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You are on page 1of 25

International Mathematical

Excellence Olympiad

Selected Problems with Solutions

2017

Mathematical Excellence

www.imeo-official.com

st

1

International

Mathematical

Excellence

Olympiad

I

1st International Mathematical

Excellence Olympiad

Selected Problems with Solutions

With special thanks to Konstantinos Metaxas and Amin Hashemi.

Copyright Mathematical

c Excellence 2017. All rights reserved.

www.imeo-official.com

III

Problem Proposers:

• Stefan Lozanovski , Macedonia

IV

Contents

Preface ............................................................................................. 1

Problems

Second Level ................................................................................... 5

Solutions

Second Level .................................................................................. 13

V

Preface

The First International Mathematical Excalibur Olympiad was held on Spetember 15,

2017. This Olympiad is suitable for all the people who are interested in mathematics,

especially high school students.

The competition consists of two levels. All students who are between 13 to 17 years

old must participate in Level 1 and all students who are currently 17 years or older

are supposed to participate in Level 2.

to 6 points, based on how complete it is. A solution without significant advancement

will not get any points.

Students are supposed to start the solution for each problem in a new page in the

following format: first write down the statement of the problem, and then the solu-

tion. Solutions must be presented in detail, including all necessary arguments and

calculations. Providing all necessary figures of sufficient size is a must. If a problem

has an explicit answer, this answer must be presented distinctly.

participant may simply refer to them instead of providing their proofs. However, any

fact not from the standard curriculum should be either proved or properly referred

(with an indication of the source).

Any solution provided in this booklet is due to the proposer of the problem unless

otherwise mentioned.

1

Problems

2

First Level

Problem 1. In a game, a player can level up to 16 levels. In each level, the player

can upgrade an ability spending that level on it. There are three kinds of abilities,

however, one ability can not be upgraded before level 6 for the first time. And that

special ability can not be upgraded before level 11. Other abilities can be upgraded

at any level, any times (possibly zero), but the special ability needs to be upgraded

exactly twice. In how many ways can these abilities be upgraded?

AO. The BO and CO intersect the altitude AD at points E and F , respectively. Let

O1 and O2 be the circumcenters of the triangle ABE and ACF , respectively. Prove

that M lies on O1 O2 .

x+1 y+1 z+1

× = ,

x y z

Find all superparticular positive integer triples.

Problem 4. Let a, b, c be positive real numbers such that abc = 1. Prove that

r r r

a3 b3 c3

+ + ≥ 2.

1 + bc 1 + ac 1 + ab

Are there any triples (a, b, c) of real numbers for which the equality holds?

4

Second Level

Problem 1. Find all (or the least) positive integers n for which

is always divisible by 22017 for any three odd positive integers a, b, and c.

Problem 2. Let A, B, C, and D be four points which lie on a plane , no three of them

are collinear and the distance between any two points is a natural number. Prove that

the distance between any two points is more than 1.

a4 + b4 b4 + c4 c4 + a4

+ + ≥ 3abc

b+c c+a a+b

For all positive reals a, b, and c.

as shown in Figure 1. Let ω(O0 ) be a circle tangent to ω 0 and let Q be the perpendicular

from O0 to L. If ω and L are fixed and ω 0 is changeable then prove that for any constant

β there is a point P on OQ such that ∠XP Y = β.

5

Solutions

6

First Level

Problem 1. In a game, a player can level up to 16 levels. In each level, the player

can upgrade an ability spending that level on it. There are three kinds of abilities,

however, one ability can not be upgraded before level 6 for the first time. And that

special ability can not be upgraded before level 11. Other abilities can be upgraded

at any level, any times (possibly zero), but the special ability needs to be upgraded

exactly twice. In how many ways can these abilities be upgraded?

Solution. First Solution. Let us label the abilities as A, B, S with S denoting the

special ability. Then any sequence of length 16 containing these characters is a way of

leveling up all 16 levels if we assume that the appearing position of a character is the

level it is being upgraded with. But in order for the sequence to be valid, we need the

first position of S to be at least 6 and the second to be at least 11.

Since S has special focus, let us fix two position for S, u and v where 6 ≤ u ≤ v and

11 ≤ v ≤ 16. From 1 to u − 1, the number of ways A and B can appear depends on

how many of which type is used. If we use type A for i times, then the other u− 1 − i

positions will be fixed for B and we can choose such positions for A in u−1 i

ways.

u−1

X u−1

Since i can vary from 0 to u − 1, the number of ways to do this is = 2u−1 .

i=0

i

Now, in a similar manner, from position u + 1 to v − 1, the number of ways A and B

can be placed is 2v−1−(u+1)+1 = 2v−1−u . And from v + 1 to 16, the number of ways is

again 216−v .

For the next portion, we will fix v only. For a fixed v, the total number of ways is:

v−1

X v−1

X

2u−1 · 2v−1−u · 216−v = 214

u=6 u=6

v−1

X

= 214 1

u=6

14

= 2 · (v − 6).

16

X

214 · (v − 6) = 214 · 45.

v=11

Second Solution. This one is simpler. Fix two valid positions for S. Notice that, even

if we change the positions for S, the number of ways to place A or B remains same.

And if we simply put S in those positions, the number of ways A or B can be placed is

the same as the number of binary strings possible with length 16 − 2 = 14. Therefore,

for each valid position of S, we get 214 configurations and for symmetry, the solution

is K · 214 where K is the number of ways S can be assigned two valid positions. The

rest is clear.

8

Problem 2. Let O be the circumcenter of a triangle ABC. Let M be the midpoint of

AO. The BO and CO intersect the altitude AD at points E and F , respectively. Let

O1 and O2 be the circumcenters of the triangle ABE and ACF , respectively. Prove

that M lies on O1 O2 .

Proposed by Stefan Lozanovski

Solution. First Solution. Let ω1 and ω2 be the circumcircles of ABE and ACF , re-

spectively.

Then,

∠ACF =≡ ∠ACO

180◦ − ∠AOC

= = 90◦ − β

2

= 90◦ − ∠ABD = ∠BAD

=≡ ∠BAF.

OA = OB as radii, so O1 O ⊥ BA. Therefore, AO2 k O1 O. Similarly, AO1 k O2 O. So,

AO1 OO2 is a parallelogram and because its diagonals bisect each other, M ∈ O1 O2 .

Second Solution. Let ω, ω1 and ω2 be the circumcircles of ABC, ABE and ACF ,

respectively. Let the second intersection of ω1 and ω2 be X.

Note that the points O1 and O2 and M are the centers of ω1 , ω2 and the circle with

diameter AO. It is sufficient to prove that these three circles are coaxial, i.e., that

X lies on the circle with diameter AO. We need to prove that ∠AXO = 90◦ , and

because O is the circumcenter of ABC, we need to prove that X is the midpoint of the

chord AY , where Y is the second intersection of AX and ω. Same as in first solution,

we get that BA is tangent to ω2 and CA is tangent to ω1 . From this, we get that

∠XBA = ∠XAC and ∠XAB = ∠XCA , so 4XBA ∼ 4XAC and therefore

XB BA

= (1)

XA AC

9

Also, ∠BXY = ∠BAX + ∠XBA = ∠BAX + ∠XAC = ∠BAC and ∠BY X ≡

∠BY A = ∠BCA, so 4BXY ∼ 4BAC and therefore

BX BA

= (2)

XY AC

Finally, from 1 and 2, we can conclude that AX = XY .

Problem 3. A triple (x, y, z) of real numbers is called a superparticular if

x+1 y+1 z+1

× = ,

x y z

Find all superparticular positive integer triples.

Proposed by Amir Hossein Parvardi

Solution. Rewrite the equation as z(x + 1)(y + 1) = xy(z + 1), which simplifies to

First, assume that gcd(x, y, z) = d. Then there exist integers x1 , y1 , and z1 with no

common factor such that x = dx1 , y = dy1 , and z = dz1 . From these equations and

equation (3), we get

So d|z1 (dx1 + dy1 + 1), which means d|z1 . Let z1 = dz2 and rewrite the above equation:

Clearly,

gcd(x1 , y1 , z2 ) = gcd(x1 , y1 , z1 ) = 1.

10

Now, suppose that gcd(x1 , z2 ) = a and gcd(y1 , z2 ) = b. Clearly, gcd(a, b) = 1 because

otherwise x1 , y1 , and z2 have a common factor. Since a and b are coprime integers

either of which divides z2 , their product ab also divides z2 . So there exist positive

integers x2 , y2 , and z3 such that x1 = ax2 , y1 = by2 , and z2 = abz3 . But gcd(z3 , x2 ) =

gcd(z3 , y2 ) = 1. So by these equations and equation (4), we obtain

From the final equation, we can see that z3 |x2 y2 , and since gcd(z3 , y2 ) = 1, we have

z3 |x2 . But gcd(z3 , x2 ) = 1, which means that z3 = 1. Therefore (5) becomes

d2 ab + dbt + 1

x2 = .

t

Substituting the parameters, we finally find

d2 ab + dbt + 1

2

(x, y, z) = da · , db(da + t), d ab ,

t

where a, b, d, t are arbitrary positive integers such that t|d2 ab + 1 and gcd(a, b) = 1.

Problem 4. Let a, b, c be positive real numbers such that abc = 1. Prove that

r r r

a3 b3 c3

+ + ≥ 2.

1 + bc 1 + ac 1 + ab

Are there any triples (a, b, c) of real numbers for which the equality holds?

Proposed by Konstantinos Metaxas

Solution. Using the hypothesis and the the fact that (a − 1)2 (a + 1) ≥ 0 ⇔ a3 + 1 ≥

a2 + a, we obtain

r r r r

X a3 X a4 X a5 X a5 X a2

= = ≥ = √ .

cyc

1 + bc cyc

a+1 cyc

a2 + a cyc

a3 + 1 cyc

a2 + bc

X a2 (a + b + c)2

√ ≥√ √ √

cyc

a2 + bc a2 + bc + b2 + ac + c2 + ab

Lemma. For non-negative a, b, and c we have

√ √ √

3(a + b + c) ≥ 2 2 2 2

a + bc + b + ac + c + ab .

11

Proof. Without loss of generality, we assume that a ≥ b ≥ c. Then,

√ √ p

b2 + ca + c2 + ab ≤ 2(b2 + c2 ) + 2a(b + c).

p √

2 2(b2 + c2 ) + 2a(b + c) + 2 a2 + bc ≤ 3(a + b + c).

1

Now let us set u = (b + c). Squaring the above inequality we get

2

√

8(b2 + c2 + 2au) ≤ 9(a + 2u)2 + 2(a2 + bc) − 12(a + 2u) a2 + bc,

√

2

(a − 2u) + 20bc ≥ 12(a + 2u) a2 + bc − a .

Clearly,

√ bc bc

a2 + bc − a = √ ≤ .

2

a + a + bc 2a

6bc(a + 2u)

(a − 2u)2 + 20bc ≥ ,

a

which can be written as

12bc(a − u)

(a − 2u)2 + 2bc + ≥ 0.

a

The last inequality holds because a ≥ u. Equality holds if and only if a = b and c = 0

(and permutations, of course).

Now using the above lemma we get that

(a + b + c)2 2(a + b + c)

√ √ √ ≥ ≥ 2,

2 2 2

a + bc + b + ac + c + ab 3

where the last inequality follows from AM-GM. The inequality is thus proven.

Clearly, there are no triples (a, b, c) for which the equality occurs, since the equality in

(a + b + c)2 2(a + b + c)

√ √ √ ≥

2 2 2

a + bc + b + ac + c + ab 3

12

Second Level

Problem 1. Find all (or the least) positive integers n for which

is always divisible by 22017 for any three odd positive integers a, b, and c.

First we prove that n must be divisible by 2670 . Note that one of an − bn , bn − cn , or

cn − an must be divisible by 2673 because otherwise

which is a contradiction.

We take {a, b, c} = {1, 3, 5}. Without loss of generality, assume that 2673 | an − bn .

Then,

an ≡ bn (mod 2673 )

Let d be the least positive integer x (order of an element for two numbers) for which

ax ≡ b x (mod 2673 ).

671 671

It is not hard to prove that a2 ≡ b2 (mod 2673 ) for odd positive integers a and

b. We know that d | 2671 . Therefore, d must be a power of 2. Let d = 2t for some

669 669

integer t. Assume that t ≤ 669. Then we have a2 ≡ b2 (mod 2673 ) which is not

true because by LTE we have

669 669

v 2 a2 − b 2 = v2 a2 − b2 + 668 ≤ 672

for {a, b} ∈ {1, 3, 5}. It means that t ≥ 670 and since d | n so we have proven that

2670 | n.

Now we prove that if n = 2670 k for any k ∈ N, then

is divisible by 22017 for all odd positive integers a, b, and c. It is easy to see that we

only need to prove that

670 670 670 670 670 670

22017 | (a2 − b2 )(b2 − c2 )(c2 − a2 ).

13

Proof. We already know from elementary number theory that for any two odd positive

integers x and y, we have 8 | x2 − y 2 . So, there exist integers k, l, and m such that

a2 − b2 = 8k,

b2 − c2 = 8l,

c2 − a2 = 8m.

of k, l, or m must be ever. Without loss of generality, suppose that k = 2s for some

integer s. Then,

a2 − b2 b2 − c2 c2 − a2 = 210 slm,

From the above lemma we obtain

v2 a2 − b2 b2 − c2 c2 − a2 = v2 a2 − b2 + v2 b2 − c2 + v2 a2 − c2 ≥ 10.

670 670

v2 a2 − b2 = v2 a2 − b2 + 669,

and so,

670 670

670 670

670 670

v 2 a2 − b 2 b2 − c 2 c 2 − a2 = v2 a2 − b2 + v2 b2 − c2 + v2 a2 − c2

+ 3 · 669

≥ 10 + 2007

= 2017.

Problem 2. Let A, B, C, and D be four points which lie on a plane, no three of them

are collinear and the distance between any two points is a natural number. Prove that

the distance between any two points is more than 1.

Proposed by Zurab Agdgomelashvili

Solution. Geometric figures of whole numbers and their properties in the topic, that

is a bridge between the questions of elementary mathematic and serious mathematics.

In general, we name Diophantine polygons (tetrahedrons) the polygons (tetrahedrons),

in which the distance between any two vertices is a natural number.

First we shall prove the following two Lemmas.

Lemma (Lemma 1). If the length of a Diophantine triangle’s side is equal to 1, then

the two remaining sides are equal.

Proof. Let the triangle be ABC, as in the figure below. Without loss of generality, we

can assume that |AB| = 1 and that |AB| ≥ |BC|. Using triangle inequality, one can

obtain

Now, since both |AC| and |BC| are positive integers, we must have |BC| ≥ |AC|,

which immediately results in |AC| = |BC|, as desired.

14

Lemma (Lemma 2). The length of every convex Diophantine quadrilateral’s side and

diagonal is greater than 1.

Proof. Let us assume a quadrilateral ABCD as in figure below. At first we will prove

that each side is greater than 1. For the sake of contradiction, let us assume, without

loss of generality, that |AB| = 1. Then, using Lemma , we get |BC| = |AC| and

|BD| = |AD|. But this impossible because B and C must be in the middle of [AB].

So, we proved that each side is greater than 1. Now, we will prove that each diagonal

is greater than 1. Suppose for the sake of contradiction that |AC| = 1. Again, by

Lemma and triangle inequality in triangles BOC and AOD, we easily find that

|BD| + |AC| > |BC| + |AD| =⇒ |BD| + 1 > |AB| + |AD|.

Since all values are integers, we have |BD| ≥ |AB| + |AD|. This is impossible because

triangle inequality in ABD gives |AB| + |AD| > |BD|. So, we have a contradiction

and the proof is complete.

Now we will prove our problem. For the sake of contradiction let us assume that there

exist points, no three of which are co-linear, their distances are natural numbers and,

one distance is equal to 1. Then, by Lemma the remaining two points must lie in the

perpendicular bisector of the side whose length is 1. Now we have two cases.

• First case: As shown in the figure,

All side-lengths are natural numbers. This case is discussed in Lemma .

15

• Second case:

For some natural numbers l, m, and n. Now, from the right-angled triangles

AOC and DOB we get |AC|2 = |AO|2 + |OC|2 and |BD|2 = |OB|2 + |OD|2 .

Moreover,

1

|AO| = |OB| = ,

2

|AC| = |CB| = m,

|AD| = |DB| = n,

|CD| = l.

and

n2 − m2 − l2

2|OC| = = q, (11)

l

for some positive rational q. Finally, 11 becomes

4m2 − 1 = q 2 .

whose square is an integer, q itself must be an integer. Therefore, we can write

the last equation as

(2m − q)(2m + q) = 1.

16

We have investigated both cases and the proof is complete.

a4 + b4 b4 + c4 c4 + a4

+ + ≥ 3abc

b+c c+a a+b

Solution. First Solution. Without loss of generality, suppose that a ≥ b. This implies

a3 ≥ b3 . By Chebyshev’s inequality, we have

a4 + b 4 = a · a3 + b · b 3

1

≥ (a + b)(a3 + b3 ).

2

One can similarly prove the following two inequalities as well:

1

b4 + c4 ≥ (b + c)(b3 + c3 ),

2

1

c4 + a4 ≥ (c + a)(c3 + a3 ).

2

Now,

X a4 + b 4 X (a + b)(a3 + b3 )

≥ .

cyc

b+c cyc

2(b + c)

By AM-GM, we have

!

3Y √

r

X (a + b)(a3 + b3 ) 3 3 a + b

≥ a3 + b 3 ·

cyc

2(b + c) 2 cyc b+c

sY

3

= 3 (a3 + b3 ) · 1.

2 cyc

sY sY √

3 3

3 (a3 + b3 ) · 1 ≥ 3 (2 a3 b3 )

2 cyc

2 cyc

3√3

= 23 a3 b3 c3

2

3

= 2abc

2

= 3abc.

17

Second Solution (by Dimitar Trenevski). Notice that

X a4 + b 4 X a4 X b4

= +

cyc

b+c cyc

b+c cyc

b+c

X a4 X X b4 X

(b + c) (b + c)

cyc

b + c cyc cyc

b + c cyc

= X + X .

2 a 2 a

cyc cyc

By Cauchy-Schwarz inequality,

!2 !2

X a4 X X b4 X X X

(b + c) (b + c) a2 b2

cyc

b + c cyc cyc

b + c cyc cyc cyc

X + X ≥ X + X

2 a 2 a 2 a 2 a

cyc cyc cyc cyc

!2

X

2 a2

cyc

= X

2 a

cyc

X X

a2 a2

cyc cyc

= X .

a

cyc

By Chebyshev’s inequality,

!4

X X X

a2 a2 a

cyc cyc cyc

X ≥ X

a 32 a

cyc cyc

!3

X

a

cyc

= .

32

Finally, by AM-GM,

!3

X

a √

cyc (3 3 abc)3

≥

32 32

= 3abc,

which is what we were looking for.

Problem 4. Let L be a line and ω 0 (O) be a semicircle which intersects L at X and Y ,

as shown in Figure 1. Let ω(O0 ) be a circle tangent to ω 0 and let Q be the perpendicular

from O0 to L. If ω and L are fixed and ω 0 is changeable then prove that for any constant

β there is a point P on OQ such that ∠XP Y = β.

18

Proposed by Amin Hashemi

The constant β belongs to the interval [0, π] (considering modulo π). I am going to

show that (0, π) is attainable (0, π being trivial).

Let O(t) be the center of the circle that varies, and impose the condition that is lies

on O0 Q, beyond Q straight downwards.

OQ0 = a,

QO(t) = b(t).

Of course, b(t) tends to infinity as O(t) points towards that “downwards infinity”. We

have

I will show that c(t) tends to 0, the previous being the aforementioned limit.

QO(t) b(t) 1

cos c(t) = = = a ,

Y (t)O(t) a + b(t) 1 + b(t)

and the latter tends to 1, i.e. cos c(t) tends to 1, and thus c(t) tends to 0. We

can achieve any sufficiently small angle due to this, and any angle bigger that it as

well(from it to π), by moving P (t) accordingly.

19

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