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Flawless mobile experiences with Nokia IP Anyhaul

Application note
As mobile architectures and technologies change to deliver more speed, lower latency and ubiquitous
connectivity to millions of users and devices, 5G is the next step in the wireless evolution. However, it’s less
a step than a quantum leap that brings significant improvements over the previous generations of mobile
in key areas such as network bandwidth, latency and reliability.
To help deliver flawless user experiences, mobile transport also needs to evolve. That is why Nokia has
expanded our portfolio of IP/MPLS routers with products that have been designed and optimized for
further mobile evolution to 5G.
Learn how the Nokia IP Anyhaul portfolio can address all aspects of mobile transport and extend the life
of infrastructure investment to LTE and beyond–on the path to 5G.

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The mobile landscape 4

Major mobile network changes are underway 4
Changes in RAN 5
Changes in packet core 5
Changes in content delivery networks 5
5G: A catalyst driving full network transformation 6
New transport for 5G 6
Transport network requirements for 5G 7
Using IP technology to consolidate many domains 8
Nokia IP Anyhaul 9
Portfolio components 9
Ready for 5G 10
Beyond mobile transport 11
Nokia–a trusted partner 12
What’s next for your network? 12
Abbreviations 13

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The mobile landscape
Mobile technologies and architectures are changing to deliver more speed, lower latency and ubiquitous
connectivity to millions of users and devices. 5G is the next step in the wireless evolution—but it’s much
more, 5G is a quantum leap that brings significant improvements over the previous generations of mobile
in key areas such as network bandwidth, latency and reliability.
In addition to these 5G promises, use of video and new applications such as augmented reality (AR) and
virtual reality (VR) are further fueling mobile users’ demand. Our expectations for new services are growing.
To help deliver flawless user experiences, mobile transport also needs to evolve. That is why Nokia has
expanded our industry-leading portfolio of IP/MPLS routers with products that have been designed and
optimized for further mobile evolution to 5G.
With the latest enhancements, our IP mobile transport portfolio, IP Anyhaul, is geared to address all
aspects of mobile transport: fronthaul, midhaul and backhaul. IP Anyhaul can eliminate bottlenecks and
meet new demands for capacity, efficiency and services. Scalable and compatible, it extends the life of
infrastructure investment to LTE and beyond–on the path to 5G.
With Nokia IP Anyhaul, communications service providers (CSPs), and in particular those focused on mobile
services - mobile network operators (MNOs) can create value for their customers by being among the first
to support new 5G use cases, such as ultra broadband connectivity, massive Internet of Things (IoT), and
ultra-reliable, low-latency applications.

Major mobile network changes are underway

Mobile network operators (MNOs) have always been focused on improving network coverage and capacity
to provide improved connectivity for users and devices. In LTE-Advanced (LTE-A), these efforts have mainly
been in the areas of macro and small cell densification using technologies such as carrier aggregation and
coordinated multipoint.
In addition to improved connectivity and higher speeds, user experience is equally dependent on low
latency, especially for new, real-time and interactive applications such as augmented reality (AR) and virtual
reality (VR). To address the issue of latency, new products have been designed and created—but more
fundamental changes are required.
In response, network architecture changes (see Figure 1) are happening even before the arrival of 5G
New Radio (5G NR) and 5G Core Network (5GC) technologies. These changes are complementary to major
improvements that 5G is bringing.

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Figure 1. Major architectural changes in mobile networks

Packet Core
• Distributed
• Virtualized
Mobile • Cloud-native

• Densification
• Virtualization Content
• From D-RAN to • From video to AR/VR
C-RAN and Cloud RAN • Moving closer to users/devices

Changes in RAN
Radio access network (RAN) technology is evolving from distributed to centralized and cloud architectures.
Centralization and “cloudification” of baseband processing need to achieve both technical and
economic benefits.
The use of Common Public Radio Interface (CPRI™) protocol over optical fronthaul for transport is not as
cost-effective and bandwidth-efficient for large-scale network deployments, and particularly for the new
radio technologies on the path to 5G. Ongoing activities toward more efficient and scalable RAN solutions
envisage the use of low-latency Ethernet transport for fronthaul. Standardization and early trials using
packet-based fronthaul are underway.
It is expected that, as we evolve towards 5G, a wide range of RAN options will coexist, driving higher
demands for service characteristics that will further impact the fronthaul, midhaul and backhaul parts
of the transport network.

Changes in packet core

In mobile packet core, we have already witnessed evolution in the form of virtualization of packet core
functions. Now, a major shift toward the next evolutionary step in virtualization—the adoption of a cloud-
native approach (such as in Nokia Cloud Packet Core)—is happening.
These advancements allow network slicing and distribution of packet core functions across the network,
to improve network performance and extend the efficiency of packet core by supporting many concurrent
applications and use cases.

Changes in content delivery networks

Application and content servers are finding their place in mobile cloud (data centers), and content is
shifting closer to users. A very important industry initiative, largely led by Nokia—Multi-Access Edge
Computing (MEC)—is gaining momentum and is further shaping the architecture of mobile networks.
MEC can quickly process content at the very edge of the mobile network, delivering an experience that
is ultra-responsive because latency is significantly reduced.
The introduction of MEC clouds also drives new requirements for the underlying transport network.
To improve transport layer capabilities, automated, network-wide cloud interconnectivity is needed.

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5G: A catalyst driving full network transformation
5G has become the hottest topic in the industry, with first 5G standards specifications finalized by 3GPP in
December 2017 and June 2018, and many trials already in progress. The wide range of 5G subjects include:
• Spectrum and related regulatory and licensing issues regarding 5G NR and 5GC
• Options for integration with existing LTE networks
• Network slicing: The partitioning of mobile network resources for a specific application, use case
or customer (or customer segment/type)
• Evolution from all-IP to service-oriented architecture (SOA).
5G represents a significant step forward in the evolution of mobile networks and wireless technology.
However, it is shaping up to be much more than a set of specifications for new radio access and a new packet
core. It is arriving after many network functions have been virtualized, and as software defined networking
(SDN) capabilities are becoming a must-have. And it is coming at a time of tectonic changes in the RAN and
packet core, driven by advances across all networking technologies, including massive cloudification.
Use cases based on ultra-reliable low-latency applications and on the use of video and new applications
such as AR and VR are further fueling demand for 5G capabilities.
5G also brings the focus on new and improved use and business cases such as 5G-enabled enterprises,
industries and vertical sectors, smart cities, and fixed-wireless access for rural broadband–which are
needed to justify substantial investment in 5G and make it a success.
Many agree that 5G is a trigger for much larger network transformation that affects not only the RAN and
packet core but also drives a complete overhaul of the network. As such, 5G requires significant changes
across the mobile transport, cloud, application and service fulfillment domains.
The mobile transport network needs to stay in step with the evolution of all these technologies—or even
to evolve first—to facilitate the introduction of new mobile RAN and core capabilities and pave the way for
the smooth introduction of 5G.

New transport for 5G

Mobile technologies and architectures are changing to help 5G deliver on its main promises: more speed,
lower latency and ubiquitous connectivity to millions of users and devices.
Service providers are already thinking about how they should rearrange, upgrade and integrate new RAN
and packet core elements. Many are also starting to see 5G as a major decision point that demands a
re-examination of bigger networking topics: which technologies to choose for the future, which network
architectures to deploy, and which network and business strategies to embrace.
The transport network is a critical part of the end-to-end 5G solution. It is the unifying network fabric that
must deliver new performance levels, reach and capabilities to address demanding new requirements.
Service providers will not be able to tackle 5G’s business and technological challenges without first tackling
transport. If this layer cannot flex to meet all these new demands on the path to 5G, it will compromise
QoS and the end-user experience. This, in turn, may undermine service providers’ revenues, growth
potential and ability to innovate.
Leading service providers are already transforming their networks in preparation for 5G.

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Transport network requirements for 5G
Let’s look at how 5G requirements are driving new transport network capabilities, and what is expected
of the transport network in the 5G era.
Extreme bandwidth for enhanced mobile broadband (eMBB) demands a new generation of terabit-capacity
networking products that can support multigigabit cell site connectivity and network-facing interfaces that
provide link speeds up to 100 GE. These products must be delivered in a variety of compact form factors
and must support temperature hardening for outdoor applications.
Low latency
Low latency in the transport network is seen as an infrastructure enabler that will facilitate the functional
split in the RAN and the evolution to packet-based fronthaul. It is also seen as an enabler of new types of
applications, including MEC and AR/VR. The transport network requires a new generation of hardware and
software that can support end-to-end delay targets below 10 ms.
Enhanced QoS
Enhanced QoS is not just another set of QoS levels for 5G. It introduces the need to support parallel
business cases for eMBB, ultra-reliable low latency communications (uRLLC) and massive machine-type-
communications (mMTC) along with network slicing, a major new 5G capability. To meet these needs, the
transport network must be ready to deal with multiservice traffic that may come from several mobile
generations at the same time. The network must also allow service providers to customize and optimize
services according to demanding SLA requirements for a diverse range of new applications. These
capabilities exist in many wireline networks but they are new in the mobile environment.
Dynamic interconnectivity
Dynamic interconnectivity refers to new, flexible and agile ways of connecting physical and virtualized
network functions as well as diverse and distributed sets of network parts and domains, such as RAN,
packet core, mobile cloud data centers and MEC. To support dynamic interconnectivity, the transport
network must complement new product capabilities such as programmability with innovative new
networking techniques.
Improved network synchronization
Improved network synchronization capabilities are required to support the more stringent timing,
frequency and phase synchronization requirements of 5G. The transport network must provide robust
and flexible timing options (e.g., GNSS, SyncE, IEEE1588v2 and BITS) that are suitable for many network
approaches and topologies.
Built-in network security
Built-in network security capabilities are required as an intrinsic part of the secure-by-design approach to
product and network design, not as an afterthought. The network needs to be able to protect and secure
its much larger attack surface and surgically filter out harmful traffic at the perimeter.
Programmability has become an essential network attribute. Networks need to be programmable to
support SDN-based control and automation and gain the agility and flexibility required for techniques
such as network slicing.

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To meet 5G requirements, mobile transport will need to interconnect many network elements and domains
(see Figure 2).

Figure 2. 5G transport: Interconnecting many network elements and domains


Optical Virtualized Distributed MEC Internet

fronthaul BBU packet core (break-out)


CU Packet core
LTE/3G/2G (5GC, EPC)
5G-era mobile
transport network
5G eNodeB
NodeB Cloud apps, Internet
BTS content


5G NR – 5G new radio CU – centralized unit MEC – Multi-access Edge Computing

Enterprises 5GC – 5G core DU – distributed unit NodeB – 3G base station
Residential users BSC – base station controller (2G) EPC – Evolved Packet Core RNC – radio network controller (3G)
BTS – base transceiver station (BSC) eNB – Evolved Node B (4G/LTE) RRH – remote radio head
BBU – baseband unit gNB – next-generation NodeB (5G) RU – radio unit

Using IP technology to consolidate many domains

Each service provider has a unique set of network constraints and requirements. Most providers use a
mix of transport technologies. That is why it is of paramount importance to have the ability to weave
all transport options—microwave, optical, Ethernet/IP and broadband access—into a single network
architecture that can be holistically managed and operationalized.
The combination of 5G transport requirements already discussed is driving many service providers to
consolidate their transport capabilities around one networking paradigm—IP networking, capable of
seamlessly weaving all network domains into one, all-IP environment.
Mobile networks have effectively been all-IP networks since the Evolved Packet Core was introduced for
LTE. This means that all interfaces in the 4G/LTE/LTE-A architecture are based on IP protocols. Given that
an immense number of end-user devices use IP as their communication technology, it is easy to see why
centering the transport network around the IP networking paradigm is a good choice. IP-based mobile
transport provides a solid foundation for end-to-end, cost-efficient control of all network resources. At the
same time, IP-based mobile transport provides full operational transparency to all-IP services that run in
the network.
IP networking—which is really a combination of IP, MPLS and segment routing—can also efficiently address
many important dimensions, including control plane, data plane, management plane, QoS and traffic
management, synchronization and security.

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Nokia IP Anyhaul
The Nokia IP Anyhaul solution (see Figure 3) is a part of Nokia’s full solution for the evolution of mobile
transport, encompassing IP, optical, microwave and broadband access technologies, called Nokia Anyhaul.

Figure 3. Nokia IP Anyhaul: Enabling dynamic interconnectivity of many diverse elements and domains in
5G era





Cloud apps,

Nokia IP Anyhaul
Packet Core

Portfolio components
Nokia IP Anyhaul provides an industry-leading portfolio of IP/MPLS products specifically designed and
optimized for IP mobile transport. Featuring high throughput, improved port densities, high scalability
and sophisticated QoS capabilities, IP Anyhaul also provides low latency and built-in resilience
(e.g., synchronization and security).
With our IP Anyhaul portfolio expansion, Nokia addresses operators’ immediate needs for traffic growth
and major architectural changes on the path to 5G while allowing existing customers to maximize their
investment in mobile transport.
Nokia IP Anyhaul addresses 5G requirements by bringing together several families of industry-leading IP
products with new and advanced architectures, and high-performance chassis-based platforms powered
by Nokia’s in-house, terabit-capacity FP4 IP silicon.
As shown in Figure 4, the Nokia IP Anyhaul Portfolio consists of:
• Nokia 7210 Service Access Switch (SAS)
• Nokia 7705 Service Aggregation Router (SAR)
• Nokia 7250 Interconnect Router (IXR)
• Nokia 7750 Service Router (SR and SR-s product families)
• Nokia Virtualized Service Router (VSR).
All of these products use a common operating system, the Nokia Service Router Operating System
(SR OS); this makes deployment much easier and ensures uniformity and consistency of operations
across the whole portfolio.

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The IP Anyhaul portfolio is managed by the Nokia Network Services Platform (NSP), which provides SDN-
automated provisioning, network optimization and dynamic assurance. The Nokia NSP significantly improves
the ability of MNOs to quickly address changing market requirements and deliver premium broadband services.

Figure 4. Nokia IP Anyhaul portfolio

7750 SR
3.0 Tb/s network

7210 SAS 7705 SAR 7250 IXR

7750 SR-1s 7750 SR-2s 7750 SR-7s 7750 SR-14s

7705 SAR-H
7210 SAS-R12 7210 SAS-Sx 10/100GE 7705 SAR-18
7250 IXR-s

7210 SAS-Sx 1/10GE 7705 SAR-8

7210 SAS-R6 7705 SAR-Hc

7210 SAS-Mxp 7210 SAS-S 1/10GE 7705 SAR-X

7250 IXR-6
7705 SAR-Hm

7210 SAS-T 7210 SAS-Sx SONET/SDH 7705 SAR-M 7750 SR-1 7750 SR-7 7750 SR-12 7750 SR-12e
7705 SAR-O
7250 IXR-e
7210 SAS-D 7210 SAS-K12 7705 SAR-Ax

7210 SAS-K5 7210 SAS-K30 7705 SAR-A 7705 SAR-Wx 7250 IXR-10 7250 IXR-R6

7750 SR-a4/7750 SR-a8 7750 SR-1e/7750 SR-2e/7750 SR-3e


Ready for 5G
Nokia’s expanded IP Anyhaul portfolio delivers 5G-ready features and support for next-generation
interfaces such as Ethernet fronthaul.
• Capacity – Terabit capacity with high-speed interfaces and high port densities is delivered in a variety
of form factors and includes compact, extended-temperature-range platforms.
• Latency – New product architectures with improved processing capabilities deliver shorter packet
processing times and allow for flexible deployment options such as cost-effective transport of both
low-latency and bursty traffic.
• Enhanced QoS – Improved packet processing, queuing and traffic engineering capabilities significantly
improve the end-user experience. Coupled with multiservice capabilities, enhanced QoS becomes a
foundation to build many new use cases.
• Interconnectivity – A wide choice of protocols supported over legacy (SDH/SONET) and next-generation
Ethernet interfaces (1GE/10GE/100GE) promotes interconnectivity.
• Synchronization – Built-in, redundant options for GNSS, SyncE/IEEE1588v2 and BITS deliver synchronization.
• Security – Efficient, high-bandwidth IPsec and MACsec plus use of VPNs provide traffic and resource isolation.
• Programmability and automation – The NSP which manages the IP Anyhaul portfolio, enabling MNOs to
quickly address changing market requirements and deliver premium broadband services.

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Beyond mobile transport
The transport layer must match new 5G radio and core capabilities and seamlessly and cost-efficiently
interconnect radio access, core, and cloud-distributed applications and content. It must also allow for
growth and further evolution because it may take more than a decade for the “next-G” to arrive.
IP Anyhaul provides key network capabilities and will play a critical role in delivering on the full set of 5G
promises—but it also has a role to play beyond mobile transport.
The IP Anyhaul portfolio is suitable for any network, any transport role/function and any location. As a
result, it’s possible to create a robust, all-IP transport layer that can sustain massive network traffic growth
while supporting the efficient delivery of 5G cloud-enabled services. In addition, IP Anyhaul can handle
multiservice diversity with ease, and extend the transport benefits delivered for 5G to other services–
enterprise, residential and wireline.
As shown in Figure 5, IP Anyhaul can improve transport capabilities across the whole network, providing:
• Multigigabit cell site connectivity through additions to the 7210 SAS and 7250 IXR product families
(e.g., 7210 SAS-K30, 7250 IXR-R6 and 7250 IXR-s)
• Dynamic interconnectivity through:
– 7250 IXR product family; the 7250 IXR-6/10 is designed and optimized for cloud data center
applications; the 7250 IXR-R6 targets anyhaul interconnectivity applications
– Nokia’s innovative solution for automated, multi-domain connectivity of network functions located
across the network in distributed cloud data centers: Nokia Network Functions Interconnect (NF-IX)
• High-performance aggregation through the widely deployed Service Router SR/SR-s product families,
now powered by the FP4 processor.

Figure 5. IP Anyhaul for improved transport across the whole network

SDN automation and optimization


vRAN Distributed Internet

Ethernet packet core
N*10GE N*10GE
1 Multigigabit
Optical connectivity to cell sites
fronthaul N*10GE N*100GE Cloud
LTE/LTE-A apps 2 Dynamic interconnectivity
RRH BBU IP router
IP router IP router Packet 3 High-performance
Core aggregation
2 3
Distributed RAN N*10GE Internet
BTS IP router
Node B
eNB 1

After the IP Anyhaul solution is put in place for your 5G transport, its capabilities can be extended beyond
5G transport needs.
IP Anyhaul is capable of efficiently transporting all mobile generations and technologies (2G, 3G, 4G/LTE,
5G) over a common IP transport layer.

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The capabilities of IP Anyhaul can also be extended to your converged network operations: you can leverage
the IP Anyhaul network for your other services, such as enterprise, residential and private networks.
Wireline-only operators seeking to remain competitive can use IP Anyhaul to reimagine their networks and
address new service frontiers, leveraging new network capabilities such as high reliability or low latency.

Nokia–a trusted partner

The expanded Nokia IP Anyhaul portfolio is a continuation of our decades-long commitment to excellence
in mobile transport networks.
IP Anyhaul is deployed in hundreds of networks worldwide, including all major North American mobile
networks. Our expanded IP Anyhaul portfolio supports agile and cost-effective evolution to 5G with
maximum investment protection.
Nokia IP Anyhaul is the industry’s most comprehensive portfolio of purpose-built IP/MPLS mobile transport
platforms. Our commitment to continuous innovation makes us an ideal partner for delivering ultra-
broadband services, supporting growing IoT applications, and evolving to 5G.
With Nokia, mobile operators can rest assured that their investment will safely accommodate future
growth. We complement our product offering with a full set of services to help our customers plan, build,
integrate and operate mobile anyhaul networks with a holistic view of the entire network. Our global reach,
expertise, operational consistency and agility make us a trusted partner.

What’s next for your network?

IP networking is increasingly used in the network transport layer as a single, unifying standard. It’s an
essential building block to create an all-IP environment that ensures transparency for all IP services. And it
can optimize existing network operations while providing a flexible platform that’s ready for the demanding
5G era.
To discover more about Nokia IP Anyhaul for your journey to 5G and beyond, click here.
For more information please contact us.

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5GC 5G Core Network
AR augmented reality
BITS Building Integrated Timing Supply
C-RAN centralized RAN
D-RAN distributed RAN
eMBB enhanced mobile broadband
GNSS Global Navigation Satellite System
Ipsec IP security
LTE-A Long Term Evolution-Advanced
MACsec media access control security
MEC Multi-access Edge Computing
mMTC massive machine-type communications
MPLS Multiprotocol Label Switching
NR New Radio
QoS quality of service
RAN radio access network
SDH Synchronous Digital Hierarchy
SDN software defined networking
SLA Service Level Agreement
SOA service oriented architecture
SONET Synchronous Optical Network
SyncE Synchronous Ethernet
uRLLC ultra reliable low latency communications
VPN virtual private network
VR virtual reality

About Nokia
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From the enabling infrastructure for 5G and the Internet of Things, to emerging applications in digital health, we are shaping the future of technology to transform
the human experience.

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© 2018 Nokia

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Document code: SR1807025749EN (August) CID 205507