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MOTIVATION AND COGNITIVE ENGAGEMENT IN LEARNING

Introduction

Motivation is a critical component of learning. Motivation is important in getting students


to engage in academic activities. It is also important in determining how much students will learn
from the activities they perform or the information to which they will be exposed to. Students
who are motivated to learn something use higher cognitive processes in learning about it.
Motivation to do something can come about in many ways. It can be a personality characteristic
or a stable long-lasting interest in something. There are several theories of motivation that exist.
Some state that motivation is tied to the idea that behaviours that have been rewarded in the past
will be more likely to be repeated in the future. Therefore past experiences will motivate a
student to perform in future ones. Other theories prefer to think of motivation as a way to satisfy
certain needs. Some basic needs people must satisfy are food, shelter, love and positive self-
esteem. Therefore, motivation to do something may be based on the achievement of these needs.
Yet another theory (the attribution theory) seeks to understand people’s explanations and excuses
when it comes to their successes and failures. When people feel that they have control over their
success in something, then they are more motivated to achieve in it. If they feel that they will not
have any control in their success they might not be as motivated to achieve. The expectancy
theory of motivation is based on the belief that peoples efforts to achieve depends on their
expectations of rewards. People will be motivated to do something based on whether they think
that they will be successful and be rewarded. Motivation refers to the driving and pulling forces,
which result in persistent behavior directed towards particular goal. Ex: a person who is hungry
thinks of nothing but food. Motives are influences from observations of behavior. They are
powerful tools for the explanation of behavior and they allow us to make predictions about future
behavior. Motivation is defined as urged in an individual to performed goal directed behaviour.
Therefore, motivation cannot be inflected from outside but it is an intrinsic desire in a man to
achieve a target, goal through performance or activity. Motivation is expression of person needs
hence they are personal and internal incentives on the other hand are external to the person. They
are made part of work environment b management in order to encourage worker accomplish
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task. The motivational model indicates that essence of failed deprivation generates need and such
need create tension in an individual. The individual perceive a makes costs benefits analysis on
the way and means of realizing such tension. Once such perception is clear individual pounce
upon the activities and achieves some result. If it is success he feels rewarded a falls in the cycle
of motivation again. If it is failure he feels punish once again after due mortification of ways and
means pounces back on the cycle or feels frustrated. Therefore, motivation leads to a goal
directed behaviour.

When people join an organization, they bring with them certain needs that fact on the job
performance. Some of these needs are physiological, other are related to psychological and social
values. The later are much more difficult to determine and satisfy and they vary greatly from one
to other. Maslow has developed a hierarchy of needs as follows, physiological security, social
esteem and self-actualization needs. They interacted with the environment to shape on the job
wants that are the basis of motivation. In addition, motivation is affected by people perceptions,
including their feeling equity or fairness in a situation.

1. Definition and types of motivation

A layperson defines motivation as a vital force of everyone; it is the fountain of energy


that generates powers for one’s life. If provides all the necessary energy that need for reaching
our goal. It is also a never dying force, which helps us to go on that right perspective with full
vigor. A psychologist would understand as the way in which urges, drives, aspiration, and strings
or needs direct control or explain the behavior of human beings.(Singh, Motivation: Theories and
Practical Applications 7)

Motivation is the action that implies or urges an individual to assume an attitude


generally favourable toward his work leading him to perform satisfactory. It is the psychological
feature that arouses an organism to action toward a desired goal; that which gives purpose and
direction for the action. Motivation is the driving force which causes us to achieve our goals. It
is the inner power or energy that pushes toward acting, performing actions and achieving. It has
much to do with desire and ambition, and if they are absent, motivation is too. It may be rooted
in a basic need to minimize pain and maximize pleasure. Motivation is a productivity factor in
the industry. It concerns itself with the will to work. By motivation we mean mechanisms inside
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the person that sustains his continued activity as a human behaviour. It is an act of stimulating
someone to get a desired course of action. A motivated person takes action and does whatever it
takes to achieve his/her goals. Motivation becomes strong when we have a clear vision of our
goal/what we want to achieve and a strong desire to achieve it. Motivation can be either negative
or positive, punishments or methods where people work in fear will produce minimum
motivation to get along safely. Positive motivation makes people willing to do their work in the
best way they can and improve their performance. Incentive is an external stimulus that activates
need and motive refers to the activated need. It is the outward stimulus for motive to work.
Incentive is the means to motivation. (8)

There are two types of motivation, Intrinsic and Extrinsic motivation. It's important to
understand that we are not all the same; thus effectively motivating your employees requires that
you gain an understanding of the different types of motivation. Such an understanding will
enable you to better categorize your team members and apply the appropriate type of motivation.
You will find each member different and each member's motivational needs will be varied as
well. Some people respond best to intrinsic which means "from within" and will meet any
obligation of an area of their passion. Quite the reverse, others will respond better to extrinsic
motivation which, in their world, provides that difficult tasks can be dealt with provided there is
a reward upon completion of that task. Become an expert in determining which type will work
best with which team members. (Pahuja, Psychology of Learning and Development 217)

Intrinsic Motivation

Intrinsic motivation means that the individual's motivational stimuli are coming from
within. The individual has the desire to perform a specific task, because its results are in
accordance with his belief system or fulfills a desire and therefore importance is attached to it.
Our deep-rooted desires have the highest motivational power. Below are some examples:
Acceptance: We all need to feel that we, as well as our decisions, are accepted by our co-
workers. Curiosity: We all have the desire to be in the know. Honor: We all need to respect the
rules and to be ethical. Independence: We all need to feel we are unique. Order: We all need to
be organized. Power: We all have the desire to be able to have influence. Social contact: We all
need to have some social interactions. Social Status: We all have the desire to feel
important.(217)
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Extrinsic Motivation

Extrinsic motivation means that the individual's motivational stimuli are coming from
outside. In other words, our desires to perform a task are controlled by an outside source. Note
that even though the stimuli are coming from outside, the result of performing the task will still
be rewarding for the individual performing the task. Extrinsic motivation is external in nature.
The most well-known and the most debated motivation is money. Below are some other
examples: Employee of the month award, Benefit package, Bonuses, Organized activities.(218)

2. Theories of motivations

Theories of motivation try to provide general sets of principle to guide our understanding
of the urges, wants, needs, strivings and goals that come under the heading of motivation. They
include drive theories, incentive theories, the opponent process theory and optimal level theory.

2.1. Drive theory


This theory might be described as the “push theories of motivation.” Behavior is pushed
toward, goal by driving states within the person or animal. In general, drive theories say when
an internal driving state is aroused; the individual is pushed to engage in behavior which will
lead to a goal that reduces the intensity of the deriving state. In human beings, at least teaching
the appropriate goal reduces the drive state, is pleasurable and satisfying. Thus, motivation is
said to consist of (i) a driving state, (ii) the goal directed behavior initiated by the driving state,
(iii) the attainment driving state and subjective satisfaction and relief when the goal is reached.
After a time, the driving state builds up again, to push behavior toward the appropriate goal.
People are said to have learned drives for power, aggression etc. The idea that a psychological
need creates an aroused tension state that motivates an organism to satisfy the need. With a few
exceptions, when a psychological need increases, so does the psychological drive. The aim of the
drive reduction is homeostasis; the maintenance of a steady internal state. The theory has some
intuitive or folk validity. .(Singh, Motivation: Theories and Practical Applications 131)

2.2. Incentive theories

In contrast with the push theories of motivation incentive theories are pull theories of
motivation. Because, of certain characteristics they have, the goal objects pull behavior towards
them. The goal objects, which motivate behavior, are known as incentives. An important of
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many incentive theories is that individual expects pleasure from the attainment of what are called
positive incentives and from the avoidance of what are known as negative incentives. Incentives
are positive or negative stimuli that motivate behaviour. This theory treats motivation and
behaviour of the individual as they are influenced by beliefs. Incentive theory involves positive
reinforcement: the stimulus has been conditioned to make the person happier. It is been
associated with the removal of punishment. When there is both need and incentive, we feel
driven.(132)

2.3. Opponent-process theory

This is a hedonistic theory, as such, it says we are motivated to seek goals which give us
good emotional feeling and avoid goal resulting in displeasure. Furthermore, this theory says that
many emotional motivation states are followed by opposing or opposite states. For example, a
woman discovers a lump in her breast and gets tensed, that she cries continuously. As the time
passes, she slowly regains some sort of energy and stops crying and begins to work. At this
point, though she works, still tensed and worried and she calls her doctor for an appointment.
After examination, the doctor informs her that there is no possibility of cancer and suggests
medicine to take. Now she is relieved and goes happily. Her emotional expression is back to
normal. (132)

2.4. Optimal- Level Theories

Optimal level theories are hedonistic theories, which say that behavior is directed toward
seeking an optimal level of arousal. For instance, if arousal is too low, a person will seek
situations are stimuli to increase arousal; if arousal is too high, behavior will be directed towards
decreasing it. Imagine yourself on extremely busy day at work; too much happening and you are
highly arousal. More likely, you find yourself doing things such as taking the telephone off the
book in order to reduce the overloaded of arousal, to which you are being subjected. In doing so
you are behaving so as to move toward a level of optimal arousal. And low level of arousal may
also motivate behavior directed at increasing arousal levels to the optimum.(132)

2.5. Need Theories


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In these pages I will be focusing on some of the important of these theories. Maslow’s
Hierarchy of need theory will be dealt with in detail, later.

2.5.1. Herzburg’s Two Factor Theory


Herzburg’s motivation-hygiene theory named as the ‘Two Factor Theory’, principally
hinges on two kinds of factors – the motivators and the Hygiene. This theory concentrates its
attempt to examine the motives that seem to have the strongest influence on behaviour at work.
He propagated two factors, ‘Hygiene’ and ‘Motivator’. Hygiene factors are responsible for the
dissatisfaction in employees if not present; but do not motivate even if present. They can be
termed as preventives, i.e. to prevent job dissatisfaction. These must present and activated /
satisfied before motivation can be achieved. Since they support mental health, they are termed
Hygiene factors. They meet man’s needs to avoid unpleasantness. Motivators are those factors,
which when present motivates but causes no dissatisfaction when absent. They are necessary for
the improvement in performance. These factors make people happy with their jobs. Hygiene
factors affect dissatisfaction while motivators affect satisfaction. (148-9)

2.5.2. Expectance Theory of Motivation


The theory of motivation developed by Victor H. Vroom expands on the work of Maslow
and Herzburg. It views motivation as a process of governing choices. An individual having a
certain goal must practise certain behaviour, the most successful one, to achieve it. This model
emphasizes individual differences, and that needs and satisfaction be considered before a person
sets a meaningful goal. In the expectancy motivation model, motivation is defined as expectancy
times instrumentality times valence, M= E x I x V. it proposes three determinants.

i. The expectancy that Individual Effort will result in Performance


ii. The expectancy that Performance will result in Reward
iii. The Valence of Regards.
An important contribution of the expectancy theory is that it explains how the goals of
individuals influence their behaviour and that the individual effort they put depends upon their
assessment of whether it will successfully lead to a goal. (159)
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2.5.3. Theory X and Y of McGregor


Douglas McGregor in his book (treatise), ‘The Human Side of Enterprise’, describes
Theory X as the conventional view of direction and control and theory Y as the Integration of
goals. (163)

2.5.3.1. Theory X (Negative)

Employees dislike work; if possible avoid them. They must be coerced, controlled or threatened
to do the work .They avoid responsibilities and seek formal direction. They place a great
importance on security

2.5.3.2. Theory Y (Positive)

Employees love work as play or rest. They are self directed and controlled and committed. They
accept and seek responsibilities. They have innovative spirit

McGregor suggests, the more creative Y, as the way forward; but this theory has been
criticized highly for generalisation of work and human behaviour.

2.5.4. Alderfer’s ERG Theory


This was put forward by Clayton Alderfer. ERG stands for Existence, Relatedness and
Growth. These are the three core groups of needs. Existence is concerned mainly with material
existence, relatedness with need to maintain interpersonal relationship and the latter with
intrinsic desire to grow and develop personally. In short, in an individual more than one need
may be operative at the same time. If a higher need goes unsatisfied then the desire to satisfy a
lower need intensifies. It also contains frustration – regression dimension. Even though this
theory is more consistent with our knowledge and practise, and explains variation of importance
attached by different persons, on different aspects, there is no validation for this theory. There is
no evidence to show that actions based on these assumptions improve motivation.(166)

2.5.5. Abraham Maslow and need hierarchy theory

One of the most widely mentioned theories of motivation is the Hierarchy of Needs
Theory put forward by Abraham Maslow. He has classified human needs in logical convenient
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way .In his theory he pointed out how human needs influence behaviour Maslow formulated his
humanistic philosophy from the observations made from working with mentally distributed
persons based on the ways in which human needs influence behaviour. He theorized that
experienced needs are primarily influences on human behaviour. When a particular need
emerges it influences human behaviour in terms of motivation preferences. He believed that
there is a natural process whereby individuals needs in an ascending order from most immature
to mature need. He indicates that there should be a test minimal fulfillment before he can pursue
his higher needs. Basically, humanistic perspective believes that people can choose what is right
for them if given an opportunity. Maslow saw human needs in the form of a hierarchy, ascending
from the lowest to the highest and he concluded that when one of set of needs is satisfied, this
kind of need ceases to be a motivator. (134-5)

2.5.5.1. Physiological Needs

This refers to the physiological/ physical needs for the maintenance of the body. Food,
water, warmth, shelter, sleep, medicine and education are the basic physiological needs which
fall in the primary list of need satisfaction. Maslow was of an opinion that until these needs are
satisfied to a degree to maintain life, no other motivating factors can work. (138)

2.5.5.2. Safety and Security Needs

These needs form the next higher level. These symbolize needs for bodily protection
against danger, threat etc. and also economic security, not meeting the present needs alone but
future assurance as well. This level not only includes protection form physical harm, ill health
but also protection against emotional harm.(139)

2.5.5.3. Social Needs


Social needs are related to the social nature of the people and their need for
companionship. Non-health in this level may lead to mental disturbance. There is an innate
desire in each individual to be worthwhile, useful and generally accepted. They relate to desire
for sociability and interpersonal relationship and exchange feelings. The satisfaction of these
includes better team work and performance. (139)

2.5.5.4. Ego or Self Esteem Needs


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According to Maslow, once people begin to satisfy their need to belong, they tend to be
held in esteem both by themselves and by others. There are needs concerning one’s self esteem
and esteem from others and needs concerning one’s reputation. These needs are believed to have
the strongest influence on human behaviour. They comprise both of awareness of one’s own
importance and the actual realm of others. They lead to self-confidence and prestige.(140)

2.5.5.5. Need for Self-Actualization

Maslow regards this as the highest need in the hierarchy, self expression and self
realization. They influence the behaviour at al times, but only after all other needs are satisfied
that they dominate. These relate prominently to personal aspirations of man. It is the drive to
become what one is capable of becoming, including growth, achieving of one’s potential and
self-fulfillment. It is to maximize ones potential and to accomplish something. They also include
need for relative expression and contribution to worthwhile objectives.
Carl Rogers, a clinical psychologist, used the theory of self-concepts, which he defined as
an organized pattern of perceived characteristics along with the values attached to those
attributes. He also assumed that within each individual there is a biological drive toward growth
of self-concept, which can ultimately lead to self-actualization. Rogers believed that while
children's self-concept is developing, they may internalize conditions of worth, judgments about
the kinds of behaviors that will bring approval from others. He felt that, to promote growth and
development, parents and authority figures should give a child unconditional acceptance and
love, which allows a child to develop self-acceptance and to achieve self-actualization. To help
his clients get back on the road to self-actualization, he developed a therapeutic approach called
client-centered therapy, in which the therapist offers the client unconditional positive regard by
supporting the client regardless of what is said. The warm, sympathetic therapeutic environment
allows the client to be freed of internalized conditions of worth and to resume the self-
actualization process. (140-1)

2.5.5.2. Some criticism on Maslow


Though Maslow’s hierarchy makes sense intuitively, little evidence supports its strict
hierarchy. Actually recent research challenges the order that the needs are imposed Maslow’s
pyramid. As an example in some cultures, social needs are placed more fundamentally than any
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others. Maslow’s hierarchy fails to explain the “starving artist” scenario in which the aesthetic
neglects their physical needs to pursuit of aesthetic or spiritual goals. Additionally, little
evidence suggest that satisfy exclusively one motivating need at a time, other than situations
where needs conflict. While a scientific support fails to reinforce Maslow’s hierarchy, this theory
is very popular, being the introductory motivation theory for many students and managers
worldwide. To handle a number of issues of present in the need hierarchy, Clayton Alderfer
devised the ERG theory; a constant need based model that aligns more accurately with scientific
research. All humans develop their own hierarchy of motives, in the course of our development
from childhood to old age. For some the need for love, security and safety will dominate, some
others the need of achievements. Many of us confine many motives that suit our personality and
experience. Even though Maslow’s theory had found wide recognition, research does not
validate this theory. He provided no empirical evidence and other several studies that sought to
validate it, found no support for it. Then his methodology of selecting few people that he himself
declared self-actualized, as a sample, did not seem to be good science. Another one is that he
placed many constraints on self-actualization. A major criticism is that Maslow said our lower
needs are actualized first before self-actualization takes place. Bu this is definitely not the case.
There are many examples like Galileo, Rembrandt, who were poor but heavily gifted artists who
tried some form of self-actualization. But if we bring it in line with the idea of fully actualizing
person, it makes more sense. Here deprivation of any needs means not fully actualizing and not,
non-self actualizing. Scientific research has failed to support the need hierarchy of Maslow. But
nevertheless, this theory is increasingly popular as an introductive motivation in this field.

2.5.5.2. Freud’s viewpoint

Freud’s theory of motivation was based on instincts. In his last book “Outline of Psycho-
analysis”, he asserted that Eros and death instinct are the ultimate cause of the motivation in
behavior. In fact, life instinct, the urge for self-preservation dominates the earlier scenes of one’s
life. When life instinctors, death instinct comes to operation. For example, the lover who has
failed in his love affair may think of committing suicide. However, what moves or energizes the
activities of the life instinct is the need for sexual gratification-a media to provide intense
pleasure of satisfaction and meaning to one’s life.

2.5.5.3. Behaviorist’s viewpoint


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Behaviorist’s like Watson, Clark Hull and Skinner emphasize that needs and drives work
stimuli to evoke responses in the form of motivation behavior. Explaining the mechanism they
say that a need in the form of stimulation gives birth to a drive or motive which in turn sets the
motivational behavior in motion. The reduction of need and the associate drive, then works as a
rein forcer for maintaining behavior this need or drive reduction hypothesis propagated by
behaviorist has been strongly opposed by psychologists who came later. However, the
importance of needs and drives in controlling and giving the motivational behavior of humans is
beyond questions.

2.5.5.4. Adler’s viewpoint

Without agreeing with the extreme views of Freud regarding sex as the basis of human
motivation Alfred Adler, a student of Freud advocated that human beings are motivated
primarily by social urges, for maintaining his social self one requires a margin of safety besides
the simple security in terms of protection from danger. He achieves this margin of safety through
domination and superiority. Therefore, the struggle for achievement and status or the will to
dominate is really an out growth of the fundamental need for security. Thus the motivation of
human behavior may be endured through a single basis drive known as security drive or motive
or in terms of a single need, the need for security to maintain one’s social life

2.5.6. How to Motivate Others

2.5.6.1. Motivating oneself


As a leader one needs to be enthusiastic. There is nothing as contagious as enthusiasm
without which great plans are not accomplished. Before one criticize others, who lack
motivation, he has to ask himself whether is enthusiastic and motivated.

2.5.6.2. Select people who are highly motivated


It is hard to motivate people who are not motivated already therefore, look for people
who have the seeds of motivation in themselves. Build your team who show steady eagerness in
duties rather than who speak enthusiastically.
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2.5.6.3. Treat each person as an individual


By listening to individual we give them an opportunity to express their wish, plan and
fears. We must try to know others as they are.

2.5.6.4. Provide fair rewards and positive feedback


We must give positive feedback to people who do simple and small work and encourage
them to persevere in the small difficulties that they face.

2.5.6.4. Give recognition


We must give value a respect to all in an equal way and consider other in their work.
Think their work as worthwhile and appreciate it. Because when one is recognized feels happy to
work.

3. Principles of motivation
Motivation is a key word and essential requirement for the success of the learning process
carries out in the class room. Unfortunately there is no single magic formula set of principles for
motivating all students in every teaching-leamtrtg situation. Motivation is in fact is individual
phenomenon. However on the basis of researches and experiences in the field of motivational
psychology and pedagogy the following may be named as general principles of motivation.
(Pahuja, Psychology of Learning and Development 218)

3.1. Principle of readiness to learn


Reading to learn is an initial crucial step for motivating one to learn for which he is
prepared mentally and physically. If student is not ready to learn he or she may not be reliable in
following instructions and realize the instructional objectives. Sometimes the student’s readiness
to learn comes with time and the teachers’ role in such a situation is to create conditions and
encourage its development. (219)
3.2. Principle of active participation in learning
Good motivation requires active involvement on the parts of learning. Passivity dampens
student’s motivation and curiosity. Therefore as a teacher, do pose questions, don’t tell your
students something when you can ask them. Encourage students to suggest approaches to a
problem or to guess the results of an experiment lead a discussion in a small group and
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collaborative learning and see the results. Your students will always remain motivated to
learn.(219)
3.3. Principle of arousing and maintaining interest
Interest is a key word and central figure in any process of motivation. One gets motivated
and remains absorbed in a particular learning task depending upon the degree of arousal and
maintaining interest in the task, therefore make the teaching-learning as interesting as possible
for motivating your students.(219)
3.4. Principle of clarity and definiteness of goal and purpose
The learner is motivated to the extent he or she sees some purposes, values and
advantages drawn through the learning. Similarly if one is definite about the goals and objectives
of his learning, he can go straight forward on the path of his earning without any confusion and
ambiguity. He can be more attractive take more interest and show more zeal and enthusiasm
towards the learning of the things for which he is more clear about their nature and
outcomes.(219)
3.5. Principle of employing proper methods and devices class room.

Much depends upon the art of teaching. A good teacher by adopting suitable proper
methods may motivate his students for a successful journey of teaching and learning in and
outside the classroom. The choice of proper methods including aid material, devices and modern
technology may thus work as a good motivating agent. (219)

3.6. Principle of creating an open and positive environment.

The autocratic functioning, breeding of the conformity and passivity, denial of the
freedom to ask and respond, irrelevant rebuking and reproofing of the student, etc., prove quite
detrimental to the enthusiasm and initiatives of the learners. It is better to say good bye to all this
negative elements and introduce an open and positive teaching learning environment for the
student’s motivation.(220)

3.7. Principle of change and variety.

Introduction of change and variety proves a big factor in motivating the learner in any
teaching, learning situation. It brings novelty, newness, curiosity, adventurism and other likewise
things in a routine or the otherwise boring and fatigued environment of learning situation.
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Therefore it is always advisable to introduce change and variety in terms of the instructional
material, methods, devices teaching-learning situations, etc., for keeping the student
motivated.(220)

3.8. Principle of providing proper feedback.

The learner should know about the progress of his learning as frequently and immediately
as possible. It helps in maintain his interest and motivation further in the ongoing teaching-
learning process. The knowledge of the progress in attending the prior set goals motivates the
student in directing his activities with more energy and enthusiasm towards the goal by offering
continues opportunities to experience success.

3.9. Principle of providing incentives and reinforcement.

Behaviour gets reinforced through a proper schedule of appropriate reinforce including


incentives. It is also true of the learning behaiour. However, the decision in a particular teaching
learning situation rests on the teacher for the employment of one or the other reinforce and
incentive. Sometimes the learner may be motivated through a few words of praise or non-verbal
behaiour like smiling, nodding of the neck and accepting glimpse, other times he may need
recognition in terms of grades, medals and prizes.(221)

3.10. Principle of resorting to internal motivation

It is an acceptable fact that internal motivation is longer, lasting and more self-directive
than the external motivation. It’s also true that some individuals particularly children of certain
ages and some adults have little capacity for internal motivation and must be guided and
reinforced constantly through external rewards and incentives. In such cases the beginning may
be made through these means of external motivation. However cautions should always be
exercised in using external rewards when they are not absolutely necessary and ultimately one
should learn to get motivation from the internal sources instead of the external rewards and
incentives. (221)

4. Techniques of enhancing learner’s motivation


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Motivation occupies a central place in the teaching-learning process. It is in fact,


indispensable to learning. Every teacher at one time or the other is faced with the problem of
motivating his students to learn. Therefore, it is essential to think of the ways and means for
achieving motivation in the class-room situation. We can adopt the following techniques in
learning.(224)

4.1. child-centered approach

It is the child who has to learn. The teacher only helps him to learn. Therefore, what the
child has to learn, the teacher is only to help him in learning that. But, what child has to learn,
should be judged according to the ability, interest capacity and previous experience of the child.
Is he, mature enough to understand the new material or do the assigned task? Does he possess
necessary skills and abilities for doing the present task? Is he mentally prepared for the present
learning? These are some of the questions which should be kept in mind while asking the child to
learn something new or perform some assigned task. The learning material or experiences should
always be assigned according to the needs, interest and abilities of the child. (224)

4.2. Linking the new learning with the past

Experience is a great teacher. What has been learned or experienced in the past proves a
good base for the present learning. The assigned task seems to be interesting easy and within the
capacity of the individual, if it is properly related with the past experience. The child is easily
motivated to learn the new materials if he thinks that he knows all that which is required as a
base for the new learning. Therefore, it is the duty of the teacher to base his present teaching
upon the previous learning experiences by the pupil. (224)

4.3. Use of effective methods, aids and devices in teaching

Whatever the subject matter may be a good teacher with his art of teaching can stimulate
the students of learning. Old dogmatic methods kill the initiative and interest of the learner while
the progressive methods based on the psychological principles, keep him motivated. The use of
audio-visual aids and the service rendered by museum, library, visit of places, directly help the
teacher in motivating his students. Therefore, a teacher should make use of the suitable methods,
devices and aid material in his teaching. (225)
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4.5. Definiteness of the purpose and goals

One cannot feel interested in a task if one is not aware of the purpose served by doing
that. Definiteness of aims and the goals makes the learner interested and sets him to work in a
desirable direction. The students must be acquainted well with the aims and objectives of
studying a subject or a topic. They must be told the purpose of acquiring a new skill or
experiences so that a clear perception of the goals may motivate them and bring required results.
(225)

4.6. Knowledge of the results and progress

Every learner wishes to know the result of his striving. When we make ourselves engaged
in doing some task, it is natural to have curiosity about the progress made in completing that
task. The knowledge that we are progressing satisfactorily, gives us proper incentive. The child
who is attempting mathematical problem concerning with a particular topic, gets constant
motivation if he is well-acquainted with his progress. Immediate knowledge of the results
provides sufficient feed-back to the learner. It does not only acquaint him with his success or
failure but makes him able to plan his further attempts in reaching towards specific goals. The
proper critical evaluation of the pupil’s work, in terms of specific defects, errors and good points
proves an effective incentive for the desirable improvement. Teachers should make provision for
acquainting the students well with their progress. For this purpose, proper record cards, graphs
and charts should be maintained in the school. (225)

4.6. Praise and reproof

Both praise and reproof are the potent incentives. They can be safely used for the
achievement of desired motivation in the class room situations. Which one of these incentives
will prove more effective depends upon the personality of the learner as well as of the person
who gives them. In the case of some individuals, both praise and reproof work well while others
respond best to one or the other. Generally, those having feeling of inadequacy respond more
favorably to praise and those who are self assured work harder than after criticism. The ways, in
which these incentives are given or repeated by the teacher, also counts much. The essential
condition for the effectiveness of these incentives is that they must either satisfy or threaten our
security or one or more of our other motives. In this way, the teacher must try to recognize the
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nature of the students and consequently make use of the praise or reproof in motivating and
inspiring them. (225)

4.7. Rewards and punishments

Rewards and punishments bring the same results as praise and reproof. Both of these are
powerful incentives and try to influence the future conduct or learning of an organism favorably.
While punishment as a negative motive is based on fear of failure, fear of losing prestige, fear of
insult in rejection, fear of physical pain and so on. The reward as a positive motive seeks to
influence conduct favorably by associating a pleasant feeling with the desired act. As far as
possible, the use of punishment as a motivating agent should be avoided as it kills initiative,
leadership, resourcefulness and the spirit of free thinking and adventurous living. On the other
hand, the rewards like prizes, honours, certificates, medals have psychological value and develop
in the student’s creative abilities, spirit of emulation, self-confidence and self-respect and other
democratic feeling. (226)

4.8. Competition and co-operation

Competition as a source of motivation is universally recognized. In simple language, it


indicates the desire to excel others. Now days we find too much competition in all walks of life.
In the field of education, this spirit can be used as a powerful motivating force. We can create
learning situations, where the students of a class are engaged in a healthy competition.
Competition may take one of the two forms-competitions against another person or against one’s
own record. In the former form of the competition there lies a danger of developing undesirable
habits in the individual as he may resort to unfair means for excelling others. The other form of
stimulates the learner to compete with his own past record. It sets him on the path of self-
learning and provides an intrinsic motivation. Therefore, the teacher should try to inculcate the
feeling of self-improvement in the learner. (227)

4.9. Ego-involvement

The ego consists of attitudes relating to the self. Every one of us tires to maintain status
and self-respect. We like those people; objects and situation that make us feel important and
dislike those that make us feel inferior. Teachers generally, are in the habit of ridiculing and
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snubbing their students. It is not the proper way of motivating them. Instead of using such means
teacher should try to motivate his students by appealing to ego maximization. He should engage
them in the activities which can appeal to his self-respect and raise his status among his class-
mates or peers. (227)

4.10. Development of proper attitude

Attitude is defined as one’s set to react in a given way in a particular situation. It is


closely related to attention and interest. A child, who has developed a healthy attitude towards
manual work, takes genuine interest in working with hands, while the other one who has
developed a negative attitude, shirks away from it. In this way, a favorable attitude helps the
learner in setting his mind or preparing him mentally for doing a particular task or learning
something. Therefore, the teacher should try to develop proper attitude of his students towards
the desired act or learning. (228)

4.11. Appropriate learning situation and Environment.

This situations and environment, in which the learning is to be made by the learner,
influences the learning process. A well-equipped, healthy class-room environment proves a
motivating force. The child likes to read, write or listen to the teacher carefully if he finds
favorable environment and appropriate learning situations. The suitability of the school building,
the seating arrangement and other physical facilities available and affection he gets from his
teachers, the mutual cooperation and help he gets from his class-mates, the opportunity to
participation he gets in the school co-curricular activities, etc., all influence and motivate the
learning behaviour of the child. Therefore, efforts should be made to provide suitable learning
situations and environment for effective learning. (228)

Conclusion

Thus, we have come to know what motivation is. We have seen different view, ideas and
knowledge given by various psychologists about motivation. It helps us to know human nature
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better and all the things related to it. Various psychologists has defined motivation and explained
it in such a form that it will help us to know the reason and relation of motivation. The sources of
motivation are complex. The motivation to learn is personal and comes from within an
individual, but it can be influenced by external factor. Educators must keep the principle of
motivation at the fore front of all instructional design. The application of motivation theory is
limited only by one imagination. The concepts learner motivation underlines the importance of
learning analysis in instructional design.

Bibliography

Pahuja. Psychology of Learning and Development. New Delhi: Anmol


Publications Pvt.Ltd, 2004, Print.

Singh,Nirmal. Motivation: Theories and Practical Applications. New Delhi: Deep


and Deep Publications Pvt.Ltd, 2005, Print.