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Tables of Contents
Acknowledgement...................................................................................................... 2 Introduction................................................................................................................ 3 Function...................................................................................................................... 4 Types.......................................................................................................................... 5 Inkjet Printer............................................................................................................5 Consumables........................................................................................................5 Resolution Quality................................................................................................5 Wide-Format Printers...........................................................................................5 Continuous Ink vs. Drop on Demand....................................................................5 Continuous Inkjet Technology..............................................................................6 Thermal Drop on Demand Method.......................................................................7 Drop on Demand Printheads................................................................................7 Letter Size............................................................................................................ 8 Larger Paper.........................................................................................................8 The Largest..........................................................................................................9 Laser printer............................................................................................................9 Resolution and Features.......................................................................................9 Small, Medium and Large.....................................................................................9 Color.....................................................................................................................9 Laser-Class........................................................................................................... 9 History..................................................................................................................9 The Laser Mechanism.........................................................................................10 The LaserJet....................................................................................................... 10 Midrange Laser Printer.......................................................................................11 Continuous Forms Laser Printing........................................................................12

.................................................... 14 Dual-Mode Printer........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 15 Maintenance.....12 Thermal Printer ......................................................................................................12 Dual-Mode Printers..........................................................................14 Direct Thermal Printer......................................................................................................................15 Conclusion............................16 Acknowledgement ...2 The Versatile Network Printer............ 15 Bibliography.............................................12 Thermal Transfer Printing..............................................................................................13 Bar Code Printing.............................................................................................................................................12 Thermal Wax Transfer Printer........................................15 Technology..............................................................................................................................................................................14 Benefits...............................................................................................

Introduction Printers are output devices that print the result of an operation on paper.3 We take this opportunity to express our gratitude to all concerned on the successful completion of the project. A printer is capable of . guidance and support. We would like to thank Mrs. Kavita Kapur for giving us this opportunity to do the project and her unconditional help.

the direction of printing. impact printers and non-impact printers. the print head comes in direct contact with the paper. On a non-impact printer. and the kind of interface they have with the computer. Printers are classified based on a number of parameters. the type is formed without the print head coming into direct physical contact with the paper. from their functionality to their benefits. we will talk about nonimpact printer. It is also capable of printing straight lines and simple figures like squares. the speed of printing. Function On an impact printer.4 producing output that contains printed words. the quality of output. . There are two main types of printers. like the mechanism used for printing. In this project. and circles. rectangles.

Wide-Format Printers Large wide-format inkjet printers are used to produce final output for commercial posters and banners. Inkjet printers run the gamut from less than a hundred to a couple hundred dollars for home use to tens of thousands of dollars for commercial poster printers. because they do not absorb the ink like regular copy paper. Inkjet Printer A printer that propels droplets of ink directly onto the medium. For color quality. examine text samples. Although still used. Canon and others heats a resistor that forces a droplet of ink out of the nozzles by creating an air bubble in the ink chamber. Graphics always look better than text. The thermal method used by HP.5 Types Types of non-impact printers include: ink-jet. Low-end inkjets use three ink colors (cyan. laser and thermal printers. Such printers can print on vinyl and textiles as well as paper. most inkjets use the drop on demand method. you have to replace the entire four-color unit when you run out of black. Drop on Demand The first inkjet mechanism that was developed sprays a continuous stream of droplets that are aimed onto the paper. Continuous Ink vs. Today. but produce a composite black that is often muddy. . Ink and paper costs are ongoing. Resolution Quality For resolution quality. and their quality is extraordinary. although costly. if the black ink does not come in a separate cartridge. not graphics. Wide-format printers have also replaced pen plotters that used to "draw" engineering and architectural renderings. almost all inkjet printers produce color. which must be taken into consideration. greatly improve the printed results. Coated specialty papers. Consumables The cost of ink cartridges for low-priced printers can make the less-expensive inkjet model more costly in the long run. which forces a drop of ink out of a chamber by heat or electricity. magenta and yellow). Epson and others use a piezoelectric technique that charges crystals which expand and "jet" the ink. be sure that samples from different models are printed on the same kind of paper. For example. Four-color inkjets (CMYK) use black ink for pure black printing.

The charging tunnel selectively charges the drops that are deflected into the gutter. The uncharged droplets make it to the paper. The diagram depicts a single nozzle. . The nozzle uses a piezoelectric crystal to synchronize the chaotic droplets that arrive from the pump.6 Continuous Inkjet Technology This method sprays continuous droplets of ink that either reach the paper or wind up in the return gutter.

Canon and others. droplets of ink are forced out of the nozzle by heating a resistor. When the bubble collapses. Drop on Demand Printheads There are two ways to "jet" the ink in drop on demand systems. Used by HP. The thermal method heats a resistor and expands an air bubble.7 Thermal Drop on Demand Method The thermal drop on demand inkjet technology is very popular. the droplet breaks off and the system returns to its original state. which causes an air bubble to expand. . The piezoelectric method charges crystals that expand.

which popularized the inkjet printer and helped bring prices down for the home and small business. . Larger Paper Many inkjet printers can print on large paper. This is one of HP's earlier DeskJets.8 Letter Size The majority of desktop inkjet printers support standard letter-size or legal-size paper. This earlier unit from Tally handled cut sheets up to 17" wide.

and electron beam imaging (ion deposition) creates the image with electricity rather than light. At the other end of the spectrum. the model 3800. LED printers use an array of LEDs to beam the image onto the drum. Large printers may use paper rolls that are cut after printing. which rapidly became a huge success and a major part of the company's business. stapling and 3-hole punching may be available. while typical office workgroup units print 17 to 32 ppm. HP introduced the LaserJet. Small. with a large jump to high-end printers that print from 150 to more than 1. Solid ink printers propel a wax like ink onto the drum. attractive graphics to be created one at a time. Medium and Large Low-end laser printers print in the 4 to 8 ppm range. enabling large. Laser printer A printer that uses a laser and the electrophotographic method to print a full page at a time. History In 1975. The laser "paints" a charged drum with light. but specialty printers can reach image setter resolution of 2400 dpi.9 The Largest Wide format inkjet printers such as shown here in VUTEk's datacenter have revolutionized the printing industry. Later. but not dot matrix printers. Siemens came out with the ND 2 and Xerox with the 9700. the first desktop laser printer. Desktop laser printers use cut sheets like a copy machine. typically in the 4 to 10 ppm range.000 ppm. In 1984. Such machines support up to eight colors and can print on a variety of media. but do not actually use a laser. Options such as duplex printing (both sides) as well as collation. These self-contained printing presses were online to a mainframe or offline. accepting print image data on tape or disk. Laser-Class There are several technologies that fall into the laser category. Desktop lasers made the clackety daisy wheel printers obsolete. which are still widely used for labels and multipart forms. Color Color lasers are slower than their monochrome counterparts. Resolution and Features Laser printer resolution is typically from 300 to 1200 dpi. Midrange units print in the 40-60 ppm range. including vinyl and textiles. to which toner is applied and then transferred onto paper. . producing finished booklets and manuals. high-end "digital printing presses" can print 70 or more duplexed color pages per minute. IBM introduced the first laser printer.

the charge is dissipated. The LaserJet's reliability became legendary and caused HP to become the world leader in desktop laser printers. (2) adhere toner to the image. . The laser creates the image by "painting" a negative of the page to be printed on the charged drum. Where light falls. The LaserJet Noisier than today's models. but built like a tank. (3) transfer the toned image to the paper. and (4) fuse the toner to the paper. leaving a positive image to be printed.10 The Laser Mechanism The laser printer uses electrostatic charges to (1) create an image on the drum. HP created a revolution in desktop printing with its 1984 introduction of the LaserJet.

11 Midrange Laser Printer This Dataproducts printer prints up to 60 ppm and uses a unique drum system. The drum lasts for a million pages. . because it contains 10 sleeves in the cylinder.000 pages to advance the drum sleeve. The unit does not have to be stopped except once each 100.

Thermal transfer printers produce shades of colors by placing color dots side by side. but rather than laying down a transparent die.12 Continuous Forms Laser Printing This Printronix printer uses continuous forms. The Versatile Network Printer This Xerox printer offers paper handling options. from ordinary paper to complex synthetics and film. . a huge amount of paper can be printed without operator intervention. but do not produce photorealistic quality. Continuous forms printers provide tighter registration over cut sheets and support non-standard paper sizes. consumables (ribbon and paper) are also less expensive. Printing faster than dye sublimation. it melts dots of wax-based ink that adhere to almost any kind of stock. Dual-Mode Printers Some printers allow swapping of both thermal wax and dye sublimation ribbons so that the wax can be used for draft quality and the dye for final output. Thermal Printer Thermal Wax Transfer Printer A printer that uses the same printing mechanism as a dye sublimation printer. In addition. including an envelope feeder (middle) and private collator (top) that keeps sensitive documents locked in bins that must be opened with a password.

. and dots of ink are transferred to the paper. When the paper and ribbon are passed by the printhead.13 Thermal Transfer Printing Monochrome ribbons contain a black ink panel the same size as each page being printed. the ribbon is heated. while color ribbons contain panels for each color.

to medium-resolution printer that uses a type of coated paper that darkens when heat is applied to it. Using a thermal wax ribbon for draft quality and dye sublimation ribbon for final output. This monochrome Printronix printer makes labels on demand or turns out large batches when required. Direct Thermal Printer A low. making it suitable for bar code and other kinds of labels. the printer supported media up to 12x20". The paper is passed by a line of heating elements that burn dots onto the paper. It was widely used in early fax machines. Dual-Mode Printer FARGO came out with this dual-mode printer in the mid-1990s.14 Bar Code Printing Wax-based ink will adhere to almost any kind of media. This is typically used in bar code printers and other small specialty printers. .

For some inkjet printers. monochrome ink sets are available either from the printer manufacturer or third-party suppliers. These allow the inkjet printer to compete with the silver-based photographic papers traditionally used in black-and-white photography. Technology Non-impact printers use either solid or liquid cartridge-based ink. such as photographs. The unit handled media up to 4. This ink is either sprayed. dye sublimations. Maintenance Non-impact printers typically require little maintenance beyond replacing the print or toner cartridges. smoother details through higher printhead resolution. Laser printers are available in black and white or color (used for graphics). Print quality and cost/page are going top be your main differences. and many consumer inkjets with photographic-quality printing are widely available. . or uneven ink with a laser toner printer. we might need a laser printer. Benefits Non-impact printers offer better print quality. "warm" or "cold". inkjets have the advantage of practically no warm up time and lower cost per page (except when compared to laser printers). In comparison to more expensive technologies like thermal wax. it is necessary to flush out the old ink from the print head with a cleaning cartridge. Ink prices for non-impact printers are relatively inexpensive. dripped or electrostatically drawn onto the page. Conclusion Non-impact printers present many advantages over impact printers. Ink-jet printers offer a nice compromise between print quality and price. and provide the same range of tones – neutral. smudging. Laser toner printer cartridges can be replaced for lesser money per page printed. inkjets are quieter in operation than impact dot matrix or daisywheel printers.15 This earlier printer from Datamax was designed to print bar code labels and other point-of-sale tickets and tags.6x12" and thermal wax transfer capability could be field installable. Compared to earlier consumer-oriented color printers. When switching between full-color and monochrome ink sets. faster printing and the ability to create prints that contain sophisticated graphics. We get a much higher quality print with no smearing. They can print finer. and laser printers. If speed and quality are more important than cost. on the high side.

htm .ort.yourdictionary.ehow.html http://en.org/wiki/Printer_(computing) http://doit.org/course/output/314.16 Bibliography http://www.wikipedia.com/facts_5016954_nonimpact-printer.com/computer/printer http://www.

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