinsic

motivation can be used to increase students’ motivation, example by giving

reward, they will be more motivated in learning. It is impossible for students to

learn without motivation.

4. Previous studies

The researcher employs some previous studies carried out by the previous

researcher.

The first previous study was carried out by Zia Tajeddin , Minoo Alemi,

and Hasti Yasaei (2018) on Classroom Assessment Literacy for Speaking:

Exploring Novice and Experienced English Language Teachers’ Knowledge and

Practice. They identified the novice and experienced EFL teachers’ knowledge

and practices of speaking assessment purposes, criteria, and methods. This study
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provided evidence on the teachers’ knowledge of assessment content, including

accuracy, fluency, vocabulary, pronunciation, communication, interaction,

pragmatics, and content. Regarding the novice and experienced teachers’

knowledge of assessment methods, the findings showed their knowledge of

various assessment methods such as role plays, monologs, and authentic tasks.

From these findings, they concluded that novice and experienced teachers have

both shared and divergent speaking assessment literacy.

The second previous study was carried out by Bandar Mohammad Saeed

Al-Sobhi and Abdul Shakour Preece (2018) in Teaching English Speaking Skills

to the Arab Students in the Saudi School in Kuala Lumpur: Problems and

Solutions. They investigate the common problems which affect the teaching of

English speaking skills to the Arab learners in the Saudi School in Kuala Lumpur

and exploring the areas of difficulty that prevent the Arab students from learning

to speak in the English classes. This study revealed that the teachers encountered

many difficulties when teaching speaking skills such as the absence of speaking

tests and the lack of teaching resources, and then the students’ lack of linguistic

knowledge, excessive use of Arabic and their lack of confidence were the major

underlying causes for their low level of English.

The third previous study was carried out by Tae-Il Pae (2016) they

conducted a study in which they investigate effects of the differences between

native and nonnative English-speaking teachers on students’ attitudes and

motivation toward learning English. The results indicate significant differences

between NESTs (native English-speaking teachers) and NNESTs (non native


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English speaking teachers) in terms of their students’ perceived attitudes and

motivation with respect to English learning.

D. Research methodology

In this chapter, the researcher explains a research methodologies are used

in this study. It contains of research design, research participant, research site,

data sources, research instruments, and data analysis technique.

1. Research design

This present study is designed by applying the framework of qualitative

research. As far as qualitative research is concerned, it can be understood as a

short of a research method used to explore the problem or a central phenomenon

through word description in which the report uses flexible, emerging structures

and evaluative criteria, and including the researchers’ objective reflexivity and

bias (Creswell, 2012, p.16). The design is selected because in interpreting the

data, which in the form of questionnaire and interview, the writer needs to

describe the data by words which are clearer and rich of diction.

In this study, the researcher used a descriptive qualitative research

approach, with focus on a survey in order to provide an efficient experiential

investigation. Generally, a survey is employed to gather data from samples to

know and describe the characteristics or criteria that include amongst many,

perceptions, behavior, attitudes, belief and opinions of the population. According

to Nunan & Bailey (2009, p. 25 ) “the overall purpose of a survey is to obtain a

snapshot of conditions, attitudes, and/or events in time by collecting data from a

sample drawn from that population”. The reason the writer selected this model

because the model is suitable to use that the writer wants to find out how low
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motivated students perception on teachers strategies in developing classroom

involvement.

2. Research procedures

The writer will follow several procedures in conducting the study. It is

obvious that in conducting the study, procedural steps are very important to

consider. Overall, data will be collected through the following steps.

The first step the researcher will do the observation to determine low

motivated students by asking the data from the teacher.

The second step the researcher will give the questionnaire to get students’

perceptions of teachers strategies in developing classroom involvement. After the

researcher get the answers sheet the researcher will analyze the students’ answers

sheet.

3. Research Participant and Research site

3.1 Population and Sample (Subject)

According to Fraenkel et,al., (2011, p. 91), “A sample in a research study

in the group on which information is obtained. The larger group to which one

hopes to apply the result is called the population,” In line of the statement

aforementioned, the writer will choose the eleven grade of Islamic senior high

school for the sample. Then, the writer will use purposive sampling to select the

sample.

Furthermore, Creswell (2012, p. 206) argues, “The research term used for

qualitative sampling is purposive sampling.” Purposive sampling allows the writer

to select the sample intentionally based on the criteria that have been decided by

the writer to understand the central phenomenon (Creswell, J.W. 2012, p. 206). It
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means that purposive sampling allows the writer choose the sample by writers’

objective.

3.2 Research Site

This research will conduct in one of Islamic senior high school in Ciamis,

because the sample selected is suitable with the topic that is the tenth grade of

Islamic senior high school.

4. Data collection

The research will use two instruments for conducting the data they are

observation and questionnaire. The First instrument is observation. The researcher

will conduct observation to teacher about low motivated students. The last

instrument is questionnaire. The researcher will conduct questionnaire to find out

students perception of the teacher's strategy in involving them in the classroom.

4.1 Instrument 1

Observation will choose in this study because it has advantages for the

study. In conducting the data, the researcher does the observation to investigate

the tenth grade students who has low motivated in Enlish class. According to

Creswell (2012, p.212), “observations represent a frequently used form of data

collection, with the researcher able to assume different roles in the process

(Spradley, 1980).” Observation is the process of gathering open-ended, firsthand

information by observing people and places at a research site.

The researcher will observe the score data of tenth students to determine

students who have low motivation for English.


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4.2 Instrument 2

Questionnaire will choose in this study because it has advantages for the

study. In conducting the data, the researcher used questionnaire to investigate the

tenth grade students’ perception of the teacher's strategy in involving them in the

classroom. According to Creswell (2012, p.382), “A questionnaire is a form used

in a survey design that participants in a study complete and return to the

researcher” Wilkinson & Birmingham (2003, p.7) also state that questionnaire is

one of that enables the transmission of useful and accurate information or data

from the respondent to the researcher”. Moreover Fraenkel and Wallen (2007, p.

125) state that “In a questionnaire, the subjects respond to the questions by writing

or more commonly, by marking an answer sheet”.

In the case of a questionnaire, as there is no one to explain the meaning of

questions to respondents, it is important that the statements are clear and easy to

understand. In this study the writer select close ended questionnaire as the

instrument to collect the data. According to Foddy. (1993, p. 127) in Reja, U. et.

al. (2003) state, “Close ended limit the respondent to the set of alternatives being

offered”. It means that the respondent only choose the limit answer, they can’t add

their perception. In the questionnaire, there are 10 statements which related to the

topic that should be answered by the participants. Respondents were required to

circle their answers according to the scale of 1-5 (5 = Strongly Agree, 4 = Agree,

3 = Neutral, 2 = Disagree, 1 = Strongly Disagree).

The questionnaires will in Indonesian from, because the students could

understand the questions given. The questionnaires will be shared by using flayer
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sheet. After the researcher get the students answers sheet the researcher will

analyze it by using likert scale technique.

5. Data analysis

According to Cohen, Manion and Morrison (2011, p. 537) qualitative data

involved organizing, accounting for, and explaining the data. This means that in

qualitative data the researcher organize data which is obtained, after that counting

the data to find out the result and finally explaining the data as a final result.

5.1 Close-ended questionnaire.

To calculate the students’ perception the researcher conducted

questionnaire to the students. Through questionnaire, the researcher could gather

information and investigate learning activities that used by the students. Creswell

(2012, p. 382) states that “a questionnaire is a form used in a survey design that

participants in a study complete and return to the researcher”. Fraenkel and

Wallen (2007, p. 125) state that “In a questionnaire, the subjects respond to the

questions by writing or more commonly, by marking an answer sheet”.

There are several steps of conducting questionnaire. Firstly, the researcher

prepares close ended questionnaire then the questionnaire is given to the

participants and explain how to answer. After the participants have finished

answering, that the researcher collects the questionnaire and analyzes it, then the

researcher describes the result of data based on Theory from some previous

studies. Last, the researcher interprets and comments on the presents data. Finally,

the researcher concludes and verifies data.


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Furthermore, the researcher analyzed the result of questionnaire used

percentage calculation. Those answers were presented in the form of frequency

observed. After she had calculated the frequency of each option, then she

computed them into percentage calculation by using formula by Hatch and

Larazation (1982, p. 136) as follows:

Proportion = Number of frequency x 100


Number of sample

6. Ethical Consideration

Cresswel (2012, p. 234) argues “The researchers need to anticipate the

ethical issues that may arise during their studies.” Therefore, the ethical

consideration is very important in conducting the study. Thus, the researcher will

respect the privacy and the anonymity of individuals by assigning numbers to

returned instruments and keep the identity of individuals. Besides that, the

researcher will permit to the institution, the teacher, and the students who are

being participants for conducting the study.


26

E. Research Timeline

No.

December

February
January

March
Task

April

June
May

July
1.
Writing Research
proposal and
conducting
Seminar of
Proposal

2.
First consultation
to supervisor and
collecting book
resources.

3.
Consulate to the
supervisor
4. Collecting data
5. Analyzing data
6.
Finishing and
refinement of the
paper

7. Paper examination
27

F. Bibliography

Al-Ahdal, A. A. M. H., Alfallaj, F. S., Al-Awaied, S. A., & Al-Hattami, A. A.


(2014). A comparative study of proficiency in speaking and writing among
EFL learners in Saudi Arabia. American international journal of
contemporary research, 4(2), 141-149.

Bandar Mohammad Saeed Al-Sobhi, Abdul Shakour Preece.(2018) Teaching


English Speaking Skills to the Arab Students in the Saudi School in Kuala
Lumpur: Problems and Solutions. International Journal of Education &
Literacy Studies, 6(1), 1-11.

Brophy, J.(2010). Motivating Student to Learn. (3rd ed). 270 Madison Avenue,
New York, NY 10016: Routledge.

Brown, H. Douglas. (2001). Teaching by Principles an interactive approach to


langiage pedagogy (2nd ed). England : Pearson Longman.

Cohen, Louis., Manion, Lawrence., & Morrison, Keith (2007). Research methods
in education (6th ed). New York: The Taylor & Francis Group.

Creswell, J.W. (2012). Educational Research: Planning, Conducting, and


Evaluating Quantitative and Qualitative Research 4th Edition. Boston:
Pearson Education, Inc.

Dornyei, Z., & Ushioda, E (2011). Teaching and researching motivation. (2nd ed).
United Kingdom : British library.

Dörnyei, Z (2007). Research methods in applied linguistics. Oxford: Oxford


University Press.

Etherington, S . (2017). Teacher and students in the Saudi Higher education.


International Journal of English Language Education, 5(2), ISSN 2325 –
0887.

Fraenkel, J. ,Wallen, N., & Hyun, H.H (2011). How to design and evaluate
research in education (8th ed). Boston: McGrew Hill.

Harmer, J (2001). The practice of english language teaching. (3th ed). England :
Pearson Longman.

Harmer, J (2007). The practice of english language teaching. (4th ed). England :
Pearson Longman.

Hing Wa. H (2017). Inclusive Teaching Strategies for Discipline-based English


Studies. Australia : Springer Nature .
28

Gunderson, L.(2009) ESL (ELL) Literacy Instruction: A Guidebook to Theory and


Practice, (2nd ed). Routledge.

Méndez López, M. G., & Bautista Tun, M. (2017) Motivating and demotivating
factors for students with low emotional intelligence to participate in
speaking activities. profile Issues in Teachers’ Professional Development,
19(2), 151-163.

Nunan, D., Bailey, K. M. (2009). Exploring Second Language Classroom


Research. Sherrire Roehr.

Reja, U. et.al. (2003). Open-ended vs. Close-ended Questions in Web


Questionnaires. Developments in Applied Statistics. 19. 2003.
Tae-Il Pae .(2016) Effects of the differences between native and non-native
English-speaking teachers on students’ attitudes and motivation toward
learning English. Asia Pacific Journal of Education, DOI:
10.1080/02188791.2016.1235012.

Wiesman, D. G., & Hunt, G. H. (2014). Best practice in motivation and


management in the classroom. (3rd ed). United states of America : Charles
Thomas publisher.

Zia, T., Minoo, A., Hasti, Y. (2018) Classroom Assessment Literacy for
Speaking: Exploring Novice and Experienced English Language Teachers’
Knowledge and Practice. Iranian Journal of Language Teaching Research,
6(3), 57-77.
29

G. Appendix

Students’ Questionnaire, adopted and modified from Tae-Il Pae (2016).

ANGKET SIKAP SISWA


Anda dimohon kesediannya untuk memberikan pendapat terhadap
pernyataan mengenai sikap anda dalam pembelajaran bahasa Inggris. Angket ini
bukan merupakan sebuah tes. Tak ada jawaban yang benar ataupun salah tentang
pernyataan tersebut, jawaban anda tidak akan mempengaruhi nilai pelajaran anda.
Namu, informasi yang anda berikan akan sangat berguna untuk perbaikan
pembelajaran anda dalam pembelajaran bahasa Inggris. Setelah anda membaca
dengan seksama suatu pernyataan, putuskanlah bagaimana pendapat anda tentang
pernyataan tersebut, putuskanlah bagaimana pendapat anda tentang pernyataan
tersebut dengan menuliskan tanda centang ( √ ) pada pernyataan yang sesuai
dengan pendapat anda, yaitu :

SS : Sangat Setuju
S : Setuju
NT : Netral
TS : Tidak Setuju
STS : Sangat Tidak Setuju

Selamat bekerja dan jawablah dengan sejujur – jujurnya. Tidak lupa saya
ucapkan terimakasih.

No Pernyataan SS S NT TS STS
Saya belajar bahasa Inggris karena
saya ingin menjadi tipe orang yang
1 dapat berbicara lebih dari satu
bahasa.

Saya belajar bahasa Inggris karena


saya pikir itu baik untuk
2
perkembangan pribadi saya.

Belajar bahasa Inggris membuat


saya senang karena menemukan hal-
3
hal baru dalam berbahasa.

Belajar bahasa inggris karena suka


ketika mendengarkan orang
4
menggunakan bahasa Inggris di
depan orang banyak.
Belajar bahasa Inggris itu
5 menyenangkan.
30

Saya suka ditegur guru karena salah


dalam berbicara bahasa inggris, jadi
6
saya memilih diam.

Saya pikir belajar bahasa Inggris itu


7 penting untuk masa depan.

Bahasa Inggris adalah bagian penting


8 dari program sekolah.

Motivasi yang guru berikan kepada


saya sangat penting dalam
9
keberhasilan belajar bahasa Inggris.

Guru yang saya hadapi dalam


pembelajaran bahasa Inggris
10 memotivasi saya dalam berbicara
bahasa Inggris.