Volume

36

June

1971

Number

3

GEOPHYSICS
TOWARD A UNIFIED THEORY OF REFLECTOR MAPPlNGt

Schemes for seismic mapping the presence of an arbitrary ping and cur\,ed reflectors, variations, surface elevation tions are reviewed

of reflectors

in

mula undue

in\olving formula complexity to

up antl may hy the

downgoing means

\vaves.

The ap

velocity

model, dip ghosts, reflec-

mapping

be implemented relativistic

without

diffractions, and multiple

of difference

proximations equation.

Schroedinger

and reduced

to a single for-

INTRODUCTION Ulen the

The reflector is greater of the reflector, and diffraction to I,c T<principle

mapping

principle

was stated

in

depth to a seismic reflector of curvature

terms of a single shot. If more shots are present, they may illuminate the signal-to-noise compared. velocity concern making velocity errors Finally, timatcly more reflectors ratio. After and enhance map is a reflector

than

some radius information Even

localized effects may urrizul Figure

in a depth section is spread is too \veak

o\.er a time

section by focusing if the reflection

made from each of several shots, the maps may he If they arc different in some systematic iteratively the of the velocity problem of \~a?-, they may he used to impro\,c model. Such improvement ourselves a reflector model. in the \rith

seen in the time section, he used to calculate

the following a depth

section:

ptTt0r.scsist trt points ilL t/w grolrrzd dtcw the_fir.sf model is not the object of this paper: \YC shall
oj the downgoiug wme is time coincident in holography, descrihctl II> of this prinin the narrower with ~IJZupgoing -wu’lc. This i idea is depicted impulse method map in the presence of a reathough perhaps complicated, may be corrected \vith reflector function that procedure for static mapping. of the data. even for data \vc shall

1. Kormal

moveout, equation

sonably \vell known, I)ata

and the difference the author ciple. The called paper

last year (Claerhout, same principle

lu)iOa, hereafter

conjunction mapping \rill

1) are specializations

T\-e shall ul-

can hc expressed

suggest is a linear guarantee

various formulas

which may he used to construct of any processing to indicate locaof a reflector

This linearity stacked

reflector maps from field data. By a reflector map, \r-e shall mean the end result

\vith a poor signal-to-noise to improve consider stacking
SPECIALIZING

ratio the maps may IIc however,

the ratio;

0i seismic

data which

purports with

schemes only briefly.
THE MAPPING FORMULA

tions of reflectors.

;\ crude example depth according

map is a seismogram to in,dicate reflector sumed velocity model.

the time axis relabeled to some as‘ ie d

basic principle

of reflector

mapping

ma>

be expressed by the formula

t Presented at the Pacific Coast Section meeting of the So&t>, of Exploration Geophysicists at Bakersfield, California, October 20, 19iO. Manuscript received hy the Editor L\pril 6. 1970; revised manuscript received October 5, 1970. * Geophysics Department, Stanford University, Stanford, California 91303

@ 1971 by the Society of Exploration Geophysicists. .\I1 rights reserved. 467

z). + dl% + dz%’ + . Since the practical schemes will have no knowledge of the interface. Below the reflector at the point PB. 2) will take on the value of the reflection coefficient at that point. Xt a shallow depth above the reflector at the t>-pical point PI the downgoing wave 11. z. z) as we have defined it with equation (1) is not strictly a material property invariant to changes in source location. that is. z) = 210‘ l’ . This I’ \vers of 2 (except Z to the zero) oscillate on the o unit circle (real w).))dw.c is the horizontal coordinate. \Ve shall see that if D(Z) is minimum phase. z. 2.(Z) D(Z)tlw. shape. vanish both before and immediately after f.C in graphical display. where .\Iap(.\C. This last expression is similar to the way of suppressing multiples and calculating reflection coefficients given by Goupillaud il’ 1).468 Claerbout l‘ c. we get . c. z is the vertical coordinate.\ slight disadvantage of equation (3) is that it assumes a minimum phase downgoing .Y.It a point P2. no up coming wave. so Map(s. occurs much earlier than the upcoming wave l_. c (1) = S (zQ. t) is the upcoming wave. However. z.. Map(. there is. Further.~. i) Map(s. The upgoing wave 1II represents energ!..equation (I) is the sanic as ~“. if a reflector is present at a particular point (x. slight amplitude ambiguity in Map(s. The most essential information in 1Iap(. z. E\-cn ii Ire can avoid using automatic gain control (. . Illustration of the basic principle of reflector r mapping. Use of equation (1) involves choosing the onset time on the downgoing wave.. there will he overlal) in time of the down and upgoing naves I)? and 1’ . z) = s L. let us choose the origin time at l. It is obvious that at points in space where there is no reflector.. (J) Expanding out the inverse of D(Z).es 1 . .Y.(Z) D(Z) = IL. t). so that on integration \vc get l\Iap(s.v. Since this may be a tricky matter. we \\-ill in the end have to ube something like . t) will z. reflection coefficients are functions of angle of incidence. td is the time of first arrival on the do\vngoing wave d(. 2) = U(n-. z) is in the phase.i. A1mplitudes I\-ill have very little meaning after we deal \vi th attenuation and scattering in Lveathered layers. which is at or near a reflecting interface of arbitrar!.:‘ .~. and U(S.+ UJ + ?l:Z” + and (2a) = (i. f.1GC) in data recording and processing. 1. These ideas are valid in situations where there are man! reflectors at many depths. (lb) 11ap as defined I)!. ‘ ’ en I\-e have for Ih upgolng and doxvngoing \va\.l.). ZL(. indicated I)>-dots lxfore the arrival of the downgoing wave. However. which has traveled from the source to one or more places on the reflector and then back up to the point P. z) is ignored because of the many more severe amplitude problems which will arise in the calculation of u(. Of course. in principle.. d SIap(s. we next see ho\~ it can be avoided altogether if we are \villing to assume that the do\\ngoing wave is minimum phase. Let us suppose that time functions are sampled so that we may speak of their Z-transforms. The time overlap may I)e used in the 2 construction of a map of reflector positions. This error has no bad effect on the reflector mapping formulas which utilize time coincidence of up and downgoing waves. z. practical schemes for estimating the upcoming waves I: at various depths in large part amount to shifting the upcoming waves seen at I? to earlier and earlier times correqwnding to greater and greater depths. they will predict an erro‘ 3 neous upcoming wave lTr at E .v.r.. t) from surface observations.‘ t(s.r. t) and dis. fa). in the shapes and dips oi the rcflcctors and the regions of coherence and the rcgions of noise. 2) may bc given as ~hp(. The adX \-antage of equation (3) over equation (1) is that in equation (3) we use the entire spectrum of u and ct and do not need to consider picking the onset time . There is a near-surface source S and man? surface receivers K.‘ l”(l+( t )z+( )Z’ f .

of the t\ro offset. layer \vill appear be expressed in the the appropriate separation pulses is a function of shot-to-geophone incidence incidence. ior noise and Let gest an implementation quantities. Thus. function surface and then down to the reflector the ghost is not accounted process.\n interesting variable variable i\nother operation wc are of this approach \vcak. t)tlt. to time space related . t)d(. w) ll!. . Fortunately. Oi could (3). because to something of decon- the denominator and consider map construction is a process mo- by the kno\vletlge first that as the downgoing its higher frequencies acoustic h!high loss wave penetrates of the nonideal of rocks. -liter the shot wave which the \vave that travels directly to the reflector has traveled from the shot to the arrives. 0.) . z.Reflector Mapping 469 lrave.deghosting ing the data with More precisely. automatic to omit Recalling quit-cd spectrum similar solution time tivated dissipate properties difference it iS not frcquenc?_ mechanisms anti call it cE(.Y. z) = J ZL(.r. (The principal by a larger solution . flection coefficients are randomI!of some unkno\vn reflection not severe in practice.difference equations.\s noted in paper 0i in the fielcl. a ghost . t).2. 1.v. (3) and (4) which advantages called deghosting. depth. Some kind lead to an involved easily (4) may tion could clearly time domain as for in the mapping to be ‘ ‘ a first approxima10 merely to deconvolvdouble pulse. If D(. e. I). The amplitude diffiCUlt (1) has the very tlcsirable property \\-al-e is weak or the upgoing of many it best spatially separated .r. (5) If a dcghost filter for normal too far off from normal generated rather than ghosts will he Equation (3) The mapping formula (5) will be most accurate wave is an impulse. A spectrum density DD* of the remarks another wave. deconvolution the earth. shooting do\vn some of the advantages some of the signal-to-noise use an integrand like + of deconvolution charge.D*. destroyed. Mnp(a. cause of the randomness upcoming a minimum of the reflectors. the deIrave. is applied of optimizadiscussion. formula: D(. 2. w) is computed approximations 10 iJlCiU(lC \\. the i~~~ChaJli51~~ alto iJlclude The phase of the integrand same as that equation downgoing of maps of equation in equation (1) is the in that to the 1vaI. so that the upcoming convolution form with random \re a5sumc that redistributed downgoing coefficients.e be a reasonable feature assumption of minimum the do\vngoing wave D(s.\ ghost arises \vhen illuminates. w) in expression (3) amounts to the usual variable with d(s.e equation. w) inclutles the ghost. 2 show the energy arrives in a burst which is not followed burst. amounts the time where 1.r.buried from arrives. is implicit \vill appear ii the ghost is as strong as the the ghosting of equation avoids problem and we shall sug(3) \vhich acby small division by plified \-ie\v of tlcconvolution. If c. application \vith C. z. but it is when the downgoing . is a constant or a slo~vly varying of frequency Equation and space. 2. this assurface It will performs the deghosting correctly for all offsets if computaCaution nodal is sumption usually is al\vays valid ior an impulsi!. \~a\-e is created by a primary.3) is to the deepI>.‘ \( DD*). in the frequency Figure domain. there is no extra a ghost in the calculation domain as uell the as the lines is source’ of scalar \vaves in a layered medium. conjugate nominator tlo\vngoing about the integrand and divided spectral Z7/11 of equation the complex Then. \Ve then compute function is real and contains earlier we find it natural no phase iniormation. z. equation and may I)c empirically of equation a rather cause each shot contributes the region het\veen equations to properties of earth materials. Even if multiples are included. tion. phase is that to decoriIn a simwith waveBe\ve ma) spectrum the rcb>- tional effort in including required time which usually counts Dix.C losses. Division implementation gain control.\ it drops off rapidly in any region where either the wave is shots be(4) is good for superposition most to the map in compromise can sho\v with of (1) is to in the tlo\vn\vartl aspect deconvolution filtering is that extrapolation it is really 0i I-. density \rith (3) be multiplied is the equate a power spectral estimate \va\-e to the energy do\\ngoing phase time of the initial of the observed of the do\vngoing Jr-ave. a single reflecting two closely spaced layers.I process similar in equation (3).

0). 2. Normal moveout correctiotl is the simplest form of migration or reflector mapping. t) is obxt~rvedthat is likely clearly a reasonable approximation if (t(. As sl~own in Figure 3. if observations arc made at the point (2. First let us review. Let us see how it may be regarded as an implementation of the mapping formula (5). PROJECTING WAVES DOWNWARD To the first approximation.2). 0. The first method. 0). and Trorey (1968. This second method has been called “impulse holography” by Fontanel and Grau. projecting the downgoing wave downward is purely a theoretical operation. a complicated function u(2. The wave bouncing off from the refh.r. All that is needed is the shot time and position and a velocity model. 2. is what we observe on the surface. t) is a wavelet of short duration. Fontanel and Grau . The upcoming wave.P+~‘ r~~i: the distance along ) a ray from the shot to the interface and c is the (constant) velocity of the material. 1070). the source is taken to be an impulse s(t) at the coordinate origin (0. The wave reflects from a horizontal planar interface at die point (x. which is perhaps the only method in currently popular data processing programs.ray methods and impulse holography to see how they ma! be understood in terms of the mapping formulas oi the last section. where it should be of the form 6(t--Zr c).470 Claerbout 1:Kk. If we project this wave back downward using a linear scheme (scaling and shifting). wherer= (. (1969).r.r. however. 0). A diq~l. The wave arrives at the surface at the point (as.ctor is of the form 6(t-r/c). is ray theory. The second is based on the diffraction integral and has been used by Peterson (1969). This is important because it means we can operate with confidence at low signal-to-noise ratios. There are at least three operationally different schemes for projecting waves from the surface back down into the earth.~y of downgoing monochromatic waves emanatingfrom a buried sourceS analits surfaceimage 1 reflection Kodes occurwhere there is tlestructiveinterference. The third method is the method of difference equations [Jroposedin paper 1. the mapping formulas of the previous section will all be linear functions of the observations. In fact.

t+r is.clocitJ.. an awkward seismograms. expect verhion the of at create a depth map. 2.p (- i2wr r)dw. z).. 0. method are expressed in the frequency correction . and wal. c-j.I planar interface (1) focusing the image point of reflector mapping. illumination statistical ing). a seismic wave receiver is located at K.r. 0) will then not be associ(I.e could actually in the frequency do normal domain b! but it \I-ould turn out to be mereI> the time axis oi the may 0i also be Ho(4) by frequency illustrates reflector the procedures. .of rcscaling e\. In other by U(S. equation There (2) an application to the curved the source in are t~vo Rayleighcurved to the tlasic approaches: Sommerfeld t\vo methods reflectors. second. 2. from ray theory wave at the surface to the impulse.. In concept. The problem the surface point type ated with a depth point (2.v ha\-t~ i0l) 0. 0. 0. different and to be a delayed tion of time domain seismograms:. shot. the scale iactor5..v.I single it may be useful to the reader to see that normal may be clone in the frequenq irequenc!component 0i the by the source is rcprecxp( .\long these lines. / = ?1(2S.e is to \vhere the time a& \. oi scan or search procedure The result must be the same as the one lve had 11. (common of the depth point stackvclocitv function to \\. . is that estimation (- 2(. 3.. Since the impulse hotlitTerencc equation domain. 2(. \\. l-~/c).is with Hence. Complicatetl mapped lography reflector shapes domain situation.‘r c. 0. w) =6(r) going =exp-kLJif-Y .? + is ” c). It is not difficult 0i depth. The do\vn~ is D(. be reexpressed different or frequency In that domain.r.iwf).v.Reflector Mapping 471 to be only a crude approximation However. restrict 4. advantages and the the wave at the reflector. in the time domain. 27 C’) ~va\‘ emitted e \\-al-e at the c-)1. Ckometrj. W) e\p = Ignoring (4) bxollle~ to bc derivable iron1 the sur- 2. and (residual generalize velocity resealing extend function \ve get a depth map \vith just 011~’ more shots are used. . w) exp (-iwit \vc wc’ that + r c)). u~L.v. z.I The first of these with attention aplanatic so \\-e \vill encounters to Figure difficulties Refer monochromatic seismic wave source is located at S. imp&i\-e 5’ )’ ) mule = 11(2X. anal the image field scan- (normal moveout correction geomelr~-).v-positions raypath t ht’ surface bv resealing the time axes in terms 0i thv traveltime 011 the the time domain situation. equation the procedure to a situation the appropriate c(z) is a function \Vhat may trace rays to find ih more tlilficult the process to a more general for example. \ve espect to the depth the wave at depth iacc observation scale factor bccau~ I-(X. the function correspontlin:: to iolded and dipping layers. w) refcctor domain. from all the on hented by O(O. I. ZEu(. some is required to 1’ 0.v.llection from . moveout corrections this method. Thus 11054) presents a geometrical r\ll present concept lography method moveout oi these ideas may domain. averaging of a greater region 0i the subsuriacc.for rc. 2. the rctlector recorded map seismograms two-way at all .‘. equation 0. Hagetloorn method for migrain the ideas in \re might that words. In this case. L)=u(~. normal function function moveout). w) =S (2x. I) the \va\‘ e depth is given in terms of the surface obs5rvation ior a single (5) becomes ditliculties coml~utation. shot.(2. In practice. allowing by mran5 0i a time shift (ant1 a 0i 1 r).

. 0). were to be done in model is devclol)cd ‘’ I0 Map(x. Let the wave equation the waveforms downgoing are more separated required ber practical equation see two pulses. z. important of U(N.a). widely At greater separated. Thus. problems. separation is essc. This in the velocity in offthpth wlrcre is rapidly a laterally iteratively. and implement Rayleigh-Sommerfeld as given be especially advantageous by Peterson is shore prospecting. W) is firmly of Huygen’ s principles from the based in diffraction regarded as a sumwavelets. I. sign of a square x=24 : : in holograthat C A.. With :vhich is. This a pulse observed at the surface oi a homogeneous earth. interactive velocity (who specialized to 24 surface receivers to study a finite spread length) or if the computing environment. of required Hence. - ir. into the double i)ulse. .z. The numquickly one exceeds a the wave upgoing frequencies two parts.slow! v xvariable w i ! h but also a means ol tlrc~ upgoing I\ c Ue working velocity choice fact of solution solutions root. seen at depth. mapping resolution [the point observed The equation with at (s. equation Elimination reason. esp (- i$.P+z~)~~~ from to the oljservation and D(X. is taken by p. the upgoing wave.&). Thus.neralization As compared integral. Geometry for reflection or scattering from an arbitrary depth point p at (. the other. use is made is a solutiorl to the scalar point the The distance Y= ~. funcfuncis is ence equation The principal offers certain is that die velocity tion may be prescribed as a rather arbitrary tion of space. w) from all the surface observations struction mation fractions medium medium. the more’ lrequencies are to represent limit.Lexp (-i&) n-1 ‘ sp (--i(r. components: the separation the associations analytic in a constant is a trivial oi the For exarnllle.&c) phy. waves in its solution5.w/f).ntial: Consider be USYL to determine :It any depth. one leave type scatit will be sensible to arrivals organize the computation so that Ilrimary . z)] is denoted at K. ning point ‘’ c Ih field exp( . For so simple. v earlier in terms efforts region physical of perturbation %n P quent tended other have put the method of validity. model would variable. more 1 we the is made possible by the creation the observation at (2x. value in shedding light power of the difierence waves and one for the downgoing there are velocity ters into gradients. computer not complicated complicated. c obliquity The wave equation includes 110th upgoing we need into iVirt!n not (6) downgoing the mapping separating downgoing with medium. Where it should be of further on questions of resolving equation method. formulas. waves. Subseexto on a firmer b I:lc. (6) with the integrand of the plane layer of rather con- is given by a square root. we will scl)arate for the solution equations to be developed in the following As an analytic solution. Thus. complicated velocity. an variable when the geological arbitrariness where the inll)lcmentation situation to be A.‘ r wave equation. Choice or the root sign gives the wave direction.. diffraction shapes in a an of constant analytical For a homogeneous represents to the difference section... U(X.Y. dif- theory and may be intuitively holographic the pulses widely secondary enable us to migrate reflector integral the pulses are. w) the source (or focus) : : esp (+ ir. wa\ c and later dey)ths. the equation only the soluand tion to the wave We have ignored the so-called factor and an amplitude space. 7’ 1~.472 Claerbouf SPLIT THE WAVE AND EQUATION INTO PARTS UPGOING DOWNGOING The difference equation method was developed theory. to ray methods and the diffraction the differadvantages. and gc. separation practical is not In nunlckrical work. e + rPJw/‘ ). z. extensive exp[-iiw(l-v/c)].w)= 2 A. the following we may compare of equation assumption than just (4). 1’ 58. z. 4. aplanatic (1969).rom Peterson (1969). method advantage base. a base which allows clearer exposition.

. the second derivative I-. Despite this. (it.. = a/’ i)s. p ‘ uz by to define the \vavenumber Wl = w ‘ . expansicm the to II m is space tlepcndent. and we may to define the square root oh. ( ~ taking (01)) the The fact that vector this transformation is an cigenimporof transformation has no particular of 11from 11~involves of quantities tance in our development. this fact may he a great aid in solving other physi\Ve may verify (11) equation by sub(12). In terms of 0 and (8) becomes To proceed algebraically... d [I and the [:. cal problems..Y. to take density volves velocity contribute independent but not it will be convenient of s.. pressure gradient. Then substitute (11) into equation . sity and acceleration iwt) Ii we temporarily 171commutes nomial d/’ ‘f.Reflector Mapping 473 are calculated are considered Among equation first anti multiply later if necessary.) we is only an approximation. and is of accomcolumn density. eliminate tions (7b) and (7~) in the matrix (d.‘ w’ ) It is convenient to define w?p 0 I[IT’ 1 P (8) eigenvectors. Let U and II’ in the s and z directions Consider an exp(and It is convenient denote displacement c = (K/‘ )“. \Ve will later is a high and that Since pressure is proportional have to compression.. we will retain the z dependence we will ignore denote dence..bJ[p]> = inverse relation. apology need be made for using the acoustic wave to describe elastic waves. 11. r let P denote pressure. (12) (‘ t) k (1? = W”P b’ = 1 ‘ K The definition + D. although reflection seismic field the .. and arrange form see fit to call upgoing with respect to . ‘ w’ ). + D. Snell’ s Density of reflection (and perhaps law indoes coeth can\\‘ intend to diagonalize e the matrix 0i equation IT and D. and --w’ [lp ab = w[l ].‘ z) . binomial expansion approximation accommodate 0. (10) of equation and ab.Y depenequa- (I 0) by transformation which plished we shall later waves.x. equation it may be improved lower frequencies. we have a”b? = wzp.. Let p denote density and K denote incompressibility. equals the negative use the b- --w?p(..I [. to nc‘\v \rariables IXagonalization transformation data. (2111’ ) the binomial of . understand the meaning It will he necessary to like (I./K-DD. stitution to get but the recognition consistency into equation square root of an operator.1. i (7a) \vith theorem Since the product we have = _ of mass denof the take ~2 to be intlepenclent D. \Ve let D. For the last. work Gth reflected field waves no Sotice by that the velocity oi the material is given those who data.. (see Figures though quite a good one see that frertuency or ray 5 to 7). time dependence.‘ K + D. to the magnitude from cients but is never estimated not be estimated) oi density. a transform (11) of ro\j 0 ( p =[ . a through downgoing eigenvectors.

6. FIG. There is partial reflection from the side of the I~lock and mterference hetwcen naves entering the I~lock through different faces. This leaves a shadow on the out4de of the I~lock. A sloxvvelocit). 5.tves impinging on a Imrieti IAock of slogsvelocity material. . \V. \Vaves enter at the top of the I~lock and are I com~~letel~internall~~ retlectetl from the sitle of the I~lock.474 Claerbout ~‘G. l~lock is illuminated from the side.

.

Let us consider just the downin this case. its usual JIIc ‘’ solution the medium equation D to in (lo) = _a.)D. An analytical solution for a point source in the ix. to solve the set! we notice that in a medium &jdz = abjaz = 0 and the is governed by the justifies taking the term down- be homogeneous. It 1ssomewhat surprising that the solution looks as good as it ~CIVS ravs between for 45 degrees and the horizontal. the ecluation may be respect m/a2 = i(w2jc2 . - D. we can get the wave equation by differentiating Before trying homogeneous going wave equation equations decouple. with transformed .l~. to . !‘ as h&g (16) half (16) can be interpretctl With oi (13) by the right side matrix the wave equation.& or aD. In a homogeneous Fourier = exp[+ the positive square root.-J + D. + m”)D = 0./as ICquation Premultiply of equation equation (12). . It = (-nP (D. form with respect to z.476 Claerbout (-_a*b*)li*aL>.. I:IG.(z~~/c~-k:)“z] ‘ Temporarily t IIC +z direction.2] Ka2b’. x) l)l:~ne is taken at the top boundary and projected doqnyard with a difference approximation Lo equation (17) Given (heapproximations which went into equation (17).‘p~D...iab.f[12_I]aiJaz 0 Equation (14) is a two by two set of equations. it gives only the waves going in medium. The principal deviations from the correct true cylindrical WV&VP phase fronts are which are not quite circular and the anomalously slow amplitude decay for rays traveling ahoot 60 degrees from the vertical. Expanding cylindrical wave. )‘ going wave. = = - o*b*L) (lj) i(a*b*)‘D. 8.r to get iab 0 0 .

term.\s it stands.. term \vas not included in paper 1. The calculation includes the first relativistic I approximation.D.m) ‘ 2m?)D.) . that paper. 9. are anal>-zed from approx- the square root for various velocity present changes in quantum very useful first approximation Schroedinger terms with ten of the equation binomial the square root in equation this truncation.\ more analysis of various grid spacings at con(lOSOb). 6-point thorough stant in the amount (with seismic z correspond . equation becomes mechanics). ( operating is the space variable.\ since the ing to time t in quantum (16) (The (3 points in s. that is. (1. t\vice \vith equation (18) The D. + error. its I)cttcr results Thus relation (18) is the &sired (19) square root of inclusion accounts for the sonic\vhat . ... equation is the positive Figures 8 and 9. This accounts for the much better result than those show] in Claerlwut (19iOa). the wave equations imation.) Inclusion increase term of the extra fits on the approximations (See term of same to In causes no significant computation. An improved is found by observing the operator m + gi\w 9 PM. D. is given in Claerbout cncing past values of the probability is obtained expansion. kVaves coming to a focus. Schroedinger root prevents from intlufunction..+ D. 2 points in z) star. relativistic square potential Schroedinger equation equation. root in equation (16) Ii the square (16) is approxiexthe ordinar> in the present paper tar oif-axts waves mated by the first two terms of the binomial pansion.D. . ‘ 2~2) ( (D.Reflector Mapping 477 V’C.5) by the first two (15) may be nrit- a filter theory point of view. when the velocity that to the relativistic by replacing Specifically. the D.

one can see r:r!s which appear to In I)otLom~out Iqin a return to the xuriacc. fact.. .\K. 10. (20) If this scattering matrix S is small. there is a simple iterative procedure for solving the ximultaneous equation set (l-1). Is. In this case.b’ aves in a medium whosevelnci(y increases a factor oi 3 from t(q) to l)otlom. _~]d/az[yb J. = Va. Actually.478 Claerbout relation (10) except for the error. z../& = (-a”b” + s11)Do. ZTomay I)c taken to be zero.arc ctrmlllrtel>~ outsidethe realm ol validity of the qq>roximations. since they do not increase with frequency as do the terms retained. D(s. an al)proximation \:alid near vertical incidence for small /r is I“IG. U(s. Then knowing ZA. On the other hand.. Since pressure vanishes at the surface WC have D.J = -. Some are neglected. ‘ ’ c error terms Ih are of two types..E. the upcominfi wave bounces back down into the medium. and higher terms which are significant only for waves farther from the z-axis. . . w) may be expected to be small compared to At the fret surface. Below a surface source in a medium of modest inhomogeneity. Other terms are neglected. ‘ he right hand matrix in equation (14) is the T matrix which causes scattering from upgoing waves to downgoing waves and vice versa. since they contain D. WCmight v?sh to take account of an UIIC\‘ ’ I surface or a II static correction at the surlacc.. WC have not yet worked on examples where the added accuracy of the last term in expression (18) appears to have made a notable difference. wc can make 8 first approximai ion fIO to II by extrapolation Ilownward with iabfiD. Ii the effective surface elevation is h(s) and near wrface velocity is C. s.Linthe apparent I)y result for ra~‘ far from vertical is much I~ct~er s thorn could IX e\-pecte~l. 2. + SyD. we construct a first approximation UO to U in the iollowing way: below all the reflectors. starting off a second downgoing wave UI. we may desire to construct LTfrom II and a velocitydensity model. w). Hence. Let us introduce a simplifying definition for this matrix. (21) 1: may be projected downcvard from surface data with a similar equation. every\\ here. alLhough and I)h~~sicall~ l)retlictetl.Suchrays. we may extrapolate CT0 upward with (22) p h-j = (--u”b” + Srw) I’.

Reflector Mapping 479 .

480 Claerbout .

we define i(z) as some kind of spatial average of c(s. 0. 3: edited hy A. we still suspect that A or B will vary much more slowly with z than does D or U. bottom side ethos should have a lesser static correction. Seismography I(j?O. Ilichtmyer. p. and perhaps multiple reflections. z). 1Vc get The author recently observed a situation in which multiples could be distinguished from primaries by the fact that the static correction applies once for primaries and twice for multiples. pre- Claerhoul. Interscience. An approach to inverse filtering of . J. A highfrequency. 4077418. here we extend it to velocities c(s. REFERENCES Consider the fact that if U(w. R. A process of seismic reflection internrelation: geophys Prow. 26. I’.. 35. 1969. p. Primary echoes from the subsurface also had the characteristic 4 It undulation. J. A ACKNOWLEDGMEN’ I This work was principally funtlr. Metherell. v. w) and D(. v. G. v. -~~lY7Oh. Finally. w) are plane waves vertically propagating in a homogeneous medium. the writing of the earth waves: preprint for presentation at SEG symposium.Reflector Mapping 481 Dl(x. The basic idea was presented in paper 1.. z) taken over all s. Peters&. near-surface layer effects from seisnric records: Geophysics. and Morton. First. there is little bandwidth in vertical wavenumber spectrum. W. A. 19. Numerical holograph! . New York) Plenum Press. 85-127. A. 1969. gllosts.5. a Goupillaud. CONCLUSION reflector mapping formula ha5 I)een presented which promises to be effective in tile presence ot an arbitrary velocity function c(s. v. Next. personal communication.54. W) esp (-&W/C) = 0.. 1068. which may have a rather severe depth dependence. (‘ lgary. K. For angles near vertical. CO) exp (i/w/c) l!“(n-. Second bottom multiples appeared as an 8 ft undulation and were therefore clearly distinguishable from primaries. the mapping formula can be implemented without undue complexity by means of difference eclliations.r. A. To find a differential equation with A and H as solutions. z.. Figure 10 illustrates a situation where the velocity increases by a factor of three over the depth interval shown. we substitute equation (23) into equation (11). and rearrange.os Angeles. lowpenetration sparker was being used by the USGS for sedimentation studies in Monterrey Bay. Coarse grit1 calculations of waves in inhomogeneous media with application to delineation of complicated seismic structure: Geophysics. 1:. lYiOa. I:. . 1961. in Acoustical holography. 190. 2. I“ontanel. the integral of equation (14) is given by [I [ I’ = D esp (z$) 0 0 esp(--4) A I[ 1 H ’ (23) where A and B are complex constants.. ~\trplication of impulse seismic holography: Presented at the 39th Annual International SEG Meeting. 3. Conversely. multiply by the inverse matrix of (23). we define a phase by Some examples of reflected waves and the use of reflector mapping formulas are given in Figures 11 and 12. vertical wavenumbers are all m=u/c or have values slightly smaller. Hagedoorn. Even when seismic reflection data contain many of these complexitiw.tl by a matching grant of the National Science Foundation to Stanford University. W.. California.. Trorey. p.. dipping and curved reflectors. I wish to thaiik the Chevron Oil Field Research Company for the use of their seismic section plotter. 1. Difference methods for initial value problems: New York. 1967. causing the bottom to appear on raw data to have a 1 ft undulation. o. G. diffractions. z). 0. The bottom was quite level but the sea swell was about 4 ft high.. We may shift this band toward zero wavenumber to enable use of a much coarser grid in the z direction. If the medium is slightly inhomogeneous and waves are not exactly plane waves traveling vertically. A simple theory for seismic diffractions: Geophysics. I<. and Grau. 754-760. 762-784. z. Vol. we show how to speed the calculation when waves of interest are traveling at angles near the vertical. effective surface elevation variations. D.

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