You are on page 1of 5

UNIT KIMIA MRSM TGS

CHEMICAL FORMULA AND EQUATIONS

TABLE 1 :
WRITING SYMBOL FOR ELEMENTS

ELEMENT SYMBOL ELEMENT SYMBOL ELEMENT SYMBOL


Lithium Li Copper Cu Carbon C
Sodium Na Iron I Nitrogen N
Potassium K Lead Pb Oxygen O
Calsium Ca Tin Sn Sulphur S
Magnesium Mg Chromium Cr Chlorine Cl
Barium Ba Manganese Mn Bromine Br
Zinc Zn Hydrogen H Iodine I
Silver Ag Aluminium Al Flourine F

TABLE 2 :

WRITING IONIC FORMULAE


POSITIVE IONS FORMULA OF NEGATIVE IONS FORMULA OF
(CATION) IONS (ANION) IONS
Lithium ion Li Oxide ion O
Sodium ion Na+ Hydroxide ion OH
Potassium ion K+ Chloride ion Cl
Calsium ion Ca+ Bromide ion Br
Magnesium ion Mg ²+ Iodide ion I
Barium ion Ba²+ Nitrate ion NO3
Zinc ion Zn ²+ Sulphate ion SO4 ²
Silver ion Ag ²+ Carbonate ion CO3²
Copper (II) ion Cu ²+ Chromate ion CrO4 ²
Iron(II) / Ferrous ion Fe ²+ Di chromate ion Cr2O7²
Iron(III)/Ferric ion Fe ³+ Thiosulphate ion S2O3 ²
Lead (II) ion Pb ²+ Manganate ion MnO4²
Tin (II)/ Stannous ion Sn ²+ Ethanoat ion CH3COO
Chromium(III)ion Cr ²+
Manganese(II)ion Mn ²+
Hydrogen ion H+
Aluminium ion Al ³+
Ammonium ion NH4

1
TABLE 3 :
WRITING FORMULAE OF IONIC COMPOUNDS

NEGATIVE ION HYDROXIDE CHLORIDE BROMIDE IODIDE NITRATE


POSITIVE ION
Lithium ion LiOH LiCl LiBr LiI LiNO3
Sodium ion NaOH NaCl NaBr NaI NaNO3
Potassium ion KOH KCl KBr KI KNO3
Calsium ion CaOH2 CaCl2 CaBr2 Ca(NO3)2
Magnesium ion MgOH2 MgCl2 MgBr2 MgI2 Mg(NO3)2
Barium ion BaOH2 BaCL2 BaBr2 BaI2 Ba(NO3)2
Zinc ion ZnOH2 ZnCl2 ZnBr2 ZnI2 Zn(NO3)2
Silver ion AgCl2 AgBr2 AgI2 Ag(NO3)2
Copper (II) ion CuOH2 CuCl2 Cu(NO3)2
Iron(II) / Ferrous ion FeOH2 FeCl2 FeBr2 FeI2 Fe(NO3)2
Iron(III)/Ferric ion FeOH3 FeCl3 FeBr3 FeI3 Fe(NO3)3
Lead (II) ion PbOH2 PbCl2 PbBr2 PbI2 Pb(NO3)2
Tin (II)/ Stannous ion SnOH2 SnCl2 SnBr2 SnI2 Sn(NO3)2
Hydrogen ion H2O HCl HBr HNO3
Aluminium ion AlOH3 AlCl3 AlBr3 Al(NO3)3
Ammonium ion NH4OH NH4Cl NH4Br NH4I NH4CO3

TABLE 4 :
WRITING FORMULAE OF IONIC COMPOUNDS

NEGATIVE ION SULPHATE CARBONATE


POSITIVE ION
Lithium ion Li2SO4 Li2CO3
Sodium ion Na2SO4 Na2CO3
Potassium ion KSO4 K2CO3
Calsium ion CaSO4 CaCO3
Magnesium ion MgSO4 MgCO3
Barium ion BaSO4 BaCO3
Zinc ion ZnSO4 ZnCO3
Silver ion AgSO4 AgCO3
Copper (II) ion CuSO4 CuCO3
Iron(II) / Ferrous ion FeSO4 FeCO3
Iron(III)/Ferric ion Fe2(SO4)3 Fe2(CO3)3
Lead (II) ion PbSO4 PbCO3
Tin (II)/ Stannous ion SnSO4 SnCO3
Hydrogen ion H2SO4 H2CO3
Aluminium ion Al2(SO4)3 Al2(CO3)3
Ammonium ion (NH4)2SO4 (NH4)2CO3

2
TABLE 5 :
Write the formula for the compounds listed below
Name Formula Name Formula
Potassium manganate K2MnO4 Nitric acid HNO3
Potassium chromate KCrO4 Sulphuric acid H2SO4
Potassium dichromate K2Cr2O7 Hydrochloric acid HCL
Ethanoic acid CH3COOH Sulphur dioxide SO2
Magnesium ethanoat Mg(CH3COO)2 Carbon monoxide CO
Sodium ethanoat NaCH3COO Carbon dioxide CO2
Hydrogen peroxide H2O2 Ammonium hydroxide NH4OH
Oxygen gas O2 Nitrogen dioxide NO2
Hydrogen gas H2 Carbon tetrachloride CCl4
Chlorine gas/ molecules Cl2 Nitrogen monoxide NO
Hydrogen sulphide H2S Ammonia gas NH3

TABLE 6 :
Name the compound below
Formula Name Formula Name
CuSO4 Copper sulphate H2O2 Hydrogen peroxide
KMnO4 Potassium manganate KSCN Potassium thiocyanate
Na2CrO4 Sodium chromate BaCl2 Barium chloride
Na2Cr2O7 Sodium dichromate FeCl3 Iron(III) chloride
FeCl2 Iron(II) chloride (NH4)2SO4 Ammonium sulphate

CHEMICAL EQUATION

REACTANTS PRODUCTS

TABLE 7 :
Write and balanced chemical equations.
No Word equations
1. Magnesium + Oxygen Magnesium oxide
Mg + O2 MgO
2. Copper Oxide + Hydrogen gas Copper + Water
CuO + H2 Cu + H2O
3. Hydrogen gas + Oxygen Water
H2 + O H2O
4. Sodium + Water Sodium hydroxide + hydrogen
Na + H2O NaOH + H
5. Potassium + Oxygen Potassium oxide
K+O KO
7. Concentrated Hydrochloric acid + Ammonia Ammonium Chloride
HCl + NH3 NH4Cl
8. Iron + Chlorine Iron(III)chloride
Fe + Cl FeCl3
9. Sodium + Bromine Sodium bromide
Na + Br NaBr

3
TABLE 8:

No Reaction
10. Hydrochloric acid react with potassium hydroxide solution
HCl + KOH KCl + H2O
11. Sulphuric acid react with calcium carbonate
H2SO4 + CaCO3 CaSO4 + H2CO3
12. Ethanoic acid react with magnesium ribbon
CH3COOH+ Mg
13. Nitric acid react with zinc oxide
HNO3 + ZnO Zn(NO3)2 + OH
14. Heating of sodium nitrate
2NaNO3 (s) 2NaNO2 (s) + O2 (g)

15. Heating of copper(II)nitrate


2Cu(NO3)2 2CuO + 4NO2 + O2
16. Heating of lead carbonate
PbCO3 PbO + CO2

17. Haber process


N2 + 3H2 2NH3

18. Contact Process


Stage 1 :

Stage II :

Stage III:

19. Dissociate of hydrogen peroxide solution


H2O2 (aq) H+ + O2H-
20. Burning of ethene
C2H4 + 3O2 → 2CO2 + 2H2O
21. Burning of ethanol
C2H6O + O2 CO2 + HOH
22. Reaction of ethene with addition of hydrogen
C2H2 + H2 C2H6

23. Reaction of ethene with addition of chlorine water


C2H4 + Cl2 C2H4Cl2

24. Reaction of ethene with stim


C2H4 + H2O C2H5OH
25. Lead(II)nitrate solution pour in to the sodium sulphate solution
Pb(NO3)2 + Na2SO4 PbSO4 +NaNO3
26. Silver nitrate solution pour in to the ammonium chloride solution
Ag(NO3)2 + NH4Cl NH4NO3 +AgCl2

4
TABLE 9 :

Write half equation

Half equation
a)Electrolysis process Anode Cathode

1. Molten Lead (II)Iodide 2Br ̄ Br2 + Pb2+(l) + 2e– ==> Pb(l)


2e ̄
2. Hydrochloric acid 1.0 moldm-3 2Cl–(aq) ==> Cl2(g) + 2e– 2H+(aq) + 2e– ==> H2(g)
Carbon electrod
3. Copper(II)nitrat solution 4OH ̄ ==> O2+ 2H2O+ 4e Cu²+ + 2e ==> Cu
Copper electrode at anode
Carbon electrode at cathode
4. Sulphuric acid 1.5 moldm-3
Half equation
b) Voltaic cell Negative terminal /anode Positive terminal /cathode
/oxidation process /reduction process

1. Pair of electrode : Mg ==> Mg²+ +2e Cu²+ + 2e ==> Cu


Magnesium ribbon And
Copper strip
Electrolit :
Copper(II)nitrate solution

Overall equation Mg + Cu²+ ==> Mg²+ + Cu


2. Pair of electrode : Zn ==> Zn²+ +2e Na+ +e ==> Na
Zinc strip and Iron nail
Electrolit :
Sodium nitrate solution

Overall equation Zn + Na ==> Zn² + + Na