You are on page 1of 35


Paper 2016 All India Set 2


General Instructions

There are 26 questions in all. All questions are compulsory.

This question paper has five sections: Section A, Section B, Section C, Section D and
Section E.
Section A contains five questions of one mark each, Section B contains five questions
of two marks each, Section C contains twelve questions of three marks each, Section D
contains one value based question of four marks and Section E contains three
questions of five marks each.
There is no overall choice. However, an internal choice has been provided in one
question of two marks, one question of three marks and all the three questions of five
marks weightage. You have to attempt only one of the choices in such questions.

Section A

Q1. In what way is the behaviour of a diamagnetic material different from that of a
paramagnetic, when kept in an external magnetic field?

Ans. When a bar of diamagnetic material is placed in an external magnetic field, the field
lines are repelled or expelled and the field inside the material is reduced.

Whereas when a paramagnetic material is placed in an external magnetic field, the field
lines are attracted towards it. Thus the field lines get concentrated inside the material and
the field inside is enhanced.

Material downloaded from 1 / 35

Q2. The plot of the variation of potential difference across a combination of three
identical cells in series, versus current is shown below. What is the emf and internal
resistance of each cell?

Ans. Let E and r be the EMF and internal resistance of all cells respectively and e and r' be
the EMF and internal resistance of each cell respectively.

As we know,

According to the definition of the terminal potential difference,

V = E − Ir

E is the EMF and r is the total internal resistance of the circuit.

I = 0 ⇒V = E

From the graph we can see

E = 6 V

As there are three cells we can write,

E = 3 × e ⇒ e = 2 V

And, when, V = 0

⇒ E = Ir

As per the question the cells are connected in the series, so we can write.

Material downloaded from 2 / 35

Q3. Why does sun appear red at sunrise and sunset?

Ans. At the time of sunset or sunrise, the Sun and its surroundings appear red because of the
scattering of light. At the time of sunset or sunrise, the light rays from the Sun have to travel
a long distance to reach our eyes through the Earth's atmosphere. In other words, we can say
that when we look towards horizon, we are looking through more of Earth’s atmosphere
than when we look overhead. The light reaching our eyes is rich in red colour as blue light is
largely scattered away by the particles present in the Earth's atmosphere.

Q4. A charge 'q' is moved from a point A above a dipole of dipole moment 'p' to a point
B below the dipole in equatorial plane without acceleration. Find the work done in the

Ans. The net force on the charge q is directed parallel to the dipole and hence perpendicular
to its motion along AB.

∴ Work done = 0

Q5. Name the essential components of a communication system.

Ans. Communication is the act of transmission of information.

Communication system has three essential components − transmitter, medium/channel, and


Section B

Q6. Calculate the de-Broglie wave length of the electron orbitting in the n = 2 state of

Material downloaded from 3 / 35

hydrogen atom.

Ans. As we know,

The de-Broglie wavelength is given as,

As r2 = 0.529 × n2 × 10- 10m


λ = π × 0.529 × 10 - 10 × n2

= 3.14 × 0.529 × 10- 10 × 22 = 6.64 × 10- 10m

Q7. A battery of emf 12 V and internal resistance 2 Ω is connected to a 4 Ω resistor as

shown in the figure.

(a) Show that a voltmeter when placed across the cell and across the resistor, in turn,
gives the same reading.

(b) To record the voltage and the current in the circuit, why is voltmeter placed in
parallel and ammeter in series in the circuit?

Ans. (a) According to the definition of terminal potential difference,

E = V + Ir

⇒ V = E – Ir

E = 12 V, r = 2 Ω

V = 12 – 2I

When the voltmeter is connected across the cell.

Material downloaded from 4 / 35

When the voltmeter is connected across the resistor.

V2 = IR

= 2 × 4 = 8V

V1 = V2

Hence, from the above relation we can see that when voltmeter placed across the cell and
across the resistor, gives the same reading.

(b) Voltmeter has very high resistance to ensure that it's connection does not alter the flow of
current in the circuit. We connect it in parallel and we also know that current chooses only
the low resistance path. Hence, it is connected in parallel to the load across which potential
difference is to be measured.

Ammeter measures value of current flowing through the circuit so it should be connected in
the series. Ammeter has very low resistance to ensure that all current flows through it. Thus,
it gives a correct reading of the current when connected in series.

Q8. Define ionization energy. How would the ionization energy change when electron in
hydrogen atom is replaced by a particle of mass 200 times that of electron but having
the same charge?


Calculate the shortest wavelength of the spectral lines emitted in Balmer series.

[Given Rydberg constant, R = 107 m –1]

Ans. Ionization energy: The minimum amount of energy required to remove an electron
from the outermost orbit of a neutral atom in its ground state is known as the ionization
energy of that atom.

Material downloaded from 5 / 35

The ionization energy of Hydrogen atom is

EH’ ∝ me ........ (1)

When mass of electron is replaced by a particle having mass=200me, then

EH’ ∝ 200mE ....... (2)

From (1) and (2), we have

EH’ = 200EH = 200 × (-13.6)

= -2720eV (∵ EH = -13.6eV)


For Blamer series, wavelength is given as

For shortest wavelength, n = ∞

Q9 Define modulation index. Why is it kept low? What is the role of a bandpass filter?

Ans. Modulation index is defined as the ratio between amplitude of modulating signal and
carrier wave.

As the low-frequency modulating signal is mixed with a high-frequency carrier wave, the
distortion is restricted due to the high-frequency carrier wave for modulation index lying
between 0 and 1. If the amplitude of modulating wave is greater than the carrier wave then
the carrier wave gets over-modulated. This over modulation results in distorted waveform
envelope which will result in a distorted output signal.

Material downloaded from 6 / 35

The bandpass filter blocks the signal which are d.c. or have frequencies ω, 2ωc and 2ωm and

allows a particular band of frequency signal to pass.

Q10 A ray PQ incident normally on the refracting face BA is refracted in the prism BAC
made of material of refractive index 1.5. Complete the path of ray through the prism.
From which face will the ray emerge? Justify your Answer.

Ans. Here

⇒ sin30° = 0.5

Ic > 300

Thus, here light will emerge out from face AC.

Section C

Q11 (i) Derive an expression for drift velocity of free electrons.

(ii) How does drift velocity of electrons in a metallic conductor vary with increase in
temperature? Explain.

Material downloaded from 7 / 35

Ans. (i) Free electrons are in continuous random motion. They undergo change in direction
at each collision and the thermal velocities are randomly distributed in all directions.

∴ Average thermal velocity, is zero …………..… (1)

The electric field E exerts an electrostatic force ‘-Ee’.

Acceleration of each electron is,

m → Mass of an electron
e → Charge on an electron

Drift velocity,


Thermal velocities of the electrons

Velocity acquired by electrons

τ1, τ2 → Time elapsed after the collision

Material downloaded from 8 / 35


Where, is the average time elapsed

Substituting for a from equation (2),

(ii) Drift velocity of electrons in a metallic conductor decreases with increase in temperature.

As we know,

As, we increase the temperature of the metallic conductor the collision between the electrons
and ions increases, which results in the decrease in the relaxation time.

so, from the equation (4)

vd ∝ τ

Hence, the drift velocity decreased

Q12 (a) Write the basic nuclear process involved in the emission of β+ in a symbolic
form, by a radioactive nucleus.

(b) In the reactions given below:



Find the values of x, y, and z and a, b and c.

Ans. (a) The basic nuclear process involved in the emission of β+ in a symbolic form, by a
radioactive nucleus

Material downloaded from 9 / 35

p → n + β + v
For a beta-plus decay, a proton transforms into a neutron within the nucleus, according to
the above reaction.

(b) (i)

The corresponding y and z are 5 and 11, respectively. The x is the positron.

The corresponding values of a, b and c are 10, 2 and 4, respectively

Q13 Sketch the graphs showing variation of stopping potential with frequency of
incident radiations for two photosensitive materials A and B having thres hold
frequencies vA >vB.

(i) In which case is the stopping potential more and why?

(ii) Does the slope of the graph depend on the nature of the material used? Explain.

Ans. (i) Graph between stopping potential and the frequency of the incident radiation:

From the graph, we note:

(i) The stopping potential is inversely proportional to the threshold frequency. Hence the
stopping potential is higher for metal B.

Material downloaded from 10 / 35

(ii) The slope of the graph does not depend on the nature of the material used.
As we know,
Kmax = hv - ∅0 = eV0

Dividing the whole equation by e, we get

From the above equation, the slope of the graph is (on comparing with the straight line

equation). Thus, we see that the slope is independent of the nature of the photoelectric

Q14 (i) State law of Malus.

(ii) Draw a graph showing the variation of intensity (I) of polarised light transmitted by
an analyser with angle (θ) between polariser and analyser.
(iii) What is the value of refractive index of a medium of polarising angle 60°?

Ans. (i) Law of Malus: It states that when a completely plane polarised light beam is incident
on an analyser, the intensity of the emergent light varies as the square of the cosine of the
angle between the plane of transmission of the analyser and the polariser.

I = I0cos2θ


(iii) According to the Brewster law

Material downloaded from 11 / 35

The refractive index of the material is 1.73

Q15 Define an equipotential surface. Draw equipotential surfaces:

(i) in the case of a single point charge and

(ii) in a constant electric field in Z-direction.

Why the equipotential surfaces about a single charge are not equidistant?

(iii) Can electric field exist tangential to an equipotential surface? Give reason.

Ans. An equipotential surface is that surface at every point of which, the electric potential is
the same.


The equipotential surfaces about a single charge are not equidistant because electric field
due to a single change is not constant.

(iii) If the electric field exist along tangential to an equipotential surface, a charged particle
will experience a force along the tangential line and can move along it. As a charged particle
can move only due to the potential difference (along the direction of change of potential),

Material downloaded from 12 / 35

this contradicts the concept of an equipotential surface.

Q16 Use Biot-Savart law to derive the expression for the magnetic field on the axis of a
current carrying circular loop of radius R.
Draw the magnetic field lines due to a circular wire carrying current I.


I = Current in the loop

R = Radius of the loop

X-axis = Axis of the loop

X = Distance between O and P

dl = Conducting element of the loop

According to the Biot–Savart law, the magnetic field at P is

R2 = x2 + R2

|dI × r| = rdI (Because they are perpendicular)

dB has two components: dBx and dB⊥. dB⊥ is cancelled out and only the x-component

Therefore, dBx = dBcosθ

Material downloaded from 13 / 35

Summation of dl over the loop is given by 2πR.

Q17 Define the term wave front. State Huygen's principle.

Consider a plane wave front incident on a thin convex lens. Draw a proper diagram to
show how the incident wave front traverses through the lens and after refraction
focusses on the focal point of the lens, giving the shape of the emergent wave front.


Explain the following, giving reasons:

(i) When monochromatic light is incident on a surface separating two media, the

Material downloaded from 14 / 35

reflected and refracted light both have the same frequency as the incident frequency.

(ii) When light travels from a rarer to a denser medium, the speed decreases. Does this
decrease in speed imply a reduction in the energy carried by the wave?

(iii) In the wave picture of light, intensity of light is determined by the square of the
amplitude of the wave. What determines the intensity in the photon picture of light?

Ans. Wave front is defined as the locus of all the points in space that reach a particular
distance by a propagating wave at the same instant.
Huygens’ Principle is based on the following assumptions:
Each point on the primary wavefront acts as a source of secondary wavelets, sending out
disturbances in all directions in a similar manner as the original source of light does.

(a) The new position of the wavefront at any instant (called secondary wave front) is the
envelope of the secondary wavelets at that instant.
Incident wave front traversing through the lens and after refraction focusing on the focal
point of the lens is shown in the figure below.


(i) Frequency and wavelength of light are related as

where v is the velocity of light. As the wave travels from one medium to another, the
wavelength of light changes changing the speed of light with it. The frequency remains

(ii) The energy of wave depends only on its frequency. Since the frequency does not change
as wave travels from one medium to another, therefore, the energy of the wave remains
same and does not decrease.

Material downloaded from 15 / 35

(iii) In photon picture of light, the intensity of light is determined by the number of photons.

Q18 For a CE-transistor amplifier, the audio signal voltage across the collector
resistance of 2 kΩ is 2 V. Suppose the current amplification factor of the transistor is
100, find the input signal voltage and base current, if the base resistance is 1 kΩ.

Ans. Given:

Output voltage, Vo = 2 V, output resistance, Ro = 2 k Ω , base resistance, Ri = 1 k Ω

Current amplification factor, β = 100

Then input signal voltage is calculated as:

Now, collector current is

Therefore, base current is

Q19 (i) Identify the part of the electromagnetic spectrum which is:

(a) suitable for radar system used in aircraft navigation.

(b) produced by bombarding a metal target by high speed electrons.

(ii) Why does a galvanometer show a momentary deflection at the time of charging or
discharging a capacitor? Write the necessary expression to explain this observation.

Ans. (i) (a) Microwaves are suitable for radar system in aircraft navigation.

Material downloaded from 16 / 35

(b) X-rays are produced by bombarding a metal target by high speed electrons.

(ii) As the capacitor is connected to the battery, the electrons start moving towards the plate
connected to the negative terminal of the battery and electrons leave from the plate
connected to the positive terminal of the battery. This happens until the potential of the
capacitor becomes equal to that of the battery. As this happens very quickly, the charging
current produces a deflection. The reverse process is repeated for discharging that is the
charge is lost. As the galvanometer can be considered as a resistance, the circuit behaves like
a R-C circuit having time constant equal to RC. Hence the expression governing this
phenomenon is

Q20 (i) Which mode of propagation is used by shortwave broadcast services having
frequency range from a few MHz upto 30 MHz? Explain diagrammatically how long
distance communication can be achieved by this mode.

(ii) Why is there an upper limit to frequency of waves used in this mode?

Ans. (a) Sky wave propagation is used by shortwave broadcast services having frequency
range from few MHz to 30 MHz.

The sky waves reach the reciever after reflection from the ionosphere. The oscillating
electric field of electromagnetic wave changes the velocity of the electrons in the ionosphere
which changes the effective dielectric constant and hence refractive index. In a single
reflection from the ionosphere, the radio-waves cover a distance of not less than 4000 km. In

Material downloaded from 17 / 35

this way, a very long distance communication is possible with the help of sky waves.

(b) The ionosphere acts as a reflector for a certain range of frequencies (1710 kHz to 40 MHz).
Waves above 40 MHz get refracted through ionosphere and escape. This is why there is an
upper limit to the frequency used in this mode.

Q21 (i) Explain with the help of a diagram the formation of depletion region and
barrier potential in a pn junction.

(ii) Draw the circuit diagram of a half wave rectifier and explain its working.

Ans. (i) In a p−n junction, a p-type and an n-type material are joined together. The
concentration of holes is higher in p-type material as compared to that in n-type material.
Therefore, there is a concentration gradient between the p-type and n-type materials. As a
result of this concentration gradient, holes move from p-side to n-side (p → n) by the process
of diffusion. Similarly, electrons move from n-side to p-side (n → p).

As the holes diffuse from p-side, they leave ionised spaces (negatively charged) on pside near
the junction. These ionised spaces are immobile. Hence, a negative spacecharge region is
formed on the p-side near the junction. Similarly, a positive spacecharge region is formed on
the n-side. These two space-charge regions on either sides of the junction constitute what is
called a depletion layer.

Since the n-side loses electrons and p-side gains electrons, a potential difference is developed
across the junction of the two regions. This potential difference tends to oppose further
motion of electrons from the n-region into the p-region. The same happens for holes too. The
reverse polarity of this potential opposes further flow of carriers and is thus called the
barrier potential.

Material downloaded from 18 / 35

(ii) The circuit diagram for a half wave rectifier is shown below:

Working: During the positive half cycle of the input a.c., the p-n junction is forward biased i.e
the forward current flows from p to n and the diode offers a low resistance path to the
current. Thus, we get output across-load i.e. a.c input will be obtained as d.c output.

During the negative half cycle of the input a.c., the p-n junction is reversed biased i.e the
reverse current flows from n to p, the diode offers a high resistance path to the current.
Thus, we get no output across-load. This principle is shown in the diagram given below.

Q22 (i) When an AC source is connected to an ideal inductor show that the average
power supplied by the source over a complete cycle is zero.

(ii) A lamp is connected in series with an inductor and an AC source. What happens to
the brightness of the lamp when the key is plugged in and an iron rod is inserted inside
the inductor? Explain.

Ans. (i) The average power supplied by the source over a complete cycle is given as P =

Material downloaded from 19 / 35

where, cosϕ is called the power factor.

For pure inductive circuit, the phase difference between current and voltage is .

Therefore, the average power dissipated is zero.

(ii) If an iron rod is inserted in the inductor, then the value of inductance L increases.
As such, the current through the bulb will decrease, thus, decreasing the brightness of the

Section -D

Q23 Ram is a student of class X in a village school. His uncle gifted him a bicycle with a
dynamo fitted in it. He was very excited to get it. While cycling during night, he could
light the bulb and see the objects on the road. He, however, did not know how this
device works. he asked this question to his teacher. The teacher considered it an
opportunity to explain the working to the whole class.

Answer the following questions:

(a) State the principle and working of a dynamo.
(b) Write two values each displayed by Ram and his school teacher.

Ans. (a) The underlying principle in the working of a dynamo is that changing magnetic flux
in a conductor induces emf.
A dynamo includes a coil attached to a small turbine fitted with a plastic cap. The coil is
placed in a magnetic field. When the plastic cap comes in contact with moving tyres of the
bicycle, the coil placed between the poles of a magnet rotates, thus the flux through the coil
changes continuously. This induces a current in the coil which is connected to a bulb which
lights up. As long as the bicycle is moving, the coil keeps on rotating, and hence, the flux
keeps on changing. At a steady rate, we get a steady current and hence a light of steady

(b) The qualities shown by the teacher are: helpful and responsible as a teacher, and

Material downloaded from 20 / 35

knowledgeable. The qualities shown by Ram are inquisitive and observing

Section -E

Q24 (i) Derive the mathematical relation between refractive indices n1 and n2 of two
radii and radius of curvature R for refraction at a convex spherical surface. Consider
the object to be a point since lying on the principle axis in rarer medium of refractive
index n1 and a real image formed in the denser medium of refractive index n2. Hence,

derive lens maker's formula.

(ii) Light from a point source in air falls on a convex spherical glass surface of
refractive index 1.5 and radius of curvature 20 cm. The distance of light source from
the glass surface is 100 cm. At what position is the image formed?


(a) Draw a labelled ray diagram to obtain the real image formed by an astronomical
telescope in normal adjustment position. Define its magnifying power.

(b) You are given three lenses of power 0.5 D, 4 D and 10 D to design a telescope.
(i) Which lenses should be used as objective and eyepiece? Justify your Answer.
(ii) Why is the aperture of the objective preferred to be large?

Ans. (i)

The above figure shows the geometry of formation of real image I of an object O and the
principal axis of a spherical surface with centre of curvature C and radius of curvature R.


Material downloaded from 21 / 35

(i) The aperture of the surface is small compared to other distance involved.
(ii) NM will be taken to be nearly equal to the length of the perpendicular from the point N
on the principal axis.

For ΔNOC, i is the exterior angle.

Assuming the incident ray is very close to the principal axis, all the angles are very small.
Hence, for very small angles,
tan x = x = sin x,



By Snell’s law,

n1sini = n2 sinr

For small angles,

n1i = n2r

Substituting the values of i and r from equations (i) and (ii), we obtain

Material downloaded from 22 / 35

Or, ………… (iii)

Applying new Cartesian sign conventions,

OM = − u, MI = + v, MC = + R

Substituting these in equation (iii), we obtain

……….. (iv)


Hence, the image is formed 100 cm in the denser medium.


(a) In normal adjustment, the final image is formed at infinity.

Material downloaded from 23 / 35

Magnifying power or angular magnificaton of astronomical telescope: It is defined as the
ratio of the angle subtended at the eye by the final image to the angle subtended at the eye,
by the object directly, when the final image and the object, both are at infinity.

Angular magnification,

β and α are very small.

I is the image formed by the objective. f0 and fe are the focal lengths of the objective and

eyepiece, respectively.


(Distance of the image from the eyepiece is taken as negative.)

Material downloaded from 24 / 35

(b) (i) Lens with smallest power or largest focal length should be used as the objective i.e lens
with power 0.5 D.

Lens with largest power or smallest focal length should be used as the eye-piece i.e. lens with
power 10 D.

(ii) The aperture is preferred to be large so that the telescope can collect as much as light
coming from the distant object as possible.

Q25 (i) Use Gauss's law to find the electric field due to a uniformly charged infinite
plane sheet. What is the direction of field for positive and negative charge densities?

(ii) Find the ratio of the potential differences that must be applied across the parallel
and series combination of two capacitors C1 and C2 with their capacitances in the ratio

1 : 2 so that the energy stored in the two cases becomes the same.


(a) field at points between the two plates and on outer side of the plates. Specify the
direction of the field in each case.
(b) the potential difference between the plates.
(c) the capacitance of the capacitor so formed.

(ii) Two metallic spheres of Radii R and 2R are charged so that both of these have same
surface charge density σ. If they are connected to each other with a conducting wire,
inn which direction will the charge flow and why?

Ans. Electric Field Due to an Infinite Plane Sheet of Charge

Material downloaded from 25 / 35

Consider an infinite thin plane sheet of positive charge with a uniform surface charge
density σ on both sides of the sheet. Let P be the point at a distance a from the sheet at which
the electric field is required. Draw a Gaussian cylinder of area of cross-section A through
point P.
The electric flux crossing through the Gaussian surface,
∅ = E × Area of the circular caps of the cylinder

Since electric lines of force are parallel to the curved surface of the cylinder, the flux due to
the electric field of the plane sheet of charge passes only through the two circular caps of the

∅ = E × 2A …….… (i)

According to Gauss' Theorem,

Here, the charge enclosed by the Gaussian surface,

………… (ii)

From equations (i) and (ii), we get:

Material downloaded from 26 / 35

The direction of an electric field for positive charge density is in outward direction and
perpendicular to the plane infinite sheet. And for the negative charge density the direction of
the field is in inward direction and perpendicular to the sheet.

(ii) Given,

The ratio of the two capacitance is C2 = 2C1

When the capacitor are connected in parallel the total capacitance will be

Cp = C1 + C2 = 3C1

Energy stored in the capacitor:

When the capacitor are connected in series the total capacitance will be

Energy stored in the capacitor:

Material downloaded from 27 / 35

According to the question


(a) We are given two similar large plates separated by a small distance (d) and having area

Surface charge density of plate 1, σ = Q/A, and that of plate 2 is − σ.

Electric field in different regions:

Outer region I,

Outer region II,

In the inner region between plates 1 and 2, the electric fields due to the two charged plates
add up. So,

Material downloaded from 28 / 35

The direction of electric field is from the positive to the negative plate.

(b) For uniform electric field, potential difference is simply the electric field multiplied by the
distance between the plates, i.e.

(c) Capacitance C of the parallel plate capacitor,

(ii) We know that the potential of the metallic sphere is given by, where "r" is the radius of
the sphere.

Now, the potential of the metallic sphere of radius R is given by, where "r" is the

radius of the sphere.

Now, the potential of the metallic sphere of radius R is given by

Similarly, the potential of the metallic sphere of radius 2R is given b

Material downloaded from 29 / 35

from the relation (i) and (ii) we know that V2R > VR

So, when both the spheres are connected the charge flow from the sphere of radius of 2R to

Q26 (i) Draw a labelled diagram of a step-down transformer. State the principle of its

(ii) Express the turn ratio in terms of voltages.

(iii) Find the ratio of primary and secondary currents in terms of turn ratio in an ideal

(iv) How much current is drawn by the primary of a transformer connected to 220 V
supply when it delivers power to a 110 V - 550 W refrigerator?


(a) Explain the meaning of the term mutual inductance. Consider two concentric
circular coils, one of radius r1 and the other of radius r2 (r1< r2) placed coaxially

with centres coinciding with each other. Obtain the expression for the mutual
inductance of the arrangement.

(b) A rectangular coil of area A, having number of turns N is rotated at 'f' revolutions
per second in a uniform magnetic field B, the field being perpendicular to the coil.
Prove that the maximum emf induced in the coil is 2 πf NBA.

Ans. Step - down transformer

Material downloaded from 30 / 35

Principle: A transformer is based on the principle of electromagnetic mutual induction, i.e.,
whenever the amount of magnetic flux linked with a coil changes, an e.m.f. is induced in the
neighbouring coil.

Working: Alternating emf is supplied to the primary coil PP’. The resulting current induces a
current in secondary coil.

Magnetic flux linked with primary is also linked with the secondary. The induced emf in
each turn of the secondary is equal to that induced in each turn of the primary.


Ep − Alternating emf applied to primary

Np − Number of turns in the primary

− Rate of change of flux through each turn of primary coil

……….. (1)

Es − Alternating emf of secondary

ns − Number of turns in secondary

………. (2)

Dividing equation (2) by (1)

For step-up transformer, K > 1

∴ Es > Ep

For step-down transformer, K < 1

Material downloaded from 31 / 35

∴ Es < Ep

(ii) Turn Ratio,

(iii) According to law of conservation of energy,

Input electrical power = Output electrical power

EpIp = EsIs

(iv) Given, Vs = 110 V, P = 550 W



The phenomenon according to which an opposing emf is produced in a coil as a result of

change in current, hence, the magnetic flux linked with a neighbouring coil is called mutual

Material downloaded from 32 / 35

Coefficient of mutual induction − consider two coils P and S. Suppose that a current I is
flowing through the coil P at any instant i.e.,

Φ ∝ I

Φ = MI ……..… (i)

Where, M is called coefficient of mutual induction

If ‘e’ is the induced emf produced in the S-coil, then

Mutual Inductance of two concentric coils , one of radius r1 and the other of radius

R2(r1 < r2) placed coaxially with centres coinciding with each other:

Consider two circular coil S1 and S2 of same length l, such that coil S2 surrounds coil S1


Material downloaded from 33 / 35


n1 − Number of turns per unit length of S1

n2 − Number of turns per unit length of S2

I1 − Current passed through solenoid S1

Φ21 - Flux linked with S2 due to current flowing through S1

Φ21 ∝ I1

Φ21 = M21 I1

Where, M21 is the coefficient of mutual induction of the two coils

When current is passed through S1, an emf is induced in S2.

Magnetic field produced inside S1 on passing current through it,

B1 =µ0n1I1

Magnetic flux linked with each turn of S2 will be equal to B1times the area of crosssection of


Magnetic flux linked with each turn of the S2 = B1A

Therefore, total magnetic flux linked with the S2,

Φ21 = µ0n1n2AlI1

∴ M21 = µ0n1n2Al

Similarly, the mutual inductance between the two coils, when current is passed through coil
S2 and induced emf is produced in coil S1, is given by

Material downloaded from 34 / 35

M12 = µ0n1n2Al

∴ M12 = M12 = M (say)

Hence, coefficient of mutual induction between the two coil will be M = µ0n1n2Al

(b) We know that flux is given by

∅ = NBA cos θ

we also know,

For maximum induced emf = sinθ = 1

=NBA (πf)

Hence proved.

Material downloaded from 35 / 35