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Beethoven

highlights of the

Most Important Works

Form, Harmony Romantic Agenda

and the

Osvaldo Glieca

Beethoven highlights of the Most Important Works Form, Harmony Romantic Agenda and the Osvaldo Glieca ©

© 2014

Beethoven highlights of the Most Important Works Form, Harmony Romantic Agenda and the Osvaldo Glieca ©

Ludwig Van Beethoven (1770 – 1827)

Beethoven was to study with Mozart in Vienna, but Mozart’s early death intervened.

The idea that Beethoven was to receive the spirit of Mozart from the hands of Haydn reflects this aspiration; yet Beethoven felt frustrated with Haydn’s teaching.

He studied counterpoint with Albrechtsberger (1736 – 1809)

Yet, considering Beethoven’s structural thinking and use of motif, it is as if the influence of Haydn had been absorbed deeply, regardless of the superficial antagonism between them.

Ludwig Van Beethoven (1770 – 1827) Beethoven was to study with Mozart in Vienna, but Mozart’s

Before Beethoven, the idea of structural unity seems to have been confined to single movements. The idea of building a work from a single motivic building block seems more fully realized in Beethoven, particularly in works such as the 5 th Symphony and the Hammerklavier piano sonata.

Although Beethoven is often seen as an early romantic composer, and a strongly egotistical personality, this does not take into account the values at the basis of his commitment. He was a man of his word with and extraordinary concentration power.

Values such as integrity, wanting to work for the good of mankind, (combined with a mistrust in organized religion) music as a serious artform, high commitment to his own ideas, etc.

Before Beethoven, the idea of structural unity seems to have been confined to single movements. The

Beethoven’s career is traditionally divided into three periods

The Early period (1770-1802) his youth in Bonn and his early years in Vienna

The Middle Period (1803–1814) when Beethoven began to compose in a new style, this is the beginning of the “Romantic” era in Western Music

The Late Period (1815–1827) when Beethoven becomes increasingly isolated due to his deafness

Beethoven’s career is traditionally divided into three periods The Early period (1770-1802) his youth in Bonn

Classical Sonatas Form

 

Exposition

 
  • 1. First subject in tonic, generally fast and rhythmic

  • 2. Transition (bridge) modulate to dominant or relative key.

  • 3. Second subject in new key dominant or relative

 
  • 4. Contrasting theme to first subject.

Development

Development

 
  • 1. Develop material from first or second subject

  • 2. Theme developments such as augmentation diminution, phrase fragmentation, harmonic inversion, rhythmic displacement, intervallic inversion.

  • 3. Final section of development could take you to the tonic key or

Recapitulation

Recapitulation

 
  • 1. First subject in tonic key

 
  • 2. Transition, material reworked

  • 3. Second subject in tonic

 
  • 4. Coda section fragments of first and second subject

  • 5. Preparation for cadence

 
  • 6. End

Classical Sonatas Form Exposition 1. First subject in tonic, generally fast and rhythmic Transition (bridge) modulate

Sonata form evolved from Binary Form: AA/BB where in the first section (A) modulates from the tonic to the dominant. This whole section is then repeated (A again). The second section (B) starts in the dominant and then modulates back to the tonic. This section is then repeated. Thus AA/BB.

A full form could end in something like this

Intro-Exposition-Development-Recapitulation-Coda

In Sonata Form the move from tonic to dominant in the Exposition is dramatized by the use of different material for each: the 1st Subject in the tonic and the 2nd Subject in the dominant. Often this is not simply a melody but a collection of musical material or several melodies, hence the more correct terms 1st Subject Group & 2nd Subject Group.

Sonata form evolved from Binary Form: AA/BB where in the first section (A) modulates from the

Piano Sonata No. 5 in C minor, Op. 10, No. 1

(composed during 1796 – 1798)

Belong to a first-period composition, anticipating the more notable C minor works the Pathétique Sonata and the 5th Symphony.

The work is divided into three movements:

I.

Allegro molto e con brio in C minor

II.

Adagio molto in Ab major

III.

Finale: Prestissimo in C minor

Piano Sonata No. 5 in C minor, Op. 10, No. 1 (composed during 1796 – 1798)

The first movement, in sonata form, opens energetically with contrasting loud and soft phrases. Bars 1-31: First subject in C minor (tonic). The first subject, which consists of tonic and dominant harmony of C minor.

Bars 32-56: Connecting Episode, with one introductory bar on Eb begins with a melodious phrase, which occurs three times, constructed on the tonic and dominant harmony of the key of Ab major.

Bar 45 contains three different forms of the chord of the augmented sixth (French, German, and Italian).

Bars 56-94: Second Subject in E flat major. The second subject is in four-bar rhythm. After the chord of the 6/4, Bar 86, there is a reprise of the first subject and ending in Eb major.

The first movement, in sonata form, opens energetically with contrasting loud and soft phrases. Bars 1-31:

The second movement is a lyrical Adagio with many embellishments. It is in A–B–A–B Bars 106-168: The development starts with a part of the first subject in C major. At Bar 118 the second subject is developed for eight bars in F minor, repeated in Bb minor. Bars 136-167 form a passage taken from the connecting episode, leading to the re-entry of the first subject.

The second movement is a lyrical Adagio with many embellishments. It is in A–B–A–B Bars 106-168:

Third movement in original key. Compare Bars 65-70 with Bars 20-23. The Coda is formed upon the first subject; it contains syncopation in every bar but the last two.

The third movement is making heavy use of a figure of five eighth notes. The short development section contains an unmistakable foreshadow of the theme from Beethoven's Symphony No. 5.

Third movement in original key. Compare Bars 65-70 with Bars 20-23. The Coda is formed upon

Beethoven Moonlight Sonata (no.14 opus 27)

Another example of a Classical sonata that does not have a sonata first movement The sonata consists of three movements:

I.

Adagio sostenuto

II.

Allegretto

III.

Presto agitato

The first movement melody is the result of the uppermost voice in the compound line of arpeggios. The fast final movement is a virtuosic tour de force comparable to the last movement of Mozarts’ Sonata K331.

Beethoven Moonlight Sonata (no.14 opus 27) Another example of a Classical sonata that does not have

First movement (Adagio sostenuto)has triplet ostinato that occurs throughout the piece. Beethoven rebelled against this determinative quality in the first movement. He wanted a prelude instead, an introduction, and not a proposition as it was in “traditional” sonata form.

First movement (Adagio sostenuto)has triplet ostinato that occurs throughout the piece. Beethoven rebelled against this determinative

The second movement is a relatively conventional scherzo and trio, a moment of relative calm written in Db major. It is unusual for both the First and Second Parts to be in the same key.

The second movement is a relatively conventional scherzo and trio, a moment of relative calm written

The stormy final movement in Cminor, is the most important of the three (an experiment of Beethoven). The writing has many fast arpeggios/ broken chords, strongly accented notes, and fast Alberti bass sequences.

The second movement is a relatively conventional scherzo and trio, a moment of relative calm written

The third movement, is known to be the inspiration for Frédéric Chopin's Fantaisie-Impromptu, which was actually a tribute to Beethoven. On the final movement, Charles Rosen wrote: “Even today, two hundred years later, its ferocity is astonishing”.

The third movement, is known to be the inspiration for Frédéric Chopin's Fantaisie-Impromptu, which was actually

Beethoven Hammerklavier sonata (No. 29 opus 106)

The word Hammerklavier has become attached to this work almost by accident, it was simply the German name for ”piano” and any of the sonatas could have been given this name.

The work is in Bb major, yet the Adagio movement is in F# minor (covering all the 12 tones). The Adagio movement is in sonata form with second subject in D major (Vi of F# minor). The final movement, Allegro risoluto contains a fugue, and example of the reintroduction of this texture in the Classical era.

Beethoven Hammerklavier sonata (No. 29 opus 106) The word Hammerklavier has become attached to this work

The musicologist Donald Tovey finds comparison between the materials of all movements in this piece.

The musicologist Donald Tovey finds comparison between the materials of all movements in this piece.

Beethoven Waldstein Sonata (Opus 53)

Unusual, groundbreaking, innovative piece of artwork outstanding which established a new standard for piano composition.

Piece is in C major, yet 2 nd subject is not in G, the key of the dominant, but E major.

First half of 1 st subject shifts in direction of G, but this returns to first theme in alteration that then modulates to E major.

Exposition takes 12 bars on dominant of E to establish the new key. This time- span on the dominant is not exceptional, however. What relation can be found between first and second subjects?

The first subject is percussive and strongly directional tonally. Second subject is lyrical and melodic. They both start on third degree of their respective keys and feature stepwise movement. Second subject, while horizontally extensive, is relatively static harmonically.

Beethoven Waldstein Sonata (Opus 53) Unusual, groundbreaking, innovative piece of artwork outstanding which established a new

The Waldstein has three movements:

Allegro con brio Introduzione: Adagio molto (in F major) Rondo: Allegretto moderato — Prestissimo

The first and last movements of the sonata are the most substantial, each taking about 11 minutes to perform.

The first movement is in sonata form: it has a repeated exposition with two subject groups, a development section, a recapitulation and a coda.

The movement opens with repeated pianissimo chords in a straightforward but anxious rhythm, devoid of melody for two bars.

The Waldstein has three movements: Allegro con brio Introduzione: Adagio molto (in F major) Rondo: Allegretto

Beethoven "Eroica" Symphony No. 3 (opus 55)

The title of the piece Eroica reflects dedication to Napoleon.

Beethoven tore up the dedication page (to Napoleon Bonaparte) when he heard that Napoleon had crowned himself as Emporer: quote "so he’s just an ordinary human being after all. Now he will trample over human rights…"

As with the Waldstein Sonata there are strong percussive elements. The opening bars were added after the main part of the work on the piece had been completed.

Places emphasis on the downbeat of each bar, this makes the syncopations that start in the first violins in bar 7 all the more effective (the effect is slight to begin with)

Beethoven " Eroica " Symphony No. 3 (opus 55) The title of the piece Eroica reflects

These, in turn, anticipate the sf rhythmic displacements of bar 25

From bar 25 to 31 note the transformation into, in effect, 2/4 time, transition back to 3/4 time from bar 33 – 35, leading back to restatement of 1 st subject at bar 36

The tension created by this is a rhythmic equivalent of the harmonic tension of dominant 7 th

These, in turn, anticipate the sf rhythmic displacements of bar 25 From bar 25 to 31

Structural dissonance

The C# in bar 8 is an example of a thematic long term dissonance.

The chord might be regarded as C# dim7 th (Bb is the dim7 th note) chromatically linking with the Gmin in 2 nd inversion to Bb7 in 1 st inversion.

However, the point is that the harmony of bar 8 sounds as an Eb7 chord enharmonically, which would normally resolve to Ab.

Yet it does not lead anywhere expected from bar 8, and the resolution of the Gmin 2 nd inversion (i.e.: six-four) chord in which the 4 th is doubled is far from conventional.

Structural dissonance The C# in bar 8 is an example of a thematic long term dissonance.

At the time this would have sounded odd in a way that is hard to appreciate today. However, it sets up a sense of fracture that will need resolving later on.

Sonata structures begin to expand on account of such long term resolutions. The resolution does not commence until the Recapitulation section.

See bar 390 onwards (page 32 of the Eulenberg edition) where the recapitulation starts

Bar 402 of the Recapitulation corresponds to bar 8 of the exposition

But note that from this point the music takes a different direction

At the time this would have sounded odd in a way that is hard to appreciate

Whereas in earlier sonata form pieces a bridge passage might be modified in the Recapitulation (so that it does not modulate anywhere) the passage from bar 8 to 37 in the Exposition had no such function (it led back to the Eb home key).

The corresponding passage in the Recapitulation composes out the structural dissonance, but not by the simple solution of permitting the music to shift to Ab.

Rather than this it functions to balance out the flat and the sharp side of the circle of fifths

Whereas in earlier sonata form pieces a bridge passage might be modified in the Recapitulation (so

Other significant features of the 3rd symphony 1 st movement

There is a third theme in the development section, where the key is E minor (a very distant key from E flat over on the sharp side).

The coda is also very long and amounts to a further development section Beethoven encountered some problems with the attention span of his audience Critics thought the piece too long and did not perceive the underlying unity of his structures Nevertheless, after this Beethoven’s next major work was the Waldstein sonata, also revolutionary

Other significant features of the 3rd symphony 1 movement There is a third theme in the

Symphony 3, movement II Marcia Funebre, Adagio Assai

Subtitled "to the memory of a great man" without mentioning any name

The military aspect of this, suggested by the trumpets and "march" of the title might hint at Napoleon, but he was still alive

The key of the march is C minor but with a trio in C major

Contains an extensive fugato (c.7’) an relatively rare example of this texture in Classical style

Symphony 3, movement II Marcia Funebre, Adagio Assai Subtitled "to the memory of a great man"

movement III Scherzo

The introduction of a lively scherzo was one of Beethoven’s innovations for the symphony.

Replacing the minuet, it takes a similar form and also seems to have a dance- like quality, albeit a far more vigorous one, more resembling a riotous Austrian village.

movement III Scherzo The introduction of a lively scherzo was one of Beethoven’s innovations for the

Movement IV Finale: Allegro Molto

Characteristic of a symphonic finale that it should be in rondo, or sonata- rondo form, and project tuneful joyfulness. The main theme of this, with its ascending 5 th , dropping an octave to a 4 th below, resembles ideas in some of Beethoven’s earliest sketches for thematic material that seemed to have been intended for the 1 st movement.

Movement IV Finale: Allegro Molto Characteristic of a symphonic finale that it should be in rondo,

Beethoven’s Symphony no 6 the Pastoral movement V (final movement)

Considered as early example of romanticism due to its programmatic idea and "visual” lyricism

A symphony in 5 movements, anticipating later 19 th century innovations.

The first piece to link up movements: the link comes between the ‘storm’of the 4 th movement and the final rondo 5 th movement

This movement can be thought of as sonata-rondo (in F major). It has a second theme (on the dominant) that goes to the subdominant Bb at start of the development (c. 2’ 50”)

F is dominant of this, but becomes tonicised via pivot note F onto Db major chord which descends in chromatic relation to C, dominant of F

Beethoven’s Symphony no 6 the Pastoral movement V (final movement) Considered as early example of romanticism

Sonata Rondo example of form

A - Bridge - B (dom ) -A – C [ subdom:development section) – A (recap)- Bridge B (home key)- A (variations and developments and coda) In which A is the rondo theme.

It is generally considered that Beethoven’s most innovative symphonies were the 3 rd , 5 th , 6 th and 9 th .

The 5 th symphony is regarded as an extreme example of a piece generated from one motivic fragment. Note, that it is the rhythmic proportions of the motif, rather than its pitch content, that allows it to appear in so many apparent transformations. Consisting of three short notes and one long one it is more malleable than any arrangement of pitches.

Sonata Rondo example of form A - Bridge - B (dom ) -A – C [

The 9 th symphony, known often as the Choral Symphony creates something of a controversy over the introduction of a chorus into the final movement with the words of Schiller’s Ode to Joy. Some see this as a betrayal of the instrumental abstract purity of the symphonic form. There are also claims that Beethoven himself regretted his decision to end with this rather than the piece he had sketched at an earlier stage.

The introduction of a chorus anticipates much in symphonic development in the 19 th Century: The finale of Liszts’ Faust Symphony and Mahler’s 2 nd and 8 th symphonies

Beethoven's 9 th Symphony, from 1824, is a work infinitely popular. It was the first time that a composer had used choral voices in a major symphony.

The 9 symphony, known often as the Choral Symphony creates something of a controversy over the
Sadak in Search of the Waters of the Oblivion Oil On Canvas (1812) John Martin

Sadak in Search of the Waters of the Oblivion

Oil On Canvas (1812) John Martin

Sadak in Search of the Waters of the Oblivion Oil On Canvas (1812) John Martin

The continuing expansion of Sonata form

Beethovens Piano Concerto No. 4 in G major

Starting with piano rather than orchestra was a new idea at the time

The orchestra takes up the theme from the piano but puts it in B major (with no transition – also a new idea)

Notice the similarity of rhythm to that of the motif of the 5 th symphony; this is particularly clear in the 1 st movement coda where 4 th note is longer

The continuing expansion of Sonata form Beethoven ’ s Piano Concerto No. 4 in G major

The orchestral interruption in B major represents only a temporary state; the music shifts back to G and among the modulations that follow B is introduced again but this time properly via F#.

In this, a second theme, (based on bars 12&13?) effects modulations from A minor and, via tonicisation of B (the F#) to E minor; restatement in G follows.

A more fluid attitude to entering and leaving quite distant keys anticipates the tonality of the Romantic era. The modulations are many and varied; the music only re-orientates itself around the dominant key gradually. This show the courageous attitude to break up with tradition giving way to a powerful self-expression which was unrivaled for other composers.

The orchestral interruption in B major represents only a temporary state; the music shifts back to

1815 – 1848 sometimes regarded as the true Romantic era.

Important composers of that era

Robert Schumann (1810 - 1856) Frederic Chopin (1810 - 1849) Felix Mendelssohn (1809 - 1847) Hector Berlioz (1803 – 1869) Franz Shubert (1797 – 1828) Franz Liszt (1811 – 1886)

Also the era of virtuoso players

Niccolo Paganini, violin (1782 - 1840) Giovanni Bottesini, double bass (1821 – 1889)

Mauro Giuliani, guitar (1781 – 1829) Ferdinando Carulli, guitar (1770 – 1841)

The term romantic said to originate with argument between the German poets and writers Johan Wolfang Goethe (1749 - 1832) and Johann Christoph Friedrich von Schille (1759 – 1805)

1815 – 1848 sometimes regarded as the true Romantic era. Important composers of that era Robert

Early Classical Orchestra

Flutes Oboes Bassoons Horns (French Horns) Harpsichord Timpani Strings (violins I & 2, violas, celli, basses doubling celli at 8vb)

Note the continuing presence of harpsichord. French horns were introduced around 1710: they were natural instrument and could play only the harmonic series available. These instruments did not have the piston valve system which was developed in 1800s.

Early Classical Orchestra Flutes Oboes Bassoons Horns (French Horns) Harpsichord Timpani Strings (violins I & 2,

Late Classical Orchestra

Flutes Oboes Clarinets Bassoons Horns (French Horn) (Trumpets) (Trombones) Timpani

Strings (violins I & 2, violas, celli, basses doubling celli at 8vb)

Note the addition of clarinets, trumpets (at least in operas) and trombones more rarely. Exclusion of harpsichord. The pianoforte was invented by the Italian Bartlomeo Cristofori in 1720. Later used as a primary keyboard instrument through the mid-1800s by many classical composers, including Joseph Haydn and Ludwig Beethoven. The instrument had 48 keys and expanded to up to 64 keys.

Late Classical Orchestra Flutes Oboes Clarinets Bassoons Horns (French Horn) (Trumpets) (Trombones) Timpani Strings (violins I

List of Classical genres

Symphonies Opera (seria, buffa) Concertos (succeeded the Concerto Grosso) String Quartets (succeeded trio sonatas) Divertimenti and Seranades: light in character Song (Lied) Piano sonatas (and other chamber sonatas) Oratorios (carried on from baroque) Cantatas (the Lutheran form carried on from baroque) Masses (the Catholic ceremonial form extant since middle ages)

List of Classical genres Symphonies Opera (seria, buffa) Concertos (succeeded the Concerto Grosso) String Quartets (succeeded

A recent development in painting. Caspar David Friedrich, John Martin. Nature as a new ideal, possibly a new refuge.

Jena School of Romanticism; ideals of complete individual freedom. The first phase of Romanticism in German literature represented by the work of a group in Jena from about 1798 to 1804. The movement is considered to have contributed to the development of German idealism in late modern philosophy.

Novalis (Georg Philipp Freidrich von Hardenbourg 1772-1801) Philosopher

Heinrich Heine (1797 – 1856) important poet for 19 th c composers of Lieder (set by Schubert, Schumann, Brahms and Hugo Wolf)

Idea of the artist as creative hero (Liszt and Wagner, particularly salient examples) which is part of the reason why concerto becomes such a popular form.

A recent development in painting. Caspar David Friedrich, John Martin. Nature as a new ideal, possibly

Biedermeier

1815 – 48 also known as the Biedermieir era, yet this tendency can be seen as a counterbalance to the wildness of romantic ideals.

Refers to work of literature, arts, and furniture in the period between the years 1815 (Vienna Congress), the end of the Napoleonic Wars, and 1848, the year of the European revolutions. Seems to re-adapt the French Empire style replacing formality and majesty with comfort and function.

Most often refers to the kind of peaceful domesticity that was encouraged particularly seen in the style of furniture in central Europe and Germany.

Biedermeier 1815 – 48 also known as the Biedermieir era, yet this tendency can be seen

the Biedermieir era had a visible impact in early 19th century in Germany, Austria, Hungary, Poland and much of central and north Europe (excluding Great Britain), while France and Italy continues the Neoclassical agenda- style first with revival of the Greek and Roman style, followed by an eclectic revamped approach of the Italian Renaissance (c. 1300 - 1600), which today could be seen as a New-Mannerism art-form for that time.

Biedermieir was associated with artistic repression and discouraged artists from a political engagement.

Mendelssohn was associated with this, unfairlyaccording to Charles Rosen (American Pianist and musicologist 5th May 1927 - 9th Dec 2012)

the Biedermieir era had a visible impact in early 19th century in Germany, Austria, Hungary, Poland

John Martin

British painter (1789 -1854)

Caspar David Friedrich

German painter (1774 - 1840)

Romanticism in painting was an intellectual movement that originated in Europe toward the end of the 18th century, and in most areas was at its peak in the approximate period from 1800 to 1850. Romanticism was characterized by its emphasis on emotion and individualism as well as glorification of all the past and nature, preferring the medieval rather than the classical. It was partly a reaction to the Industrial Revolution.

John Martin British painter (1789 -1854) Caspar David Friedrich German painter (1774 - 1840) Romanticism in
John Martin, The Assuaging of the Waters (1840) Oil on Canvas, Fine Art Museum of San

John Martin, The Assuaging of the Waters (1840) Oil on Canvas, Fine Art Museum of San Francisco, USA

John Martin, The Assuaging of the Waters (1840) Oil on Canvas, Fine Art Museum of San
John Martin, The Bard (1817) Oil on Canvas, Laing Art Gallery, Newcastle, UK

John Martin, The Bard (1817)

Oil on Canvas, Laing Art Gallery, Newcastle, UK

John Martin, The Bard (1817) Oil on Canvas, Laing Art Gallery, Newcastle, UK

Caspar David Friedrich The Wanderer Above The Sea of Fog (1818)

Oil on canvas, Hamburger Kunsthalle Hamburg, Germany

Caspar David Friedrich The Wanderer Above The Sea of Fog (1818) Oil on canvas, Hamburger Kunsthalle
Caspar David Friedrich The Wanderer Above The Sea of Fog (1818) Oil on canvas, Hamburger Kunsthalle
Caspar David Friedrich, The Abbey in the Oakwood, (1809) Oil on Canvas, Alte Nationalgalerie, Berlin, Germany

Caspar David Friedrich, The Abbey in the Oakwood, (1809) Oil on Canvas, Alte Nationalgalerie, Berlin, Germany

Caspar David Friedrich, The Abbey in the Oakwood, (1809) Oil on Canvas, Alte Nationalgalerie, Berlin, Germany
Caspar David Friedrich, The Sea of Ice (1823) Oil on Canvas, Kunsthalle Hamburg, Hamburg, Germany

Caspar David Friedrich, The Sea of Ice (1823) Oil on Canvas, Kunsthalle Hamburg, Hamburg, Germany

Caspar David Friedrich, The Sea of Ice (1823) Oil on Canvas, Kunsthalle Hamburg, Hamburg, Germany
Portrait of Ludwig van Beethoven, painted in approximately 1804 or 1805. Joseph Willibrord Mähler, oil on

Portrait of Ludwig van Beethoven,

painted in approximately 1804 or

1805.

Joseph Willibrord Mähler, oil on canvas. Pasqualati House of the Vienna Museum.

Portrait of Ludwig van Beethoven, painted in approximately 1804 or 1805. Joseph Willibrord Mähler, oil on

A portrait of an old Beethoven dated

1823.

Ill health and increasing deafness caused a drop in productivity at the end of Beethoven's life, but he still managed to produce important works like his Late Quartets in 1825, which were wildly inventive for the time.

Beethoven died in Vienna on the 26th March 1827 after a long illness that has variously been attributed to alcohol, hepatitis, cirrhosis and pneumonia.

A portrait of an old Beethoven dated 1823. Ill health and increasing deafness caused a drop

Ferdinand Georg Waldmüller (1793 – 1865) Oil on canvas Collections at the Kunsthistorisches Museum, Vienna

A portrait of an old Beethoven dated 1823. Ill health and increasing deafness caused a drop
Painting, by Franz Xaver Stöber (1795–1858), of Beethoven funeral procession in Vienna. Original watercolor at Beethoven-Haus

Painting, by Franz Xaver Stöber (1795–1858), of Beethoven funeral procession in Vienna. Original watercolor at Beethoven-Haus Museum (in Bonn, Germany).

Painting, by Franz Xaver Stöber (1795–1858), of Beethoven funeral procession in Vienna. Original watercolor at Beethoven-Haus

The legacy of Beethoven

He is the pivotal figure in the time of transition between the Classical and Romantic ages of Western music, and, without shadow of doubt, one of the most admired and respected composer of all time.

Beethoven’s personal life was marked by personal struggles, some of his most important works were composed during the last 10 years of his life, when he was quite unable to hear. He died at the age of 56.

The legacy of Beethoven He is the pivotal figure in the time of transition between the

Memorable quotes

“Nothing is more intolerable than to have admit to yourself your own errors.”

“To play a wrong note is insignificant; to play without passion is inexcusable.”

“What you are, you are by accident of birth; what I am, I am by myself. There are and will be a thousand princes; there is only one Beethoven.”

“For me there can be no recreation in the company of others, no intelligent conversation, no exchange of information with peers; only the most pressing needs can make me venture into society. I am obliged to live like an outcast.”

“I love a tree more than a man.”

“Plaudite, amici, comedia finita est. [Said on his deathbed]”

Memorable quotes “Nothing is more intolerable than to have admit to yourself your own errors.” “To