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Definiendo la psicología de los grupos 23

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24 Psicología de los grupos

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Definiendo la psicología de los grupos 25

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26 Psicología de los grupos

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Definiendo la psicología de los grupos 27

Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, Journal of Experimental Social


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SRUXQREMHWRHVSHFtILFRVLQRTXHFRQVWLWXLUtDXQDIRUPDHVSHFtILFD\~QLFDGH
DERUGDUORVSURFHVRVVRFLDOHV\SVLFROyJLFRV<DTXHODSVLFRORJtDVRFLDO³QRVH
GHILQHSRUXQWHUULWRULRVLQRSRUXQSXQWRGHYLVWD\HVHSXQWRGHYLVWDWUDGLFLRQDO
PHQWHKDVLGRFDUDFWHUL]DGRFRPRHOGHODLQWHUDFFLyQVRFLDO´ &UHVSRS
 
2SWDQGRSRUXQDSRVWXUDHQHOHQWUHVLMRGHODVLGHDVTXHFRQIRUPDQHOGHEDWH
HQWRUQRDODGHILQLFLyQGHODSVLFRORJtDVRFLDOVHSXHGHQGHVWDFDUODVSRVWXUDVGH
1HZFRPE  &DUWZULJKW  'RLVH  0RVFRYLFL  \7XUQHU
 SDUDFRQFOXLUFRQXQDGHILQLFLyQGHOFRQFHSWRGH interacción social
28 Psicología de los grupos

'HVGH&RROH\\SURFODPDGRLQVLVWHQWHPHQWHSRUHOLQWHUDFFLRQLVPRVLPEy
OLFRGH0HDG  HOVHUKXPDQR\ODVRFLHGDGVRQLQGLYLVLEOHVVHFRQVWULxHQ
PXWXDPHQWH3RUHVRXQFRQFHSWRRWHRUtDVHUtDSVLFRVRFLDOHQODPHGLGDHQTXH
KDJDUHIHUHQFLDDO individuo\DOD sociedad 1HZFRPE (OLQGLYLGXRVyOR
H[LVWHHQODVRFLHGDG\WRGDVRFLHGDGHVWiFRPSXHVWDSRUXQDPXOWLWXGGHLQGLYL
GXRV(VWROHOOHYDD0RVFRYLFL  DDILUPDUTXHODSVLFRORJtDVRFLDOVHUtD la
ciencia del conflicto entre el individuo y la sociedad (la sociedad externa y la
sociedad que lleva dentro)3HURSDUD0RVFRYLFLORPiVHVHQFLDOGHODSVLFRORJtD
VRFLDOVHUtDVXIRUPDGHREVHUYDUORVIHQyPHQRVSVLFRVRFLDOHVVXSHUDQGRXQD lec-
tura binaria WDOFRPRODKDFHQODSVLFRORJtD\ODVRFLRORJtD \DSOLFDUXQDlectura
ternaria GHORVKHFKRV\ODVUHODFLRQHVSVLFRVRFLDOHV$VtSXHVODSVLFRORJtDVR
FLDOQRVHGLVWLQJXLUtDWDQWRSRUGHGLFDUVHDXQWHUULWRULRHQFRQFUHWRREMHWRPDWH
ULDOFRPRSRUXQHQIRTXHTXHOHHVSURSLR
/DSVLFRORJtD\ODVRFLRORJtDVHJ~Q0RVFRYLFL  DOHPSOHDUXQDOHFWX
UDELQDULDVHSDUDQHOVXMHWR\HOREMHWRTXHGDQGRGHILQLGRVLQGHSHQGLHQWHPHQWHHO
XQRGHORWUR/DSVLFRORJtDVHFHQWUDSRUXQDSDUWHHQHOLQGLYLGXR ego \SRURWUD
SDUWHHQHOREMHWR3RUHMHPSORSDUDORVSVLFyORJRVFRQGXFWLVWDVHOLQWHUpVVHFHQ
WUDUtDHQGHWHUPLQDUODVUHVSXHVWDVTXHGDHOLQGLYLGXRDQWHFLHUWRVHVWtPXORV\VL
HVWRVHVWtPXORVVRQRWUDVSHUVRQDVHVWDUtDPRVDQWHHVWtPXORVVRFLDOHV\SRUWDQWR
HQHOiUHDGHODSVLFRORJtDVRFLDOFRQGXFWLVWD/DVRFLRORJtDWDPELpQXWLOL]DXQ
HVTXHPDELQDULR(OVXMHWR\DQRVHUtDHOLQGLYLGXRVLQRXQDFROHFWLYLGDG JUXSR
FODVHVRFLDOPXOWLWXGGHVXMHWRV \HOREMHWRSRVHHUtDXQYDORUVRFLDOSXGLHQGR
HVWDUFRQVWLWXLGRSRURWUDVSHUVRQDVJUXSRVHWF&XDQGRXQSVLFyORJRVRFLDODSOLFD
XQHVTXHPDELQDULRFRPRORKDFHODSVLFRORJtD\ODVRFLRORJtDHVWDUtDUHGXFLHQGROD
SVLFRORJtDVRFLDOMXVWDPHQWHGHVGHHVHiPELWRUHVSHFWLYR
/DSHFXOLDULGDGGHODOHFWXUDWHUQDULDFRQVLVWLUtDHQVXVWLWXLUHOHVTXHPDEL
QDULRSRURWURHVTXHPDFRQWUHVWpUPLQRV sujeto individual-sujeto social-objeto
WDPELpQH[SUHVDGR Ego-Alter-Objeto /DUHODFLyQGHORVVXMHWRVFRQHOREMHWR
SRGUtDVHUWDQWRHVWiWLFD XQDVLPSOHcopresencia FRPRGLQiPLFD interacción (O
alter LQGLYLGXRRJUXSR SRGUtDVHUUHDORLPDJLQDULRDVtFRPRVLPLODURGLIHUHQWH
DOSURSLR ego<HVWRVXSRQHXQDPHGLDFLyQFRQVWDQWHSRUSDUWHGHO alter3DUD
0RVFRYLFL  ³DTXtODUHODFLyQHQWUH Ego\ ObjetoHVWiPHGLDGDSRUODLQWHU
YHQFLyQGHRWURVXMHWRHVWDUHODFLyQHVWULDQJXODU\FRPSOHMDHQODTXHFDGDXQRGH
ORVPLHPEURVHVWRWDOPHQWHGHWHUPLQDGRSRUORVRWURVGRV´ S 
&XDQGRHOalterHVVHPHMDQWHDOegoVHHVWXGLDHQSVLFRORJtDVRFLDODWUDYpV
GHODVRFLDOL]DFLyQGHODFRPSDUDFLyQVRFLDOODSUHVLyQVRFLDOHWF&XDQGRHOalter
HVGLIHUHQWHODSVLFRORJtDVRFLDOORHVWXGLDDWUDYpVGHODLQQRYDFLyQHWF&XDQGRHO
alterLQWHUYLHQHGHIRUPDHVWiWLFDFRQVXVLPSOHSUHVHQFLDVHSXHGHPRGLILFDUOD
FRQGXFWDGHOego6XLQWHUYHQFLyQGLQiPLFDFRQVLVWLUtDHQODFUHDFLyQGHXQPHGLR
VRFLDOItVLFRRSVLFROyJLFRTXHGHWHUPLQDODLQWHUDFFLyQHQWUHORVVXMHWRVLQWHUYL
QLHQWHV1RH[LVWLUtDSRUWDQWRVyORGLDOpFWLFDVXMHWRREMHWRVLQRLQWHUDFFLyQHQWUH
Definiendo la psicología de los grupos 29

VXMHWRV HJRDOWHU TXHVHFRQVWLWX\HQFRPRWDOHVHQHOPLVPRSURFHVRGHFRPXQL


FDFLyQHQWUHHOORV
/DSURSXHVWDGH0RVFRYLFL  GHXQDSVLFRORJtDVRFLDO sistemáticaTXH
VHDMXVWDDXQHVTXHPDWHUQDULRFDUDFWHUtVWLFRGHODSHUVSHFWLYDJHQXLQDPHQWHSVL
FRVRFLDOVHRSRQGUtDDODSVLFRORJtDVRFLDOtaxonómica TXHLQWHQWDKDOODUGLIHUHQ
FLDVHQWUHORVHVWtPXORVSDUDGHWHUPLQDUFyPRLQIOX\HQHQHOLQGLYLGXR \DODSVL
FRORJtDVRFLDOdiferencial TXHEXVFDODVGLIHUHQFLDVSVLFROyJLFDVGHORVLQGLYLGXRV
SDUDH[SOLFDUVXUHDFFLyQDORVGLYHUVRVHVWtPXORV \DTXHDPEDVDGRSWDUtDQXQ
HVTXHPDELQDULR
/RsocialSDUD0RVFRYLFL  LUtDPXFKRPiVDOOiGH la simple presen-
cia del otro(QHVWHFDVRWDQUHVWULFWLYRODSVLFRORJtDVRFLDOVyORHVWXGLDUtDODV
UHODFLRQHVLQWHULQGLYLGXDOHV(OFRQFHSWRGHORsocialKDUtDUHIHUHQFLDDODVFDUDFWH
UtVWLFDVLQWHUQDVGHODVRFLHGDGFDUDFWHUtVWLFDVHVWUXFWXUDOHVQRVXVFHSWLEOHVGHVHU
GHILQLGDVSRUODVFDUDFWHUtVWLFDVLQGLYLGXDOHVGHORVVXMHWRV(VDHVWUXFWXUDHVWDUtD
GHWHUPLQDGDSRUORVSURFHVRVGHSURGXFFLyQ\FRQVXPRULWXDOHVVtPERORVLQVWLWX
FLRQHVQRUPDV\YDORUHV3DUDH[SOLFDU\FRPSUHQGHUHOFRPSRUWDPLHQWRSVLFRVR
FLDOKXPDQRTXHHVXQFRPSRUWDPLHQWRVLPEyOLFRQRVyORVHKDGHDWHQGHUDORV
SURFHVRVEiVLFRVSVLFRVRFLDOHV FRPRSRUHMHPSORODFRPXQLFDFLyQODLQIOXHQFLD
ODDWUDFFLyQ TXHVHSURGXFHQHQXQHVSDFLRUHODFLRQDOHQWUHGRVDFWRUHVFRPR
PtQLPRVLQRTXHDGHPiVVHKDGHFRQVLGHUDUTXHVHSURGXFHQHQXQFRQWH[WR
VRFLDOGHWHUPLQDGRSRUODGLPHQVLyQGHDFXOWXUDFLyQ SRUODFXDOODVWUDGLFLRQHV
FRVWXPEUHVYDORUHVDFWLWXGHVHWFVHLQFRUSRUDQDORLQGLYLGXDO \SRUODGLPHQ
VLyQLQVWLWXFLRQDO SRUODFXDOODDFFLyQKXPDQDVHFDQDOL]DHQHOVLVWHPDVRFLDO
*DU]yQ\5RGUtJXH] 
&RQVLGHUDGDFRPRXQDGHODVUDPDVIXQGDPHQWDOHVGHODSVLFRORJtDODSVL
FRORJtDVRFLDOHVGHILQLGDSRU7XUQHU  FRPRODFLHQFLDGHORVDVSHFWRVVRFLD
OHVGHODYLGDPHQWDOHVWRHVFRPR la ciencia de la mente y de la sociedad3DUD
7XUQHUODSVLFRORJtDVRFLDOQRVHUtDODFLHQFLDGHODFRQGXFWDVRFLDO\DTXHRWUDV
FLHQFLDVFRPRODELRORJtDODKLVWRULDODOLQJtVWLFDHWFVHRFXSDQGHODFRQGXFWD
6LODSVLFRORJtDVRFLDOVHKDGHGLFDGRDHVWXGLDUODFRQGXFWDVRFLDOKDVLGRHQUHIH
UHQFLDDODPHQWH&RPRDILUPD7XUQHU  ³HOWHPDFHQWUDOGHODSVLFRORJtD
LQFOX\HQGRGHQWURGHpVWDODSVLFRORJtDVRFLDOQRHVODFRQGXFWDVLQRODPHQWHRVL
VHSUHILHUHODFRQGXFWDFRPRH[SUHVLyQGHODPHQWH´ S 'HLJXDOPRGROD
SVLFRORJtDVRFLDOQRVHGHGLFDUtDDOHVWXGLRGHODVRFLHGDGRGHODVLQVWLWXFLRQHV
VRFLDOHV/DSVLFRORJtDVRFLDOQRVHUtDXQWLSRGHVRFLRORJtDQLGHHFRQRPtDQLGH
SROtWLFD VLELHQH[LVWHXQDWUDGLFLyQGHWUDEDMRVRFLRSVLFROyJLFRHQVRFLRORJtD 
/RVVRFLyORJRVORVHFRQRPLVWDVORVDQWURSyORJRVHWFQRVHSUHRFXSDQSRUORV
IHQyPHQRVPHQWDOHVQLSRUHOIXQFLRQDPLHQWRGHODPHQWHLQGLYLGXDO3RUHOFRQ
WUDULRORVSVLFyORJRVVRFLDOHVWLHQHQFRPRREMHWRIXQGDPHQWDOGHLQYHVWLJDFLyQHO
IXQFLRQDPLHQWRGHODPHQWHLQGLYLGXDOHQVRFLHGDG6HJ~Q7XUQHU  ³ODSVL
FRORJtDVRFLDODGRSWDHOVXSXHVWRVHJ~QHOFXDOH[LVWHQSURFHVRVSVLFROyJLFRV HV
30 Psicología de los grupos

GHFLUSURFHVRVPHQWDOHVGHSHUFLELUVHQWLUSHQVDUUHFRUGDUHYDOXDUHWF TXH
GHWHUPLQDQODIRUPDHQTXHIXQFLRQDODVRFLHGDG\ODIRUPDHQTXHWLHQHOXJDUOD
LQWHUDFFLyQVRFLDO7DPELpQDGRSWDHOVXSXHVWRVHJ~QHOFXDOORVSURFHVRVVRFLDOHV
DVXYH]GHWHUPLQDQODVFDUDFWHUtVWLFDVGHODSVLFRORJtDKXPDQD(VHVWDGHWHUPLQD
FLyQPXWXDGHPHQWH\VRFLHGDGORTXHHVWXGLDQORVSVLFyORJRVVRFLDOHV´ S 
(QHOPLVPRVHQWLGR7XUQHU  H[SUHVDTXH³HOFRPHWLGRGHODSVLFROR
JtDVRFLDOFRPRSDUWHGHODSVLFRORJtD FLHQFLDGHORVSURFHVRVPHQWDOHVLQGLYLGXD
OHV QRHVSURSRUFLRQDUH[SOLFDFLRQHVVRFLDOHVGHODFRQGXFWD HVWRORSXHGHKDFHU
ODVRFLRORJtDODSROtWLFDHWF QLIDFLOLWDUµH[SOLFDFLRQHVSVLFROyJLFDV¶GHODFRQ
GXFWDVRFLDORVHDµSVLFRORJL]DUOD¶VLQRHQH[SOLFDUORVDVSHFWRVSVLFROyJLFRVGHOD
VRFLHGDG(VWRVLJQLILFDFRPSUHQGHUODVHVWUXFWXUDV\ORVSURFHVRVPHGLDQWHORV
TXHODVRFLHGDGHVUHSUHVHQWDGDGHVGHHOSXQWRGHYLVWDSVLFROyJLFRHQODVPHQWHV
LQGLYLGXDOHV\PHGLDGDSRUHOODV/DVPHQWHVLQGLYLGXDOHVQRVRQLQGLYLGXDOLVWDVHQ
HOVHQWLGRLGHROyJLFRGHTXHGDUGHILQLGDVPHGLDQWHDOJXQDGLQiPLFDSVLFROyJLFD
SUHVRFLDOVLQRVRFLDOPHQWHHVWUXFWXUDGDVODVRFLHGDGHVWiHQORVLQGLYLGXRVFRPR
ORVLQGLYLGXRVHQODVRFLHGDG´ S 3DUD7XUQHU  SXHVORHVHQFLDOGHOD
SVLFRORJtDVRFLDOXQDYH]DFHSWDGDODUHDOLGDGGHORVSURFHVRVVRFLDOHV\ODUHDOLGDG
GHORVSURFHVRVSVLFROyJLFRVVHUtDHQFRQWUDUODIRUPDGHFRPSUHQGHU\FRQFHSWXD
OL]DUORVSURFHVRVSVLFROyJLFRVHQLQWHUDFFLyQFRQODDFWLYLGDGVRFLDO
(QHVWHPLVPRVHQWLGRVHH[SUHVD&DUWZULJKW  DODILUPDUTXHODSVLFR
ORJtDVRFLDOHVXQiUHDGHODVFLHQFLDVVRFLDOHVTXHLQWHQWDH[SOLFDUFyPRODVRFLHGDG
LQIOX\HDODFRJQLFLyQPRWLYDFLyQGHVDUUROOR\FRQGXFWDGHORVLQGLYLGXRV\DVX
YH]HVODVRFLHGDGLQIOXLGDSRUHOORV/DVFRQGXFWDVVRFLDOHVVHGDQHQXQDPELHQWH
VRFLDOSRUHOTXHKD\TXHHQWHQGHUWRGRVHVRVUDVJRVGHOPXQGRH[WHUQRTXHLQIOX\HQ
DODFRQGXFWDVRFLDOWDOHVFRPRODVUHGHVVRFLDOHVJUXSRVRUJDQL]DFLRQHVHVWUXF
WXUDVRFLDOUROHVQRUPDVSUHVLyQVRFLDODSR\RVRFLDOGHEHUHV\REOLJDFLRQHV
/DHYROXFLyQGHODFRQFHSFLyQGHODSVLFRORJtDVRFLDOSXHGHDQDOL]DUVHD
WUDYpVGHOFRQFHSWRGHinteracción social6LQHPEDUJRHVWHFRQFHSWRQRHVXQtYR
FRVLQRSROLVpPLFRUHSOHWRGHGLVHQVR\REMHWRGHUHGXFFLRQLVPR3HURHODILUPDU
TXHODSVLFRORJtDVRFLDOKDGHWHQHUFRPRIXQFLyQDQDOL]DUODVUHODFLRQHVHQWUHHO
LQGLYLGXR\ODVRFLHGDGQRVUHPLWHLUUHYRFDEOHPHQWHDFRQWUDVWDUORVGLVWLQWRVVLJ
QLILFDGRVGHOFRQFHSWRGHLQWHUDFFLyQVRFLDO
3DUDODSVLFRORJtDVRFLDOFRQGXFWLVWDODLQWHUDFFLyQVRFLDOTXHGDUHGXFLGDD
XQVLPSOHSURFHVRGHUHDFFLyQVRFLDOHQHOTXHHOVHUKXPDQRHVFRQFHELGRFRPR
XQHQWHSDVLYR&RPRODSVLFRORJtDVRFLDOWHQGUtDFRPRREMHWRGHHVWXGLRODUHV
SXHVWDTXHHPLWHQORVLQGLYLGXRVDQWHXQHVWtPXORVRFLDO )+$OOSRUWHWF 
ODLQWHUDFFLyQVRFLDOHVSHUFLELGDGHVGHXQSODQRXQLGLUHFFLRQDOVLQTXHVXUMDHO
FDUiFWHUGHUHFLSURFLGDGFDUDFWHUtVWLFR\QHFHVDULRSDUDODSUHFLVDFRQFHSFLyQGHO
WpUPLQR
([LVWHRWURHQIRTXHGHOWpUPLQR interacción socialFRQFHELGD\HQWHQGLGD
FRPREXFOHFDXVDORHQHVSLUDO$Vt0DLVRQQHXYH  DILUPDTXHVHSURGXFH
Definiendo la psicología de los grupos 31

LQWHUDFFLyQVRFLDOFXDQGRXQDXQLGDGGHDFFLyQSURGXFLGDSRUXQVXMHWR$LQWHUYLH
QHFRPRHVWtPXORGHXQDXQLGDGGHUHVSXHVWDHQRWURVXMHWR%\YLFHYHUVDHVWRHV
FXDQGRODUHVSXHVWDGH%VHFRQVWLWX\HHQXQHVWtPXORSDUD$\DVtVXFHVLYDPHQWH
(VWDFRQFHSFLyQGHLQWHUDFFLyQUHSURGXFHGHIRUPDGLQiPLFDHOHVTXHPD(5DQWHV
FULWLFDGR
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LQGLYLGXRDLVODGRVHXQLUtDFRQRWURVHQEDVHDODVDWLVIDFFLyQGHQHFHVLGDGHVLQWHU
GHSHQGLHQWHV$VtVLODSVLFRORJtDHVWXGLDDOLQGLYLGXR\ODVRFLRORJtDDODVPDVDV
ODSVLFRORJtDVRFLDOWHQGUtDTXHHVWXGLDUHODQiOLVLVGHODVGtDGDVRGHORVPLHPEURV
GHORVJUXSRV
8QDGHILQLFLyQPiVDFRUGHFRQODSHUVSHFWLYDSVLFRVRFLDOGHODLQWHUDFFLyQ
VRFLDOHVODSURSRUFLRQDGDSRU'H0RQWPROOLQ  WDOFRPRYLHQHUHFRJLGDSRU
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SHUFHSFLyQGHOVXMHWRVHPRGLILFDSRUODH[SHFWDWLYDGHUHFLSURFLGDGKDEUtDLQWHUDF
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UHSUHVHQWDFLyQGHORVRWURVFRPRPLHPEURVSHUWHQHFLHQWHVDJUXSRV\RUJDQL]DFLR
QHVFRQVXVQRUPDVYDORUHVFRVWXPEUHVUROHVHVWDWXVHWF'HVGHHVWDySWLFDOD
LQWHUDFFLyQVRFLDOQRVHUtDODVXPDGHODVSDUWHVVLQRXQSURFHVRLQWHJUDGRU\FUHD
GRUGHQXHYDVSDXWDVGHFRPSRUWDPLHQWR/DVSDUWHVTXHLQWHUYLHQHQHQODLQWHUDF
FLyQVRFLDOTXHSXHGHVHUUHDORVLPEyOLFDLPSRQHQVXSURSLDSRVLFLyQ\DODYH]
UHFLEHQODSRVLFLyQGHORVRWURVGHILQLHQGRGHPRGRGLIHUHQWHODVUHODFLRQHVH[LV
WHQWHV\ORVVLJQLILFDGRVGHORVKHFKRV/DLQWHUDFFLyQVRFLDOVHGDHQXQFRQWH[WR
VRFLDO\SVLFROyJLFR\WLHQHODFDSDFLGDGGHFRQVWUXLUQXHYDVUHDOLGDGHVHQFDGDXQR
GHORVSDUWLFLSDQWHVGHGLFKDLQWHUDFFLyQ/DLQWHUDFFLyQVRFLDOSXHVTXHVHFRQV
WUX\HLQWHUVXEMHWLYDPHQWHWLHQHOXJDUHQXQHQWRUQRFXOWXUDO\HQXQHQWRUQRVRFLDO
(VGHFLUHOHQWRUQRVRFLDOLPSOLFDTXHODVUHODFLRQHVHVWiQHVWUXFWXUDGDVSRUORV
SURSLRVSURFHVRV\HVWUXFWXUDGHJUXSRTXHSRUODSURSLDLQWHUDFFLyQVRFLDOSXHGH
LU UH FRQVWUX\HQGR\FDPELDQGRVXVSURSLRVVLJQLILFDGRVHQWUHORVLQGLYLGXRV\ORV
JUXSRV&RPRORH[SUHVD3pUH]  EDViQGRVHHQ0RVFRYLFL  ³VHVXSR
QHGHHVWDIRUPDTXHFXDQGRODVRFLHGDGVHLQVHUWDHQHOLQGLYLGXRpVWH\DWLHQHHQ
pOµRWUDVRFLHGDG¶TXHOHSURWHJH\YLFHYHUVDFXDQGRHOLQGLYLGXRYDDFUHDUOD
VRFLHGDG\DKD\RWURLQGLYLGXRTXHODFUHy(VWHDFRSODPLHQWRUHFtSURFRUHVXOWDGR
GHFRQVWDQWHVFRQIOLFWRV\PRYLPLHQWRVGLDOpFWLFRVHQWUHODVSDUWHVHVORTXHGHVGH
QXHVWURSXQWRGHYLVWDGHILQHORPiVHVSHFtILFRGHODSVLFRORJtDVRFLDO´ S 
3RUHOORVHJ~Q0RVFRYLFL  ODSVLFRORJtDVRFLDOWHQGUtDTXHHVWXGLDU
D 'HTXpPRGRVHLQVFULEHODUHDOLGDGVRFLDOHQHOLQGLYLGXRE FyPRHOLQGLYLGXR
WUDWDGHLQVFULELUHQORVRWURVHVDUHDOLGDGVRFLDOLQWHULRUL]DGDF \HVWXGLDUORV
SURFHVRVSRUORVTXHORVVXMHWRVDGTXLHUHQQXHYRVVLJQLILFDGRVFRPSDUWLGRVVRFLDO
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]DUODVYtDVTXHPXHVWUDQODFDSDFLGDGGHUHFRQVWUXFFLyQGHODUHDOLGDG
32 Psicología de los grupos

/DLQWHUDFFLyQVRFLDOTXHVHFRQVWUX\HLQWHUVXEMHWLYDPHQWHWLHQHOXJDUHQ
XQHQWRUQRFXOWXUDO\HQXQHQWRUQRVRFLDOGRQGHODVUHODFLRQHVHVWiQHVWUXFWXUDGDV
SRUODHVWUXFWXUD\SURFHVRVGHJUXSR/DSURSLDLQWHUDFFLyQVRFLDOYDFRQVWUX\HQGR
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SODQWHDGRHV¢4XLpQVRFLDOL]DDOLQGLYLGXR"+DQROYLGDGRHOVHJXQGRDVSHFWRGHO
SUREOHPDTXHVHFRQWLHQHHQODSUHJXQWD¢4XLpQVRFLDOL]DODVRFLHGDG"8QQXHYR
DFHUFDPLHQWRDODUHODFLyQHQWUHLQGLYLGXR\VRFLHGDGKDGHUHFRQRFHUGRVIHQyPH
QRVEiVLFRVHOSULPHURHVTXHHOLQGLYLGXRQRHVXQGDWRELROyJLFRVLQRXQSURGXF
WRVRFLDO\HOVHJXQGRTXHODVRFLHGDGQRHVXQDPELHQWHRHQJUDQDMHSDUDHQWUHQDU
DOLQGLYLGXR\UHGXFLUVXVLQFHUWLGXPEUHVVLQRXQVLVWHPDGHUHODFLRQHVHQWUHLQGL
YLGXRVFROHFWLYRV´ S 
(VWDSRVWXUDTXHGDUtDFRPSOHPHQWDGDFRQ los niveles de explicaciónTXH
'RLVH  UHVDOWDHQORVWUDEDMRVGHORVSVLFyORJRVVRFLDOHVHQVXQHFHVLGDGGH
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TXHWRPDQFXHUSRHQODDPSOLWXGGHOFRQFHSWRGHLQWHUDFFLyQVRFLDO'HKHFKR
GLFKRVQLYHOHVVRQQLYHOHVGHDQiOLVLV descifradores GHODGLPHQVLyQFRQFHSWXDO
TXHVXSRQHODLQWHUDFFLyQVRFLDO$VtDXQTXH'RLVHORXWLOL]ySDUDHODQiOLVLVGHOD
SVLFRORJtDVRFLDOH[SHULPHQWDOFXDOTXLHUDSUR[LPDFLyQSVLFRVRFLDOGHEHDUWLFXODU
FXDWURQLYHOHVGHH[SOLFDFLyQ/RVGLVWLQWRVQLYHOHVVRQDFXPXODWLYRV\DTXHFDGD
QLYHOLPSOLFDORVSUHFHGHQWHV1LQJ~QQLYHOKDGHVHUFRQVLGHUDGRPiVIXQGDPHQ
WDOTXHORVRWURV\QLQJXQRGHHOORVHVVXILFLHQWHSRUVtVyORSDUDH[SOLFDUODUHDOLGDG
VRFLDO\DTXHHOPLVPRIHQyPHQRSXHGHVHUH[SOLFDGRGHVGHYDULRVQLYHOHV 0XJ
Q\ (VWRVQLYHOHVVRQ
 Nivel intraindividual(QHVWHSULPHUQLYHOODVH[SOLFDFLRQHVGDGDVSRU
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Definiendo la psicología de los grupos 33

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34 Psicología de los grupos

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Definiendo la psicología de los grupos 35

5. LA PSICOLOGÍA DE LOS GRUPOS DESDE LA PERSPECTIVA PSI-


COSOCIAL

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36 Psicología de los grupos

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Definiendo la psicología de los grupos 37

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38 Psicología de los grupos

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CAPÍTULO II

ANTECEDENTES HISTÓRICOS DE
LA PSICOLOGÍA DE LOS GRUPOS

Jesús M. Canto Ortiz

1. INTRODUCCIÓN

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40 Psicología de los grupos

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Antecedentes históricos de la psicología de los grupos 41

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42 Psicología de los grupos

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Antecedentes históricos de la psicología de los grupos 43

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Antecedentes históricos de la psicología de los grupos 51

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52 Psicología de los grupos

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Antecedentes históricos de la psicología de los grupos 53

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DEFINICIÓN DE GRUPO

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1. INTRODUCCIÓN

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R©FRKHVLYLGDGGHJUXSRª´ S 
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GDGVRFLDOFRP~Q\VHSHUFLEHQDVtPLVPRVFRPRPLHPEURVGHODPLVPDFDWHJRUtD
VRFLDO$OVHUXQDGHILQLFLyQGHPDUFDGRFDUiFWHUVXEMHWLYR%URZQ  FRPSOH
PHQWDODGHILQLFLyQGH7XUQHUVXJLULHQGRTXHQRFDSWDXQUDVJRHVHQFLDOGHORV
JUXSRVFRPRHVHOKHFKRGHOUHFRQRFLPLHQWRGHVXH[LVWHQFLDSRURWURV3RUORTXH
XQJUXSRSXHVH[LVWLUtDFXDQGRGRVRPiVSHUVRQDVVHGHILQHQDVtPLVPDVFRPR
PLHPEURVGHOJUXSR\FXDQGRVXH[LVWHQFLDHVUHFRQRFLGDSRUDOPHQRVDOJ~QRWUR
SHUVRQDJUXSRHWF 
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WLILFDFLyQGHJUXSR\QRDSDUWLUGHXQDLGHQWLGDGLQGLYLGXDO6HJ~Q7DMIHO  OD
ORFDOL]DFLyQGHOFXDOTXLHULQWHUDFFLyQVRFLDOHQHOcontinuumLQWHUSHUVRQDOLQWHUJUX
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GXFWDVGHXQDSHUVRQDPLHPEURGHXQJUXSRKDFLDORVPLHPEURVGHRWURVJUXSRV
/DGHILQLFLyQGH7XUQHU  KDUHFLELGRLPSRUWDQWHVFUtWLFDV +XL
FL 6HOHKDFULWLFDGRHOFDUiFWHUDVRFLDOGHVXDQiOLVLV\HOVHVJRLQGLYLGXDOLV
WDGHVXGHILQLFLyQDOUHFXUULUDODXWRFRQFHSWRSDUDGHILQLUDOJUXSR\HOTXHUHU
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SDODSDUWLUGHODLGHQWLGDGVRFLDO\QRDSDUWLUGHODLGHQWLGDGSHUVRQDO$GHPiVQR
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PDFURVRFLDOGHODFRQVWLWXFLyQGHORVGLVWLQWRVDJUXSDPLHQWRVVRFLDOHVSHURVHUtD
ODERUGHODSVLFRORJtDVRFLDODQDOL]DUORVSURFHVRVGHLGHQWLILFDFLyQFRQHOJUXSR
³(OREMHWLYRSHUVHJXLGRQRFRQVLVWHHQSURSRUFLRQDUXQDGHVFULSFLyQFLHQWtILFD
76 Psicología de los grupos

FRPSOHWDGHOJUXSRVRFLDOVLQRHQFRQWULEXLUDODFRQVWUXFFLyQGHXQRGHORVSLODUHV
QHFHVDULRVGHWDOGHVFULSFLyQPHGLDQWHHOGHVDUUROORGHXQDWHRUtDGHORVDVSHFWRV
VRFLRSVLFROyJLFRVGHOJUXSRGHORVSURFHVRVSVLFROyJLFRVVXE\DFHQWHVTXHKDFHQ
SRVLEOHODWUDQVIRUPDFLyQGHORVVXMHWRVHQJUXSRVRFLDO´ 7XUQHUS 
7DPELpQVHOHKDFULWLFDGRD7DMIHO\7XUQHUTXHVXGHILQLFLyQGHJUXSRKDFH
UHIHUHQFLDDODVFDWHJRUtDVVRFLDOHV\QRSRGUtDDSOLFDUVHDORVJUXSRVRFLDOHV7XU
QHU\%RXUKLV  UHVSRQGHQDHVWDFUtWLFDGHIRUPDWDMDQWHQRHVFLHUWRTXH
LGHQWLILTXHQ grupo \ categoría social VLQRHOKHFKRHVTXHKDQGHVDUUROODGRXQ
FRQFHSWRGHJUXSRTXHSDUWHGHORVHIHFWRVGHODFDWHJRUL]DFLyQHQODFRQVWUXFFLyQ
GHODLGHQWLGDGVRFLDOGHFDGDJUXSRVRFLDO
5HFLHQWHPHQWH$\HVWDUiQ  KDFULWLFDGRTXHODGHILQLFLyQGH7XUQHU
 GHOJUXSRVRFLDOORFRQFLEDFRPRXQ³JUXSRFHUUDGR´/DFUtWLFDGH$\HVWDUiQ
VHFHQWUDUtDMXVWDPHQWHHQHOKHFKRGHTXHODH[SOLFDFLyQGHORVIHQyPHQRVJUXSDOHV
GHVGHODWHRUtDGH7XUQHU  UHIRU]DUtDODLQIOXHQFLDGHORJUXSDOVREUHORLQGL
YLGXDOTXHGDQGRHOJUXSRFRQYHUWLGRHQXQgrupo cerrado/DFRQGXFWDJUXSDOVH
OOHYDUtDDFDERGHVGHODLGHQWLGDGVRFLDOTXHTXLHUHSDUHFHUVHDOSURWRWLSRJUXSDO\
GRQGHODGHVSHUVRQDOL]DFLyQHOLPLQDODVKXHOODVGHODLGHQWLGDGSHUVRQDO7XUQHU
ROYLGDUtDJUDQSDUWHGHODDSRUWDFLyQGHOHQIRTXHLQWHUDFFLRQLVWDGH$VFK/HZLQ
HWFDOQRFRQVLGHUDUTXHSDUDTXHXQJUXSRWXYLHUHOXJDUKDGHGDUVHHOSURFHVRGH
LQWHUDFFLyQVLPEyOLFDDWUDYpVGHOFXDOVHSURGXFHODFRQVWUXFFLyQGHVLJQLILFDGRV
FRPSDUWLGRV6HJ~Q$\HVWDUiQHOJUXSRFRQVWUXLUtDDVtVXSURSLDLGHQWLGDGVRFLDO
GHILQLUtDHOHQWRUQRVRFLRFXOWXUDOLQWHUSUHWDUtDODHVWUXFWXUDGHODVUHODFLRQHVLQWHU
JUXSDOHVGHILQLUtDODLGHQWLGDGGHODVSHUVRQDVVXSRVLFLyQHQHOJUXSRDVtFRPR
WDPELpQVHUtDUHVSRQVDEOHGHODGHILQLFLyQGHODVHVWUDWHJLDVSDUDUHJXODUHOFRQIOLFWR

3. EL GRUPO COMO UN SISTEMA ABIERTO

6LJXLHQGRFRQODGHILQLFLyQGHJUXSRKD\TXHGHVWDFDUTXHKDVLGRFRQFHEL
GRGHIRUPDUHLWHUDGDGHVGHODFRQFHSFLyQGHODWHRUtDGHVLVWHPDV $\HVWDUiQ
 6HDVXPHTXHHOVLVWHPDJUXSDOVHGLIHUHQFLDGHOVLVWHPDLQGLYLGXDO\GHO
VLVWHPD$XQTXHPDQWLHQHQUHODFLRQHVGHUHFLSURFLGDGVRQVLVWHPDVGHGLVWLQWRV
QLYHOHVGHFRPSOHMLGDG(QORTXHUHVSHFWDDORVJUXSRVWLHQHQODIDFXOWDGGHIRU
PDU\VRFLDOL]DUDORVLQGLYLGXRVLPSULPLpQGROHVXQPRGRGHKDFHU\GHSHQVDU
GHOPLVPRPRGRTXHORVLQGLYLGXRVWLHQHQODIDFXOWDGGHFRQVWUXLUORVJUXSRV\D
TXHpVWRVVRQSURGXFWRVGHDTXpOORV(QWRGRJUXSRVHKDQGHFRQVLGHUDUORVIDFWR
UHVGHODHVWUXFWXUDVRFLDOTXHSHUPLWHQODLQWHUDFFLyQLQWHUSHUVRQDOLQWUDHLQWHU
JUXSDOFRQVWUX\HQGRVLJQLILFDGRVFRPSDUWLGRVQRUPDVUROHVDFWLWXGHVLGHROR
JtDVHWFFRPRODDFFLyQGHORVLQGLYLGXRVTXHDFHSWDQLQWHULRUL]DQ\FDPELDQODV
SURSLDVHVWUXFWXUDVVRFLDOHVGHOJUXSR/DWDUHDLPSUHVFLQGLEOHGHODSVLFRORJtDGH
ORVJUXSRVGHVGHXQDSHUVSHFWLYDSVLFRVRFLDOHVDUWLFXODUORVQLYHOHVGHDQiOLVLV
Definición de grupo 77

H[SXHVWRVSRU'RLVH  HOLQWUDLQGLYLGXDOHOLQWHULQGLYLGXDOHOSRVLFLRQDO\HO


LGHROyJLFR
/DSVLFRORJtDVRFLDODOWUDWDUODWHPiWLFDJUXSDOFRPRFXDOTXLHURWUDSULPy
ORVQLYHOHVGHH[SOLFDFLyQ,\,,HOLQWUDLQGLYLGXDO\HOLQWHULQGLYLGXDOUHOHJDQGR
ORVQLYHOHV,,,\,9HOSRVLFLRQDO\HOLGHROyJLFR/DLQIOXHQFLDGH/HZLQ 
TXHGyHQODWHPiWLFDWUDWDGDODHVIHUDGHORJUXSDOPDVQRHQODSHUVSHFWLYD
JHQXLQDPHQWHSVLFRVRFLDOFRQODTXHGHEtDVHUFRQVLGHUDGD
(OJUXSRYLYHFRQRWURVJUXSRVSXHGHIRUPDUSDUWHGHRUJDQL]DFLRQHVVHGD
HQODVRFLHGDG(OJUXSRSXHVKDGHVHUFRQVLGHUDGRFRPR un sistema abierto no
jerarquizado $\HVWDUiQ0DUWtQH]7DERDGD\$UUyVSLGH (OLQGLYLGXRSXH
GHVHUFRQVLGHUDGRFRPRXQVLVWHPD/RPLVPRTXHHOJUXSRODRUJDQL]DFLyQ\OD
VRFLHGDG(QWUHVtPDQWLHQHQUHODFLRQHVGHUHFLSURFLGDGDXQTXHVRQVLVWHPDVGH
GLVWLQWRVQLYHOHVGHFRPSOHMLGDG6LHQGRDVtFXDOTXLHUHOHPHQWRGHFXDOTXLHUVLVWH
PDIRUPDSDUWHGHXQVLVWHPDGHRUGHQVXSHULRUSHURDOPLVPRWLHPSRVHVLW~D
IUHQWHDpOGHIRUPDLQGHSHQGLHQWH3RUHMHPSORORVLQGLYLGXRVIRUPDQSDUWHGH
DOJ~QJUXSR\VRQIRUPDGRVSRUpVWHSHURSXHGHQVHUFRQFHELGRVFRPRVLVWHPDV
LQGHSHQGLHQWHVGHOJUXSR(OVLVWHPDJUXSDOSXHGHVHUFRQFHELGRFRPRXQDUHFRQV
WUXFFLyQGHGLIHUHQWHVVXEVLVWHPDVTXHFRQILJXUDQODGLQiPLFDJUXSDOFRQVWLWXLGRV
DSDUWLUGHORVQLYHOHVGHVWDFDGRVSRU'RLVH  (OJUXSRGHVGHODVWHRUtDVGH
RULHQWDFLyQVLVWpPLFDHVSHUFLELGRFRPRXQVLVWHPDDELHUWRHQLQWHUDFFLyQFRQVX
HQWRUQR(ODQiOLVLVORFHQWUDQIXQGDPHQWDOPHQWHHQODHVWUXFWXUDGHODVLQWHUUHOD
FLRQHVGHQWUR\IXHUDGHOVLVWHPD
$\HVWDUiQ$UUyVSLGH\0DUWtQH]7DERDGD  LQVLVWHQHQHOWUDWDPLHQWR
GHOJUXSRGHVGHXQHQIRTXHVLVWpPLFRTXHDODVXPLUHOFDUiFWHULVRPyUILFRGHODV
HVWUXFWXUDVVXE\DFHQWHVDORVVLVWHPDVSHUVRQDOJUXSDO\VRFLRFXOWXUDOSXHGHVHU
FRPSUHQGLGRGHVGHXQPDUFR constructivista/DH[LVWHQFLDREMHWLYDGHOJUXSR
YHQGUtDDFRPSDxDGDSRUODFLUFXQVWDQFLDGHOVLJQLILFDGRTXHGHWHUPLQDGRVLQGLYL
GXRVDWULEX\HQDOJUXSRORTXHQHFHVDULDPHQWHFRPSRUWDXQDGHILQLFLyQGHODUHD
OLGDGGHOHQWRUQRVRFLRFXOWXUDO\XQSURFHVRGHDXWRGHILQLFLyQGHORVLQGLYLGXRV(O
JUXSRVHUtDREMHWRGHOSURFHVRGHrepresentación socialHQODTXHLQIOXLUtDQYDULD
EOHVSHUVRQDOHVYDULDEOHVLQWUDHLQWHUJUXSDOHV\YDULDEOHVVRFLRFXOWXUDOHV/DUH
SUHVHQWDFLyQVRFLDOGHOJUXSRHVWDUtDFRQVWUXLGDSRULQGLYLGXRVTXHWLHQHQXQDGH
WHUPLQDGDHVWUXFWXUDSHUVRQDOTXHWLHQHQXQGHWHUPLQDGRPRGHORGHJUXSDOLGDG
DQFODGRHQVXHVWUXFWXUDLGHROyJLFDTXHHVWiQVLWXDGRVHQXQDGHWHUPLQDGDSRVL
FLyQLQWHUJUXSDOGHQWURGHODHVWUXFWXUDVRFLDO\TXHHVWiQPiVRPHQRVLGHQWLILFD
GRVFRQVXJUXSR$\HVWDUiQ\0DUWtQH]7DERDGD  UHVXPHQDVtVXSRVWXUD
WHyULFD³(QFRQFOXVLyQFRQFHELPRVDOJUXSRVRFLDOFRPRXQDUHDOLGDGVRFLDOPHQ
WHFDWHJRUL]DGDTXHVHFRQYLHUWHHQUHDOLGDGSVLFROyJLFDHQODPHGLGDHQODTXHORV
PLHPEURVGHOJUXSRVHLGHQWLILFDQFRQHOJUXSRVRFLDO\FRQVWUX\HQXQDUHSUHVHQWD
FLyQVRFLDOGHOJUXSRGHILQLGRHQWpUPLQRVGHUHSURGXFFLyQGHODMHUDUTXtDJUXSDO\
GHODLGHRORJtDUHVSHFWRDOFDPELRVRFLDO´ S 
78 Psicología de los grupos

/RVLQGLYLGXRVSXHVRFXSDUtDQFLHUWDVSRVLFLRQHVVRFLDOHVTXHORVXELFDQ
HQODHVWUXFWXUDVRFLDO'HELGRDOSURFHVRGHFDWHJRUL]DFLyQORVLQGLYLGXRVTXHGDQ
HQPDUFDGRVHQGLVWLQWDVFDWHJRUtDVVRFLDOHV/RVGHPiV\QRVRWURVPLVPRVQRV
FDWHJRUL]DPRVDXQTXHQRVLHPSUHVHHVWiGHDFXHUGRFRQGLFKDFDWHJRUL]DFLyQ8Q
JUXSRVRFLDOVHIRUPDUtDHQODPHGLGDHQODTXHORVLQGLYLGXRVDVXPHQVXSHUWHQHQ
FLDDXQDGHWHUPLQDGDFDWHJRUtDVRFLDO\VHLGHQWLILFDQFRQHOOD(VWDVHUtDODSULPH
UDIDVHGHODIRUPDFLyQGHOJUXSRTXHLPSOLFDUtDODLGHQWLILFDFLyQ\ODVXEVLJXLHQWH
GHVSHUVRQDOL]DFLyQ 7XUQHU (QXQDVHJXQGDIDVHXQDYH]FRQVWLWXLGRHO
JUXSRVRFLDOFRPLHQ]DODIDVHGHVRFLDOL]DFLyQGHOJUXSRHQODTXHWLHQHOXJDUOD
FRQVWUXFFLyQGHXQDUHSUHVHQWDFLyQVRFLDOGHOJUXSR
/DLQIOXHQFLDGHORVSURFHVRVSHUVRQDOHVVREUHODUHSUHVHQWDFLyQVRFLDOGHO
JUXSRKDVLGRVXEUD\DGDSRUSVLFRDQDOLVWDV\SVLFyORJRVKXPDQLVWDVTXHWUDEDMDQ
HQHOiPELWRGHODVWHUDSLDVJUXSDOHV/DLQFLGHQFLD\ODUHDOLGDGGHORVSURFHVRV
LQWUDJUXSDOHVHQODFRQVWUXFFLyQGHXQHVSDFLRSVLFROyJLFRFRPSDUWLGRKDVLGRGHV
WDFDGRSRU6KHULI$VFK\/HZLQ$GHPiVFXDOTXLHUJUXSRHVWiVLWXDGRHQXQDV
FRRUGHQDGDVFXOWXUDOHV GLPHQVLyQLGHROyJLFDVHPiQWLFDVLPEyOLFDGHODUHSUH
VHQWDFLyQVRFLDO \XQDVFRRUGHQDGDVVRFLDOHVHVGHFLUHQXQDUHGGHJUXSRVRFLD
OHV GLPHQVLyQVRFLRHVWUXFWXUDOGHODUHSUHVHQWDFLyQVRFLDO 6HJ~Q$\HVWDUiQ\
FROV  HOJUXSRKDGHVHUVLWXDGRWDQWRLGHROyJLFDPHQWHFRPRHQXQDHVWUXF
WXUDVRFLDOGHWHUPLQDGD(VGHFLUFXDOTXLHUJUXSRVHGHILQLUtDSRURSRVLFLyQDRWUR
JUXSRVRFLDO\DGHPiVODFRQVWUXFFLyQVRFLDOGHOJUXSRVXSRQGUtDXQDUHHVWUXFWX
UDFLyQGHODVUHODFLRQHVLQWHUJUXSDOHV3RUWDQWRHQODUHSUHVHQWDFLyQVRFLDOGHO
JUXSRVHSXHGHQGLVWLQJXLUGRVHMHVTXHFRQILJXUDQWDOUHSUHVHQWDFLyQ(OSULPHU
HMHUHODFLRQDGRFRQODGLPHQVLyQVRFLRHVWUXFWXUDOGHQRPLQDGR jerarquización-
igualdad\HOVHJXQGRHMHGHQRPLQDGR aceptación-evitación del conflictoUHOD
FLRQDGRFRQODGLPHQVLyQVLPEyOLFDHLGHROyJLFDGRQGHHOJUXSRHVSHUFLELGR
FRPROXJDUGHFRQIURQWDFLyQ\FRQIOLFWRVRFLRFRJQLWLYRRFRPROXJDUGHDUPRQtD
TXHH[LJHODHYLWDFLyQGHOFRQIOLFWRVRFLRFRJQLWLYR
3DUD$\HVWDUiQ\FROV  ORVGLVWLQWRVWLSRVGHJUXSRVTXHSXHGHQFRQ
FHELUVHDSDUWLUGHVXXELFDFLyQHQHOSODQRFRQIHFFLRQDGRSRUHOFUXFHGHORVGRV
HMHVGHEHUtDQVHUFRQVLGHUDGRVQRVyORFRPRXQDWLSRORJtDVLQRWDPELpQFRPR
GLIHUHQWHVPRPHQWRVSRUHOTXHFXDOTXLHUJUXSRSXHGHSDVDUHQVXHYROXFLyQ0DV
ORTXHGHEHTXHGDUFODURHVTXHHQUHVXPLGDVFXHQWDV³ODUHODFLyQLQGLYLGXR
VRFLHGDGSDVDSRUORVJUXSRV/DVRFLHGDGHVWDEOHFHXQDMHUDUTXL]DFLyQHQWUHORV
JUXSRVVRFLDOHV\XQRVPRGHORVGHJUXSDOLGDGHQWpUPLQRVGHGLIHUHQWHVIRUPDVGH
PDQHMRGHOFRQIOLFWR´ S 

4. LA FORMACIÓN DEL GRUPO

(OWUDWDPLHQWRGHODVGLVWLQWDVGHILQLFLRQHVVREUHHOJUXSRVRFLDOKDVXSXHVWR
GHIRUPDLPSOtFLWDTXHVHKDJDUHIHUHQFLDDODIRUPDFLyQGHORVJUXSRV$OTXHUHU
Definición de grupo 79

UHVSRQGHUDODFXHVWLyQGHORTXHHVXQJUXSRQRVHVWDPRVSUHJXQWDQGRWDPELpQ
SRUTXpORVLQGLYLGXRVIRUPDQORVJUXSRV<SRUWDQWRVHKDGHKDEODUGHFyPRVH
FRQVWUX\HQORVVLJQLILFDGRVFRPSDUWLGRVFyPRVHFRQVWUX\HQORVUROHV\ODVHVWUD
WHJLDVSDUDHOPDQHMRGHOFRQIOLFWR&DGDGHILQLFLyQUHIOHMRGHXQDSRVWXUDWHyULFD
UHVDOWDEDDTXHOORVHOHPHQWRVHVWLPDGRVFRPRQHFHVDULRV\SUHFLVRVSDUDTXHXQ
JUXSRKXPDQRWXYLHUDOXJDU\SRUWDQWRGHVWDFDEDORVUHTXLVLWRVSDUDODIRUPDFLyQ
GHORVJUXSRVVRFLDOHV(VWHVHUtDHOSULPHUSDVRHQODYLGDGHORVJUXSRVDOFRQVWL
WXLUVHODIRUPDFLyQGHODUHODFLyQLQLFLDOHQODFRQGLFLyQQHFHVDULDSDUDODH[LVWHQ
FLDGHOJUXSRTXHYDFDPELDQGR\PRGLILFiQGRVHFRQHOWUDQVFXUULUGHOWLHPSR/DV
UD]RQHVSRUODVTXHXQJUXSRVHIRUPDHVWiQHVWUHFKDPHQWHOLJDGDVDODFRKHVLyQ
JUXSDO\DOGHVDUUROORGHOJUXSR/RVJUXSRVSXHVVHIRUPDQVHFRKHVLRQDQVH
GHVDUUROODQ\HQPXOWLWXGGHRFDVLRQHVVHGLVXHOYHQ\GHVDSDUHFHQ'HKHFKROD
SHUVSHFWLYDWHPSRUDOGHOGHVDUUROOR\FDPELRGHORVJUXSRVSXHGHKDFHUTXHWDOHV
SURFHVRVGLQiPLFRVVHDQSHUFLELGRVFRPRORVDJHQWHVFDXVDOHVSDUDPXFKDVDFWLYL
GDGHVVRFLDOHV\FRJQLWLYDVVLHQGRpVWDVPHMRUH[DPLQDGDVHQHOFRQWH[WRJUXSDO
+D\RFDVLRQHVHQORVTXHORVLQGLYLGXRVIRUPDQXQJUXSRSRUSULPHUDYH]HQRWUDV
RFDVLRQHVVHDGVFULEHQDJUXSRV\DFRQVWLWXLGRV+D\PRGHORVWHyULFRVTXHWUDWDQ
GHOGHVDUUROORGHOJUXSRFRPRKD\RWURVTXHGHVFULEHQODVIDVHV\H[SRQHQORV
SURFHVRVTXHH[SOLFLWDQODLQFRUSRUDFLyQGHPLHPEURVDOJUXSR
(OGHVDUUROORJUXSDOKDVLGRDQDOL]DGRFRQODLQWHQFLyQGHGHVFULELUODVIDVHV
TXHFRQOOHYD(OGHVDUUROORVXHOHDYDQ]DUUiSLGDPHQWHDOSULQFLSLRHVWDEOHFLpQGRVH
ODVEDVHVGHODHVWUXFWXUDFLyQ\RUJDQL]DFLyQGHOJUXSR6HIRUPDQODVSULPHUDVUH
ODFLRQHVGHHVWDWXV\GHUROODVQRUPDV\ODVUHODFLRQHVGHSRGHU7UDVHVWDIDVHVXHOH
WHQHUOXJDURWUDVHQDSDULHQFLDPiVHVWDEOHVFRQSHTXHxRVFDPELRVSHULyGLFRV
3RUVXSDUWH0RUHODQG  VLQWHWL]DORVPHFDQLVPRVTXHVHKDQXWLOL]DGR
SDUDH[SOLFDUODIRUPDFLyQGHORVJUXSRV\GHVWDFDFXDWURWLSRVGHLQWHJUDFLyQVR
FLDOTXHVRQODLQWHJUDFLyQDPELHQWDOODLQWHJUDFLyQFRPSRUWDPHQWDOODLQWHJUD
FLyQDIHFWLYD\ODLQWHJUDFLyQFRJQLWLYD
La integración ambientalHQODIRUPDFLyQGHOJUXSRLPSOLFDTXHHODPELHQWH
SURSRUFLRQDORVUHFXUVRV SHMSHUVRQDVHWF SDUDTXHWHQJDOXJDUWDOSURFHVRGH
IRUPDFLyQIDFLOLWDQGRHOFRQWDFWRHQWUHODVSHUVRQDV(OPD\RUQ~PHURGHLQYHVWL
JDFLRQHVVREUHODLQWHJUDFLyQDPELHQWDOKDWUDWDGRGHODPELHQWHItVLFR\VRFLDO\VH
KDGHVWDFDGRTXHIDFWRUHVFRPRODSUR[LPLGDG\ODSDUWLFLSDFLyQHQODVPLVPDV
UHGHVVRFLDOHV\HQODVPLVPDVRUJDQL]DFLRQHVIDFLOLWDQODIRUPDFLyQGHORVJUXSRV
$GHPiVVHKDFRQVLGHUDGRHODPELHQWHFXOWXUDO\VHKDWUDWDGRFyPRODXUEDQL]D
FLyQHVXQIDFWRUTXHWDPELpQLQFLGHDPSOLDPHQWHHQHOHVWDEOHFLPLHQWRGHODV
LQWHUUHODFLRQHVSDUDODIRUPDFLyQJUXSDO
La integración comportamentalWLHQHOXJDUFXDQGRODVSHUVRQDVVRQLQWHUGH
SHQGLHQWHVSDUDODVDWLVIDFFLyQGHVXVQHFHVLGDGHV&RPRVHDSUHFLyHQODVGHILQL
FLRQHVVREUHJUXSRODLQWHUGHSHQGHQFLDFRQVWLWX\HXQIDFWRUFUXFLDOHQODFRPSRVL
FLyQGHORVJUXSRV/DVSHUVRQDVIRUPDQJUXSRVSRUTXHpVWRVVDWLVIDFHQQHFHVLGD
80 Psicología de los grupos

GHVGHFDUiFWHULQGLYLGXDOTXHSXHGHQGDUVHHQHOPLVPRJUXSR\RHOJUXSRSXHGH
FRQVHJXLUODV/DVIXHQWHVGHVDWLVIDFFLyQGHQHFHVLGDGHVH[LVWHQWHVHQHOJUXSR
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QiPLFDTXHGHILHQGHTXHORVJUXSRVSHTXHxRVVLUYHQRWLHQHQXQDIXQFLyQWHUDSpX
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La integración afectivaWLHQHOXJDUVLHPSUHTXHHOJUXSRVHFRQVWLWX\H\VH
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KDEUtDXQDOtQHDGHLQYHVWLJDFLyQTXHGHVWDFDUtDODDWUDFFLyQLQWHUSHUVRQDOHQWUHORV
PLHPEURVGHOJUXSRFRPRVHQWLPLHQWRFRPSDUWLGRSDUDTXHHOJUXSRVHIRUPH
7KLEDXW\.HOOH\ \RWUDELHQGLVWLQWDTXHLQFLGHHQTXHODLQWHJUDFLyQDIHF
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LQWHUYLHQHHQODIRUPDFLyQGHOJUXSRVHUtDHOFRPSDUWLULPSRUWDQWHVFDUDFWHUtVWLFDV
SHUVRQDOHV\VHUFRQVFLHQWHVGHHOOR$VtXQJUXSRVHIRUPDUtDFXDQGRODVSHUVRQDV
VHSLHQVDQDVtPLVPDVFRPRJUXSR(VWHWLSRGHLQWHJUDFLyQFRPHQWD0RUHODQG
 HVVXJHULGDSRUORVWHyULFRVGHODVUHODFLRQHVHQWUHJUXSRVTXHVHKDQEDVD
GRHQODWHRUtDGHODFDWHJRUL]DFLyQVRFLDOGH7DMIHO  
8QDYH]TXHHOJUXSRVHKDIRUPDGRDJUXSDGRVVXVPLHPEURVODHYROXFLyQ
GHOJUXSR\GHVXVPLHPEURVKDVLGRREMHWRGHDQiOLVLVDWUDYpVGHODVWHRUtDVGHVD
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WDQVXPRGHORWHPSRUDOGHODVRFLDOL]DFLyQGHOJUXSR\VRVWLHQHQTXHORVSURFHVRV
FRQVWLWXWLYRVGHXQJUXSRVRQODHYDOXDFLyQHOFRPSURPLVR\HOFDPELRGHOURO
D EvaluaciónRvaloración7DQWRHOJUXSRFRPRHOLQGLYLGXRUHDOL]DQXQD
FRQWLQXDHYDOXDFLyQGHODUHPXQHUDFLyQGHVXVUHODFLRQHVHVGHFLUXQD
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Definición de grupo 81

ODVPHWDV\REMHWLYRVSUHYLVWRVDODFHSWDUDWDOLQGLYLGXRSRUSDUWHGHO
JUXSRRVHUPLHPEURGHOJUXSRSRUSDUWHGHOLQGLYLGXR/DPXWXDHYD
OXDFLyQSXHGHVHUFRQFRUGDQWHRGLVFRUGDQWHHQWUHHOLQGLYLGXR\HOJUX
SR\HVWRLQWURGXFHHOFRQIOLFWRHQODVUHODFLRQHVLQWUDJUXSDOHV \UHFRU
GHPRVTXHHOFRQIOLFWRVHFRQYLHUWHHQXQSURFHVRLPSUHVFLQGLEOHSDUDOD
HYROXFLyQHLQQRYDFLyQGHOJUXSR 
E Compromiso/DHYDOXDFLyQJXtDDVHQWLPLHQWRVGHFRPSURPLVRHQWUHHO
JUXSR\HOLQGLYLGXR/RVJUXSRVHLQGLYLGXRVHYDO~DQVXSDVDGRVXSUH
VHQWHVXIXWXURHQWDQWRODVUHODFLRQHVTXHVRVWLHQHQ<DPHGLGDTXH
DXPHQWDODSHUFHSFLyQGHVXVUHPXQHUDFLRQHVHOJUXSR\HOLQGLYLGXRDG
TXLHUHQXQPD\RUFRPSURPLVRPXWXR&XDQGRKD\FRPSURPLVRKD\VHQWL
PLHQWRVGHYLQFXODFLyQ\GHFRKHVLyQGHORVLQGLYLGXRVFRQHOJUXSRFRPR
WDPELpQKD\GLVSRVLFLyQSRUSDUWHGHORVVXMHWRVGHSDUWLFLSDUHQHOJUXSR
F Cambio de roles+D\GLYHUVDVIRUPDV\JUDGRVGHSHUWHQHQFLDDXQJUX
SRPi[LPHFXDQGRWUDVODDGPLVLyQGHOLQGLYLGXRpVWHSXHGHLUDGTXL
ULHQGRRQRODFRQFLHQFLDGHODSHUWHQHQFLDSOHQDDOJUXSR$OYDULDUORV
QLYHOHVGHFRPSURPLVRORVFULWHULRVGHGHFLVLyQSDUDLQGLFDUORVFDPELRV
LPSRUWDQWHVHQVXVUHODFLRQHVYDQPRGLILFiQGRVHSURGXFLpQGRVHXQD
QXHYDUHFODVLILFDFLyQRUHGHILQLFLyQGHODVUHODFLRQHVVRVWHQLGDVHQWUH
DPEDVSDUWHV
$VtDSDUWLUGHDTXtFDGDLQGLYLGXRDOVHULQWHJUDGRHQXQJUXSRSDVDUiSRU
FLQFRIDVHVVHSDUDGDVHQWUHVtSRUFXDWURFDPELRVGHUROHV HQWUDGDDFHSWDFLyQ
GLYHUJHQFLD\VDOLGD 
 Fase de investigación(OJUXSRLQYHVWLJDSDUDSRGHUGHFLGLUODSRVLEOH
DFHSWDFLyQRQRGHODVSHUVRQDVTXHVRQVXVFHSWLEOHVGHFRQWULEXLUDODV
PHWDVGHOJUXSR'HLJXDOPDQHUDHOLQGLYLGXRLQYHVWLJDVLHVWHJUXSR
SXHGHVDWLVIDFHUVXVQHFHVLGDGHV\REMHWLYRVSHUVRQDOHV8QDYH]TXHHO
LQGLYLGXRKDGHFLGLGRVHUPLHPEURGHOJUXSRHOORWLHQHFRQVHFXHQFLDV
HQVXDXWRGHILQLFLyQ\DXWRFRQFHSWR
 Fase de socialización7UDVODDFHSWDFLyQPXWXDHOJUXSRLQWHQWDUiFDP
ELDUDOLQGLYLGXRGHPDQHUDTXHVHDXQPHMRUFRQWULEXLGRUSDUDODFRQVH
FXFLyQGHORVREMHWLYRVGHOJUXSR(OLQGLYLGXRSUHWHQGHUiFDPELDUDO
JUXSRSDUDTXHpVWHVHDFDSD]GHVDWLVIDFHUVXVQHFHVLGDGHV
 Fase de conversión3DUDTXHHOLQGLYLGXRVHDDFHSWDGRWRWDOPHQWHFRPR
PLHPEURGHOJUXSRORVQLYHOHVGHFRPSURPLVRGHDPEDVSDUWHVKDQGH
HOHYDUVHORVXILFLHQWHSDUDTXHVHDOFDQFHQORVFULWHULRVQHFHVDULRVSDUDOD
DFHSWDFLyQUHVSHFWLYD
 Fase de resocialización$OVXUJLUGLYHUJHQFLDVHQWUHHOJUXSR\HOLQGLYL
GXRVHLQWHQWDTXHGHQXHYRODUHODFLyQVHDVDWLVIDFWRULD
 Fase de rememoración6LIUDFDVDORVLQWHQWRVGHODIDVHGHUHVRFLDOL]D
FLyQHOLQGLYLGXRDEDQGRQDGHILQLWLYDPHQWHHOJUXSR
82 Psicología de los grupos

5. CONCEPTO DE COHESIÓN GRUPAL

&RPRODOtQHDPD\RULWDULDHQODGHILQLFLyQGHJUXSRODLQWHUGHSHQGHQFLD
VXUJHFRPRXQDGHODVYtDVSDUDODFRQVWLWXFLyQ\IRUPDFLyQGHORVJUXSRV\FRQ
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PDVFRQVLGHUDGDFRPRXQDDFWLWXGSRVLWLYDH[SHULPHQWDGDSRUXQDSHUVRQDUHV
SHFWRDRWUDVHUtDHOIDFWRUIXQGDPHQWDO\HVHQFLDOSDUDSURGXFLUFXDOTXLHUWLSRGH
FRQGXFWDDILOLDWLYDGHVGHODDWUDFFLyQPiVVLPSOHSDVDQGRSRUHODPRU\OOHJDQGR
KDVWDODIRUPDFLyQ\FRQVROLGDFLyQGHORVJUXSRV%DVWDGHVWDFDUHOFDStWXORGH
6KDZ  TXHDFRUGHFRQVXGHILQLFLyQGHJUXSRFRPRUHSUHVHQWDQWHGHOD
FRUULHQWHPD\RULWDULDVREUHORVJUXSRVVRFLDOHVDOWUDWDUODIRUPDFLyQGHORVJUXSRV
RFXSDXQDEXHQDSDUWHGHOPLVPRHQUHSDVDUORVIDFWRUHVTXHLQFLGHQHQODDWUDF
FLyQLQWHUSHUVRQDO<VLQHPEDUJRKD\DXWRUHV +RJJ TXHHVWDEOHFHQ
GLIHUHQFLDVHQWUHODFRKHVLyQJUXSDO\HOFRQFHSWRGHDWUDFFLyQLQWHUSHUVRQDO
'HIRUPDWUDGLFLRQDODOUHODFLRQDUODIRUPDFLyQGHOJUXSRFRQODLQWHUGHSHQ
GHQFLDVHTXHUtDHVSHFLILFDUTXHORVRWURVVRQQHFHVDULRVSDUDODVDWLVIDFFLyQGH
QHFHVLGDGHVHOORJURGHODVPHWDV\ODYDOLGDFLyQFRQVHQVXDOGHODVDFWLWXGHV\
YDORUHV7DOUHODFLyQGHLQWHUGHSHQGHQFLDFRQOOHYDDODLQWHUDFFLyQ\ODFRPXQLFD
FLyQVRFLDO\DODDWUDFFLyQPXWXD\DODLQIOXHQFLDHQWUHORVLQGLYLGXRV
(OFRQFHSWRGHFRKHVLyQGHJUXSRIXHXQFRQFHSWREXVFDGR\DQKHODGRSRUOD
SVLFRORJtDVRFLDOGHGLFDGDDODGLQiPLFDGHOSHTXHxRJUXSRHQORVDxRVSDUD
UHQGLUFXHQWDVGHODFXDOLGDGHVHQFLDOGHOJUXSRTXHORGLIHUHQFLDUDGHODPHUD
DJUHJDFLyQGHLQGLYLGXRVRVLPSOHFDWHJRUtDVRFLDO(ORULJHQGHOWpUPLQRVHGHEHD
/HZLQ\TXLHQORXWLOL]ySRUYH]SULPHUDGHVGHXQDSHUVSHFWLYDOHZLQLDQDIXH
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PLHPEURVSDUDTXHSHUPDQH]FDQHQHOJUXSR(QODLQYHVWLJDFLyQOOHYDGDDFDER
SRU)HVWLQJHU\FROV  TXHHVWXGLDURQDSHTXHxDVSDQGLOODVGHDPLJRVGHIL
QLHURQRSHUDWLYDPHQWHODFRKHVLyQFRPRDWUDFFLyQLQWHUSHUVRQDODWUDYpVGHWpFQL
FDVGHHOHFFLyQVRFLRPpWULFD6LHQGRDVtORVDXWRUHVDGYLHUWHQGHTXHQRVHGHEtD
LGHQWLILFDUDPERVFRQFHSWRVFRKHVLyQJUXSDO\DWUDFFLyQLQWHUSHUVRQDODXQTXHHQ
HOFRQWH[WRGHVXLQYHVWLJDFLyQSRGtDYDOHU$GHPiVODXWLOL]DFLyQGHPHGLGDV
VRFLRPpWULFDVWLHQHVHULDVOLPLWDFLRQHV\DTXHQRSHUPLWHODGLVWLQFLyQFXDOLWDWLYD
HQWUHODHOHFFLyQVRFLRPpWULFDFRPRLQGLFDGRUGHDPLVWDG\FRPRLQGLFDGRUGH
DWUDFFLyQHQWUHORVPLHPEURVGHOJUXSR3HVHDODVDGYHUWHQFLDVGH)HVWLQJHU\FROV
 ODVIXWXUDVLQYHVWLJDFLRQHV\WHRUL]DFLRQHVLGHQWLILFDURQODFRKHVLyQGH
JUXSRFRQODDWUDFFLyQLQWHUSHUVRQDO<WRGRHOORHQFRQVRQDQFLDFRQXQDPHWDWHR
UtDUHLQDQWHTXHUHGXFtDORVSURFHVRVGHJUXSRDSURFHVRVLQWHUSHUVRQDOHVSRUORTXH
Definición de grupo 83

ODFRKHVLyQJUXSDOIXHUHGXFLGDDDWUDFFLyQLQWHUSHUVRQDO(UDXQFRQFHSWRWDQDP
SOLR\WUDWDGRGHIRUPDWDQHTXtYRFDTXHODVGLVWLQWDVRSHUDFLRQDOL]DFLRQHVGHOD
FRKHVLyQJUXSDOQRJXDUGDQHQWUHVtXQDFRUUHODFLyQSRVLWLYD
/DVIRUPXODFLRQHVWHyULFDVVREUHODFRKHVLyQJUXSDOWUDWDURQGHDYHULJXDU
ORVDQWHFHGHQWHVGHODFRKHVLyQJUXSDO\DSOLFDURQORVKDOOD]JRVREWHQLGRVHQOD
LQYHVWLJDFLyQVREUHDWUDFFLyQLQWHUSHUVRQDO7DODSUR[LPDFLyQKDVLGRORTXH+RJJ
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¢&XiOHVVRQSXHVORVPHFDQLVPRVTXHGHWHUPLQDQODDWUDFFLyQLQWHUSHUVR
QDO"/HZLQTXHDVXPtDFRPRIDFWRUFRQVWLWX\HQWHGHOJUXSRODLQWHUGHSHQGHQFLD
VRVWLHQHTXHODFRKHVLyQJUXSDOVXUJLUtDFRQHOILQGHTXHORVPLHPEURVGHOJUXSR
FRQVLJXLHUDQODVPHWDVLQGLYLGXDOHVSRUORTXHODPRWLYDFLyQSDUDTXHXQFRQMXQWR
GHSHUVRQDVVHFRQYLHUWDQHQJUXSRHVHOORJURGHODVPHWDV3RUHOORDQLYHOLQGLYL
GXDOODFRKHVLyQGHJUXSRVHUHODFLRQDFRQODDWUDFFLyQGHOLQGLYLGXRKDFLDODV
PHWDV\ORVPLHPEURVGHOJUXSR
6HJ~Q)HVWLQJHU  ODWHRUtDGHODFRPSDUDFLyQVRFLDOH[SOLFDUtDGHIRU
PDGLIHUHQWHODDWUDFFLyQLQWHUSHUVRQDO7UDVGLVWLQJXLUHQWUHODUHDOLGDGItVLFD\OD
UHDOLGDGVRFLDO)HVWLQJHUDVXPHTXHHQPRPHQWRVGHLQFHUWLGXPEUHORVLQGLYLGXRV
EXVFDQDSHUVRQDVVHPHMDQWHVHQDFWLWXGHV\YDORUHVSDUDFRWHMDUVXLQIRUPDFLyQ\
YDOLGDUVXRSLQLyQ$VtHVWHSURFHVRGHYDOLGDFLyQDWUDYpVGHODVHPHMDQ]DLQWHU
SHUVRQDOVHUtDODIXHU]DPRWLYDFLRQDOTXHH[SOLFDUtDODDWUDFFLyQLQWHUSHUVRQDODO
VHQWLUVHDWUDtGRVSRUORVRWURVLQGLYLGXRVTXHUHVXOWDQUHFRPSHQVDQWHVDOVDWLVIDFHU
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PLQDODIRUPDFLyQGHOJUXSRHVODDXWRYDOLGDFLyQ\HOSURFHVRSVLFROyJLFRUHVSRQ
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6RQPXFKRVORVDXWRUHVTXHH[SOLFDQODDWUDFFLyQLQWHUSHUVRQDO\ODFRKHVLyQ
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GHIRUPDPiVH[SOtFLWDVRQ/RWW\/RWW  \DTXHLGHQWLILFDQGHIRUPDPDQL
ILHVWDODFRKHVLyQJUXSDOFRQODDWUDFFLyQHQWUHORVPLHPEURV
/DSRVWXUDGH+RJJ  HVGLDPHWUDOPHQWHRSXHVWDDODPDQ
WHQLGDSRUHOPRGHORGHODFRKHVLyQJUXSDO'HKHFKR+RJJQRVUHFXHUGDTXHOD
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FLyQGHORVJUXSRV(QRFDVLRQHVODLQWHUGHSHQGHQFLDSXHGHSURGXFLUDOJ~QJUDGRGH
FRQIOLFWRHQWUHODVSDUWHV%DViQGRVHHQODWHRUtDGH7XUQHU  VRVWLHQH
TXHODDXWRFDWHJRUL]DFLyQVHUtDHOSURFHVRUHVSRQVDEOHGHODIRUPDFLyQGHOJUXSR\
QRODDWUDFFLyQLQWHUSHUVRQDO6HJ~Q+RJJ  KDEUtDGRVIRUPDVGHDWUDFFLyQ
D /DDWUDFFLyQLQWHUSHUVRQDOTXHVHHVWDEOHFHHQWUHORVLQGLYLGXRVVREUHOD
EDVHGHVXSHUWHQHQFLDFDWHJRULDOFRP~Q\VHUHODFLRQDFRQODSHUWHQHQFLD
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E <ODDWUDFFLyQLQWHUSHUVRQDOTXHVHEDVDHQODDWUDFFLyQDSDUWLUGHODV
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84 Psicología de los grupos

$TXHOODVYDULDEOHVTXHWLHQHQXQDLQFLGHQFLDHQODDWUDFFLyQLQWHUSHUVRQDO
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FLyQGHODLGHQWLILFDFLyQVRFLDO/DFRKHVLyQJUXSDOYHQGUtDGDGDSRUODDWUDFFLyQ
LQWUDJUXSDODXQTXHHOORQRH[FOXLUtDTXHODDWUDFFLyQLQWHUSHUVRQDOHQWUHORVPLHP
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UHODFLyQHQWUHODLGHQWLILFDFLyQSVLFRVRFLDO\ODDWUDFFLyQSHUVRQDOSXHGHGDUVHVL
JXLHQGRGLIHUHQWHVSDXWDVQRH[FOX\HQWHV
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SDGDGHVtPLVPR\GHRWURVPLHPEURVGHOHQGRJUXSRDXPHQWHODSHUFHS
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6. TIPOS DE GRUPOS

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LQWHUDFFLyQItVLFDHQWUHORVPLHPEURVJUDGRGHLQWLPLGDGQLYHOGHVROLGDULGDGHWF
1RKDVLGRpVWDODHVWUDWHJLDXWLOL]DGD\DTXHHVWDVSURSLHGDGHVKDQVLGRFRQVLGHUD
Definición de grupo 85

GDVFRPRYDULDEOHVTXHSXHGHQWHQHUOXJDUHQFXDOTXLHUJUXSR/RPiVIUHFXHQWHKD
VLGRUHFXUULUDWLSRORJtDVGLFRWyPLFDVWDOHVFRPRIRUPDOLQIRUPDOSULPDULRVH
FXQGDULRSHTXHxRJUDQGH Gemeinschaft-GessellschaftDXWyQRPRGHSHQGLHQWH
WHPSRUDOSHUPDQHQWHHWF
7UDVHOIDOOHFLPLHQWRGH/HZLQORVSVLFyORJRVVRFLDOHVGHMDURQGHHVWXGLDUORV
WLSRVGHLQWHUDFFLyQTXHRFXUUtDQHQJUXSRVQDWXUDOHV\VHFHQWUDURQPiVHQODLQYHV
WLJDFLyQGHORVJUXSRVGHODERUDWRULRDUWLILFLDOHVSHTXHxRVFRQLQWHUDFFLyQFDUDD
FDUDVLQSDVDGR\VLQKLVWRULDFRP~Q/RVJUXSRVWDOHVFRPRODIDPLOLDORVJUXSRV
GHWUDEDMRORVJUXSRVGHDPLJRV\ORVJUXSRVWHUDSpXWLFRVKDQVLGRJUXSRVGHVFXL
GDGRVSRUODOLWHUDWXUDSVLFRVRFLDO$QWHHOLQWHUpVGHODSVLFRORJtDVRFLDOQRUWHDPH
ULFDQDSRUHODQiOLVLVGHORVJUXSRVGHODERUDWRULRORVSVLFRDQDOLVWDV\ORVSVLFyORJRV
KXPDQLVWDVFDSLWDOL]DURQODLQYHVWLJDFLyQ\HOWUDWDPLHQWRGHORVJUXSRVWHUDSpXWLFRV
\HOHVWXGLRGHORVJUXSRVHQODVRUJDQL]DFLRQHVIXHHQIRFDGRHQXQSULQFLSLRGHVGH
XQDSHUVSHFWLYDPiVVRFLROyJLFDFHQWUDGDPiVHQORVJUXSRVIRUPDOHV
/DSVLFRORJtDGHORVJUXSRVQRVXHOHSUHVHQWDUXQDWLSRORJtDGHORVJUXSRV
H[FHVLYDPHQWHDPSOLD0iVELHQVXHOHUHFXUULUDXQDWLSRORJtDH[WHQVDPHQWHUHFR
QRFLGDHQORVSULQFLSDOHVPDQXDOHVGHODGLVFLSOLQD +XLFL /RVWLSRVGH
JUXSRVPiVQRWRULRVHLPSRUWDQWHVVRQORVJUXSRVSULPDULRV\ORVJUXSRVVHFXQGD
ULRVORVJUXSRVIRUPDOHV\ORVJUXSRVLQIRUPDOHV\ORVJUXSRVGHSHUWHQHQFLD\ORV
JUXSRVGHUHIHUHQFLD

6.1. Los grupos primarios y los grupos secundarios

&RROH\  IXHHOSULPHUFLHQWtILFRVRFLDOTXHLQWURGXMRHOFRQFHSWRGH


JUXSRSULPDULR7XYRLQIOXHQFLDVGHDXWRUHVFRPR7|QQLHV6LPPHO)UHGHULF/H
3OD\\'XUNKHLPVLQSRGHUROYLGDUODLQIOXHQFLDGH)RXULHU&RPWH\ORVWHyULFRV
DQDUTXLVWDV&RROH\FRQVLGHUDEDFRPRJUXSRVSULPDULRVDODIDPLOLDHOJUXSRGH
MXHJRV\HOYHFLQGDULR6HFDUDFWHUL]DEDQSRUVHUJUXSRVFRQXQDHOHYDGDFRRSHUD
FLyQ\XQDVUHODFLRQHVSHUVRQDOHVPX\HVWUHFKDVTXHLQWHUYLHQHQGHXQPRGRIXQ
GDPHQWDOHQODIRUPDFLyQGHODQDWXUDOH]DVRFLDO\GHORVLGHDOHVVRFLDOHVGHORV
LQGLYLGXRV
6LELHQHQXQSULQFLSLR&RROH\GHVWDFDEDHOSDSHOTXHGHVHPSHxDEDORV
JUXSRVSULPDULRVHQODIRUPDFLyQGHODSHUVRQDOLGDG\HQODLQWHJUDFLyQVRFLDOGH
ORVLQGLYLGXRVSDXODWLQDPHQWHDPSOLyHOFRQFHSWRGHJUXSRSULPDULR\ORFDUDFWH
UL]ySRUXQDVHULHGHUDVJRVHVWUXFWXUDOHVWDOHVFRPRDVRFLDFLyQFDUDDFDUDDVR
FLDFLyQQRHVSHFLDOL]DGDUHODWLYDGXUDFLyQUHGXFLGRQ~PHURGHPLHPEURV\UHODWL
YDLQWLPLGDGHQWUHORVPLHPEURV
)XHURQPXFKRVORVDXWRUHVTXHUHFXUULHURQDOFRQFHSWRGHJUXSRSULPDULR
6HSXHGHGHVWDFDUHOLQWHUpVPRVWUDGRSRUOD(VFXHODGH&KLFDJRUHIOHMDGDHQOD
REUDGH7KRPDV\=QDQLHFNL The Polish Peasant in Europe and AmericaFRPR
WDPELpQHQ5(3DUNDOHVWXGLDUODLQIOXHQFLDGHOSURFHVRGHXUEDQL]DFLyQVREUHOD
86 Psicología de los grupos

IDPLOLD\)7KUDVKHUTXHGHVFXEULyXQQXHYRJUXSRSULPDULRFDUDFWHUtVWLFRGHODV
JUDQGHVFLXGDGHVFRPRVRQODVSDQGLOODVGHDGROHVFHQWHV gang 7DPELpQIXHURQ
WUDWDGRVFRPRJUXSRVSULPDULRVORVJUXSRVGHFRPSDxHURV peers \ORVJUXSRV
SULPDULRVHQODVRUJDQL]DFLRQHVSRU(OWRQ0D\R(QHOFDPSRSVLFROyJLFR0RUHQR
FRQWULEX\yDOGHVDUUROORGHOFRQFHSWRGHOJUXSRSULPDULRDOHVWXGLDUODFRPSRVL
FLyQ\FRKHVLyQLQWHUQDGHORVJUXSRVSULPDULRVSDUDORVSURFHVRVWHUDSpXWLFRV
VLHQGRPHGLGRVFRQORVWHVWVVRFLRPpWULFRV
/DLQFRUSRUDFLyQGHQXHYRVJUXSRVDOFRQFHSWRGHJUXSRSULPDULRWXYRLP
SOLFDFLRQHVFRQFHSWXDOHV'XQSK\  DPSOLyODFDWHJRUtDHVWDEOHFLGDSRU
&RROH\  HLQFOX\yORVJUXSRVGHLJXDOHV GHQLxRVDGROHVFHQWHV\DGXOWRV 
ORVJUXSRVLQIRUPDOHVGHQWURGHODVRUJDQL]DFLRQHV\ORVJUXSRVGHUHVRFLDOL]DFLyQ
/DGHILQLFLyQTXHSURSRUFLRQD'XQSK\GHORVJUXSRVSULPDULRVDSHQDVVHGLIHUHQ
FLDGHODGHILQLFLyQGHJUXSR\DTXHXQJUXSRVHUtD³XQSHTXHxRJUXSRTXHH[LVWH
GXUDQWHHOWLHPSRVXILFLHQWHSDUDHVWDEOHFHUXQRVILUPHVOD]RVHPRFLRQDOHVHQWUH
VXVPLHPEURVTXHSUHVHQWDDOPHQRVXQFRQMXQWRGHUROHVUXGLPHQWDULRV\IXQFLR
QDOPHQWHGLIHUHQFLDGRV\XQDVXEFXOWXUDSURSLDTXHSRVHHXQDDXWRLPDJHQGHO
JUXSR\XQVLVWHPDQRUPDWLYRLQIRUPDOSDUDFRQWURODUODVDFWLYLGDGHVGHVXVPLHP
EURVUHODWLYDVDOJUXSR´ S 
/DDPSOLDFLyQGHODFDWHJRUtDSRUSDUWHGH'XQSK\KDFHTXHDOJXQDVGHODV
FDUDFWHUtVWLFDVVHxDODGDVSRU&RROH\\FROV  FRPRGHILQLWRULDVGHORVJUXSRV
SULPDULRVQRVHPDQWHQJDQFRPRWDOHV6FKlIHUV  SURSRUFLRQDXQDGHILQL
FLyQTXHUHVXHOYHODVFRQWUDGLFFLRQHV\SURSRUFLRQDORVPDWLFHVRSRUWXQRV³/RV
JUXSRVSULPDULRVVRQDTXHOORVSHTXHxRVJUXSRVHQORVTXHORVKRPEUHVHVWDEOHFHQ
FRQWDFWRVVRFLDOHVSULPDULRV\GHVDUUROODQVX\R VRFLDO $GHPiVGHODVRFLDOL]D
FLyQSULPDULD\ODLQWHJUDFLyQVRFLDORIUHFHQODFRQVWDQWHSRVLELOLGDGGHDILUPDUOD
SURSLDLGHQWLGDGGHPDQWHQHUUHODFLRQHVtQWLPDV\HVSRQWiQHDV\GHOLEHUDUVHGH
ORVJUXSRVVHFXQGDULRV´ S 
6HJ~QODGHILQLFLyQGH6FKlIHUVSDUDTXHXQJUXSRVHDSULPDULRQRHVSUHFL
VRTXHVHHQFXHQWUHQSUy[LPRVHVSDFLDOPHQWH\DTXHSRUHMHPSORXQDIDPLOLD
SXHGHVHUXQJUXSRSULPDULR\YLYLUVHSDUDGRVFRPRWDPSRFRHVLPSRUWDQWHOD
SULRULGDGGHODWUDQVPLVLyQGHQRUPDV\YDORUHV\DTXHPXFKRVJUXSRVSULPDULRV
HVWiQIRUPDGRVSRUDGXOWRV/RTXHVtGHWHUPLQDODHVSHFLILFLGDGGHORVJUXSRV
SULPDULRVHVTXHSURSRUFLRQDQDVXVPLHPEURVODSRVLELOLGDGGHOHVWDEOHFLPLHQWR
GHUHODFLRQHVLQWHUSHUVRQDOHVtQWLPDVHLQWHQVDVHQODVTXHORVLQGLYLGXRVVRQDFHS
WDGRVFRPRSHUVRQDV
(QFRQWUDSRVLFLyQDORVJUXSRVSULPDULRVORVJUXSRVVHFXQGDULRVFRQFHSWR
LQWURGXFLGRSRU'XUNKHLP  VHJ~Q&RROH\  HVWDEDQUHODFLRQDGRVFRQ
HOVLVWHPDVRFLDO6HUtDQXQVLVWHPDGHIXQFLRQHVDOVHUYLFLRGHORVREMHWLYRVGHXQD
RUJDQL]DFLyQUHODFLRQiQGRVHODVSHUVRQDVVHJ~QODVQRUPDVTXHHOVLVWHPDVHFXQ
GDULRKDHVWDEOHFLGR/DVUHODFLRQHVVRQSXHVPiVLPSHUVRQDOHV\PHQRVtQWLPDV
SDXWDGDVSRUORVUROHVHVWDEOHFLGRV
Definición de grupo 87

/RVJUXSRVSULPDULRV\ORVJUXSRVVHFXQGDULRVQRVRQHQWLGDGHVTXHIXQFLR
QHQGHIRUPDVHSDUDGD6LELHQHVYHUGDGTXHKD\JUXSRVSULPDULRVFRPRODIDPL
OLD\ORVJUXSRVGHDPLJRVTXHIXQFLRQDQPiVRPHQRVDOPDUJHQGHXQVLVWHPD
VHFXQGDULRHQFXDOTXLHUJUXSRVHFXQGDULRHVPX\SUREDEOHTXHVHHVWDEOH]FDQ
OD]RVFDUDFWHUtVWLFRVGHORVJUXSRVSULPDULRV
$VtSXHVGHWRGRHOORDPRGRGHUHVXPHQVHSXHGHQGLVWLQJXLUODVFDUDF
WHUtVWLFDVHVHQFLDOHVGHORVJUXSRVSULPDULRV\ORVJUXSRVVHFXQGDULRV 1~xH]\
/RVFHUWDOHV /RVJUXSRVSULPDULRVFXPSOLUtDQODVVLJXLHQWHVFRQGLFLRQHV
IRUPDFLyQHVSRQWiQHDQ~PHURUHGXFLGRGHPLHPEURVLQWHUDFFLyQGLUHFWDVH
³VLHQWHQ´\VH³VDEHQ´GHOJUXSRVHGDQFRPXQLFDFLRQHVVLQLQWHUPHGLDULRVVH
IDYRUHFH\FRQILUPDHO\RLQGLYLGXDO3RUFRQWUDHQORVJUXSRVVHFXQGDULRVVHGDQ
ODVFRQGLFLRQHVVLJXLHQWHVIRUPDFLyQHVSRQWiQHDRDUWLILFLDOQ~PHURDPSOLRRVLQ
OtPLWHQRH[LVWHLQWHUDFFLyQGLUHFWDVH³VDEHQ´GHOJUXSRSHURQRVLHPSUHVH³VLHQ
WHQ´GHOJUXSRODFRPXQLFDFLyQQHFHVLWDLQWHUPHGLDULRV\QRDIHFWDHQSULQFLSLR
DO\RLQGLYLGXDO

6.2. Los grupos formales y los grupos informales

+D\DXWRUHVTXHHVWLPDQFRPRPiVDSURSLDGRKDEODUGHODGLFRWRPtDestruc-
tura formal-estructura informalTXHGHJUXSRVIRUPDOHVHLQIRUPDOHV *XNHQELHKO
D (QODPD\RUtDGHORVJUXSRV VDOYRHQORVJUXSRVGHDPLJRVGRQGHVyOR
WHQGUtDOXJDUODHVWUXFWXUDLQIRUPDO VHGDUtDQXQDHVWUXFWXUDIRUPDO\XQDHVWUXF
WXUDLQIRUPDO+DEUtDJUXSRVHQORVTXHSUHGRPLQDPiVHOVLVWHPDIRUPDO\KDEUtD
RWURVHQORVTXHSUHGRPLQDPiVHOVLVWHPDLQIRUPDO
6LELHQKD\TXLHQHVHTXLSDUDQORVJUXSRVLQIRUPDOHVDORVJUXSRVSULPDULRV
KD\RWURVTXHORVGLVWLQJXHQ\DTXHVLELHQPXFKRVJUXSRVLQIRUPDOHVVRQWDPELpQ
JUXSRVSULPDULRVQRWRGRVORVJUXSRVLQIRUPDOHVVRQJUXSRVSULPDULRV6HJ~Q
&RROH\  KDEUtDJUXSRVSULPDULRVFRPRODIDPLOLDTXHQRSRGUtDVHUFRQVLGH
UDGDXQJUXSRLQIRUPDO
)XHHQHOPDUFRGHODVRUJDQL]DFLRQHVHQHOTXHODVLQYHVWLJDFLRQHVOOHYDGDV
DFDERHQWUH\SRUHO'HSDUWDPHQWRGH,QYHVWLJDFLyQ,QGXVWULDOGHOD
8QLYHUVLGDGGH+DUYDUGEDMRODGLUHFFLyQGH(OWRQ0D\RHQODVIDFWRUtDV+DZWKRU
QHGHOD:HVWHUQ(OHFWULF&RPSDQ\ODVTXHGLIHUHQFLDURQHQWUHODRUJDQL]DFLyQGH
ODHPSUHVDHVWUXFWXUDGDUDFLRQDOPHQWH\HOFRQMXQWRGHUHODFLRQHVLQWHUSHUVRQDOHV
GHFDUiFWHULQIRUPDOHQWUHORVPLHPEURVGHODPLVPD(QODLQPHQVDPD\RUtDGHODV
RUJDQL]DFLRQHVVHSHUPLWHQODFRQVWLWXFLyQ\HOHVWDEOHFLPLHQWRGHUHODFLRQHVLQ
IRUPDOHVH[FHSWRHQDTXHOODVTXHDOFXPSOLUXQDIXQFLyQUHSUHVLYD SHMFDPSRV
GHFRQFHQWUDFLyQFiUFHOHVGHPi[LPDVHJXULGDG ODVUHODFLRQHVTXHGDQUHGXFL
GDVDORHVWULFWDPHQWHIRUPDOSRUSDUWHGHORVPDQGRVGHOVLVWHPDMHUiUTXLFR
/DVFDUDFWHUtVWLFDVGHORVJUXSRVIRUPDOHVVHUtDQODVVLJXLHQWHVVRQHOUHVXO
WDGRGHXQDSODQLILFDFLyQUDFLRQDOSRUSDUWHGHODRUJDQL]DFLyQFRQXQFDUiFWHU
88 Psicología de los grupos

QRUPDWLYRDOSUHILMDUHOWLSRGHUHJXODFLRQHV\HVWiQRULHQWDGDVDXQILQ3RUVX
SDUWHORVJUXSRVLQIRUPDOHVVRQHOUHVXOWDGRGHSURFHVRVHVSRQWiQHRVGHLQWHUDF
FLyQHQWUHORVPLHPEURVGHODRUJDQL]DFLyQFXPSOHQODIXQFLyQGHODH[SUHVLyQGH
ODVQHFHVLGDGHVDIHFWLYDV\VHRULHQWDQDODVDWLVIDFFLyQGHWDOHVQHFHVLGDGHV

6.3. Los grupos de pertenencia y los grupos de referencia

&XDQGRXQLQGLYLGXRVHKDLGHQWLILFDGRDOJUXSRTXHSHUWHQHFHHVWHJUXSR
WDPELpQVHKDFRQVWLWXLGRHQVXJUXSRGHUHIHUHQFLD+D\RFDVLRQHVHQODVTXHORV
LQGLYLGXRVSHUWHQHFHQDJUXSRVFRQORVTXHQRVHLGHQWLILFDQ\XWLOL]DQDRWURV
JUXSRVFRPRJUXSRVGHUHIHUHQFLD(OFRQFHSWRGHJUXSRGHUHIHUHQFLDHVXQFRQ
FHSWRJHQXLQDPHQWHSVLFRVRFLDOTXHVXSHUDODVUHVWULFFLRQHVGHXQHQIRTXHVRFLR
OyJLFR\SUHWHQGHUHVROYHUODVUHODFLRQHVH[LVWHQWHVHQWUHHOJUXSR\VXLQIOXHQFLD
VREUHODDFFLyQGHVXVPLHPEURV1RVVLW~DHQXQFRQWH[WRLQWHUJUXSDO$GHPiV
VXSHUDODVOLPLWDFLRQHVHVWDEOHFLGDVSRUODKLSyWHVLVVHJ~QODFXDOORVPLHPEURVGH
ORVJUXSRVVHYHQREOLJDGRVLUUHYRFDEOHPHQWHDVHJXLUODVSDXWDVHVWDEOHFLGDVSRU
HOJUXSRGHSHUWHQHQFLD
'HVGHXQGHWHUPLQLVPRVRFLROyJLFRORVPLHPEURVGHORVJUXSRVDVXPLUtDQ
ODVDFWLWXGHVORVYDORUHV\ORVFRPSRUWDPLHQWRVFRQIRUPiQGRVHDODVQRUPDVGHO
JUXSR6XHVWDWXVVXEMHWLYRVHJ~QHVSHUFLELGRSRUORVPLHPEURVGHOJUXSRGHEH
UtDFRLQFLGLUFRQHOHVWDWXVREMHWLYRVHJ~QYLQLHUDHVWDEOHFLGRSRUVXVLQJUHVRV
HGXFDFLyQSURSLHGDGHVHWF)XH+\PDQ  TXLHQGHVFXEULyTXHHOHVWDWXV
VXEMHWLYRQRYHQtDGHWHUPLQDGRSRUHOHVWDWXVREMHWLYRVLQRGHSHQGHUtDGHORVJUX
SRVVRFLDOHVWRPDGRVFRPRHVTXHPDRSXQWRGHUHIHUHQFLD$VtVLELHQODVSHUVR
QDVSHUWHQHFHQDFLHUWRVJUXSRVVRFLDOHVSXHGHQHOHJLUFRPRJUXSRVGHUHIHUHQFLD
DDOJ~QRWURDOTXHQRSHUWHQHFHQ\TXHXWLOL]DQSDUDDXWRHYDOXDUVH\FRPSDUDUVH
/RVJUXSRVGHUHIHUHQFLDSDUD+\PDQDVtFRPRODVSHUVRQDVGHUHIHUHQFLDUHSUH
VHQWDQORVFULWHULRVVRFLDOHVGHFRPSDUDFLyQTXHXQDSHUVRQDHPSOHDSDUDMX]JDUVH
\YDORUDUVHDVtPLVPD\DVXHQWRUQR
1HZFRPE  OOHYyDFDERVXFOiVLFRWUDEDMRHQHO%HQQLQJWRQ&ROOHJH
HQHOTXHSRQtDGHPDQLILHVWRHOFDPELRGHDFWLWXGHVGHORVLQGLYLGXRVGHIDPLOLDV
FRQVHUYDGRUDVTXHFXUVDEDQVXVHVWXGLRVHQGLFKRFHQWURGHWUDGLFLyQOLEHUDO\D
TXHWRPDEDQDORVLQWHJUDQWHVGHOFHQWUR\DOSURSLRFHQWURFRPRJUXSRGHUHIHUHQ
FLD3DUD6KHULI  HOJUXSRGHUHIHUHQFLDVLUYHSDUDGHVLJQDUHORULJHQGHORV
REMHWLYRV\DVSLUDFLRQHVGHXQDSHUVRQDDOWLHPSRTXHOHSURSRUFLRQDORVFRUUHV
SRQGLHQWHVYDORUHV\H[SHFWDWLYDVFRQVWLWX\HQGRXQ³SXQWRGHDQFODMH´VRFLDOSDUD
VXLGHQWLGDG
/RVJUXSRVGHUHIHUHQFLDSXHGHQVHUSRVLWLYRV\QHJDWLYRV 1HZFRPE
 &XDQGRXQJUXSRGHUHIHUHQFLDHVSRVLWLYRHVDFHSWDGR\VHDGRSWDQODV
QRUPDV\PRGHORVGHGLFKRJUXSRFRPRGHWHUPLQDQWHVGHOFRPSRUWDPLHQWR\DFWL
WXGHVGHORVLQGLYLGXRVTXHORKDQHOHJLGRFRPRPDUFRGHUHIHUHQFLD6LQHPEDUJR
Definición de grupo 89

ORVJUXSRVGHUHIHUHQFLDQHJDWLYRVVRQUHFKD]DGRV6HWLHQGHDUHFKD]DUODVQRUPDV
TXHSURSRQH\VHHVSURFOLYHDODFUHDFLyQGHQRUPDVFRQWUDULDVGHXQPRGRFRQV
FLHQWH(QGHILQLWLYDVHJ~Q1HZFRPEXQJUXSRGHUHIHUHQFLDSRVLWLYRSDUDXQ
LQGLYLGXRVHUtDXQJUXSRDOTXHVHGHVHDSHUWHQHFHUSRUORTXHODVDFWLWXGHV\
YDORUHVGHOLQGLYLGXRVHYHUiQLQIOXLGDVSRUGHWHUPLQDGDVQRUPDVGHHVWHJUXSR
8QJUXSRGHUHIHUHQFLDQHJDWLYRVHUtDXQJUXSRDOTXHQRVHGHVHDSHUWHQHFHU\VH
UHFKD]D$VtSXHVSDUD+\PDQ  ORVJUXSRVGHUHIHUHQFLDSHUPLWLUtDQDO
LQGLYLGXRVLWXDUVH\YDORUDUVHGHQWURGHODPELHQWHVRFLDO\SDUD1HZFRPEVHUtDHO
IXQGDPHQWRGHORVYDORUHVGHORVLQGLYLGXRV
0HUWRQ\.LWW  UHDOL]DURQXQDJUDQDSRUWDFLyQDORVJUXSRVGHUHIHUHQ
FLDDSDUWLUGHODLQYHVWLJDFLyQGH6WRXIIHU  VREUHORVVROGDGRVDPHULFDQRV
$QDOL]DURQTXHOD privación relativaGHORVVROGDGRVHUDSHUFLELGDHQIXQFLyQGH
FRPSDUDFLRQHVUHODWLYDVVHJ~QHOJUXSRGHUHIHUHQFLD\QRHQIXQFLyQGHFRPSD
UDFLRQHVDEVROXWDV/RVJUXSRVGHUHIHUHQFLDSXHGHQVHUPX\YDULDGRVP~OWLSOHV\
ODHOHFFLyQGHFDGDXQRGHHOORVTXHVHHVWDEOHFHUtDVHJ~QODVHPHMDQ]DSHUFLELGD
SXHGHWHQHUFRQVHFXHQFLDVGLIHUHQWHVSDUDODVDSUHFLDFLRQHVGHORVLQGLYLGXRV/D
SULYDFLyQUHODWLYDQRVHUtDPiVTXHXQDVSHFWRSDUWLFXODUGHOIXQGDPHQWRGHORV
JUXSRVGHUHIHUHQFLDSURFHVRSRUHOFXDOHOLQGLYLGXRWRPDDFLHUWDVFDWHJRUtDVR
JUXSRVFRPRHVTXHPDGHUHIHUHQFLDGHVXVDFWLWXGHV\FRPSRUWDPLHQWRV
.HOOH\  GLVWLQJXHGRVWLSRVGHJUXSRVGHUHIHUHQFLDFRQIXQFLRQHV
GLVWLQWDVFDGDXQRGHHOORV
D Los grupos de referencia normativosGHILQHQHLPSRQHQODVQRUPDVGHO
LQGLYLGXR7HQGUtDFRPRIXQFLyQXQDIXQFLyQQRUPDWLYD\PRWLYDQWH
TXHFRQVLVWLUtDHQHOHVWDEOHFLPLHQWRGHODVQRUPDVSDUDHOLQGLYLGXR
E Los grupos de referencia comparativosVLUYHQFRPRFULWHULRSDUDHOHVWD
EOHFLPLHQWRGHFRPSDUDFLRQHVSRUSDUWHGHOLQGLYLGXRSDUDTXHYDORUHD
RWUDVSHUVRQDV\DVtPLVPR7HQGUtDQXQDIXQFLyQGHFDUiFWHUFRPSDUD
WLYR\SHUFHSWLYRTXHWHQGUtDFRPRILQDOLGDGHOVHUYLUGHSXQWRGHUHIH
UHQFLD\HOSHUPLWLUDOLQGLYLGXRDXWRHYDOXDUVH\YDORUDUDORVGHPiV
8QPLVPRJUXSRGHUHIHUHQFLDSXHGHFXPSOLUODVGLYHUVDVIXQFLRQHV\DVH
xDODGDV6HKDWUDWDGRPiVODVFRQGLFLRQHVSRUODVTXHXQLQGLYLGXRHOLJHDJUXSRV
FRPRJUXSRVGHUHIHUHQFLDTXHORVIDFWRUHVHVWUXFWXUDOHVTXHIDYRUHFHQODHOHFFLyQ
GHWDOHVJUXSRV/RVWUDEDMRVHLQYHVWLJDFLRQHVVREUHORVJUXSRVGHUHIHUHQFLDKDQ
DELHUWRXQDSHUVSHFWLYDPX\LPSRUWDQWHHQSVLFRORJtDVRFLDODOLQWURGXFLUQRFLRQHV
TXHVHVLW~DQHQODDUWLFXODFLyQGHODVH[SOLFDFLRQHVSVLFROyJLFDVFRQODVVRFLROyJL
FDV
CAPÍTULO IV

LA ESTRUCTURA DEL GRUPO

Jesús M. Canto Ortiz

1. INTRODUCCIÓN

(QORVJUXSRVWUDVODLQWHUDFFLyQVRFLDOVHKDOODODHVWUXFWXUDJUXSDO/RV
SURFHVRVODIRUPDFLyQ\GHVDUUROORGHORVJUXSRVLPSOLFDQODHVWUXFWXUDFLyQGHO
JUXSR/DLQWHUDFFLyQVRFLDO\ODVUHODFLRQHVHQHOJUXSRHVWiQHQXQHVWDGRGH
SHUPDQHQWHIOXMR\FDPELR3HURHOORQRLPSLGHTXHKD\DQDVSHFWRVGHOJUXSRTXH
VHDQHVWDEOHVTXHVXUMDQGHIRUPDFRQVWDQWH\TXHPDQWHQJDQXQDFLHUWDFRQVLVWHQ
FLD&XDOTXLHUGHVFULSFLyQGHODYLGDJUXSDOUHFXUUHDWpUPLQRVTXHKDFHQUHIHUHQ
FLDDODSRVLFLyQ\DORUGHQDPLHQWRGHORVPLHPEURVHQHOJUXSRWUDVODTXHVXE\D
FHXQDGLIHUHQFLDFLyQPiVRPHQRVHVWDEOH\GXUDGHUDTXHSRVLELOLWDHOPHMRUIXQ
FLRQDPLHQWRJUXSDO/DHVWUXFWXUDGHOJUXSRVHJ~Q%ODQFR\)HUQiQGH]5tRV
 VHSRGUtDGHILQLUHQEDVHDWUHVFDUDFWHUtVWLFDVIXQGDPHQWDOHV³D HORUGHQ\
GLVWULEXFLyQGHORVHOHPHQWRV VXMHWRV TXHORFRPSRQHQE ODFRQVLVWHQFLD\HVWD
ELOLGDGHQODGLVSRVLFLyQGHHVDVSLH]DVF SURGXFLGDSRUXQRVSDWURQHVRPRGHORV
GHUHODFLyQHQWUHHOORV´ S /DHVWUXFWXUDGHJUXSRSXHVFXPSOHXQDIXQFLyQ
HVWDELOL]DGRUDGHOPLVPRGHVXVUHODFLRQHV\GHVXVPHWDVFRPXQHV<KDUtDUHIH
UHQFLDDODVLQWHUUHODFLRQHVHQWUHORVPLHPEURVGHOJUXSR\ODVGLUHFWULFHVGHVX
FRPSRUWDPLHQWRTXHOHKDFHQIXQFLRQDUGHXQDPDQHUDRUGHQDGD\SUHGHFLEOH
6RQPXFKDVODVGHILQLFLRQHVSURSRUFLRQDGDVSRUORVSVLFyORJRVVRFLDOHVTXH
KDQGHVDUUROODGRODLGHDGHODHVWUXFWXUDJUXSDOFRPRXQPRGHORGHUHODFLRQHV
LQWHUSHUVRQDOHVSURSRUFLRQDGRSRUODLQWHUDFFLyQVRFLDO3DUD&DUWZULJKW\=DQGHU
 ODVSDXWDVGHUHODFLRQHVHQWUHODVSDUWHVGLIHUHQFLDGDVGHOJUXSRUHFLEHOD
GHQRPLQDFLyQGH estructura grupal(QHOPLVPRVHQWLGRVHH[SUHVD6KDZ
92 Psicología de los grupos

 0iVUHFLHQWHPHQWH/HYLQH\0RUHODQG  ODGHILQHQFRPRHOSDWUyQ


GHUHODFLRQHVTXHHPHUJHHQWUHVXVPLHPEURV6KHULI\6KHULI  VRQPiVH[
SOtFLWRVDODILUPDUTXH³ODHVWUXFWXUDJUXSDOHVXQFRQMXQWRGHSURSLHGDGHVJUXSDOHV
TXHVHJHQHUDQHQHOWUDQVFXUVRGHODLQWHUDFFLyQ\GHQRUPDVTXHUHJXODQODVUHOD
FLRQHVUHFtSURFDV\ODVDFWLYLGDGHVUHOHYDQWHV´ S 
/DHVWUXFWXUDJUXSDOHVRULJLQDGDSRUODLQWHUDFFLyQVRFLDOFRQOOHYDODRUJD
QL]DFLyQLQWHUQDGHOJUXSR\WHQGUtDPiVSUREDELOLGDGHVGHGHVDUUROODUVHHQJUXSRV
PiVRPHQRVSHUPDQHQWHVVLQTXHHOORVHDyELFHSDUDQHJDUTXHGHVGHORVSULPHURV
LQVWDQWHVGHODIRUPDFLyQGHOJUXSRVHLQLFLDODHVWUXFWXUDFLyQGHOPLVPRHQEDVHD
ODHILFLHQFLDPRVWUDGDSRUORVPLHPEURVGHOJUXSRHQODUHDOL]DFLyQGHODWDUHD
UHOHYDQWHVHJ~QODVFDSDFLGDGHV\PRWLYDFLRQHVGHORVLQGLYLGXRVPLHPEURVGHO
JUXSR\VHJ~QODGLVSRVLFLyQGHODPELHQWHJUXSDO Q~PHURGHVXMHWRVGHOJUXSR
GLVSRVLFLyQHVSDFLDOGHORVVXMHWRVFDQWLGDGGHHVSDFLRGLVSRQLEOHHWF  &DUWZULJKW
\=DQGHU 
-LPpQH]%XULOOR  DOSUHVHQWDUun modelo teórico del microgrupoWUDV
FRQVLGHUDUORFRPRXQVLVWHPDDELHUWRLQWHJUDGRSRUSDUWHVLQWHUGHSHQGLHQWHV\
PDQWHQLHQGRLQWHUUHODFLRQHVFRQHOHQWRUQRGLIHUHQFLDHQWUHOD estructura grupal
los procesos grupales\los contenidos grupales3RUHVWUXFWXUDHQWLHQGHODWRWDOL
GDGGHUHJXODULGDGHVSDXWDGDVHQXQVLVWHPDTXHSHUPDQHFHHQXQSHUtRGRDPSOLR
GHWLHPSRVLQFDPELDUGLVWLQJXLHQGRODHVWUXFWXUDItVLFD WDPDxRGLVSRVLFLyQWH
UULWRULDOHVSDFLRSHUVRQDOGHVXVPLHPEURV\FDUDFWHUtVWLFDVGHOOXJDUGRQGHVH
HQFXHQWUDHOJUXSR ODVFDUDFWHUtVWLFDVELRJUiILFDVGHORVPLHPEURVGHOJUXSR
HGDGVH[RUDVJRVGHSHUVRQDOLGDGHWF \HOWLSRGHWDUHD$VXYH]-LPpQH]
%XULOORGHILQHORVSURFHVRVGHJUXSRFRPRORVLQWHUFDPELRVUHJXODGRVHQWUHGLIH
UHQWHVSDUWHVGHODHVWUXFWXUDVRFLDOHQWUHORVTXHGHVWDFDODGLVWULEXFLyQGHSRGHU
ODVQRUPDV\ODFRKHVLyQ<SRU~OWLPRHOFRQWHQLGRVHUtDHOFRQMXQWRGHFyGLJRV
YHUEDOHV\VLPEyOLFRVFRPSXHVWRVSRUWLSRVSDUWLFXODUHVGHLQIRUPDFLyQQRUPDV
YDORUHV\REMHWLYRV/DGLVWLQFLyQHQWUHHVWUXFWXUD\SURFHVRQRGHEHVHUUtJLGDVLQR
PiVELHQIOH[LEOH\DTXHHQPXFKRVFDVRVORTXHGHQRPLQDPRVSURFHVRVVXHOHVHU
HOHQYpVGHXQDVSHFWRHVWUXFWXUDO -LPpQH]%XULOOR 
8QDxRPiVWDUGH%DUULJD  GLVWLQJXtDGRVWLSRVGHHOHPHQWRVHQOD
HVWUXFWXUDJUXSDO
D Los elementos estructurales manifiestosWDPDxRGHOJUXSROXJDUItVLFR
FDUDFWHUtVWLFDVELRJUiILFDVHWF
E Los elementos estructurales implícitosFDUDFWHUtVWLFDVVRFLDOHVGHODP
ELHQWH UHGHVDIHFWLYDVQRUPDVYDORUHV UROHV\HVWDWXV
3HURODFODVLILFDFLyQPiVDFHSWDGDKDVLGRODUHDOL]DGDSRU6KDZ  FRQ
ODTXHFRLQFLGH%ODQFR\)HUQiQGH]5tRV  HQORUHIHUHQWHDORVFRPSRQHQWHV
GHODHVWUXFWXUDJUXSDO6KDZ  GLVWLQJXHXQDVHULHGHHQWRUQRV\PHGLRVDXQ
QLYHOLQWUDJUXSDO el entorno físico WHUULWRULDOLGDGHVSDFLRSHUVRQDOVLWXDFLyQHV
SDFLDOUHGHVGHFRPXQLFDFLyQ  el entorno personalGHORVJUXSRV WDPDxRGHO
La estructura del grupo 93

JUXSR\FDUDFWHUtVWLFDVELRJUiILFDVGHORVPLHPEURVGHOJUXSR la composición del


grupo IRUPDFLyQGHOJUXSR\FRKHVLyQJUXSDO  el entorno de la tarea WRPDGH
GHFLVLRQHVUHQGLPLHQWR\SURGXFWLYLGDG \ la estructura de grupo HVWDWXVUROHV
QRUPDVSRGHU\OLGHUD]JR 
+D\DXWRUHVFRPR%LGGOH  TXHGLVWLQJXHQHQWUHXQDVHULHGHHOHPHQ
WRVHVWUXFWXUDOHVGHOJUXSRFRQVLGHUDGRVFRPREiVLFRV3RU posiciónVHHQWHQGHUtD
HOOXJDUHQXQHQWUDPDGRGHUHODFLRQHVVRFLDOHVTXHDSRUWDUtDLQIRUPDFLyQH[SOtFL
WDRLPSOtFLWDGHODVIXQFLRQHVQRUPDVUROHVTXHHVWiQDVRFLDGRVDHVHSXHVWR
VRFLDO3DUDPXFKRVSVLFyORJRVVRFLDOHVHOJUXSRQRVHUtDPiVTXHXQFRQMXQWRGH
SRVLFLRQHVRUJDQL]DGDVFRQHOILQGHFRQVHJXLUFLHUWDVPHWDV$VXYH]HO estatus
VHKDGHSHUFLELUFRPRHOVLJQLILFDGRYDORUDFLyQRSUHVWLJLRDVRFLDGRDGLFKDSRVL
FLyQ\HOrolFRPRHOFRQMXQWRGHFRQGXFWDVTXHHOLQGLYLGXRUHDOL]DFRPRRFXSDQ
WHGHXQDSRVLFLyQ3RUODSURSLDGLQiPLFDGHODLQWHUDFFLyQVRFLDOTXHFRQGXFHD
XQDGLIHUHQFLDFLyQSRVLFLRQDOORVLQGLYLGXRVOOHYDQDFDERXQFRQMXQWRGHFRPSRU
WDPLHQWRVTXHWDOSRVLFLyQHVWDEOHFHHVWRHVHOURO\SRUHOORHVYDORUDGR\DGTXLH
UHXQHVWDWXVHVSHFtILFRSRUVXSRVLFLyQ/DGLIHUHQFLDFLyQSRVLFLRQDOWLHQGHDVHU
MHUiUTXLFDHQODTXHKD\LQGLYLGXRVFRQPiV poder\PiV influenciaTXHRWURV
FRPRHO líderTXHGHVDUUROODXQDV redes de comunicaciónHQWUHORVPLVPRV<
WRGRHOORVHVXVWHQWDUtDSRUXQFRQMXQWRGH normasFRPSDUWLGDVSRUORVPLHPEURV
GHOJUXSRTXHHVWDEOHFHUtDQODVH[SHFWDWLYDVFRPRXQFRQVWUXFWRFRJQLWLYRTXH
SUHVFULELUtDDQWLFLSDUtD\SUHGLUtDHOFRPSRUWDPLHQWR

2. LAS NORMAS SOCIALES

/DVQRUPDVVRFLDOHVVRQUHJODVGHFRQGXFWD6RQSDWURQHVRH[SHFWDWLYDVGH
FRQGXFWDFRPSDUWLGDVPiVRPHQRVSRUORVPLHPEURVGHXQJUXSRTXHSUHVFULEHQ
HOFRPSRUWDPLHQWRDGHFXDGR\FRUUHFWRHQFLHUWDVVLWXDFLRQHVHVSHFtILFDV3URSRU
FLRQDQODEDVHSDUDSUHGHFLUODFRQGXFWDGHORVGHPiVSRUORTXHVHSXHGHSUHYHU
ODVDFFLRQHVGHORVGHPiV\HMHFXWDUXQDUHVSXHVWDDSURSLDGD 6KDZ 
/DVQRUPDVVRFLDOHVSXHGHQVHUH[SOtFLWDV\IRUPDOHVDXQTXHHQPXFKDV
RFDVLRQHVQRVRQH[SOtFLWDV(OJUXSRVyORHODERUDUtDQRUPDVSDUDDTXHOODVFRVDV
UHOHYDQWHVSDUDpOPLVPRQRDIHFWDQGRDWRGRVORVPLHPEURVSRULJXDOYDULDQGRHQ
VXJUDGRGHDFHSWDFLyQ\SHUPLWLHQGRFDGDXQDGHHOODVXQPDUJHQGHGHVYLDFLyQ
SRVLEOH/RVSVLFyORJRVVRFLDOHVKDQSUHVWDGRXQDDWHQFLyQHVSHFLDODODFRQIRUPL
GDGDODVQRUPDVVRFLDOHV\DODSRVLEOHGHVYLDFLyQVRFLDOHQIRFDQGRODLQIOXHQFLD
VRFLDOGHVGHXQDGLQiPLFDH[FOXVLYDPHQWHLQWUDJUXSDODVRFLDQGRLQIOXHQFLDDOSR
GHUFRQOD~QLFDILQDOLGDGGHREWHQHUHOFRQWUROVRFLDO
/DVQRUPDVVRFLDOHVFXPSOLUtDQXQDVHULHGHIXQFLRQHVLQGLYLGXDOHV\VRFLD
OHV&RPR\DVHGHPRVWUyFRQHOH[SHULPHQWRGH6KHULI  VREUHQRUPDOL]D
FLyQODVQRUPDVDFWXDUtDQFRPRHVWUXFWXUDVGHUHIHUHQFLDDWUDYpVGHODVFXDOHVVH
94 Psicología de los grupos

LQWHUSUHWDODUHDOLGDGVRFLDO3URSRUFLRQDUtDQRUGHQ\SUHGLFLELOLGDGDODPELHQWH
VRFLDO\UHGXFLUtDODDQVLHGDGGHORVVXMHWRVHQVLWXDFLRQHVQXHYDVRFRQVLGHUDGDV
FRPRDPELJXDV$GHPiVDODFHSWDUODVQRUPDVGHOJUXSRH[SUHVDPRVGHVHRVGH
SHUWHQHFHUDOPLVPR\QRVSURSRUFLRQDVHQWLPLHQWRVGHFRQH[LyQFRQHOJUXSR
$VXYH]ODVQRUPDVVRFLDOHVWHQGUtDQXQDVHULHGHIXQFLRQHVSDUDHOJUXSR
D $\XGDUtDQDUHJXODUODH[LVWHQFLDVRFLDO\DODFRRUGLQDFLyQGHODVDFWLYLGDGHVGH
ORVPLHPEURVGHOJUXSRE SURSRUFLRQDUtDQXQDD\XGDLQHVWLPDEOHHQODFRQVHFX
FLyQGHODVPHWDVTXHHOJUXSRVHKDHVWDEOHFLGR\F VHUYLUtDQSDUDDXPHQWDUR
PDQWHQHUODLGHQWLGDGGHOJUXSR
(QXQVHQWLGRPX\VLPLODUVHH[SUHVD)LVFKHU  FXDQGRDILUPDTXHOD
UHGXFFLyQGHODDPELJHGDGODHYLWDFLyQGHOFRQIOLFWR\VXLQWHUYHQFLyQFRPR
SURFHVRGHQHJRFLDFLyQVHUtDQODVIXQFLRQHVGHODVQRUPDVVRFLDOHV
$VtSXHVODVQRUPDVJUXSDOHVFRQWULEX\HQDODVXSHUYLYHQFLDGHOJUXSR
,QFLGLHQGRHVHVWHDVSHFWRVHSXHGHHQXPHUDUODVIXQFLRQHVTXHFXPSOHQODVQRU
PDVVHJ~Q&DUWZULJKW\=DQGHU  
 Locomoción de grupo/DVQRUPDVD\XGDQTXHORVJUXSRVFRQVLJDQVXV
REMHWLYRV
 Mantenimiento del grupo$\XGDQDOPDQWHQLPLHQWRGHOJUXSRFRPRWDO
 Realidad social/DVQRUPDVD\XGDQDOJUXSRDFUHDU\DPDQWHQHUXQ
PDUFRGHUHIHUHQFLDFRP~QPHQWHFRPSDUWLGRSDUDHVWDEOHFHUODGHQRPL
QDGDUHDOLGDGVRFLDO
 Definición de las relaciones que el grupo ha de mantener con el entorno
social RWURVJUXSRVRUJDQL]DFLRQHVLQVWLWXFLRQHV\RWURVFRPSRQHQWHV
GHODVRFLHGDG 

3. LOS ROLES

/DULTXH]DGHOFRQFHSWRGHUROHQSVLFRORJtDVRFLDO\HQHOUHVWRGHODVFLHQ
FLDVVRFLDOHVHVGHWDOPDJQLWXGTXHVHKDFRQVLGHUDGRFRPRHOFRQFHSWRFODYHSDUD
DUWLFXODUHOHQWUDPDGRGHODVFLHQFLDVVRFLDOHV7DQWRHVDVtTXHODSVLFRORJtDVRFLDO
GHFRUWHVRFLROyJLFRHVWLPDTXHHOUROHVXQDGHODVXQLGDGHVGHDQiOLVLVPiVLPSRU
WDQWH<SDUDODSVLFRORJtDVRFLDOHQJHQHUDOVHKDDSOLFDGRHQGLYHUVRViPELWRV\D
YDULDGRVIHQyPHQRVSVLFRVRFLDOHVFRPRODLQWHUDFFLyQVRFLDOODDGTXLVLFLyQGHOD
LGHQWLGDGVRFLDOHODSUHQGL]DMHGHORVUROHVHWF %ODQFR\)HUQiQGH]5tRV 
/DPDJQLWXGGHOLPSDFWRGHORVUROHVHQHOFRPSRUWDPLHQWRGHORVLQGLYLGXRVQR
VyORVHKDFRQVWDWDGRH[SHULPHQWDOPHQWHFRQODVIDPRVDVLQYHVWLJDFLRQHVGHVREUH
ODDVLJQDFLyQGHUROHVHQXQDFiUFHOVLPXODGDHQOD8QLYHUVLGDGGH6WDQIRUG\HQORV
H[SHULPHQWRVGH0LOJUDP  VREUHODREHGLHQFLDGHVWUXFWLYDHQOD8QLYHUVLGDG
GH<DOHVLQRWDPELpQVXVHIHFWRVWHUDSpXWLFRVHQODSVLFRWHUDSLDGHJUXSRGHVGHHO
SVLFRGUDPDSDVDQGRSRUHOHQVD\RFRPSRUWDPHQWDO
La estructura del grupo 95

'HVGHHOLQWHUpVPRVWUDGRSRU/HZLQ\VXVFROHJDVVREUHHOHIHFWRGHOUROGHO
OtGHUVREUHODDWPyVIHUDGHOJUXSRHLQFOXVRDQWHVFRQODVLQYHVWLJDFLRQHVOOHYDGDV
DFDERSRU(OWRQ0D\RHQVXGHPRVWUDFLyQGHODLQIOXHQFLDGHORVUROHVLQIRUPDOHV
HQODDFWLYLGDGGHORVWUDEDMDGRUHVHQORVHVWXGLRVGHOD:HUVWHUQ(OHFWULF&RP
SDQ\ODSVLFRORJtDVRFLDOVHRFXSyGHIRUPDPX\WHPSUDQDSRUORVUROHVVRFLDOHV
6HJ~QHODiccionario de Psicología Social y de la Personalidad +DUUp\
/DPE SRUUROKD\TXHHQWHQGHUODFRQGXFWDDVRFLDGDFRQXQDSRVLFLyQSDU
WLFXODUHQXQVLVWHPDVRFLDO3DUD6KDZ  VHUtDHOFRQMXQWRGHFRQGXFWDVHVSH
UDGDVTXHVHYLQFXODQFRQXQDGHWHUPLQDGDSRVLFLyQHQHOJUXSR6HJ~Q6DUJHQW
 XQUROHVXQPRGHORGHFRQGXFWDVRFLDOTXHDSDUHFHVLWXDFLRQDOPHQWHDSUR
SLDGRDODSHUVRQDHQWpUPLQRVGHODVGHPDQGDV\H[SHFWDWLYDVGHTXLHQHVSHUWHQHFHQ
DOJUXSR/RVUROHVYLHQHQHQPDUFDGRVHQXQFRQWH[WRHVSHFtILFR\QRUHSUHVHQWDQ
ODWRWDOLGDGGHODVFRQGXFWDVTXHSXHGHH[KLELUXQDSHUVRQDVLQRWDQVyORXQDSDUWH
GHODVPLVPDV/RVUROHVSRUWDQWRVHUHIOHMDQHQHOFRPSRUWDPLHQWRGHORVPLHP
EURVGHOJUXSRGRQGHVHSURGXFHXQDFRQMXQFLyQHQWUHODGLPHQVLyQGHFRQGXFWD
REVHUYDEOHFRQODGLPHQVLyQFRJQLWLYD\DTXHHOUROVHYLQFXODFRQHOFRQFHSWRGH
H[SHFWDWLYD'HDKtTXH/HYLQH\0RUHODQG  GHILQDQDORVUROHVFRPRODV
H[SHFWDWLYDVFRPSDUWLGDVGHFyPRXQDSHUVRQDKDGHFRPSRUWDUVHHQXQJUXSR
/RVUROHVHVWiQHVWUHFKDPHQWHOLJDGRVDOFRQFHSWRGHQRUPDVRFLDO6HJ~Q
7KLEDXW\.HOOH\  ORVUROHVQRVHUtDQPiVTXHFRQMXQWRVGHQRUPDVHVSHFtIL
FDVGHXQDSRVLFLyQTXHVRQODEDVHGHODHVSHFLDOL]DFLyQGHIXQFLRQHVHQWUHORV
PLHPEURVGHOJUXSR/RVUROHVFXPSOHQXQDVHULHGHIXQFLRQHV %URZQ 
 &RQVWLWX\HQXQDEDVHSDUDODFRPXQLFDFLyQHQWUHORVPLHPEURVGHOJUX
SR
 )XQFLRQDQ\DFW~DQFRPRDJHQFLDPHGLDGRUDHQWUHHOLQGLYLGXR\HOJUX
SR
 &XDQGRHOUROVHDGHFXDDODVH[SHFWDWLYDVTXHJHQHUDDVHJXUDXQEXHQ
IXQFLRQDPLHQWRGHOJUXSR
 ,PSOLFDXQDGLYLVLyQHQODWDUHDHQWUHORVGLYHUVRVPLHPEURVGHOJUXSR
TXHSXHGHIDFLOLWDUODHMHFXFLyQGHODVPHWDVGHOJUXSR
 /RVUROHVIRUPDQSDUWHGHQXHVWUDDXWRGHILQLFLyQHQHOJUXSR
+D\WHRUtDVTXHGHILHQGHQHOGHWHUPLQLVPRVRFLROyJLFRDWUDYpVGHOFRQFHS
WRGHURO'DKUHQGRUI  FRQVLGHUDDOKRPEUHFRPRXQPHURHMHFXWRUGHUROHV
VRFLDOHVTXHYLHQHQLPSXHVWRVSRUODVRFLHGDG/DVQRUPDVVRFLDOHVLPSRQGUtDQ
XQRVUROHVH[WHUQRVDOVXMHWRTXHOHREOLJDUtDQDUHDOL]DUORVFRPSRUWDPLHQWRVSRU
HOORVH[LJLGRV rol prescrito 3HUR7KLEDXW\.HOOH\  GHVGHXQDSHUVSHFWLYD
PiVSVLFRVRFLDOHVWDEOHFHQGLIHUHQWHVSRVLELOLGDGHVGHUHODFLyQHQWUHODVQRUPDV\
ORVUROHV(QSULPHUOXJDUODVQRUPDVTXHH[LVWHQHQHOJUXSRSUHVFULEHQXQURO
3HURFDGDSHUVRQDKDGHSHUFLELU\FRPSUHQGHUODVH[LJHQFLDVGHHVHUROSRUORTXH
VHGDUtDXQrol subjetivo(QHOPRPHQWRGHVXHMHFXFLyQWHQGUtDOXJDUHOrol desem-
peñadoTXHVHSXHGHDMXVWDUPiVRPHQRVDODQRUPDPDQLILHVWDTXHVXVWHQWDDO
96 Psicología de los grupos

URO$VXYH]7KLEDXW\.HOOH\GLVWLQJXHQXQFXDUWRSURWRWLSRGHUROFRPRVHUtDHO
rol funcionalTXHKDUtDUHIHUHQFLDDODVQRUPDVTXHGHEHQVHUDSOLFDGDVSDUDTXHHO
JUXSRSXHGDHQIUHQWDUVHFRQp[LWRDODVROXFLyQGHORVSUREOHPDV
([LVWHQRWUDVFODVLILFDFLRQHVGHORVUROHVTXHLQFLGHQHQODULTXH]DFRPSRU
WDPHQWDO\HQODYDULHGDGHQHODMXVWHGHOFRPSRUWDPLHQWRDODVQRUPDV\H[SHFWD
WLYDVJHQHUDGDVHQHOJUXSRVRFLDO %URZQ /RVUROHVDGLVWLQJXLUVHUtDQ
D Rol prescritoR impuestoFRLQFLGLHQGRFRQ7KLEDXW\.HOOH\  HO
PRGHORGHFRQGXFWDYLHQHVHxDODGRSRUXQDVHULHGHSUHVFULSFLRQHVFRQ
FUHWDV
E Rol realizadoFRUUHVSRQGHDODFRQGXFWDGHVHPSHxDGDHQXQPRPHQWR
GHWHUPLQDGRSRUHOPLHPEURGHOJUXSR
F Rol idealFRLQFLGHFRQHOPRGHORGHFRQGXFWDTXHFDGDPLHPEURVHSUR
SRQHUHDOL]DUFRPRPHWD
G Roles institucionalizadosYHQGUtDQGHWHUPLQDGRVSRUODVSRVLFLRQHVRFX
SDGDVHQJUXSRVIRUPDOHVRVHFXQGDULRV
H Roles informalesTXHWLHQHQOXJDUHQJUXSRVLQIRUPDOHV SHMHOOtGHUGH
XQJUXSRGHDPLJRV 
(QODVGLVWLQWDVFODVLILFDFLRQHVGHORVUROHVKD\TXHSUHFLVDUTXHLJXDOTXH
KD\UROHVTXHXQLQGLYLGXRUHDOL]DSRUTXHRFXSDXQDSRVLFLyQHQODHVWUXFWXUDJUX
SDOKD\RWURVUROHV FRPRHOUROVH[XDOHOUROGHHGDGHWF FRQORVTXHODVSHUVRQDV
OOHJDQDOJUXSR
/DWHPiWLFDGHORVFRQIOLFWRVGHUROHVKDVLGRPX\LQYHVWLJDGD(QSULPHU
OXJDUVHSRGUtDSUHFLVDUODH[LVWHQFLDGHGRVWLSRVGHFRQIOLFWRVORVPDQWHQLGRVSRU
XQDPLVPDSHUVRQD conflictos intrasubjetivos \DTXHOORVTXHVHGDQHQWUHGRVR
PiVPLHPEURVGHXQJUXSRTXHQRSRVHHQODPLVPDFRQFHSFLyQUHVSHFWRDOFRQWH
QLGRGHXQURO conflictos intersubjetivos (QUHODFLyQDORVFRQIOLFWRVLQWUDVXEMHWL
YRVVHKDQSUHFLVDGRORVVLJXLHQWHV
D Conflicto entre la persona y el rolFRQIOLFWRTXHVHSURGXFHSRULQFRP
SDWLELOLGDGHVHQWUHODVH[SHFWDWLYDVGHOURO\ODSHUVRQDOLGDGGHOVXMHWR
TXHKDGHOOHYDUORDFDER
E Conflicto intrarolWHQVLyQTXHVLHQWHHOVXMHWRDUDt]GHH[SHFWDWLYDVFRQ
WUDGLFWRULDVSRUODUHDOL]DFLyQGHXQUROGHWHUPLQDGR
F Conflicto interrolesWHQVLyQHQWUHODVH[LJHQFLDVSURGXFLGDVSRUODVH[
SHFWDWLYDVSRUUROHVGLVWLQWRVTXHGHEHQGHVHPSHxDUVHDOPLVPRWLHPSR
/DGLIHUHQFLDFLyQGHOURO\ODWLSRORJtDGHORVPLVPRVKDQHVWDGRDVRFLDGDV
GHVGHXQSULQFLSLRDODVSURSLDVFDUDFWHUtVWLFDVGHOJUXSRGHORVTXHKDQGHVWDFDGR
ORVREMHWLYRV\ODVPHWDVGHOJUXSRTXHKDSURSLFLDGRXQDRUJDQL]DFLyQ\HVWUXFWX
UDFLyQSDUWLFXODUGHOPLVPR<DHQ%HQQH\6KHDWVHVWDEOHFLHURQHQEDVHDOD
FRQH[LyQHQWUHORVUROHV\ORVREMHWLYRVGHOJUXSRODVLJXLHQWHFODVLILFDFLyQ
D 5ROHVUHODFLRQDGRVFRQODIRUPDFLyQ\HOPDQWHQLPLHQWRGHODGLQiPLFD
JUXSDO
La estructura del grupo 97

E 5ROHVUHODFLRQDGRVGLUHFWDPHQWHFRQODWDUHD\GLULJLGRVH[SOtFLWDPHQWHD
ODFRQVHFXFLyQGHPHWDVFROHFWLYDV
F 5ROHVLQGLYLGXDOHVGLULJLGRVDODVDWLVIDFFLyQGHQHFHVLGDGHVSHUVRQDOHV
5HVXOWDSHUWLQHQWHFRPR%HQQH\6KHDWV  GHVWDFDURQGRVWLSRVGHUR
OHVFRQORVTXH%DOHV  FRLQFLGLyDOGLVWLQJXLUHQWUHODV³FRQGXFWDVLQVWUXPHQ
WDOHV´YHUVXV³FRQGXFWDVH[SUHVLYDV´ORTXHOHOOHYyDHVWDEOHFHUODH[LVWHQFLDGH
GRVWLSRVGHUROHVHO³ especialista en la tarea´VHFHQWUDUtDPiVHQODViUHDVGH
DGDSWDFLyQ\GHFRQVHFXFLyQGHODVPHWDVPLHQWUDVTXHHO³ especialista socio-
emocional´VHFHQWUDUtDPiVHQHOPDQWHQLPLHQWRGHODHVWUXFWXUD\HQHOiUHDLQWH
JUDWLYD%DOHV  IRUPXOyHQXQSULQFLSLRODKLSyWHVLVGHO³~QLFRRUGHQDPLHQ
WRGHHVWDWXV´VHJ~QODFXDOTXLHQIXHUDHVSHFLDOLVWDGHXQDPRGDOLGDGWDPELpQOR
GHEHUtDVHUGHODRWUD6LQHPEDUJRODHYROXFLyQGHODVLQYHVWLJDFLRQHVREOLJyD
%DOHVDUHGHILQLUVXKLSyWHVLV\WXYRTXHDFHSWDUODH[LVWHQFLDGHGRVSXHVWRVFRP
SOHPHQWDULRVGHOtGHUHOGHODWDUHD\HOVRFLRHPRFLRQDOTXHQRKDQGHVHURFXSD
GRVSRUHOPLVPRPLHPEURGHOJUXSR
7UDVH[SRQHUDOJXQRVGHORVKLWRVPiVVREUHVDOLHQWHVHQODOLWHUDWXUDGHORV
UROHVGHVGHODSVLFRORJtDGHORVJUXSRVGHIRUPDLUUHYRFDEOHQRVKHPRVDGHQWUDGR
HQVXFODVLILFDFLyQORTXHLPSOLFDODDGPLVLyQGHXQRUGHQDPLHQWRMHUDUTXL]DGRGH
ORVPLVPRVYDORUL]DGRVGHIRUPDGLIHUHQWH<HOORQRHVQLPiVQLPHQRVTXH
LQWURGXFLUQRVHQHOFRQFHSWRGHHVWDWXVVRFLDOTXHQRHVVLQRXQRGHORVSLODUHVPiV
VXVWDQFLDOHVGHODHVWUXFWXUDJUXSDO

EL EXPERIMENTO DE LA PRISIÓN DE ZIMBARDO:


LOS EFECTOS DE UNA PRISIÓN SIMULADA

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4.1. Teoría de los rasgos de personalidad

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4.3. Modelos de contingencia

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OL]DUHOOLGHUD]JRVLQFRQVLGHUDUHOFRQWH[WRHQHOTXHWLHQHOXJDUSRUORTXHVH
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ODWHRUtDGHORVcaminos meta\HOPRGHORGHOLGHUD]JRSDUWLFLSDWLYR

Modelo de contingencia de Fiedler

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VLWXDFLyQHVSHFtILFDGHTXHVHWUDWH3RUXQODGRLGHQWLILFDGRVSDWURQHVPRWLYDFLR
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VXMHWRVGHEHQGHVFULELUDODSHUVRQDFRQODTXHSHRUKDQWUDEDMDGRHQHOSDVDGR'H
HVWDIRUPDXQDSXQWXDFLyQDOWDVHxDODXQDGHVFULSFLyQIDYRUDEOHGHGLFKDSHUVRQD
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El liderazgo 111

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Teoría de los caminos meta

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 \+RXVH  \SODQWHDTXHORVVXERUGLQDGRVKDUiQDTXHOORTXHORV
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Modelo de liderazgo participativo

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112 Psicología de los grupos

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4.4. Teorías humanistas

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El liderazgo 113

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AMBIENTE GRUPAL

Clara Martimportugués Goyenechea

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118 Psicología de los grupos

2.1. Tipos de territorios

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• Territorios primarios. 6RQDTXHOORVHVSDFLRVRFXSDGRVSRUXQLQGLYLGXR
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2.2. La territorialidad humana

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Ambiente grupal 119

TIPOLOGÍA DE LOS TERRITORIOS SEGÚN I. ALTMAN (1975)

Tipo de Primario Sedundario Público


territorio

Posesión 3DUWLFXODU\H[FOXVLYD 1RH[FOXVLYD 2FXSDFLyQWHPSRUDO


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el acceso

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contexto, éVWRVSXHGHQVHUItVLFRVGHWHUPLQDQWHVVRFLDOHVOXJDUHV\HVFHQDULRV
factores antecedentesSURGXFWRUHVGHFRQGLFLRQHVTXHDIHFWDQDODVFRQGLFLRQHV
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120 Psicología de los grupos

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122 Psicología de los grupos

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2.4. Funciones de la territorialidad en los grupos

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3. ESPACIO PERSONAL Y DISTANCIAS DE INTERACCIÓN

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3.1. Naturaleza del espacio personal

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126 Psicología de los grupos

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3.2. Funciones psicológicas del espacio personal

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2.3. Definición de innovación

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Influencia social 163

0RVFRYLFLHQXQH[SHULPHQWROOHYDGRDFDERHQ 0RVFRYLFL/DJH\
1DIIUHFKRX[ GHPRVWUyTXHODLQIOXHQFLDGHODPLQRUtDH[LVWHUHDOPHQWH8WL
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PDEDQGHIRUPDXQiQLPH\FRQVLVWHQWHTXHODVGLDSRVLWLYDVHUDQ³YHUGHV´/RV
UHVXOWDGRVREWHQLGRVLQGLFDEDQQRVyORTXHKDEtDVXMHWRVTXHFDPELDEDQHOXPEUDO
GHGLVFULPLQDFLyQHQWUHHOYHUGH\HOD]XOVLQRTXHHOGHODVUHVSXHVWDV
HVWLPDEDQTXHODGLDSRVLWLYDD]XOHUDYHUGH/DLQIOXHQFLDPLQRULWDULDVHSURGXFtD
JUDFLDVDOHVWLORGHFRPSRUWDPLHQWRXWLOL]DGRTXHSRUVHUFRQVLVWHQWHRULJLQDEDXQ
FRQIOLFWRVRFLDO\FRJQLWLYRHQORVVXMHWRV 0RVFRYLFL $VtODHIHFWLYLGDGGH
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3. LOS NIVELES DE INFLUENCIA Y MODELOS TEÓRICOS

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164 Psicología de los grupos

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Influencia social 165

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TXHVHDFWLYDVHWDOHVSURFHVRVVHUtDUHVSRQVDEOHGHTXHODVUHVSXHVWDVGHLQIOXHQFLD
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166 Psicología de los grupos

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4. LOS PRINCIPIOS PSICOLÓGICOS RESPONSABLES DE LA COM-


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GXRDKRUUDWLHPSRHQHUJtD\FDSDFLGDGPHQWDO$XQTXHHQRFDVLRQHVSXHGHQ
OOHYDUDHUURUHVFRQIDFLOLGDGDOVHULQIOXLGRVLQKDEHUDQDOL]DGRFRUUHFWDPHQWHOD
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3HQVDUGHIRUPDDXWRPiWLFDTXH lo caro es buenoTXH la autoridad tiene razón
TXH las mayorías no se equivocanHWFQRVSXHGHFRQGXFLUDWRPDUGHFLVLRQHV
HTXLYRFDGDV¢3HURFXiOHVVRQORVSULQFLSLRVUHVSRQVDEOHVGHWDOHVWpFQLFDVTXH
168 Psicología de los grupos

SURYRFDQFRPSODFHQFLD"&LDOGLQLGHVWDFDORVSULQFLSLRVRPHFDQLVPRVSVLFROyJL
FRVGHODUHFLSURFLGDGFRPSURPLVR\FRKHUHQFLDVDQFLyQVRFLDORFRPSUREDFLyQ
VRFLDOVLPSDWtDDXWRULGDG\HVFDVH]

4.1. La reciprocidad

/DQRUPDGHUHFLSURFLGDGKDFHTXHXQDSHUVRQDVLHQWDODREOLJDFLyQGHUHV
SRQGHUDRWUDSHUVRQDFRQODPLVPDFRQGXFWDTXHKDUHFLELGRGHHOOD3RUHOORHVWD
QRUPDGHFDUiFWHUXQLYHUVDOQRVREOLJDDD\XGDUDODVSHUVRQDVTXHQRVD\XGDQ8Q
IDYRUGHEHVHUFRUUHVSRQGLGRFRQRWURIDYRU\DTXHHVHIDYRUTXHKHPRVUHFLELGR
KDFHTXHQRVVLQWDPRVDJUDGHFLGRV\HQGHXGDFRQHVDSHUVRQD'HHVDIRUPD
SRGHPRVdarVLQSHUGHUORTXHGDPRV\DTXHHVSHUDPRVTXHHQXQIXWXURFXDQGR
VROLFLWHPRVD\XGDODUHFLELUHPRVGHDTXpOORVDORVTXHDQWHVVHODKHPRVSUHVWDGR
/DVVRFLHGDGHVDOSRWHQFLDUODQRUPDGHUHFLSURFLGDGHVWiQDVHJXUiQGRVHODFRR
SHUDFLyQ\HOGHVDUUROORGHODVUHODFLRQHVDPLVWRVDVHQWUHORVLQGLYLGXRV$OSURSRU
FLRQDUYHQWDMDVFRQVLGHUDEOHVDODVVRFLHGDGHVTXHODSUDFWLFDQKD\IXHUWHVSUHVLR
QHVSDUDDFHSWDU\FXPSOLUODQRUPDGHUHFLSURFLGDGVLHQGRPX\FULWLFDGRV\GHV
SUHVWLJLDGRVORVTXHQRODFXPSOHQ
8QDSHUVRQDSRGUtDXWLOL]DUODQRUPDGHUHFLSURFLGDGSDUDREWHQHUDOJRGH
RWUDSHUVRQDD~QFXDQGRpVWDQRTXLVLHUDGiUVHOR(VRVHSXHGHFRQVHJXLUKDFLpQ
GROHXQIDYRUDXQTXHQRVHORKD\DSHGLGR/DUHJODVyORQRVGLFHTXHGHEHPRVGDU
DORVGHPiVORTXHHOORVQRVKDQGDGRSHURHQQLQJ~QPRPHQWRH[LJHTXHKD\DPRV
SHGLGRSUHYLDPHQWHHOIDYRU&RPRUHVLVWLUVHDXQUHJDORUHVXOWDWDQLQFyPRGRSRU
HVWHPRWLYRODQRUPDGHUHFLSURFLGDGUHVXOWDWDQHIHFWLYD<HVTXHDXQTXHOD
HVHQFLDGHODQRUPDODFRQVWLWX\HODREOLJDFLyQGHGHYROYHUHOIDYRURODD\XGDOR
TXHORFRQYLHUWHHQXQDQRUPDFRQODTXHHVWDQIiFLOODH[SORWDFLyQGHORVRWURVHV
ODREOLJDFLyQTXHVHQWLPRVGHUHFLELUHOIDYRURODD\XGD(VWDREOLJDFLyQUHGXFH
QXHVWUDFDSDFLGDGGHHOHJLUFRQTXLHQHVTXHUHPRVSRQHUQRVHQGHXGD
$GHPiVWRGRHOORLPSOLFDUtDTXHXQDSHUVRQDTXHQRVUHVXOWDDQWLSiWLFDSR
GUtDFRQVHJXLUDOJRGHQRVRWURVXWLOL]DQGRODVEDVHVGHODQRUPDGHUHFLSURFLGDG(V
VXILFLHQWHFRQTXHQRVKDJDXQIDYRU\VHORDFHSWHPRV(QHVHPRPHQWRQRVVHQ
WLUHPRVHQGHXGDFRQpO\VyORKDFHIDOWDTXHQRVVROLFLWHODGHYROXFLyQGHOIDYRU
<DXQTXHODGHYROXFLyQGHOIDYRUGHEHVHUGHXQYDORUSURSRUFLRQDODOUHFLELGRVH
QRVSXHGHSHGLUXQIDYRUGHXQYDORUVXSHULRUDOTXHQRVSUHVWyHQVXPRPHQWR
/DHIHFWLYLGDGGHORVSULQFLSLRVGHODQRUPDGHUHFLSURFLGDGSDUDREWHQHU
FRPSODFHQFLDVHSXHGHSHUFLELUHQiUHDVGHPX\GLYHUVDtQGROH$VtVHHQWHQGHUtD
SRUTXpQRVRIUHFHQXQDIORUFRPRXQUHJDORSDUDSHGLUQRVXQGRQDWLYRDFDPELR
2SRUTXpHQXQVXSHUPHUFDGRQRVRIUHFHQXQDPXHVWUDJUDWLVGHXQSURGXFWRQRV
VHQWLUHPRVHQGHXGDFRQHOYHQGHGRU\DVtHVPiVIiFLOTXHVHORFRPSUHPRV
,PDJtQHVHHOOHFWRUVyORDWtWXORGHFXULRVLGDGFXiQWRSXHGHDFXPXODUXQSROtWLFR
TXHUHDOL]DPXFKRVIDYRUHV\H[LMDFXDQGRpOTXLHUD\FRPRTXLHUDVXGHYROXFLyQ
Influencia social 169

&LDOGLQL  QRVUHFXHUGDTXHKD\XQDIRUPDSDUWLFXODUGHXWLOL]DUODQRU


PDGHUHFLSURFLGDGTXHFRQVLVWHHQODREOLJDFLyQGHKDFHUXQDFRQFHVLyQDDOJXLHQ
TXHSUHYLDPHQWHQRVKD\DUHDOL]DGRXQDDQRVRWURV(QHVRFRQVLVWHOD técnica de
rechazo y retiradaHQKDFHUXQDSHWLFLyQPD\RUDODGHVHDGD\DOUHFLELUHOUHFKD
]RVHGLVPLQX\HODSHWLFLyQLQLFLDOSRURWUDPiVSHTXHxD$VtDWtWXORGHHMHPSOR
VHHQWLHQGHTXHXQPXFKDFKRTXHGHVHDXQDFDQWLGDGGHGLQHURFRPLHQFHSLGLpQ
GROHDVXVSDGUHVXQDFDQWLGDGPD\RUDODGHVHDGD$QWHODQHJDWLYDGHVXVSDGUHV
GLVPLQX\HODFDQWLGDGGHGLQHUR(VWDGLVPLQXFLyQHQODSHWLFLyQSXHGHVHULQWHU
SUHWDGDFRPRXQDFRQFHVLyQ\FRPRXQIDYRUSRUORTXHORVSDGUHVKDQGHHVWDU
DJUDGHFLGRV$GHPiVHVWDVHJXQGDSHWLFLyQUHVXOWDSRU contraste PXFKRPHQRU
TXHODSULPHUDSRUWDQWRSHTXHxD\PiVIiFLOGHDGPLWLU'HKHFKRQRWLHQHTXHVHU
PXFKRPHQRUSDUDTXHHVWDWpFQLFDVHDHIHFWLYD/R~QLFRHQORTXHVHKDGHWHQHU
FXLGDGRHVHQQRSHGLUXQDFDQWLGDGHQSULPHUOXJDUWDQGHVFDEHOODGDTXHDOHUWH
VREUHODDSOLFDFLyQGHXQDHVWUDWHJLDSUHFRQFHELGD

4.2. Compromiso y coherencia

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KDQGHVWDFDGRHOGHVHRGHFRKHUHQFLDFRPRPRWLYDGRUFHQWUDOGHOFRPSRUWDPLHQWR
KXPDQR(VXQGHVHRFDVLXQLYHUVDOSHQVDUTXHQXHVWUDVDFWLWXGHV\QXHVWURVFRPSRU
WDPLHQWRVVRQFRQVLVWHQWHVHQWUHVt\VHFRQVWLWX\HQHQHOUHIOHMRGHQXHVWUDFRKHUHQ
FLD/DLQFRKHUHQFLDHVSHUFLELGD\MX]JDGDFRPRXQUDVJRGHSHUVRQDOLGDGLQGHVHD
EOHTXHGHEHVHUHYLWDGD\VXSHUDGD3RUHOORODVSHUVRQDVVHHVIXHU]DQHQVHUFRKHUHQ
WHVRSRUORPHQRVHQSDUHFHUOR(VHHVIXHU]RHVWDQFRQVWDQWHTXHPRVWUDUVHFRKH
UHQWHVHVXQKiELWR\XQDFRVWXPEUHSRUORTXHVHOOHYDDFDERGHIRUPDDXWRPiWLFD
DSHVDUGHTXHH[LVWDQVLWXDFLRQHVHQODVTXHQRHVFRQYHQLHQWHFRPSRUWDUVHDVt
(VWHKHFKRSXHGHVHUXWLOL]DGRSDUDSURYRFDUHQORVLQGLYLGXRVFRPSODFHQ
FLDVLQTXHKD\DVLGRREMHWRGHUHIOH[LyQWDQVyORSRUHOKHFKRGHPRVWUDUVHFRKH
UHQWHVSXHGHQDFDWDUFLHUWDVSHWLFLRQHVXyUGHQHV/RTXHVHKDGHFRQVHJXLUHVTXH
ODVSHUVRQDVLPSOLFDGDVVHFRPSURPHWDQFRQDOJXQDDFFLyQ8QDYH]FRQVHJXLGR
HOFRPSURPLVRHVPX\SUREDEOHTXHVHJHQHUHXQDIXHU]DSVLFROyJLFDTXHOHVOOHYH
DVHUFRQJUXHQWHVFRQHVHFRPSURPLVR$VtSXHVVLFRQVHJXLPRVTXHXVWHGDVXPD
XQFLHUWRFRPSURPLVRDFWLYR\S~EOLFROHKDEUHPRVSUHGLVSXHVWRDTXHDXWRPiWLFD
HLUUHIOH[LYDPHQWHDFW~HHQFRQVRQDQFLDFRQHVHFRPSURPLVRSUHYLR0iVHIHFWLYR
VHUtDVLXVWHGDVXPLyHOFRPSURPLVRVLQVHQWLUVHFRDFFLRQDGR\VLDVXPHODUHVSRQ
VDELOLGDGGHVXVDFWRV
&LDOGLQL  DQDOL]yXQDVHULHGHWpFQLFDVTXHVHIXQGDPHQWDEDQHQ
SURYRFDUODFRPSODFHQFLDXWLOL]DQGRODIXHU]DSVLFROyJLFDGHODFRKHUHQFLDDWUDYpV
GHOFRPSURPLVR(VWDVWpFQLFDVVRQ
 Técnica del pie en la puerta&RQVLVWHHQODVROLFLWXGDXQDSHUVRQDHQXQ
FRQWH[WRGHOLEUHHOHFFLyQGHXQSHTXHxRIDYRUTXHUHVXOWDDSHQDVQDGD
170 Psicología de los grupos

FRVWRVR8QDYH]TXHKDDFFHGLGRDODSHWLFLyQVHOHSLGHRWURIDYRUPD
\RUUHODFLRQDGRFRQHODQWHULRUVLHQGRHVWHVHJXQGRIDYRUHOTXHUHDO
PHQWHVHGHVHDEDFRQVHJXLU(VWDWpFQLFDODXWLOL]DQORVJUXSRVTXHQRV
VROLFLWDQQXHVWUDILUPDSDUDDSR\DUXQDFDXVD SHMXQDILUPDFRQWUDOD
GURJD SDUDSHGLUQRVDFRQWLQXDFLyQGLQHURSDUDDSR\DUHVDFDXVD
 Técnica de lanzamiento contra la baseWDPELpQGHQRPLQDGDWpFQLFDGH
ODQ]DPLHQWRGHERODEDMDRGHFRPSURPLVRHQFXELHUWR&RQVLVWHHQFRQ
VHJXLUTXHXQDSHUVRQDVHFRPSURPHWDFRQXQDDFFLyQ\XQDYH]TXHOR
KDKHFKRLQFUHPHQWDUORVFRVWHVTXHWLHQHHOGHVHPSHxRGHGLFKDDFFLyQ
6HUtDHOFDVRGHXQDSHUVRQDTXHVHFRPSUyXQFRFKHSRUTXHOHGLMHURQ
TXHHUDEDUDWRSHURFXDQGRWRPyODGHFLVLyQOHFRPXQLFDURQTXHUHDO
PHQWHHUDPiVFDUR8QDYH]WRPDGDODGHFLVLyQQXHYRVDUJXPHQWRV
IXHURQLQFRUSRUiQGRVHSDUDDSR\DUODGHFLVLyQWRPDGDGHFLVLyQTXHVH
PDQWHQGUiD~QFXDQGRQRSHUGXUHODUD]yQSRUODTXHVHWRPyHQSULPHU
OXJDU
 Técnica de legitimación de favores insignificantes5HVXOWDPX\GLItFLO
UHVLVWLUVHDSHWLFLRQHVSRUSDUWHGHXQDSHUVRQDVLpVWDQRVODSUHVHQWDGH
WDOIRUPDTXHODPiVPtQLPDHLQVLJQLILFDQWHDSRUWDFLyQVHUtDVXILFLHQWH
³con cinco pesetas bastaría´ (VWDWpFQLFDHVHILFD]SRUTXHDSHODDYD
ORUHVGHVHDGRVSRUODPD\RUSDUWHGHODVSHUVRQDV ERQGDG\JHQHURVL
GDG DODVTXHOHVVHUtDPX\LQJUDWRPRVWUDUVHFRQXQDLPDJHQTXHPDQ
FKDUDVXDXWRFRQFHSWR

4.3. Sanción o comprobación social

$ORODUJRGHJUDQSDUWHGHODSVLFRORJtDVRFLDOGHODLQIOXHQFLDVHKDGHIHQ
GLGRTXHODVIXHQWHVPD\RULWDULDVVRQPX\LQIOX\HQWHV\VHKDVRVWHQLGRTXHORV
LQGLYLGXRVSLHQVDQTXHODVPD\RUtDVVXHOHQHVWDUHQORFLHUWR &DQWR &LDOGL
QL  DQDOL]DODDPSOLWXGGHWDOHIHFWR\ORHQPDUFD\DUWLFXODFRQHOSURFHVRGH
FRPSDUDFLyQVRFLDO )HVWLQJHU 3DUDGHWHUPLQDUVLQXHVWUDVRSLQLRQHV\KD
ELOLGDGVRQFRUUHFWDVSRGHPRVFRPSDUDUODVFRQODGHRWUDVSHUVRQDVQRPX\GLIH
UHQWHVDQRVRWURV'HHVHPRGRDOFRPSUREDUTXHQXHVWUDVRSLQLRQHVFRLQFLGHQ
FRQODGHORVGHPiV\GHVFXEULUTXHVRQPXFKRVQRVFRQIRUWD\QRVKDFHVHQWLUTXH
HVWDPRVHQORFLHUWR3RUWRGRHOORODWiFWLFDGHSUHVHQWDUFXDOTXLHULQIRUPDFLyQ
FRPRODDFHSWDGDSRUODPD\RUSDUWHGHODSREODFLyQVHFRQYLHUWHHQXQDWpFQLFD
~WLOSDUDFRQVHJXLUFRPSODFHQFLD

4.4. Simpatía

/RVSURIHVLRQDOHVGHODSHUVXDVLyQVDEHQTXHORVHPLVRUHVVLPSiWLFRVVRQ
PXFKRPiVLQIOX\HQWHV\HILFDFHV3DUDHOORQRVHVFDPRWHDUiQQLQJ~QHVIXHU]RSRU
Influencia social 171

SUHVHQWDUORVFRQFXDOTXLHUDWULEXWRRUDVJRTXHQRVUHVXOWHVLPSiWLFR/DVYDULDEOHV
TXHDXPHQWDQODDWUDFFLyQLQWHUSHUVRQDOKDQVLGRDPSOLDPHQWHLQYHVWLJDGDVSRUOR
TXHDILUPDUTXHODVSHUVRQDVItVLFDPHQWHDWUDFWLYDVVHPHMDQWHVDQRVRWURVFRRSH
UDGRUHV\UHIRU]DQWHVHWFUHVXOWDQDWUDFWLYDVVRQKHFKRVFRQVWDWDGRV\H[SOLFDGRV
GHVGHGLVWLQWDVDSUR[LPDFLRQHVWHyULFDV &DQWR 3RUHOORODFRPSODFHQFLD
HVHOUHVXOWDGRGHHPLVRUHVDWUDFWLYRVTXHFRQVLJXHQTXHDFFHGDPRVDVXSHWLFLyQ
D~QFXDQGRQRDQDOLFHPRVFRQGHWHQLPLHQWRVXFRQWHQLGR\ODVFRQVHFXHQFLDVTXH
OOHYDFRQVLJR

4.5. Autoridad

(ODQiOLVLVGHODREHGLHQFLDOOHYDGRDFDERSRU0LOJUDP  GHPRVWUy


HOJUDQSRGHUGHODDXWRULGDGSDUDSURYRFDUREHGLHQFLD+HPRVVLGRHGXFDGRVGHV
GHODLQIDQFLDHQODFRQILDQ]DDYHFHVFLHJDHQODDXWRULGDG'HKHFKRHQPXOWLWXG
GHRFDVLRQHVKDUHVXOWDGRDGDSWDWLYRFRQILDUHQODDXWRULGDG(QWDQWDVRWUDVOD
DXWRULGDGVHKDLPSXHVWRSRUPpWRGRVFRDFWLYRV\QRVHVXVWHQWDEDQDGDPiVTXH
SRUODUHSUHVLyQ$VtHODQiOLVLVGHOHMHUFLFLRGHODVIXHQWHVGHDXWRULGDGUHTXLHUH
XQDLQYHVWLJDFLyQGHWDOODGDGHORVPHFDQLVPRVXWLOL]DGRV\ODVFRQVHFXHQFLDVSUR
GXFLGDVTXHDEDUFDUDGHVGHDTXHOORVFDVRVHQORVTXHODDXWRULGDGVHHMHUFHDSDUWLU
GHOSRGHUFRDFWLYR\ODLPSRVLFLyQDXWRULWDULDKDVWDORVRWURVHQORVTXHODDXWRUL
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FLyQ
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GHQRWHDXWRULGDGSURYRFDHODXPHQWRGHODFRQILDQ]DHQODIXHQWH\TXHVHDSHUFLEL
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ODDSDULHQFLDSUHVHQWDUVHFRQWtWXORV SDUDSURYRFDUGHIRUPDQRUHIOH[LYDFRP
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4.6. Escasez

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DTXHOORVREMHWRVTXHVRQPX\GHVHDGRV\SRUFRQVLJXLHQWHSURSHQVRVDVHUHVFD
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FRQYDORU$GHPiVVLVHQWLPRVTXHQRSRGHPRVGLVSRQHUGHFXDOTXLHUREMHWRTXH
KDVWDHVHPLVPRLQVWDQWHSRGtDPRVXWLOL]DUSXHGHSURYRFDU reactancia psicológi-
ca %UHKP <XQDIRUPDPX\XVXDOGHUHFRPSRQHUQXHVWUDOLEHUWDGHVFRP
SUREDQGRTXHWHQHPRVODFDSDFLGDGGHDGTXLULUHVHREMHWR'HDTXtVHGHGXFHOD
SUHVHQWDFLyQGHFLHUWRVDUWtFXORVFRPRHVFDVRVSDUDTXHGHVSLHUWHQHOGHVHRGH
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172 Psicología de los grupos

5. LA PERSUASIÓN COERCITIVA EN LAS SECTAS DESTRUCTIVAS

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SHUVXDVLyQFRPRPRGDOLGDGGHLQIOXHQFLDVRFLDOQRGHEHUHGXFLUVHWDQVyORDXQ
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GXFWDVGHRWUDVSHUVRQDVDSR\iQGRVHHQHOXVRGHODIXHU]D \DVHDItVLFDSVtTXLFD
RVRFLDO 
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SHUVXDVLyQ\FRQWUROGHVWLQDGRVDFRQVHJXLUORVREMHWLYRVGHOOtGHUGHOJUXSRSUR
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QRIDPLOLDU\VRFLDO
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SRWHQFLDOHVDGHSWRVFRPRJUXSRVHMHPSODUHVFRQLQWHQFLRQHVUHODWLYDPHQWHDO
WUXLVWDVTXHSHUVLJXHQPHWDVDFHSWDEOHVSRUODPD\RUSDUWHGHODSREODFLyQ1RVH
Influencia social 173

KDGHDGPLWLUQLVXSRQHUTXHODVSHUVRQDVTXHHQWUDQDIRUPDUSDUWHGHXQDVHFWD
GHVWUXFWLYDSRVHHQXQSDWUyQWtSLFRGHSHUVRQDOLGDGQLPXFKRPHQRVDOJ~QWLSRGH
SVLFRSDWRORJtD/RPi[LPRTXHVHSXHGHFRQVWDWDUVRQXQDVHULHGHFDUDFWHUtVWLFDV
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WDVVHUtDQODVVLJXLHQWHV
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\WUDQVIRUPDFLRQHVPX\LPSRUWDQWHVHQHOTXHHOHOHYDGRGHVDUUROORLQWH
OHFWXDOQRYLHQHDFRPSDxDGRGHXQGHVDUUROORHPRFLRQDOHTXLYDOHQWH
‡ 'HVGHXQSXQWRGHYLVWDDIHFWLYRHVWDVSHUVRQDVUHIOHMDQXQDSUHGLVSRVL
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6. TÉCNICAS PARA GUIAR GRUPOS

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1. INTRODUCCIÓN

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rendimiento real = rendimiento potencial - pérdidas debidas a un defec-


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SDO
CAPÍTULO XI

RELACIONES ENTRE GRUPOS:


UNA PERSPECTIVA PSICOSOCIAL

F.M. Montalbán Peregrín

1. INTRODUCCIÓN

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200 Psicología de los grupos

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2. COMPORTAMIENTO INTERGRUPAL

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Relaciones entre grupos: una perspectiva psicosocial 201

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202 Psicología de los grupos

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Relaciones entre grupos: una perspectiva psicosocial 203

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3. TEORÍA DE LA IDENTIDAD SOCIAL

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3.1. El proceso de categorización social

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210 Psicología de los grupos

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212 Psicología de los grupos

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214 Psicología de los grupos

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216 Psicología de los grupos

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CAPÍTULO XII

PREJUICIO, ESTEREOTIPO Y RACISMO

Jesús M. Canto Ortiz

1. INTRODUCCIÓN

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220 Psicología de los grupos

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KD\TXHH[SRQHUFLHUWRVIHQyPHQRVTXHKDQVLGRPX\LQYHVWLJDGRVHQHOiPELWRGH
ODVUHODFLRQHVLQWHUJUXSDOHV\TXHVHFRQVWLWX\HQHQIRUPDVHQODVTXHHOUDFLVPRVH
H[SUHVDFRPRVRQORVSUHMXLFLRV\ORVHVWHUHRWLSRV)HQyPHQRVPHQRVFRPSOHMRV
TXHHOSURSLRUDFLVPRTXHSXHGHQWHQHUOXJDUVLQTXHVHDXQDPDQLIHVWDFLyQGHXQ
UDFLVPRHODERUDGRSHURTXHVRQHVHQFLDOHVSDUDFRPSUHQGHUODGLQiPLFDLQWHUJUX
SDO1RSRGHPRVROYLGDUTXHVyORVHWUDWDUiGHXQWLSRGHSUHMXLFLR\GHHVWHUHRWLSR
TXHVRQORVVHGLULJHQDORVGLVWLQWRVJUXSRVSXHEORVHWQLDVHWFVLHPSUHXELFDGRV
HQODVUHODFLRQHVLQWHUJUXSDOHV
3UHYLRDODSVLFRORJtDVRFLDORWUDVFLHQFLDVRFLDOHVVHKDEtDQSUHRFXSDGRSRU
ODVUHODFLRQHVLQWHUJUXSDOHV0DVODGpFDGDGHORVVXSXVRODFRQVROLGDFLyQGHOD
LQYHVWLJDFLyQGHODVUHODFLRQHVLQWHUJUXSDOHVSRUHOHPSXMHGHPRGHORVWHyULFRV
TXHGLULJtDQ\JXLDEDQODODERUGHORVSVLFyORJRVVRFLDOHV/DSVLFRORJtDVRFLDO
GHVDUUROODGDHQ(XURSDFRQ7DMIHO  DODFDEH]DWXYRTXHYHUPXFKRFRQHOOR
<HVTXHFRPRDILUPDED7XUQHU  ODSVLFRORJtDVRFLDOKDGHUHWRPDUHVWH
iUHDDOVLWXDUVHODFRQGXFWDLQWHUJUXSDOHQHOSRORPiVVRFLDOGHOREMHWRGHQXHVWUD
GLVFLSOLQD<HOORSRUYDULDVUD]RQHVVHWUDWDGHXQDFRQGXFWDTXHUHIOHMDHQJUDQ
PHGLGDODLQIOXHQFLDGHORVIDFWRUHVPDFURVRFLDOHV\HQVHJXQGROXJDUFRQVWLWX\H
XQDFODUDPDQLIHVWDFLyQGHODVXERUGLQDFLyQSVLFROyJLFDGHOLQGLYLGXRDOJUXSR
3DUD)LVFKHU  ODDSUR[LPDFLyQSVLFRVRFLDODOWHPDGHODVUHODFLRQHVLQWHU
JUXSDOHVVHFDUDFWHUL]DUtDSRUWUHVHOHPHQWRVFODYHV
 (QSULPHUOXJDUDOWHQHUFRPREDVHXQDySWLFDIHQRPHQROyJLFDODVSHU
FHSFLRQHVFRJQLFLRQHVDFWLWXGHV\YDORUHVTXHPDQWLHQHQORVLQGLYLGXRV
HQODVUHODFLRQHVLQWHUJUXSDOHVVRQSHUFLELGDVFRPRPX\LPSRUWDQWHVDO
LQIOXLU\VHULQIOXLGDVSRUODSURSLDGLQiPLFDLQWHUJUXSDO
 (QVHJXQGROXJDUKDGHDQDOL]DUVHODLQWHUDFFLyQVRFLDOHQWUHORVGLVWLQWRV
JUXSRVSDUDFRPSUHQGHUFRQPD\RUGHWHQLPLHQWRODVUHODFLRQHVLQWHUJUX
SDOHVH[LVWHQWHV\SDUWLFXODUHVHQFDGDFDVR
 <HQWHUFHUOXJDUODDSUR[LPDFLyQSVLFRVRFLDOKDGHSUHVWDUDWHQFLyQD
P~OWLSOHVQLYHOHVGHDQiOLVLV/RVSVLFyORJRVVRFLDOHVWHQGUtDQTXHGDU
UHVSXHVWDVVREUHHOFRPSRUWDPLHQWRVRFLDOKXPDQRDEDUFDQGRGLVWLQWRV
QLYHOHVGHDQiOLVLVHOLQGLYLGXDOHOLQWHUSHUVRQDOHOJUXSDOHOLQWHUJUX
SDOHORUJDQL]DFLRQDOHOFRPXQLWDULRHOVRFLHWDO\HOLQWHUQDFLRQDO
/DSVLFRORJtDVRFLDOGHODVUHODFLRQHVLQWHUJUXSDOHVWUDWDGHODQDWXUDOH]D
FDXVDV\FRQVHFXHQFLDVGHODVUHSUHVHQWDFLRQHVGHORVLQGLYLGXRVGHODVUHODFLRQHV
Prejuicio, estereotipo y racismo 221

HQWUHVXJUXSR\RWURVJUXSRV 0DQVWHDG\+HZVWRQH (OWUDWDPLHQWRSVLFR


VRFLDOGHWDOHVWLSRVGHUHODFLRQHVVHKDFHQWUDGRHQPXOWLWXGGHRFDVLRQHVHQVLWXD
FLRQHVGHFDUiFWHUFRQIOLFWLYRFRPRDTXHOODVTXHVHUHIOHMDQDOPDQLIHVWDUVHORV
SUHMXLFLRVORVHVWHUHRWLSRV\ODFRQGXFWDGLVFULPLQDWLYD(FKHEDUUtD\*RQ]iOH]
D H[SRQHQODVSULQFLSDOHVGHILQLFLRQHVGHORVFRQFHSWRVPiVLPSRUWDQWHVHQ
HOiUHDGHOSUHMXLFLR\HOUDFLVPR(VWRVVHUtDQ
‡ PrejuicioDFWLWXGKRVWLORGHVFRQILDGDKDFLDXQDSHUVRQDTXHSHUWHQHFHD
XQJUXSRVLPSOHPHQWHHQEDVHDVXSHUWHQHQFLDDGLFKRJUXSR $GRUQR
)UHQNHO%UXQVZLN/HYLQVRQ\6WDQIRUG 
‡ EtnocentrismoWHQGHQFLDDH[SUHVDURSLQLRQHVKRVWLOHVKDFLDXQDYDULHGDG
GHJUXSRVpWQLFRV\DVHUDFUtWLFDPHQWHIDYRUDEOHDWRGRORTXHSURYHQJD
GHORVJUXSRVFRQORVTXHVHLGHQWLILFDHOVXMHWR $GRUQR\FROV 
‡ RacismoXQDIRUPDSDUWLFXODUGHSUHMXLFLRXQDDFWLWXGKRVWLODJUXSRVTXH
VHGHILQHQSRUPDUFDGRUHVpWQLFRV FXOWXUDOHQJXDFRVWXPEUHVHWF 6H
J~Q.DW]\7D\ORU  HOUDFLVPRLPSOLFDUtDGLVFULPLQDFLRQHVKDFLD
RWURVJUXSRVpWQLFRVWDQWRDQLYHOLQGLYLGXDOFRPRFXOWXUDOHLQVWLWXFLRQDO
‡ EstereotipoHVWUXFWXUDFRJQLWLYDTXHFRQWLHQHFRQRFLPLHQWRVDFFLRQHV\
H[SHFWDWLYDVVREUHDOJ~QJUXSRKXPDQR +DPLOWRQ\7URLOHU 
(QODSULPHUDSDUWHGHHVWHFDStWXORVHGHILQLUiQFRQPiVGHWHQLPLHQWRHVWRV
FRQFHSWRVKDFLHQGRPD\RUKLQFDSLpHQORVFRQFHSWRVGHSUHMXLFLR\HVWHUHRWLSR
3DUDSDVDUDFRQWLQXDFLyQDDQDOL]DUVXVIXQFLRQHV\ORVPRGHORVH[SOLFDWLYRVTXH
VHKDQGHVDUUROODGRDOUHVSHFWR

2. DEFINICIÓN DE PREJUICIO

$~QFXDQGRORVSUHMXLFLRVSXHGHQVHUWDQWRSRVLWLYRVFRPRQHJDWLYRVORV
SVLFyORJRVVRFLDOHVVHKDQSUHRFXSDGRSRUORVSUHMXLFLRVQHJDWLYRV<GHpVWRVORV
SUHMXLFLRVGLULJLGRVDJUXSRVpWQLFRVKDQRFXSDGRSULRULWDULDPHQWHODODERUSVLFR
VRFLDO3RUHOORHQHVWHFDStWXORHOFRQFHSWRGHSUHMXLFLRWLHQHXQDHVWUHFKDUHODFLyQ
FRQODVUHODFLRQHVLQWHUJUXSDOHV3DUD+DUGLQJ.XWQHU3URVKDQVN\\&KHLQ 
XQSUHMXLFLRVHUtDXQDDFWLWXGKDFLDPLHPEURVGHXQH[RJUXSRHQODFXDOVHGDXQD
HYDOXDFLyQQHJDWLYDGHHVRVVXMHWRV3RUVXSDUWH%LOOLJ  GHILQHORVSUHMXLFLRV
FRPRRSLQLRQHVGHVIDYRUDEOHV\GRJPiWLFDVKDFLDRWURVJUXSRV\SRUH[WHQVLyQ
KDFLDORVPLHPEURVLQGLYLGXDOHVGHHVRVJUXSRV0iVUHFLHQWHPHQWH2VNDPS
 GHILQHHOSUHMXLFLRFRPRXQDDFWLWXGGHVIDYRUDEOHLQWROHUDQWHLQMXVWDR
LUUDFLRQDOKDFLDRWURJUXSRGHSHUVRQDV&XDQGRGLFKRJUXSRVHFRPSRQHSRUSHU
VRQDVGHODPLVPDrazaRHWQLDVHKDEODGHSUHMXLFLRVUDFLDOHVRpWQLFRV
/RVSUHMXLFLRVKDQGHVHUFRQVLGHUDGRVFRPRDFWLWXGHVQHJDWLYDVTXHVH
UHIOHMDUtDQDWUDYpVGHSHQVDPLHQWRVFRQGXFWDVRDIHFWRVQHJDWLYRVKDFLDFLHUWRV
JUXSRV\VXVPLHPEURV/DDVRFLDFLyQTXHVHHVWDEOHFHHQWUHHOSUHMXLFLR\HOJUXSR
222 Psicología de los grupos

REMHWRGHSUHMXLFLRSXHGHDGTXLULUVHDWUDYpVGHWUHVSURFHVRV WDOFRPR(DJO\\
&KDLNHQ  ORH[SRQHQDOH[DPLQDUODVIRUPDVHQTXHVHSXHGHHVWDEOHFHUOD
DVRFLDFLyQHQWUHHOREMHWRGHDFWLWXG\ODHYDOXDFLyQDFWLWXGLQDO 6LJXLHQGRD0R
UDOHV\0R\D  HQSULPHUOXJDUSXHGHGDUVHHOFDVRTXHXQDSHUVRQDHYDO~H
GHIRUPDQHJDWLYDDXQJUXSRSRUTXHSRVHHXQFRQRFLPLHQWRH[KDXVWLYRGHODV
FDUDFWHUtVWLFDVGHHVHJUXSR FRPSRQHQWHFRJQLWLYRGHODDFWLWXG (QVHJXQGROX
JDUODHYDOXDFLyQSRGUtDEDVDUVHHQH[SHULHQFLDVDIHFWLYDVQHJDWLYDVFRQORV
PLHPEURVGHHVHJUXSR FRPSRQHQWHDIHFWLYR <HQWHUFHUOXJDUXQLQGLYLGXR
SXHGHWHQHUXQDDFWLWXGPX\QHJDWLYDKDFLDXQJUXSRSRUTXHWLHQHPDODVH[SHULHQ
FLDVFRQGXFWXDOHVFRQHVHJUXSR FRPSRQHQWHFRQGXFWXDO 
6LVHOOHJDDDGPLWLUHOPRGHORWULSDUWLWRGHODVDFWLWXGHVDOKDEODUGHORV
HVWHUHRWLSRVVHSRGUtDGLVWLQJXLUDQDOtWLFDPHQWHWUHVFRPSRQHQWHV
D Componente cognitivoIRUPDGRSRUHOHVWHUHRWLSR
E Componente afectivoVHQWLPLHQWRGHVIDYRUDEOHKDFLDORVPLHPEURVGHO
JUXSRREMHWRGHSUHMXLFLR
F Componente conativoRconductualTXHGLVSRQHDHPSUHQGHUXQDDFFLyQ
GHGLVFULPLQDFLyQ(VWDSXHGHFRQVLGHUDUVHWDQWRFRPRHOFRPSRQHQWH
FRQDWLYRGHOSUHMXLFLRFRPRXQHIHFWRGHOPLVPR(OSUHMXLFLRVHUHIHUL
UtDHQHOVHJXQGRFDVRDODVDFWLWXGHVQHJDWLYDV\ODGLVFULPLQDFLyQVHUtD
XQFRPSRUWDPLHQWRGLULJLGRFRQWUDORVLQGLYLGXRVREMHWRGHSUHMXLFLR
3HURHOSUHMXLFLRQRFRQOOHYDVLHPSUHODH[SUHVLyQGHODGLVFULPLQDFLyQ
\DTXHQRKD\XQDUHODFLyQVLPSOHHQWUHHOSUHMXLFLRHQWDQWRTXHDFWLWXG
\ODGLVFULPLQDFLyQHQWDQWRTXHFRPSRUWDPLHQWR
3iH]\*RQ]iOH]  H[SUHVDQFRQHVWDVSDODEUDVODUHODFLyQTXHH[LVWH
HQWUHHOSUHMXLFLRHOHVWHUHRWLSR\ODGLVFULPLQDFLyQ³(OSUHMXLFLRVHUiXQDHYDOXD
FLyQVLQGDWRVTXHORFRUURERUHTXHVHKDFHGHXQREMHWRRSHUVRQD(VHODVSHFWR
HYDOXDWLYRGHOSUREOHPD(OHVWHUHRWLSRVHUiHOFRPSRQHQWHPiVFRJQLWLYRGHOSUR
EOHPDVRQODVFUHHQFLDVTXHVHWLHQHQDFHUFDGHFyPRHV\FyPRVHFRPSRUWDUiXQ
GHWHUPLQDGRREMHWRRSHUVRQD)LQDOPHQWHODGLVFULPLQDFLyQVHUiHODVSHFWRPiV
FRPSRUWDPHQWDO(VODPDQHUDGHFRPSRUWDUQRVGHSHQGLHQGRGHORVSUHMXLFLRV\
HVWHUHRWLSRVTXHWHQJDPRVKDFLDXQGHWHUPLQDGRJUXSRRSHUVRQD´ S 
5HVXPLHQGRSDUD'RYLGLR\*DHUWQHU  XQSUHMXLFLRHVXQDJHQHUDOL
]DFLyQHUUyQHDGHODFDUDFWHUL]DFLyQGHXQJUXSR HVWHUHRWLSR DXQPLHPEURGHO
JUXSRVLQWHQHUHQFXHQWDD ODH[DFWLWXGGHOHVWHUHRWLSRJUXSDOHQSULPHUOXJDU\E
ODDSOLFDELOLGDGGHODFDUDFWHUL]DFLyQGHOJUXSRDOLQGLYLGXRHQFXHVWLyQ

3. DEFINICIÓN DE ESTEREOTIPO

.DW]\%UDO\  \DGHILQLHURQHOSUHMXLFLRUDFLDOFRPRXQFRQMXQWRJHQHUD


OL]DGRGHHVWHUHRWLSRVGRWDGRVGHXQDOWRJUDGRGHFRQVLVWHQFLD\TXHLQFOX\HUHV
Prejuicio, estereotipo y racismo 223

SXHVWDVHPRFLRQDOHVDQRPEUHVGHUD]DXQDFUHHQFLDHQXQDVFDUDFWHUtVWLFDVWtSLFDV
DVRFLDGDVDHVWRVQRPEUHVDVtFRPRXQDHYDOXDFLyQGHVXVUDVJRVItVLFRV3HQVDUHQ
HOSUHMXLFLRFRPRIHQyPHQRGHFRQRFLPLHQWRHVWRHVFRPRMXLFLRV\FUHHQFLDVKDFH
TXHORVSUHMXLFLRVDSDUH]FDQFRQVWLWXLGRVSRUHVWHUHRWLSRV6RQFUHHQFLDVTXHDWUL
EX\HQFDUDFWHUtVWLFDVDORVPLHPEURVGHXQJUXSRFRQORTXHORVHVWHUHRWLSRVVRQHO
FRPSRQHQWHFRJQLWLYRGHODVDFWLWXGHVVRFLDOHVGHQDWXUDOH]DSUHMXLFLRVD3DUD$VK
PRUH\'HO%RFD  ³ORVHVWHUHRWLSRVVRQXQFRQMXQWRGHFUHHQFLDVDFHUFDGH
ORVDWULEXWRVSHUVRQDOHVGHXQJUXSRGHSHUVRQDV´ S VLHQGRDWULEXWRVTXHHQ
PXFKDVRFDVLRQHVVRQGHILQLGRVRSHUDFLRQDOPHQWHFRPRDGMHWLYRVGHUDVJRVGH
SHUVRQDOLGDG0RUDOHV\0R\D  DOUHSDVDUODVGLVWLQWDVGHILQLFLRQHVHVWDEOH
FHQODGLVWLQFLyQFRQFHSWXDOHQWUHHVWHUHRWLSR\HVWHUHRWLSLD'HILQHQORVHVWHUHRWLSRV
FRPR³XQFRQMXQWRGHFUHHQFLDVFRPSDUWLGDVDFHUFDGHORVDWULEXWRVSHUVRQDOHVTXH
SRVHHQORVPLHPEURVGHXQJUXSR´ S \ODHVWHUHRWLSLD³FRQVLVWHHQXWLOL]DUORV
HVWHUHRWLSRVSDUDUHDOL]DULQIHUHQFLDVMXLFLRVSUHGLFFLRQHVRFRQGXFWDV´ S 
(Q/LSSPDQLQWURGXMRHOWpUPLQR estereotipoHQODVFLHQFLDVVRFLDOHV
(QHVHQFLDVHKDDILUPDGRTXH/LSSPDQ  XWLOL]DEDHOWpUPLQRFRPRPXFKRV
SVLFyORJRVFRJQLWLYRVFRQWHPSRUiQHRVXVDQHOWpUPLQResquema HVWUXFWXUDFRJQL
WLYDTXHLQIOX\HHQWRGDVODVDFWLYLGDGHVFRJQLWLYRSHUFHSWXDOHVTXHUHFLEHQWRGDV
MXQWDVHOQRPEUHGHSURFHVDPLHQWRGHODLQIRUPDFLyQ$VKPRUH\'HO%RFD 
/RVHVWHUHRWLSRVVRQSRUWDQWRHVWUXFWXUDVFRJQLWLYDVTXHD\XGDEDQDORVLQGLYL
GXRVDSURFHVDUODLQIRUPDFLyQGHVXDPELHQWHVREUHJUXSRVGHLQGLYLGXRV3DUD
/LSSPDQQRHUDQHVWUXFWXUDVFRJQLWLYDVQHXWUDOHVVLQRVHUYtDQSDUDH[SOLFDURUD
FLRQDOL]DUXQDVLWXDFLyQVRFLDO0LHQWUDV/LSSPDQIXHTXLHQLQWURGXMRHOFRQFHSWR
.DW]\%UDO\  IXHURQORVTXHUHDOL]DURQORVSULPHURVHVWXGLRVHPStULFRVVR
EUHORVHVWHUHRWLSRVXWLOL]DQGRFRPRPpWRGR la lista de adjetivos GRQGHGHEtDQ
VHxDODUGHXQDOLVWDGHDGMHWLYRVORVTXHVHFRUUHVSRQGtDQFRQODVFDUDFWHUtVWLFDVR
UDVJRVTXHFRQVLGHUDEDQTXHWHQtDHOJUXSRDOFXDOMX]JDEDQ 
6LELHQKD\DXWRUHV FRPR$OOSRUW$GRUQRHWF TXHVtOHFRQIHUtDQHOUDQJR
GHVHUXQSURGXFWRGHXQestilo cognitivoUtJLGR\HUUyQHRORVWHyULFRVTXHVLJXHQOD
SHUVSHFWLYDFRJQLWLYD +DPLOWRQ QRSLHQVDQTXHVHDDVt/RVHVWHUHRWLSRV
VHUtDQVLPLODUHVDODVHVWUXFWXUDVFRJQLWLYDVGHQRPLQDGDV esquemas 7D\ORU\&UR
FNHU FRQORTXHD\XGDUtDQDODFRGLILFDFLyQ\DODOPDFHQDPLHQWRGHODLQIRU
PDFLyQ 6WHSKDQ /RVHVWHUHRWLSRVSXHGHQVHUYLVWRVSXHVFRPRHVWUXFWX
UDVFRJQLWLYDVTXHFRQWLHQHQHOFRQRFLPLHQWR\ODVFUHHQFLDVGHOSHUFHSWRUVREUH
YDULRVJUXSRVVRFLDOHVTXHVHGLIHUHQFLDQGHORVHVTXHPDV /DQGPDQ\0DQLV
 HQORVLJXLHQWH³D /RVHVWHUHRWLSRVVHUHILHUHQVLHPSUHDODVSHUVRQDVFRPR
PLHPEURVGHXQJUXSRE /RVHVWHUHRWLSRVWLHQHQXQDPD\RULPSOLFDFLyQDIHFWLYD
\RPRWLYDFLRQDO<F ORVHVWHUHRWLSRVPXHVWUDQGLUHFWDPHQWHODGLPHQVLyQVRFLDO
GHOFRQRFLPLHQWRSULYDGR´ 0XQQpS 
(FKHEDUUtD\*RQ]iOH] E DOUHYLVDUODVGHILQLFLRQHVVREUHORVHVWHUHR
WLSRVUHVDOWDQODVSULQFLSDOHVQRWDVFDUDFWHUtVWLFDVTXHDSDUHFHQHQODVGLVWLQWDV
224 Psicología de los grupos

GHILQLFLRQHVTXHGDQGLIHUHQWHVDXWRUHV$VXPHQTXHHOHVWHUHRWLSRVHUtDXQFRQ
MXQWRGHUDVJRVDVRFLDGRVDXQJUXSRRFDWHJRUtDVRFLDOORTXHVXSRQGUtDTXHORV
HVWHUHRWLSRVVHUtDQFUHHQFLDVJHQHUDOL]DGDVWHQGHQWHVDVHUHUUyQHDVVREUHORV
DWULEXWRV\FRQGXFWDVTXHFDUDFWHUL]DQDORVPLHPEURVGHXQJUXSR$HVWHUHVSHF
WR6WDQJRU\/DQJH  UHFRJHQORVWUHVFULWHULRVTXHVHKDQXWLOL]DGRWUDGLFLR
QDOPHQWHSDUDGHILQLUDORVHVWHUHRWLSRV
D El criterio de generalizaciónDVXPLUtDTXHWRGRVORVLQGLYLGXRV ROD
LQPHQVDPD\RUtD GHXQJUXSRWHQGUtDQORVPLVPRVUDVJRV
E $QWHODFRPSUREDFLyQGHODFLUFXQVWDQFLDGHTXHORVHVWHUHRWLSRVQRLP
SOLFDQTXHWRGRVORVLQGLYLGXRVGHXQJUXSRVHDQSHUFLELGRVFRPRLJXDOHV
HQFLHUWRVUDVJRVel criterio de distintividadGHIHQGHUtDTXHORFDUDFWHUtV
WLFRGHXQHVWHUHRWLSRHVTXHXQUDVJRVHDVRFLHPiVDXQJUXSRTXHDRWURV
F <SRU~OWLPR el criterio de diferenciación categorialVHJ~QHOFXDOOD
SHUFHSFLyQGHODVGLIHUHQFLDVHQWUHGRVPLHPEURVGHJUXSRVGLIHUHQWHVHQ
UHODFLyQDXQUDVJRHVVXSHULRUDODSHUFLELGDHQWUHORVPLHPEURVGHOPLV
PRJUXSR
(FKHEDUUtD\*RQ]iOH] E EDViQGRVHHQ*DUGQHU  DxDGHQXQ
FXDUWRFULWHULRFRPRVHUtDHOGH consensualidadDOFRQVWLWXLUORVHVWHUHRWLSRV
FUHHQFLDVFRQVHQVXDGDV\FRPSDUWLGDVVREUHODVFDUDFWHUtVWLFDVTXHGHILQHQDXQ
JUXSRVRFLDO
6HDVXPHTXHORVHVWHUHRWLSRVVRQLQH[DFWRV/DLQH[DFWLWXGSRGUtDVHUGH
WUHVWLSRV -XGG\3DUN 
 Inexactitud estereotípicaFRQVLVWLUtDHQVREUHVWLPDUODSUHVHQFLDGHXQ
GHWHUPLQDGRDWULEXWRHVWHUHRWtSLFRHQXQJUXSR\VXEHVWLPDUODSUHVHQFLD
GHXQHOHPHQWRFRQWUDDFWLWXGLQDO
 Inexactitud de valenciaVXSRQGUtDSHUFLELUDXQJUXSRPiVRPHQRVSRVL
WLYDPHQWHGHORTXHUHDOPHQWHHV
 Inexactitud de dispersiónVHSHUFLEHDOJUXSRFRPRPiVRPHQRVKRPR
JpQHRGHORTXHUHDOPHQWHORHV

4. TEORÍAS EXPLICATIVAS

/DVWHRUtDVGHVDUUROODGDVSDUDH[SOLFDUORVSUHMXLFLRV\ORVHVWHUHRWLSRVVRQ
PX\YDULDGDV\DGHPiVVHVLW~DQHQQLYHOHVGLIHUHQWHVGHDQiOLVLV(FKHEDUUtD\
*RQ]iOH] D LQVLVWHQHQODQHFHVLGDGGHFRPSOHPHQWDUORVGLVWLQWRVQLYHOHV
\DTXHLQWHUYLHQHQFLHUWRVSURFHVRVSVLFROyJLFRVEiVLFRVFLHUWDVGLQiPLFDVVRFLD
OHVHLQWHUJUXSDOHVFLHUWRVPHFDQLVPRVGHWUDQVPLVLyQGHORVSUHMXLFLRVFRPR
WDPELpQWLHQHQOXJDUGLIHUHQFLDVLQWHULQGLYLGXDOHVHQODPDQLIHVWDFLyQGHOPLVPR
(VWRVPLVPRVDXWRUHVUHSDVDQODVIDVHVKLVWyULFDVHQODSVLFRORJtDVRFLDOGHOSUHMXL
FLR 'XFNLWW GLVWLQJXLHQGRVHLVIDVHV
Prejuicio, estereotipo y racismo 225

D La fase de la psicología de la “raza” DQWHVGHODGpFDGDGHORV 3RU


ODLQIOXHQFLDGHODVLGHDVGDUZLQLVWDVDSOLFDGDVDODVRFLHGDGVHFRQVLGH
UDEDQODVGLIHUHQFLDVHQWUHORVJUXSRVFRPRFRQVHFXHQFLDGHODHYROXFLyQ
GHODHVSHFLH3RUWDQWRODVDFWLWXGHVUDFLDOHVQRWHQtDQSRUTXpFRQVWLWXLU
XQREMHWRGHLQWHUpVFLHQWtILFR
E Período del prejuicio racial DxRV\ /DLUUXSFLyQGHPRYLPLHQWRV
VRFLDOHVDIDYRUGHODVPLQRUtDVGHQXQFLDED la tesis de la dominación
racial\VHHPSH]yDFRQVLGHUDUORVSUHMXLFLRVFRPRXQIHQyPHQRLUUD
FLRQDOHLQMXVWLILFDGR
F Fase de procesos psicodinámicos\
G Período de la personalidad autoritaria GHVGHORVDxRVDORV 'X
UDQWHHVWDVGpFDGDVODRULHQWDFLyQGRPLQDQWHEXVFDEDHORULJHQGHORV
SUHMXLFLRVHQORVFRQIOLFWRVSVLFROyJLFRVLQWHUQRV
H Período de la cultura y la sociedad GpFDGDV\ (OSUHMXLFLRIXH
SHUFLELGRFRPRXQDQRUPDVRFLDO -RQHV \VHHQIDWL]yODLGHDGHO
FRQIOLFWRVRFLDOHQODTXHORVSUHMXLFLRVQRVHUtDQPiVTXHODH[SUHVLyQ
GHLQWHUHVHVJUXSDOHV
I Período de los procesos psicológicos fundamentales GpFDGDGHORV 
(ODXJHGHODFRJQLFLyQVRFLDOHQSVLFRORJtDVRFLDOVXSXVRFRQVLGHUDUHO
SUHMXLFLRFRPRUHVXOWDGRGHOSURFHVDPLHQWRGHODLQIRUPDFLyQ
'HIRUPDPiVHVSHFtILFDORVGLVWLQWRVQLYHOHVGHDQiOLVLVTXHKDQVLGRXWLOL
]DGRVSDUDH[SOLFDUORVSUHMXLFLRVKDQVLGRORVVLJXLHQWHV 0DUWtQH] 
D Nivel socioculturalORFDOL]DHORULJHQGHOSUHMXLFLRHQHOWLSRGHRUJDQL
]DFLyQVRFLDO
E Nivel individualistaODFDXVDGHOSUHMXLFLRUDGLFDHQSURFHVRVSVLFROyJL
FRVLQGLYLGXDOHV\DVHDGHFRUWHPRWLYDFLRQDO\DVHDGHFRUWHFRJQLWLYR
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4.3. Explicaciones intergrupales

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5. EL RACISMO: DEFINICIÓN Y TIPOS DE RACISMO

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