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Assignment on

Conflict Perspective on
Family
as a Social Institution

BY

IMRAN AHMAD SAJID
M.Phil-1st semester
Session: Spring 2009

Submitted To:

Dr. Johar Ali
Department of Sociology

DEPARTMENT OF SOCIAL
WORK

UNIVERSITYOF PESHAWAR

and Beneficent. He guided me in a polite and cooperative manner at every step. Imran Ahmad Sajid i . sound advice. the most Merciful. Wisdom within and beyond our comprehension. the course instructor. Thanks to Dr. support. who has contributed enthusiasm. all respects and possible tributes goes to our Holly Profit MUHAMMAD (Swal Allaho Alaihy Wasallam). I am also in debt to all those writers who has written such informative and thought provoking books on such sociological issues. and source of all Knowledge. particularly his supportive attitude was always a source of motivation for me. who is forever guidance and knowledge for all human beings on this earth. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS All praises to ALLAH. Johar Ali. Kind.

For most of sociologist family begins as a need for performing certain essential tasks such as reproduction. Newton developed the laws of gravity after observing that apples always fall down. one must begin by making some assumptions about the nature of what is studied. all scientists assume that the universe is orderly. Thus. ii . By contrast.” or sometimes a “paradigm. socialization. assignment of role and status etc.” Sociological perspective is a lens through which sociologist views the society. For example. an “approach. never up. the ancient Greeks believed that the universe was run according to the whims of the gods. ABSTRACT In order to study anything. and contributing towards the survival of family and society as a whole While others look at family as a class society in miniature where one class (man) oppressing another class (woman). and operates in certain regular ways which we may be able to discover. A working set of assumptions is called a “perspective.

iii .

.....................................................................................................................13 DVD Encyclopedia....................................................................5 Hope for permanence:.....................................................................................................................................................14 ...................................................................................................................................8 Source of power in family .........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................5 Legal commitment:......................9 Woman as sexual property.....................................................................................................................................................................13 Internet Websites.................................................................i ABSTRACT.................................................................... 12 References ..............................2 Conflict Perspective ............................4 What is Marriage?................10 Family as Domestic Slavery of Women............................................................................................................................................................................................4 Perspectives in Sociology.................................................................................................11 Critique on Conflict perspective on Family.................................11 Conclusion...........................5 Public announcement:.......................................................3 What is Marriage and what is Family?.................................................................6 Conflict perspective on family....................................................................................................4 Emotional commitment:..........................................10 Other approach to family in conflict perspective................................................5 Legitimacy of children:................................................................................................................................................. ii Table of Contents.1 Structural Functional Perspective............................................................................................................................................................. 6 Structure of family..5 What is family?......................................................................7 Sources of conflict in family..............................................................Table of Contents ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS.......... 13 Electronic Source..............................................................................................................................3 Symbolic Interactionist Perspective ................ 13 Books..................................................................................................................

Newton developed the laws of gravity after observing that apples always fall down. p. The Social Experience: An Introduction to sociology.and will make a critical evaluation of the theory. L. 3 Zanden. & Hunt.” or sometimes a “paradigm. never up. 15. Sociology. Imran Ahmad Sajid Page 1 . (1984). James. and contributing towards the survival of society as a whole-the organic whole. V. Exploring Marriage and the Family. Wilfrid. Jane Howard1 The views of sociologists differ on family. We are who 1 Knox. (1990). Singapore: McGraw Hill book company. Illinois. New York: McGraw-Hill Inc. Kroehler. By contrast... call it a tribe. all scientists assume that the universe is orderly. 4 Horton. 373. D. First we will present a brief of various sociological perspective then we will differentiate between family and marriage.”4 Sociological perspective is a lens through which sociologist views the society. P. and call it a family. 358. 7th Ed. and operates in certain regular ways which we may be able to discover. call it a network. 3. B. an “approach. C. When we have completed this we will be talking about our subject matter-family in conflict perspective. Sociology: The Core. M. P. The basic insight of sociology is that human behavior is shaped by the groups to which people belong and by the social interaction that take place within those groups. P. the ancient Greeks believed that the universe was run according to the whims of the gods. socialization. Thus. assignment of role and status etc. p. Scott Foresman and Company. McGraw Hill Inc. (2005). 3 This assignment is about the second view or perspective on the family.. 6th ed. Factionalists view Family as a need for performing certain essential tasks such as reproduction.Conflict Perspective on Family as a Social Institution Call it a clan. you need one. C. Perspectives in Sociology In order to study anything. For example. (1979). Whatever you call it. 2 Hughes. though both are co-related. whoever you are. 2 While conflict theorists look at family as a class society in miniature where one class (men) oppressing another class (women). one must begin by making some assumptions about the nature of what is studied. A working set of assumptions is called a “perspective.

They focus on the parts of society and identify the structural characteristics of each part much as biologists describe the principal features of the body’s organs. From http://www. Retrieved 30. The sociological imagination allows us to stand apart mentally from our limited experience and see the link between private concerns and social issues. It encourages us to take a new look at the world we have always taken for granted. They then determine what the functions of each part are. New York: McGraw Hill company. P. people see the world through their limited experience of a small orbit of family. 19. It will be better to have a brief look on these perspectives. J. Structural Functional Perspective Structural-functionalist or functionalist take a broad view of society and focus on macro aspect of social life. symbolic-interaction perspective. M. I. Without the sociological perspective (which has been called the "sociological imagination"). The sociological perspective invites us to look at our familiar surroundings in a fresh way. Cf. They view society as a set of elements or components that are related to one another in a more or less stable fashion through a period of time. Sociology also helps us understand ourselves better.6 Social institutions are viewed as structural parts of society performing various essential tasks and meeting some needs of the society. & Kroehler. social exchange perspective and feminist perspective which originated from conflict perspective. Imran Ahmad Sajid Page 2 .edu/CMS/display. as something "natural. Family is a structural component of the 5 Robertson. (2005) Sociology: The core. to examine our social environment with the same curiosity that we might bring to an exotic foreign culture. friends." But the sociological perspective enables us to see society as a temporary social product. Geneseo State university of New York. Our world view is shaped by our personal experience and since people with different social experiences have different definitions of social reality. (1981). It permits us to trace the connection between the patterns and events of our own and the patterns and events of our society.Conflict Perspective on Family as a Social Institution we are and we behave the way we do because we happen to live in a particular society at a particular point in space and time.5 The prominent perspectives in sociology are structural-functional perspective. People tend to accept their social world unquestioningly. Sociology.geneseo.. created by human beings and capable of being changed by them as well. New York. co-workers. conflict perspective. C. May 2008. Worth Publishers.php?page=8431&dpt=sociology 6 Hughes. sociology helps us to appreciate viewpoints other than our own and to understand how these viewpoints came into being. 7th Ed.

op cit. P. a lineup a ticket window. Conflict theorists stress that the society is composed of two conflicting groups and classes. 21. B. and most importantly. M. (2005). gesture.9 The interactionist perspective is more concerned with the micro or small-scale aspects of social life. C. 17. we respond to things in our environment on the basis of their meanings. Sociology. they hold. wealth. & Hunt. Second. which functionalist see as glue for holding society together. but emerge from social interaction. L. 15.” “no. meanings are not inherent in things. they respond to meanings they impute to the things and happenings around them. nationalities and even the sexes. Conflict theorists see society as in a continuous sate of conflict between groups and classes. is the scarcity of the resources people require e. P. C. The shared values.g. They noted that people interact mainly through symbols. & Kroehler. because we are continually interacting. Singapore: McGraw Hill book company.. a traffic light. First. 8 Symbolic Interactionist Perspective Symbolic interactionism is base on three core assumptions. Society. Thus “yes. Society is held together through the power of dominant groups or classes. P. They concentrate their attention on interaction between individuals and groups.7 The source of conflict in society.. is organized due to the consensus on some core values. shared cultural meanings are continually emerging and changing. They also view the family 7 Horton. through written and spoken words. J.. B. races. (1984). do no really form true consensus. but it becomes a word when people reach agreement that this noise carries a special meaning.” “go.” and thousands of other sounds became symbols as meaning is attached to each. which include signs. instead this is an artificial consensus in which the dominant groups or classes impose their values and rules upon rest of the people. 9 ibid 10 Horton. & Hunt. P. Conflict Perspective Conflict perspective focuses their attention on society as a whole. P. 8 Hughes. prestige and power are always in limited supply and their gain for on e individual and group are often associated with losses for others. L. The word has no inherent meaning. (1984).Conflict Perspective on Family as a Social Institution society and performs certain essential functions. The struggle for power and income is a continuous process but one in which many categories of people appear as opponents-classes. 6th ed. Op cit. contributing to the survival of society as a whole-the organic whole. Third. It is simply a noise. C. Imran Ahmad Sajid Page 3 . they hold. People do not respond to the world directly. 10 This assignment is on conflict theory on family as a social institution.

Redmond. cooperate economically. and may give birth to.13 Most marriages involve public announcement and are undertaken with the hope of permanence. Before this discussion on family we have to be familiar with what we call the family. P. established by a civil or religious ceremony. either written or specified by tradition. Illinois: Scott Foresman and Company. B. P. (2009). New York: Wadsworth Publishing Company. Some more aspects of marriage need exploration. between two people who intend to live together as sexual and domestic partners. to any children they may have. It begins with a ceremony known as a wedding. adopt or rear children. A marriage is a legally recognized union between a man and a woman in which they are united sexually. who commit to one another with the expectation of a stable and lasting intimate relationship. 10. 3.11 We may assume that marriage is something we are all familiar with and that every one agrees on what marriage is. In most contemporary industrialized societies. 12 Strong. A marital relationship usually involves some kind of contract. marriage is certified by the government. what are its various forms and patterns and what is the difference between marriage and family. Exploring Marriage and the Family. 12 A more simple definition has been given by David Knox that Marriage is a social relationship in which two adults of the opposite sex make an emotional and legal commitment to live together. [Marriage is] a legally recognized relationship. Imran Ahmad Sajid Page 4 .Conflict Perspective on Family as a Social Institution institution not as a functional part of the society but a class society in miniature where one group is oppressing the other group. WA: Microsoft Corporation. What is Marriage and what is Family? Marriage and family are two different but correlated things. 7th Ed. Marriage. 11 Skolnick. et al.. It is a legal relationship between spouses. 13 Knox. A. which defines the partners’ rights and obligations to each other. and to their relatives. Let’s define marriage. The union is assumed to be permanent (although in reality it may be dissolved b separation or divorce). Microsoft® Encarta® 2009 [DVD]. (1979). What is Marriage? Marriage [is a] socially recognized and approved union between individuals. which formally unites the marriage partners. Subsequent children of the union are socially and legally recognized as legitimate. The Marriage and Family Experience. D. (1998).

14 Legal commitment: Marriage also involves a legal contract.” It means marriage is a relationship sought by two people who want to share their lives together. Illinois: Scott Foresman and Company. Both husband and wife sign this contract.” Marriage represents a point after which there is no easy turning back. P. Exploring Marriage and the Family. • The typical obligations assumed by the wife are.” And “till death do us part. It is a common saying that “don’t leave husband’s house until you are dead. • Live where the husband decides • Perform household and domestic duties • Have sexual relations with her husband • Total responsibility for child care In exchange the husband must provide food. The “Nikah Nama” is a legal document and a proof of that contract. This contract can be dissolved when they want to dissolve it. It can be through various formal and informal means. So at its basis marriage is an emotional commitment to share time and space together.16 Legitimacy of children: The children born to the couple are socially and legally approved as legitimate and are given due respect as compared to the invalid and illegitimate children born to the non-married. 15 ibid 16 ibid Imran Ahmad Sajid Page 5 .Conflict Perspective on Family as a Social Institution Emotional commitment: Most people say they want to be married because they are “in love. Marriage is one way of helping to ensure that in future some one will be caring about you and you will be caring in return. (1979). 15 Public announcement: The news of marriage is publicized before the event of marriage. D. clothing and shelter and many of the amenities of life to wife and children. 14 Knox. It is a relationship which provides stable feelings of belongingness. 5. Hope for permanence: The marriage is the most binding commitment ever made by couples.

18 Strong. Pop. step siblings.18 Family is a more or less durable association of husband and wife with or without children. No matter how you define a family. Lahore: Publishers Emporium. 8. P. mother in law. 14. Imran Ahmad Sajid Page 6 . B. who may share a common dwelling place and who may rear children. But the nuclear family is merely an idea or model we have about families. remarriage or adoption. living alone in a comfortable home. et al. half siblings. (2005). J. 7th Ed. cooperate economically and care for young. marriage or adoption20.Conflict Perspective on Family as a Social Institution What is family? What is the family? This question causes trouble not only for students on the family but for experts too. P. & Kroehler. father in law. great grand parents. C. Many of us think family as a social unit consisting of married couple and their children. The major reason that we have difficulty defining family is that we feel “real family” is the nuclear family or the traditional family. Structure of family Like all other social institutions. family is a system of accepted norms and procedures for getting some important jobs done. or adoption and live together. (1979). M. basic characteristics of family is that there is an intimate relationship among its members and that they have strong sense of belonging together. grand father. father. The Marriage and Family Experience. The traditional family is the middle class nuclear family in which women’s primary roles are wife and mother and men’s husband and bread winner. Most sociologist view family as a social group whose members are related by ancestry. uncles. son.17 When you ask people who they include as a family member? The list will include. step father. Most family members are related by descent.. 330. marriage. grand mother. or affiliation who cooperate economically. 19 It is a group of two or more person who are related by blood. P. sibling. A more contemporary definition is one or more adults related by blood. 296. A family may be 17 Hughes. Traditional family exist more in imagination than in reality. Mom. op cit. 20 Knox. we compare all other family forms against these models. Op cit. M. step mother. Because we believe that traditional family is the “real family”. mother. (1998). and Kids. nephew. foster parents. marriage. Sociology: An Introduction. The term family is used in so many ways.. [alphabetically] aunt. marriage. cousin. P. 19 Shahid. niece. But this definition is too restrictive. daughter. D. New York: Wadsworth Publishing Company. (1998). foster child. S.

Family is seen a social arrangement benefiting some people more than others. et al. is seen as a class society in miniature. Fredrick Engel contented that marriage was the first form of class antagonism in which the well being of one group 21 Horton. functions.’ conflict theorist seem to believe that “what is. is good.”21 Our major concern is the conflict perspective on family institution.Conflict Perspective on Family as a Social Institution • A group with common ancestors • A kinship group unite by blood or marriage • A married couple with or without children • An unmarried couple with children • One person with children. P. & Hunt. Functionalists also view family as a society in miniature whose different members performs various essential tasks contributing for the survival of the whole family. Op cit. Conflict theorist see society not as basically cooperative but as divided.but we will discuss our subject matter-the conflict perspective. 232. types of family. 22 They view society as divided between conflicting groups with conflicting goals and interests.B. They try to identify the competing forces within society. Conflict theory in sociology has its roots in the work of Karl Marx. Family has so many dimensions-forms of family. (1987). Husband is a bread winner and wife takes care of the children and performs domestic tasks.L. 22 Strong. divorce and many others. Where as functionalist tend to believe that “what is. with individuals and groups in conflict with each other. Imran Ahmad Sajid Page 7 . Op cit. Conflict perspective on family Perspective or theory is a set of general principles or concepts used to explain data and to make predictions that may be empirically tested. Family. 55. C. P. B. (1998). is wrong.. in conflict perspective. P. A more sociological definition of family is.. “a kinship grouping which provide for the rearing of children and for certain other human needs.” Conflict theory holds that life involves discord. But to conflict theorist family is compose of conflicting classes-one class (men) oppressing the other class (women).

they think it is a natural part of family life. The motivation for sexual pleasure was the economic exploitation of woman’s labour. Families always have disagreements.”24 Family is a group of people with differences. such as husband wants to buy T. and goals. according to conflict theorists. to major ones. They forbid you to carry out your plan.23 Sources of conflict in family How can we analyze marriages and families in terms of conflict and power? Marriage and family relationships are base on love and affection. Imran Ahmad Sajid Page 8 . sex and personalities.Conflict Perspective on Family as a Social Institution derived from misery and oppression of another. Imagine that you are living at home and want to do something your parents don’t want you to do. Pp. “As long as you live in this house. such as what to cook for dinner.V. you will have to do what we say. But they believe that conflict and power are also fundamental. Therefore the occurrence of conflict is quite natural.in age. p. Why did your parents win the disagreement? They did so because they had greater power. from small ones. and the nature and extent of the expression of conflict. C.” You argue with them. et al. such as how to rear children. and employed mother wants to divide housework fifty-fifty. Each person is not always in harmony with every other person in the family.. 54-55. Conflict theorists do not believe that conflict is bad. Op cit. B. set and a wife wants to pay off credit cards. instead. (1998). 7th Ed. New York: McGraw-Hill Inc. Conflict can also occur because of different role expectations. Kroehler. Conflict can take the form of competing goals. but in the end you stay home.. Families differ in the number of underlying conflicts of interest. tastes. the degree of underlying hostility. ideas. aren’t they? Conflict theorist would agree that love and affection are important elements in marriages and families. (2005). such as spend the week-end with a friend they don’t like. M. 23 Hughes. 359. Family relationships = love & affection + conflict and power Marriages and families are composed of individuals with different personalities. but her husband insists that household chores are “women’s work. Sociology: The Core. values. 24 Strong.

Physical coercion is another important source of power.. you will get a spanking” is one of the most common forms of coercion of children. the belief that the person is entitled to prevail by right. Pp. Finally. Four important sources of power are. It is a powerful source in marriages and families.” These appeals are based on legitimacy-that is. Every one in family has power. as in “if you really loved me. (1998). Because parents have greater economic power-man particularly. B. But adolescents also have power through the exercise of personal charm. 54-55. The second source of power is money.25 25 Strong. there is the power of love. for example. temper tantrums. ingratiating habits. • Legitimacy • Money • Physical coercion and • Love When arguments arise in a family. have few economic resources. “If you don’t do as I tell you. as in the case of a person’s giving up something important. This dependency gives the parents power. But physical abuse of a spouse is also common. who wins? Family members have different resources and amount of power. desire. Those family members who earn a greater sum of family earnings have greater power than those who earn less or do not earn at all.” is a directive based on the power of the purse.” Or love can be a freely given gift.Conflict Perspective on Family as a Social Institution Source of power in family When conflict occurs. “As long as you live in this house…. This is one source of power in family. you’d do what I ask. Love can be used to coerce someone emotionally. a man may want his way “because I am the head of the house” or a parent “because I am your mother. to enhance a relationship. this economic power translates into marital power. wheedling. so they must depend on their parents. et al. although the power may be different and unequal. Adolescent children. and so on. or career. such as a plan. Op cit. Imran Ahmad Sajid Page 9 .

women have been taken as a sexual property. they became potentially free to negotiate their own sexual relationships. Men are keeping women as slave in their houses in various shapes. they have gained the resources to challenge the double standard. Now for women to get these resources and maximize her bargaining power. But women found that within the free marriage market they had to trade their sexuality for the economic and status resources of men. Now that women’s bargaining position has improved due to economic and political changes in recent years. freeing themselves from economic dependence on men. and considered the property of their husbands. New York: McGraw Hill Inc. As men have much greater economic resources and status in the society. According to Collins. Women have been victimized by smaller size and their vulnerability as child bearers.Conflict Perspective on Family as a Social Institution Woman as sexual property Sociologist Randall Collins says that historically men have been the “sexual aggressors” and women the “sexual prizes for men. (1990). Over entire history. and aggressiveness.” Males are dominant due to their greater strength. used by their fathers in economic bargaining. 26 Zanden. The Social experience: an introduction to sociology. J. taken as booty in war. & Wilfrid. The husband in return provides food and fiber. so that an element of sexual repression was built into courtship ties. size. A woman’s virginity was the property of her father and her sexuality the property of her husband. In conflict perspective the wife’s only duty is fulfill the sexual requirement and provide sexual pleasure to her husband. 373. and women were placed on a pedestal.. Marriage becomes a socially enforced contract of sexual property. 26 Family as Domestic Slavery of Women Engel concluded that family is a system of domestic slavery of women. They claim exclusive sexual rights to a woman much in the manner that they determine access to economic property like buildings and land and other elements of property. When they are no longer dependent on and under control of their fathers. Imran Ahmad Sajid Page 10 . Under such an arrangement. The sexual bargains they strike can focus less upon marriage and more upon immediate entertainment. She has to hold her sexuality in reserve as a sort of grand prize that she exchanges for male wealth and status. companionship and sexual gratification. P. As wife her sexuality is limited by men to only her husband. V. femininity and female virginity came to be idealized. she has to appear both as sexually alluring and as inaccessible as possible. men have ordered society so that women are their sexual property.

They see family members as confronting two conflicting demands. both would become the same. authority. including family systems and marital interactions.Conflict Perspective on Family as a Social Institution Therefore they stress that women should be set free so that they can in a better position for their sexual bargaining. and outsiders are not always aware of whatever conflict exists or how 27 Zanden. The feminist perspective emerged from this conflict perspective. Other approach to family in conflict perspective Although conflict theory emerged from the ideas of Friedrich Engels and Karl Marx. tolerated or appreciated. conflict theory derives from politics. Families live much of their lives privately. Differences can also be accepted. They contended that intimae relationships inevitably involve antagonism as well as love. and competition are dominant elements. V. Third. conflict in families is not easily measured or evaluated. & Wilfrid J. A number of difficulties arise in conflict theory. (1990). every social arrangement. Don’t we? Second. and simultaneously to share one another’s fate in order to survive and even flourish. conflict theorists assume that differences lead to conflict. we may even sacrifice our lives for a loved one. P. Differences do not necessarily imply conflict. The intimacy among family members is not a positive phenomena but a tool in the members hand to dominate other members. We often make sacrifice for the sake of those we love. Sigmund Freud and Georg Simmel also advanced a conflict approach to the family. First. There is nothing good in the society. 373. every social grouping and stratification. More recently. We will defer our own wishes to another’s desires.. other social scientists have approached the issue of family somewhat differently. Imran Ahmad Sajid Page 11 . to compete with one another for autonomy. Love is an important quality in relationships. yet the presence of love and bonding may distinguish the family from all other groups in society. Conflict theorists don’t often talk about the power of love or bonding. People’s behavior is also characterized by self-sacrifice and cooperation. Just think that who cooperate with each other? Whether without differences would there be cooperation? If there won’t be any difference. 27 Critique on Conflict perspective on Family This theory seems to see whatever is there in the society. in which self-interest. Even the loving couples and the caring parents are not good. Op cit. egotism. and privilege. with whom would you cooperate?. sociologists have suggested that conflict is a part of all systems and interactions. is wrong.

for aged and other dependent members of the family? Of course State does share some responsibility but the primary responsibility of protection of the children and aged is a family responsibility. much overt conflict is avoided because it is regulated through family and societal rules. If the parents do not allow their children to do a particular work.28 Fourth.Conflict Perspective on Family as a Social Institution pervasive it is. To conflict theorist families should not be established. according to conflict perspective woman is a sexual property and she exchanges her sexuality in return for wealth and status. Who will take care of children. How stupid to think that our mother. The parents have to socialize their children in a particular way so that they become a normal member of the society. (1998). Opcit. don not employ violence. Conclusion Pointing to the conclusion. 28 Strong B. It is the family which provides emotional support. etal. 55-56. Most children obey their parents. It is family where one finds enduring sympathy in time of trouble. It is the family in which one can found unjealous joy over his or her success. Imran Ahmad Sajid Page 12 . sister. although they may argue heatedly. and wife are our slaves. it is not oppression but it is for their own betterment. sisters or aged people? What will they do? If women get the freedom to make sexual relationships as they want and the men are free from women responsibility. What for daughters. Pp. Also. family is not a social arrangement to oppress one group by the other group. daughter. and most spouses. Family institution is a domestic slavery for women. Does it make any sense? I see family as a functional component of the society performing key role in socialization of the children and many other essential tasks.

I. Sociology: An Introduction. B.edu/CMS/display. M. Scott Foresman and Company. New York: McGraw Hill Inc.. (1979). 7th ed. May 2008. Singapore: McGraw Hill book Companies Inc. D. Shahid. C. & Wilfrid. Geneseo State university of New York. Mumbai: Sheth Publishers Pvt. Ltd. Contemporary Issues of Indian Society. et al. (1996). B.. (1998). V. Illinois. London: Open Education Press. from http://www. (1984). M. & Kroehler. S. New York: McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. (1990).php?page=8431&dpt=sociology Imran Ahmad Sajid Page 13 . Sociology.. (1998). Retrieved 30.L. Strong. The Social Experience: An Introduction to Sociology. McKie. Violence and Social Change. Karnad. (2005). Electronic Source Internet Websites Robertson. Hughes. Exploring Marriage and the Family.Conflict Perspective on Family as a Social Institution References Books Horton. P. (2005). Sociology: The Core. J. C. New York: Wadsworth Publishing Company. Families. 7th ed. Lahore: Publishers Emporium.. (1981). S.geneseo. L. & Hunt. New York. 6th ed. Zanden. Sociology. Knox. Cf. Worth Publishers. The Marriage and Family Experience.

Redmond. Marriage. (2009). Microsoft® Encarta® 2009 [DVD]. Imran Ahmad Sajid Page 14 . WA: Microsoft Corporation.Conflict Perspective on Family as a Social Institution DVD Encyclopedia Skolnick. A.