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## Class 2 (Continuous-Time and Discrete-Time Sig

Types of signals

Continuous / Discrete

## A continuous-time signal x(t) is represented by an uncountably inﬁnite numbe

variable points (e.g., an uncountably inﬁnite number of values across time).

## A discrete-time signal x[n] is represented by an countable (potentially inﬁnite, but

number of dependent variable values (e.g., ﬁve values across time).

Notation warning: Some texts use the same bracket notation for both continuous-tim
time signals (i.e., x(t) is continuous-time and x(n) is discrete-time). Furthermore, t
discrete-time using m (common in controls literature) rather than n (common in s
literature). In this course, we will denote continuous-time signal with round b
discrete-time signals by square brackets [⋅] . Further, we will typically use t to den
time signals and n to denote discrete-time signals. Note though that the dependent v
need to be time. It could be anything -- time, space, speed, force, etc.

Even / Odd

x(−t) = x(t)

x(−t) = −x(t)

x[−n] = x[n]

x[−n] = −x[n]
Causal / Acausal

## A continuous-time signal x(t) is said to be anticausal when

x(t) = 0 for t ≥ 0

## A discrete-time signal x[n] is said to be anticausal when

x[n] = 0 for n ≥ 0

Signals that are not causal are also called acausal. Anticausal signals are are a type a
Periodic / Aperiodic

## Fundamental period/frequency: The smallest T0 or N0 that satisﬁes the abov

known as the fundamental period of the signal. The reciprocal value (f0 = 1/T0 o
known as the fundamental frequency of the signal. We will discuss how to ﬁnd t
frequency in the next lecture.

Caveat for discrete-time signals: Note that determining periodicity for discrete
more complicated than it may initially seem. Some signals that are periodic in con
not satisfy periodicity in discrete-time (for example, x[n] = cos(n) does not satisfy
property).
Measures of signal "size"

Energy

2
Ex = ∫ |x(t)| dt
−∞

2
Ex = ∑ |x[n]|

n=−∞

## Physical Interpretation: Energy, in this context, does not refer to a speciﬁc ph

Instead, it describes the "size" of a signal. Our energy, however, can be related to elec
x(t) is a voltage signal across a load of resistance R , then the energy supplied to tha

## The power of a continuous-time signal x(t)

T /2
1 2
Px = lim ∫ |x(t)| dt .
T →∞ T −T /2

## When the signal is periodic, the power simpliﬁes to

T /2
1 2
Px = ∫ |x(t)| dt ,
T −T /2
where T is a period of the periodic signal. This is equivalent to saying that the pow
signal is equal to the average energy in one period in the signal.

## The power of a discrete-time signal x[n] is

N
1 2
Px = lim ∑ |x[n]| .
N →∞ 2N + 1
n=−N

## When the signal is periodic, the power simpliﬁes to

N −1
1 2
Px = ∑ |x[n]| ,
N
n=0

where N is a period of the periodic signal. This is equivalent to saying that the pow
signal is equal to the average energy in one period in the signal.

## Physical Interpretation: Power, in this context, does not refer to a speciﬁc ph

Instead, it describes the "size" of a periodic signal. Our power, however, can be rela
power. If x(t) is a voltage signal across a load of resistance R , then the power supp
is Px /R.

## Important signal operations

Time shifting

The continuous-time signal y(t) = x(t − T ) is the signal x(t) shifted to the right by

The continuous-time signal y(t) = x(t + T ) is the signal x(t) shifted to the left by T

The discrete-time signal y[n] = x[n − N ] is the signal x[n] shifted to the right by N

The discrete-time signal y[n] = x[n + N ] is the signal x[n] shifted to the left by N s
Time scaling

The continuous-time signal y(t) = x(at) is the signal x(t) condensed by a factor of a

The continuous-time signal y(t) = x(t/a) is the signal x(t) expanded by a factor of a

The discrete-time signal y[n] = x[an] is the signal x[n] condensed by a factor of a.

The discrete-time signal y[n] = x[n/a] is the signal x[n] expanded by a factor of a.

Time reversal

## The continuous-time signal y(t) = x(−t) is the time-reversed signal of x(t) .

The discrete-time signal y[n] = x[−n] is the time-reversed replica of signal x[n] .

## Discrete-time Power: From Limit Representation to Per

Representation

Let N0 be deﬁned as the fundamental period of a periodic signal. Using the assumption
periodic, the limit representation of discrete-time power can be simpliﬁed to
N
1 2
Px = lim ∑ |x[n]|
N →∞ 2N + 1
n=−N

N0
1 2
2N 2
= lim [|x| + ∑ |x[n]| ]
N →∞ 2N + 1 N0
n=1

We broke up the summation into two terms. The ﬁrst term is the value of the signal at n
term is the energy in one period multiplied by , which is the ratio of the total ran
2N

N0

and (i.e., ) and the fundamental period. That is, for any given , there are
2N
N 2N N
N0

−N and N . Note that this simpliﬁcation is not true for any N but is true for the
approaches inﬁnity.

## To complete our proof, we distribute the 1/(2N + 1) so that

N0 2
1 2 2N 2
|x| 2N
lim [|x| + ∑ |x[n]| ] = lim +
N →∞ 2N + 1 N0 N →∞ 2N + 1 N0 (2N + 1)
n=1

When we evaluate the limit, the ﬁrst term in the above equation goes to zero as N go
second term, after applying L'Hopsital's rule, converges to

N0
1 2
∑ |x[n]| .
N0
n=1

N0
1 2
Px = ∑ |x[n]|
N0
n=1

N0 −1
1 2
= ∑ |x[n]|
N0
n=0

Periodic signals

## x(t) = x(t + mT0 )

for any integer value m . That is, this is a small length of time for which the signal rep

For a discrete-time, periodic signal, the fundamental period is the smallest N0 valu

## x[n] = x[n + mN0 ]

for any integer value of m . Again, this is a small length of time for which the signal r
this value must be an integer. If there are no integer-valued periods, the signal is not
The fundamental frequency

## For a continuous-time or discrete-time, periodic signal, the fundamental fre

reciprocal of the fundamental period, such that

f0 = 1/T0 or f0 = 1/N0 .

The fundamental frequency speciﬁces such that all of frequencies in the signal
where m is some m is some integer. These frequencies are known as harmonics

## For a continuous-time or discrete-time, periodic signal, the fundamental angula

deﬁned by

ω0 = 2πf0 .

Angular frequency is notationally convenient since the functions cos(ω1 t) and sin

## Computing the fundamental period for a sum of periodic signals

For a single periodic signal, the fundamental period is the smallest period in the sign
the fundamental period of x(t) = cos(2πt) is T0 = 1. For a sum of periodic signa
the fundamental period is more complicated.

The fundamental periodT0 of x1 (t) + x2 (t) + x3 (t) + … + xN (t)is the least com
of the individual periods T1 , T2 , T3 , … , TN. Conceptually, this implies that the fund
is the ﬁrst common period in each component signal.

## 1. Perform prime factorization on each period

Example 1: 120 = 2 × 2 × 2 × 3 × 5
Example 2: 102 = 2 × 3 × 17

## 2. Combine equal terms in each factorization (i.e., 120 = 23 × 3 × 5)

Example 1: 120 = 2 × 3 × 5
3

Example 2: 102 = 2 × 3 × 17

3. The least common multiple is the product of the highest-power unique factors
Example: LCM(120, 102) = 23 × 3 × 5 × 17 = 2040

## To determine , where and

n1 n2 nN
LCM ( , ,…, ) n1 , n2 , … , nN d1 , d2 , … , dN
d1 d2 dN

compute

n1 n2 nN LCM (n1 , n2 , … , nN )
LCM ( , ,…, ) =
d1 d2 dN GCD (d1 , d2 , … , dN )

See the next section on how to compute the greatest common divisor (GCD).

## The fundamental frequency f0 of x1 (t) + x2 (t) + x3 (t) + … + xN (t) is the gre

divisor of the individual frequencies f1 , f2 , f3 , … , fN. Similarly, the fundam
frequency ω0 of x1 (t) + x2 (t) + x3 (t) + … + xN (t) is the greatest common
individual angular frequencies ω1 , ω2 , ω3 , … , ωN.

## 1. Perform prime factorization on frequencies

Example 1: 120 = 2 × 2 × 2 × 3 × 5
Example 2: 102 = 2 × 3 × 17

## 2. The greatest common divisor is the product of the common factors

Example: GCD(120, 102) = 2 × 3 = 6

## To determine , where and

n1 n2 nN
GCD ( , ,…, ) n1 , n2 , … , nN d1 , d2 , … , dN
d1 d2 dN

compute

n1 n2 nN GCD (n1 , n2 , … , nN )
GCD ( , ,…, ) =
d1 d2 dN LCM (d1 , d2 , … , dN )
See the previous section on how to compute the least common multiple (LCM).

## Special functions / signals

Impulse functions

∞ for t = 0
δ(t) = {
0 for t ≠ 0

where

∫ δ(t)dt = 1
−∞

1 for n = 0
δ[n] = {
0 for n ≠ 0

## The properties of impulse signals:

Energy: Ex = not well defined
Power: Px = 0
Even / Odd?: Even (Understanding why is beyond the purview of this course. You
tested on this.)
Periodic?: No
Causal?: Yes
Heaviside step functions

## The continuous-time step function u(t) is deﬁned by

t
1 for t ≥ 0
u(t) = ∫ δ(τ )dτ = {
−∞ 0 for t < 0

## The discrete-time step function u[n] is deﬁned by

n
1 for n ≥ 0
u[n] = ∑ δ[k] = {
0 for n < 0
k=−∞

## The properties of the Heaviside step functions:

Energy: Ex = ∞
Power: Px = 1/2
Even / Odd?: Neither
Periodic?: No
Causal?: Yes

## The properties of the continuous-time cosines or sines:

Enegry: Ex = ∞
Power: Px = 1/2
Even / Odd?: cos(ω0 t) is even and sin(ω0 t) is odd
Periodic?: Yes
Fundamental frequency: f0 = ω0 /(2π)
Fundamental period: T0 = 1/f0

Causal?: No
Stepped exponential

a0 t
x(t) = e u(t)

## The properties of the exponential signals are:

∞ for a0 ≥ 0
Enegry: Ex = {
−1/(2a0 ) for a0 < 0

Power: Px = 0
Even / Odd?: No
Periodic?: No
Causal?: Yes

Complex exponentials

## The continuous-time complex exponential signal is deﬁned by

(jω0 +a0 )t
x(t) = e

= cos(ω0 t) + j sin(ω0 t)

## The properties of the continuous-time complex exponential:

Enegry: Ex = ∞
Power: Px = 1
Even / Odd?: No, but its components are: cos(ω0 t) is even and sin(ω0 t) is odd
Periodic?: Yes
Fundamental frequency: f0 = ω0 /(2π)
Fundamental period: T0 = 1/f0

Causal?: No

## The continuous-time general exponential signal is deﬁned by

(jω0 +a0 )t
x(t) = e u(t)

a0 t a0 t
= [e cos(ω0 t) + je sin(ω0 t)] u(t)

## The properties of the general exponential signals are:

∞ for a0 ≥ 0
Enegry: Ex = {
−1/(2a0 ) for a0 < 0

Power: Px = 0
Even / Odd?: No
Periodic?: No
Causal?: Yes

## Input-output system model

Throughout the course, we will visualize systems using block diagrams, such as the o
Block diagram illustrating a generic system

In this diagram, the x(t) is the input, which the system manipulates, and y(t) is
general systems, we can represent a system by a function H{⋅} that operates on si
the system above can be formally expressed as

y(t) = H{x(t)}.

Note that this notation will disappear when we start focusing on linear, time-invar
class.

System properties

Continuous-time or discrete-time

## A continuous-time system whose inputs and outputs are continuous-time signals.

system is one whose inputs and outputs are discrete-time signals.

Linear or nonlinear

## A system is linear if it obeys the law of superposition. Formally, if H{⋅} is a system w

or x2 (t) and output y2 (t) or y1 (t) such that

## where a and b are arbitrary scalar numbers.

Block diagrams illustrating the linearity property

## Time invariant or time varying

A system is time-invariant if the system does not change with time. Formally, if H{
time t with input x(t) and output y(t), such that y(t) = H{x(t)}, then the
invariant if

y(t + τ ) = H{x(t + τ )}

for any arbitrary time delay τ . That is, if we delay our input, we expect the output t
the same amount. In a time-invariant system, an input delay may not affect the outp
other way.
Block diagrams illustrating input and output for a time-invariant system.

system.

## A system is instantaneous (or memoryless) if its output at time t only depends on th

t. A system is dynamic (or has memory) if the output on t depends on the input at

previous inputs t − τ for τ > 0. That is, the system "remembers" previous input
Block diagrams illustrating input and output for a memoryless system.

Block diagrams illustrating input and output for a system with memory.

Causal or non-causal

## A system is causal (or physical or non-anticipative) if its output at time t only

current input at time t and its past outputs at time t − τ for τ > 0. Hence, the
depend on future inputs.

## Bounded-input, bounded-output (BIBO) stable or unstable

A system is BIBO stable if any amplitude-bounded input (i.e., the signal x(t) n
approaches ∞ for all t) yields and amplitude-bounded output (i.e., the signal y(t) n
approaches ∞ for all t).

Note that there are many different types of stability criteria for systems. We will dis
much greater detail after learning about the Laplace transform.