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Quality analog rice composite flour: Modified starch, Colocasia esculenta, Canna

edulis Ker high protein

Isti Pudjihastuti, Siswo Sumardiono, Edy Supriyo, and Heny Kusumayanti

Citation: AIP Conference Proceedings 1977, 030017 (2018); doi: 10.1063/1.5042937

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Published by the American Institute of Physics

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Quality Analog Rice Composite Flour: Modified Starch,
Colocasia Esculenta, Canna Edulis Ker High Protein
Isti Pudjihastuti1, a), Siswo Sumardiono2, Edy Supriyo1, Heny Kusumayanti1
Vocational Program Study of Chemical Engineering Diponegoro University, Semarang, Indonesia
Chemical Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, Diponegoro University, Semarang, Indonesia
Corresponding author:

Abstract. The demand for domestic rice continues to increase along with population growth, making it difficult for
the achievement of national rice self-sufficiency. Therefore, it is necessary to decrease rice demand with food
diversification program. Since paddy rice and rice have become food culture of Indonesian people, it is necessary to
develop product similar to rice (analog rice) by not changing food preparation at the household level. The purpose of
this research is to develop analog rice production method from protein rich composite flour with hot extrusion
method. Thermal extrusion technology is expected to produce artificial rice with high quality and nutrition and have
physicochemical properties equivalent of rice. There fore, it can be applied as food substitute for rice in realizing
Indonesia food security program. The result of chemical analysis shows that the best analog rice in this study
contains water 13.455%, carbohydrate 74.972%, protein 8.648% and fat 0.180%. Analog rice amylose content equal
to 25.677% included in rice with low amylose.


Rice is a basic necessity of Indonesia and continues to increase every year. Indonesian people’s dependence
on rice has become a major problem with the increasing population of Indonesia because it is not offset by the
increase of rice production. The increase in population is in line with the increase of national rice consumption.
This prompts the Government of Indonesia to import 1.92 million tons of rice by 2014[1]. The high import of
rice indicates that domestic production has not met the food needs of Indonesians. This factor encourages the
diversification of non-rice food. One of the diversification of non-rice food currently being developed is the
manufacture of analog rice (artificial rice) to replace the general rice[2]
The diversification of non-rice based food from various sources of other carbohydrates such as corn,
cassava, sorghum, sago and other tubers became the focus of the government with considerable potential.
However the potential of non-rice food has not been optimally utilized. Alternative food that can be developed
as a source of carbohydrates because the production of cassava each year has increased. The potential for
cassava development is enormous considering Indonesia is the world's third largest producer of cassava after
Brazil and Thailand[2]. In addition, taro (kimpul) Colocasia esculenta also has great potential as a food that can
be developed. Indonesisa as one of taro producing countries has two taro planting centers, namely in Bogor and
Malang. Taro tuber is a food ingredient that has good nutritional value. Macronutrient components and
micronutrients contained in taro tubers include proteins, carbohydrates, fats, and crude, phosphorus, calcium,
iron, thiamine, ribloflavin, niacin and vitamin C. The value of more than taro tubers is its ease to digest. This is
due to the small size of the pocket granule and the stool contains considerable amounts of amylose (20-25%). In
addition taro is also free of gluten, the processed food of taro can be used for the diet of individuals who have
allergy to gluten.
Another carbohydrate source that can be developed as an alternative food is ganyong (Canna edulis Ker).
Ganyong can be utilized as a source of high quality starch. Flour is good and young digested is highly
recommended for the consumption of infants or sick people, while the young tubers are eaten as vegetables and
sometimes used as dessert. Noodle ganyong (Canna edulis Ker ) very well used as a source of carbohydrates for
energy supply. This can be seen from the chemical composition of tuber ganyong in Table 1.

Human-Dedicated Sustainable Product and Process Design: Materials, Resources, and Energy
AIP Conf. Proc. 1977, 030017-1–030017-4;
Published by AIP Publishing. 978-0-7354-1687-1/$30.00

TABLE 1. Nutritional content in 100 gr ganyong (Canna edulis Ker) tubers
Component Unit Amount
Calorie kcal 95
Protein gr 1.0
Fat gr 0.1
Carbohydrate gr 22.6
Calcium mg 21
Phosphor mg 70
Fe mg 20
Vitamin B1 mg 100
Vitamin C mg 10
H 2O mg 75
Edible substance gr 65
(Directorate of Nutrition Department of Health Republic Indonesia,1981)

The tuber processing into the form of ganyong (Canna edulis Ker) starch is expected to expand the
manufacture of food-grade raw materials. In addition to carbohydrates, there are other components that the body
needs in one of these proteins. Source of protein can be derived from animal protein such as sea fish and
vegetable protein such as nuts. Types of nuts that have high protein content and can be developed into
alternative food, one of which is green beans. Green bean flour is a category of flour that comes from grains and
is a non-negotiable ingredient because it is gluten free. Green beans have 23% protein content[3]. This is the
factor that promotes the diversification of non-rice food. One of the non-rice food diversification currently being
developed is the manufacture of analog rice to replace rice in general.
In this research, artificial rice made from composite of cassava flour, taro flour and ganyong
(Canna edulis Ker )flour as main raw material and green bean flour as protein adder material. The economic
value of this artificial rice that is in terms of materials such as cassava and taro are easy to get and tubers
ganyong (Canna edulis Ker) is also very easy but utilization is less than the maximum.
The process of making analog rice has been done using granulation method[4, 5, 6]. However, the resulting
analogue rice has characteristics that are still far from expected. Another method tried to make analog rice is
extrusion [7]. Food extrusion technology is the process of forcibly transporting food through barrels with one or
more variations of mixing, heating and variation of conditions, as well as passing through a die designed to
form and / or develop extrusion products[8].
The use of extrusion technology to make analog rice has many advantages such as large capacity, the
occurrence of drainage process, mixing, knead, heating and formation so that the resulting analog rice has
similar characteristics to rice.
The extrusion process can be grouped into two categories, namely: cold extrusion and hot extrusion. Both
processes drain dough made from the main components of flour, additives and water through an extruder barrel.
Hot extrusion uses high temperatures above 70oC obtained from steam heaters or electric heaters (elements)
mounted around barrels and friction between dough materials with barrel and screw surfaces. Heating and
compression causes gelatinization process either partially or totally. Cold extrusion is the same process but is
used to make pastes without the use of additional thermal energy input on the heat generated by the friction
process (low temperatures below 70°C).
The quality of cooking of rice is largely determined by the physicochemical properties of rice such as starch
gelatinization temperature, volume development, water absorption, viscosity of the paste, and the consistency of
starch gel. The temperature of starch gelatinization is the temperature at which the starch granules break with
the addition of hot water. The temperature of gelatinization varies for different types of starch and affects the
duration of cooking. Rice having high gelatinization temperature requires longer cooking time than low
gelatinized rice[9].


The materials used in this research are cassava flour, taro flour, ganyong (Canna edulis Ker) flour and green
bean flour, aquadest and analysis materials. This research begins with the manufacture of composite flour that is
cassava flour, taro, ganyong (Canna edulis Ker) tuber. Further, the composite starch ingredients that have been
weighed are mixed according to the ratio in the treatment. The process of making rice analog to the extrusion
process is generally similar to that of other extrusion products consisting of four stages, including: formulation,
precondition, extrusion and drying.


The formulation stage aims to make a mixture of artificial rice raw materials with the desired composition.
Starch or flour which is the main raw material must be ground to obtain a specific particle size. Then lipids and
other minor components such as binders, emulsifiers and minerals are added to a certain amount. The formula
should contain sufficient starch fraction which will later be deflated and firmly binding the product. Binding of
particles in artificial rice can also use a hydrocoloid binder (binder agent).

Preconditions play an important role in the overall extrusion process. There are several advantages of using
preconditions in the extrusion process, including: increasing the hydration of particle hydration, reducing the
dough residence time in the extruder and increasing overall residence time, increasing tool life due to decreasing
use of screw and barrel components. At the precondition stage the raw material mixture of the formulation is
maintained under warm conditions (70-90°C) and wet for a certain time and then flowed into the extruder. A
good mixing is required for the particle surface to be in contact with water and steam added. Sufficient residence
time is also required to allow the process of diffusion of water vapor and heat transfer from the surface to the
interior of the particles[8]. Thus, a mixture of artificial rice ingredients will be plasticized in the preconditioner
and can be fed into the extruder. Before entering into a micronutrient extruder such as vitamins and antioxidants
can be added to increase the nutrient value of the rice produced.


At the extrusion stage the dough will undergo the heating process again at a slightly higher temperature than
the previous process. Besides that the dough will also experience the process of further homogenization, flowing
and forming when out of the die. The degradation process of starch into smaller molecules is minimized so that
the function artificial rice as a source of carbohydrate can still be maintained. Extrudates coming out of die
extruder will have the texture, density, color and properties of the desired functional properties of the product
In order to produce analog rice that has chemical properties, physics, cooked and texture similar to rice need to
consider some of the variables and parameters involved in the extrusion process. These variables include input
variables consisting of material composition (e.g.,starch, protein, fiber, and fat), moisture content, particle size
and additives and process variables related to operational conditions of processes such as temperature, screw
speed, feed flow rate and cutting knife rate.

Artificial rice obtained still has a high enough water content and should be dried to reduce water content to
below 15% in order to have a long shelf life[10]. Drying can be done using solar energy as well as with dryers
such as tray dryers, swivel dryers, fluidized bed dryers and so on.


The results of artificial rice water content analysis ranged from 12.325 to 13.455%. This water content has
been close to the water content of pandan wangi rice,which is 12.431%. The results of artificial rice water
content in these various compositions have fulfilled the water content required by SNI 01-6128-2008, which is a
maximum of 14%. This figure is a safe water content for rice storage that is <14% (bb). With a water content of
<14% (bb), it will prevent mold growth that often lives on cereals / grains [10]. The analysis of protein content
of artificial rice in various compositions ranges from 8.555% to 8.648% (bk). The resulting protein content has
been able to match the protein content in pandan wangi rice by 9.156%. The result of fat analysis of artificial
rice in various compositions ranged between 0.109% - 0.180%. Fat content in various compositions resembles
the fat content of pandan wangi rice. The analysis results of carbohydrate content of analog rice in various
compositions ranged from 74.972 to 76.441%. When compared with pandan wangi rice 77.697% of
carbohydrate content analog rice already resembles rice market.
Amylose content is one of the chemical properties that determines the physical properties of rice. Based on
the analysis, analog rice has amylose levels ranging from 22.975 to 25.677%. Based on these results, artificial
rice is included in low amylose. Rice with low amylose when cooked produces sticky, shiny, unfolded rice, and
keeps clotting after cooled down. However, amylose levels does not determine the level of favorite rice because
people preference for taste of rice’s[10]. The absorption capacity of rice is between 0.8 and 1.84 times. The
average water absorption rate from rice in Indonesia is 2.5 times[11]. The greater the level of water absorption,

the greater the water needed to cook the rice. Analog rice has a water absorption rate that is smaller than
ordinary rice. The next analysis will test the overall hedonic rating to determine the best formula.

From the research results, it was obtained that the best analog rice with the formula of 50% cassava flour,
20% taro flour, 20% ganyong (Canna edulis Ker) flour and 10% green bean flour with 70oC temperature. The
result of chemical analysis showed that the analog rice in this study contained water 13.455%, carbohydrate
74.972%, protein 8,648 and fat 0,180%. Amylose content of analog rice of 25.677% is included in low amylose.


The authors would like to DRPM for funding research through PUPT and LPPM UNDIP scheme so that the
research can be well conducted.

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