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CBSE Class 12th PHYSICS

General Instructions

This question paper has five sections: Section A, Section B, Section C, Section D and

Section E.

Section A contains five questions of one mark each, Section B contains five questions

of two marks each, Section C contains twelve questions of three marks each, Section D

contains one value based question of four marks and Section E contains three

questions of five marks each.

There is no overall choice. However, an internal choice has been provided in one

question of two marks, one question of three marks and all the three questions of five

marks weightage. You have to attempt only one of the choices in such questions.

Section A

Q1. In what way is the behaviour of a diamagnetic material different from that of a

paramagnetic, when kept in an external magnetic field?

Ans. When a bar of diamagnetic material is placed in an external magnetic field, the field

lines are repelled or expelled and the field inside the material is reduced.

Whereas when a paramagnetic material is placed in an external magnetic field, the field

lines are attracted towards it. Thus the field lines get concentrated inside the material and

the field inside is enhanced.

Q2. The plot of the variation of potential difference across a combination of three

identical cells in series, versus current is shown below. What is the emf and internal

resistance of each cell?

Ans. Let E and r be the EMF and internal resistance of all cells respectively and e and r' be

the EMF and internal resistance of each cell respectively.

As we know,

V = E − Ir

I = 0 ⇒V = E

E = 6 V

E = 3 × e ⇒ e = 2 V

And, when, V = 0

⇒ E = Ir

As per the question the cells are connected in the series, so we can write.

Ans. At the time of sunset or sunrise, the Sun and its surroundings appear red because of the

scattering of light. At the time of sunset or sunrise, the light rays from the Sun have to travel

a long distance to reach our eyes through the Earth's atmosphere. In other words, we can say

that when we look towards horizon, we are looking through more of Earth’s atmosphere

than when we look overhead. The light reaching our eyes is rich in red colour as blue light is

largely scattered away by the particles present in the Earth's atmosphere.

Q4. A charge 'q' is moved from a point A above a dipole of dipole moment 'p' to a point

B below the dipole in equatorial plane without acceleration. Find the work done in the

process.

Ans. The net force on the charge q is directed parallel to the dipole and hence perpendicular

to its motion along AB.

∴ Work done = 0

receiver.

Section B

Q6. Calculate the de-Broglie wave length of the electron orbitting in the n = 2 state of

hydrogen atom.

Ans. As we know,

Therefore,

λ = π × 0.529 × 10 - 10 × n2

shown in the figure.

(a) Show that a voltmeter when placed across the cell and across the resistor, in turn,

gives the same reading.

(b) To record the voltage and the current in the circuit, why is voltmeter placed in

parallel and ammeter in series in the circuit?

E = V + Ir

⇒ V = E – Ir

E = 12 V, r = 2 Ω

V = 12 – 2I

V2 = IR

= 2 × 4 = 8V

V1 = V2

Hence, from the above relation we can see that when voltmeter placed across the cell and

across the resistor, gives the same reading.

(b) Voltmeter has very high resistance to ensure that it's connection does not alter the flow of

current in the circuit. We connect it in parallel and we also know that current chooses only

the low resistance path. Hence, it is connected in parallel to the load across which potential

difference is to be measured.

Ammeter measures value of current flowing through the circuit so it should be connected in

the series. Ammeter has very low resistance to ensure that all current flows through it. Thus,

it gives a correct reading of the current when connected in series.

Q8. Define ionization energy. How would the ionization energy change when electron in

hydrogen atom is replaced by a particle of mass 200 times that of electron but having

the same charge?

OR

Calculate the shortest wavelength of the spectral lines emitted in Balmer series.

Ans. Ionization energy: The minimum amount of energy required to remove an electron

from the outermost orbit of a neutral atom in its ground state is known as the ionization

energy of that atom.

The ionization energy of Hydrogen atom is

= -2720eV (∵ EH = -13.6eV)

OR

Q9 Define modulation index. Why is it kept low? What is the role of a bandpass filter?

Ans. Modulation index is defined as the ratio between amplitude of modulating signal and

carrier wave.

As the low-frequency modulating signal is mixed with a high-frequency carrier wave, the

distortion is restricted due to the high-frequency carrier wave for modulation index lying

between 0 and 1. If the amplitude of modulating wave is greater than the carrier wave then

the carrier wave gets over-modulated. This over modulation results in distorted waveform

envelope which will result in a distorted output signal.

The bandpass filter blocks the signal which are d.c. or have frequencies ω, 2ωc and 2ωm and

Q10 A ray PQ incident normally on the refracting face BA is refracted in the prism BAC

made of material of refractive index 1.5. Complete the path of ray through the prism.

From which face will the ray emerge? Justify your Answer.

Ans. Here

⇒ sin30° = 0.5

Ic > 300

Section C

(ii) How does drift velocity of electrons in a metallic conductor vary with increase in

temperature? Explain.

Ans. (i) Free electrons are in continuous random motion. They undergo change in direction

at each collision and the thermal velocities are randomly distributed in all directions.

m → Mass of an electron

e → Charge on an electron

Drift velocity,

Where,

Where

Thermal velocities of the electrons

Since

(ii) Drift velocity of electrons in a metallic conductor decreases with increase in temperature.

As we know,

As, we increase the temperature of the metallic conductor the collision between the electrons

and ions increases, which results in the decrease in the relaxation time.

vd ∝ τ

Q12 (a) Write the basic nuclear process involved in the emission of β+ in a symbolic

form, by a radioactive nucleus.

(i)

(ii)

Ans. (a) The basic nuclear process involved in the emission of β+ in a symbolic form, by a

radioactive nucleus

p → n + β + v

For a beta-plus decay, a proton transforms into a neutron within the nucleus, according to

the above reaction.

(b) (i)

The corresponding y and z are 5 and 11, respectively. The x is the positron.

(ii)

Q13 Sketch the graphs showing variation of stopping potential with frequency of

incident radiations for two photosensitive materials A and B having thres hold

frequencies vA >vB.

(ii) Does the slope of the graph depend on the nature of the material used? Explain.

Ans. (i) Graph between stopping potential and the frequency of the incident radiation:

(i) The stopping potential is inversely proportional to the threshold frequency. Hence the

stopping potential is higher for metal B.

(ii) The slope of the graph does not depend on the nature of the material used.

As we know,

Kmax = hv - ∅0 = eV0

From the above equation, the slope of the graph is (on comparing with the straight line

equation). Thus, we see that the slope is independent of the nature of the photoelectric

material.

(ii) Draw a graph showing the variation of intensity (I) of polarised light transmitted by

an analyser with angle (θ) between polariser and analyser.

(iii) What is the value of refractive index of a medium of polarising angle 60°?

Ans. (i) Law of Malus: It states that when a completely plane polarised light beam is incident

on an analyser, the intensity of the emergent light varies as the square of the cosine of the

angle between the plane of transmission of the analyser and the polariser.

I = I0cos2θ

(ii)

The refractive index of the material is 1.73

Why the equipotential surfaces about a single charge are not equidistant?

(iii) Can electric field exist tangential to an equipotential surface? Give reason.

Ans. An equipotential surface is that surface at every point of which, the electric potential is

the same.

(i)

(ii)

The equipotential surfaces about a single charge are not equidistant because electric field

due to a single change is not constant.

(iii) If the electric field exist along tangential to an equipotential surface, a charged particle

will experience a force along the tangential line and can move along it. As a charged particle

can move only due to the potential difference (along the direction of change of potential),

this contradicts the concept of an equipotential surface.

Q16 Use Biot-Savart law to derive the expression for the magnetic field on the axis of a

current carrying circular loop of radius R.

Draw the magnetic field lines due to a circular wire carrying current I.

Ans.

R2 = x2 + R2

dB has two components: dBx and dB⊥. dB⊥ is cancelled out and only the x-component

remains.

Summation of dl over the loop is given by 2πR.

Consider a plane wave front incident on a thin convex lens. Draw a proper diagram to

show how the incident wave front traverses through the lens and after refraction

focusses on the focal point of the lens, giving the shape of the emergent wave front.

OR

(i) When monochromatic light is incident on a surface separating two media, the

reflected and refracted light both have the same frequency as the incident frequency.

(ii) When light travels from a rarer to a denser medium, the speed decreases. Does this

decrease in speed imply a reduction in the energy carried by the wave?

(iii) In the wave picture of light, intensity of light is determined by the square of the

amplitude of the wave. What determines the intensity in the photon picture of light?

Ans. Wave front is defined as the locus of all the points in space that reach a particular

distance by a propagating wave at the same instant.

Huygens’ Principle is based on the following assumptions:

Each point on the primary wavefront acts as a source of secondary wavelets, sending out

disturbances in all directions in a similar manner as the original source of light does.

(a) The new position of the wavefront at any instant (called secondary wave front) is the

envelope of the secondary wavelets at that instant.

Incident wave front traversing through the lens and after refraction focusing on the focal

point of the lens is shown in the figure below.

OR

where v is the velocity of light. As the wave travels from one medium to another, the

wavelength of light changes changing the speed of light with it. The frequency remains

constant.

(ii) The energy of wave depends only on its frequency. Since the frequency does not change

as wave travels from one medium to another, therefore, the energy of the wave remains

same and does not decrease.

(iii) In photon picture of light, the intensity of light is determined by the number of photons.

Q18 For a CE-transistor amplifier, the audio signal voltage across the collector

resistance of 2 kΩ is 2 V. Suppose the current amplification factor of the transistor is

100, find the input signal voltage and base current, if the base resistance is 1 kΩ.

Ans. Given:

Q19 (i) Identify the part of the electromagnetic spectrum which is:

(ii) Why does a galvanometer show a momentary deflection at the time of charging or

discharging a capacitor? Write the necessary expression to explain this observation.

Ans. (i) (a) Microwaves are suitable for radar system in aircraft navigation.

(b) X-rays are produced by bombarding a metal target by high speed electrons.

(ii) As the capacitor is connected to the battery, the electrons start moving towards the plate

connected to the negative terminal of the battery and electrons leave from the plate

connected to the positive terminal of the battery. This happens until the potential of the

capacitor becomes equal to that of the battery. As this happens very quickly, the charging

current produces a deflection. The reverse process is repeated for discharging that is the

charge is lost. As the galvanometer can be considered as a resistance, the circuit behaves like

a R-C circuit having time constant equal to RC. Hence the expression governing this

phenomenon is

Q20 (i) Which mode of propagation is used by shortwave broadcast services having

frequency range from a few MHz upto 30 MHz? Explain diagrammatically how long

distance communication can be achieved by this mode.

(ii) Why is there an upper limit to frequency of waves used in this mode?

Ans. (a) Sky wave propagation is used by shortwave broadcast services having frequency

range from few MHz to 30 MHz.

The sky waves reach the reciever after reflection from the ionosphere. The oscillating

electric field of electromagnetic wave changes the velocity of the electrons in the ionosphere

which changes the effective dielectric constant and hence refractive index. In a single

reflection from the ionosphere, the radio-waves cover a distance of not less than 4000 km. In

this way, a very long distance communication is possible with the help of sky waves.

(b) The ionosphere acts as a reflector for a certain range of frequencies (1710 kHz to 40 MHz).

Waves above 40 MHz get refracted through ionosphere and escape. This is why there is an

upper limit to the frequency used in this mode.

Q21 (i) Explain with the help of a diagram the formation of depletion region and

barrier potential in a pn junction.

(ii) Draw the circuit diagram of a half wave rectifier and explain its working.

Ans. (i) In a p−n junction, a p-type and an n-type material are joined together. The

concentration of holes is higher in p-type material as compared to that in n-type material.

Therefore, there is a concentration gradient between the p-type and n-type materials. As a

result of this concentration gradient, holes move from p-side to n-side (p → n) by the process

of diffusion. Similarly, electrons move from n-side to p-side (n → p).

As the holes diffuse from p-side, they leave ionised spaces (negatively charged) on pside near

the junction. These ionised spaces are immobile. Hence, a negative spacecharge region is

formed on the p-side near the junction. Similarly, a positive spacecharge region is formed on

the n-side. These two space-charge regions on either sides of the junction constitute what is

called a depletion layer.

Since the n-side loses electrons and p-side gains electrons, a potential difference is developed

across the junction of the two regions. This potential difference tends to oppose further

motion of electrons from the n-region into the p-region. The same happens for holes too. The

reverse polarity of this potential opposes further flow of carriers and is thus called the

barrier potential.

(ii) The circuit diagram for a half wave rectifier is shown below:

Working: During the positive half cycle of the input a.c., the p-n junction is forward biased i.e

the forward current flows from p to n and the diode offers a low resistance path to the

current. Thus, we get output across-load i.e. a.c input will be obtained as d.c output.

During the negative half cycle of the input a.c., the p-n junction is reversed biased i.e the

reverse current flows from n to p, the diode offers a high resistance path to the current.

Thus, we get no output across-load. This principle is shown in the diagram given below.

Q22 (i) When an AC source is connected to an ideal inductor show that the average

power supplied by the source over a complete cycle is zero.

(ii) A lamp is connected in series with an inductor and an AC source. What happens to

the brightness of the lamp when the key is plugged in and an iron rod is inserted inside

the inductor? Explain.

Ans. (i) The average power supplied by the source over a complete cycle is given as P =

VIcosϕ

where, cosϕ is called the power factor.

For pure inductive circuit, the phase difference between current and voltage is .

(ii) If an iron rod is inserted in the inductor, then the value of inductance L increases.

As such, the current through the bulb will decrease, thus, decreasing the brightness of the

bulb.

Section -D

Q23 Ram is a student of class X in a village school. His uncle gifted him a bicycle with a

dynamo fitted in it. He was very excited to get it. While cycling during night, he could

light the bulb and see the objects on the road. He, however, did not know how this

device works. he asked this question to his teacher. The teacher considered it an

opportunity to explain the working to the whole class.

(a) State the principle and working of a dynamo.

(b) Write two values each displayed by Ram and his school teacher.

Ans. (a) The underlying principle in the working of a dynamo is that changing magnetic flux

in a conductor induces emf.

A dynamo includes a coil attached to a small turbine fitted with a plastic cap. The coil is

placed in a magnetic field. When the plastic cap comes in contact with moving tyres of the

bicycle, the coil placed between the poles of a magnet rotates, thus the flux through the coil

changes continuously. This induces a current in the coil which is connected to a bulb which

lights up. As long as the bicycle is moving, the coil keeps on rotating, and hence, the flux

keeps on changing. At a steady rate, we get a steady current and hence a light of steady

intensity.

(b) The qualities shown by the teacher are: helpful and responsible as a teacher, and

knowledgeable. The qualities shown by Ram are inquisitive and observing

Section -E

Q24 (i) Derive the mathematical relation between refractive indices n1 and n2 of two

radii and radius of curvature R for refraction at a convex spherical surface. Consider

the object to be a point since lying on the principle axis in rarer medium of refractive

index n1 and a real image formed in the denser medium of refractive index n2. Hence,

(ii) Light from a point source in air falls on a convex spherical glass surface of

refractive index 1.5 and radius of curvature 20 cm. The distance of light source from

the glass surface is 100 cm. At what position is the image formed?

OR

(a) Draw a labelled ray diagram to obtain the real image formed by an astronomical

telescope in normal adjustment position. Define its magnifying power.

(b) You are given three lenses of power 0.5 D, 4 D and 10 D to design a telescope.

(i) Which lenses should be used as objective and eyepiece? Justify your Answer.

(ii) Why is the aperture of the objective preferred to be large?

Ans. (i)

The above figure shows the geometry of formation of real image I of an object O and the

principal axis of a spherical surface with centre of curvature C and radius of curvature R.

Assumptions:

(i) The aperture of the surface is small compared to other distance involved.

(ii) NM will be taken to be nearly equal to the length of the perpendicular from the point N

on the principal axis.

Assuming the incident ray is very close to the principal axis, all the angles are very small.

Hence, for very small angles,

tan x = x = sin x,

Similarly,

i.e.,

By Snell’s law,

n1sini = n2 sinr

n1i = n2r

Substituting the values of i and r from equations (i) and (ii), we obtain

Or, ………… (iii)

OM = − u, MI = + v, MC = + R

……….. (iv)

(ii)

OR

Magnifying power or angular magnificaton of astronomical telescope: It is defined as the

ratio of the angle subtended at the eye by the final image to the angle subtended at the eye,

by the object directly, when the final image and the object, both are at infinity.

Angular magnification,

I is the image formed by the objective. f0 and fe are the focal lengths of the objective and

eyepiece, respectively.

Here,

(b) (i) Lens with smallest power or largest focal length should be used as the objective i.e lens

with power 0.5 D.

Lens with largest power or smallest focal length should be used as the eye-piece i.e. lens with

power 10 D.

(ii) The aperture is preferred to be large so that the telescope can collect as much as light

coming from the distant object as possible.

Q25 (i) Use Gauss's law to find the electric field due to a uniformly charged infinite

plane sheet. What is the direction of field for positive and negative charge densities?

(ii) Find the ratio of the potential differences that must be applied across the parallel

and series combination of two capacitors C1 and C2 with their capacitances in the ratio

1 : 2 so that the energy stored in the two cases becomes the same.

OR

(a) field at points between the two plates and on outer side of the plates. Specify the

direction of the field in each case.

(b) the potential difference between the plates.

(c) the capacitance of the capacitor so formed.

(ii) Two metallic spheres of Radii R and 2R are charged so that both of these have same

surface charge density σ. If they are connected to each other with a conducting wire,

inn which direction will the charge flow and why?

Consider an infinite thin plane sheet of positive charge with a uniform surface charge

density σ on both sides of the sheet. Let P be the point at a distance a from the sheet at which

the electric field is required. Draw a Gaussian cylinder of area of cross-section A through

point P.

The electric flux crossing through the Gaussian surface,

∅ = E × Area of the circular caps of the cylinder

Since electric lines of force are parallel to the curved surface of the cylinder, the flux due to

the electric field of the plane sheet of charge passes only through the two circular caps of the

cylinder.

∅ = E × 2A …….… (i)

………… (ii)

The direction of an electric field for positive charge density is in outward direction and

perpendicular to the plane infinite sheet. And for the negative charge density the direction of

the field is in inward direction and perpendicular to the sheet.

(ii) Given,

When the capacitor are connected in parallel the total capacitance will be

Cp = C1 + C2 = 3C1

When the capacitor are connected in series the total capacitance will be

According to the question

OR

(a) We are given two similar large plates separated by a small distance (d) and having area

(A).

Outer region I,

In the inner region between plates 1 and 2, the electric fields due to the two charged plates

add up. So,

The direction of electric field is from the positive to the negative plate.

(b) For uniform electric field, potential difference is simply the electric field multiplied by the

distance between the plates, i.e.

(ii) We know that the potential of the metallic sphere is given by, where "r" is the radius of

the sphere.

Now, the potential of the metallic sphere of radius R is given by, where "r" is the

from the relation (i) and (ii) we know that V2R > VR

So, when both the spheres are connected the charge flow from the sphere of radius of 2R to

R.

Q26 (i) Draw a labelled diagram of a step-down transformer. State the principle of its

working.

(iii) Find the ratio of primary and secondary currents in terms of turn ratio in an ideal

transformer.

(iv) How much current is drawn by the primary of a transformer connected to 220 V

supply when it delivers power to a 110 V - 550 W refrigerator?

OR

(a) Explain the meaning of the term mutual inductance. Consider two concentric

circular coils, one of radius r1 and the other of radius r2 (r1< r2) placed coaxially

with centres coinciding with each other. Obtain the expression for the mutual

inductance of the arrangement.

(b) A rectangular coil of area A, having number of turns N is rotated at 'f' revolutions

per second in a uniform magnetic field B, the field being perpendicular to the coil.

Prove that the maximum emf induced in the coil is 2 πf NBA.

Principle: A transformer is based on the principle of electromagnetic mutual induction, i.e.,

whenever the amount of magnetic flux linked with a coil changes, an e.m.f. is induced in the

neighbouring coil.

Working: Alternating emf is supplied to the primary coil PP’. The resulting current induces a

current in secondary coil.

Magnetic flux linked with primary is also linked with the secondary. The induced emf in

each turn of the secondary is equal to that induced in each turn of the primary.

Let

……….. (1)

………. (2)

∴ Es > Ep

∴ Es < Ep

EpIp = EsIs

P = VPIP

OR

change in current, hence, the magnetic flux linked with a neighbouring coil is called mutual

induction

Coefficient of mutual induction − consider two coils P and S. Suppose that a current I is

flowing through the coil P at any instant i.e.,

Φ ∝ I

Φ = MI ……..… (i)

Mutual Inductance of two concentric coils , one of radius r1 and the other of radius

R2(r1 < r2) placed coaxially with centres coinciding with each other:

Consider two circular coil S1 and S2 of same length l, such that coil S2 surrounds coil S1

completely.

Let

Φ21 ∝ I1

Φ21 = M21 I1

B1 =µ0n1I1

Magnetic flux linked with each turn of S2 will be equal to B1times the area of crosssection of

S1.

Φ21 = µ0n1n2AlI1

∴ M21 = µ0n1n2Al

Similarly, the mutual inductance between the two coils, when current is passed through coil

S2 and induced emf is produced in coil S1, is given by

M12 = µ0n1n2Al

Hence, coefficient of mutual induction between the two coil will be M = µ0n1n2Al

∅ = NBA cos θ

we also know,

=NBA (πf)

Hence proved.

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