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set up enterprises Women by compulsion of situations took up income generating activities (Their men were either not there or they would not or could not take responsibilities of sustaining the family) It was rare that the property would be handed over to the daughters The role of women has ranged from a deity to devdasi, from being pure to vulgar, from supreme to downtrodden It has undergone dramatic changes from one era to another This created problems for contemporary women in experiencing a continuity of their identity within the society. A new structure and form then emerged Context of change • Increasing globalization • Impact of technology • Impact of media • Impact of other cultures • Impact of social, cultural and political influences from various parts of the world. Context of growing up for women in last half of century
Socio Cultural Context
Context Political ideology of governance Industrialization
Women have to play multiple roles like a wife, mother, and daughter. Simultaneously in social setting she has to play different roles in a community Playing these roles women sometimes submerged her own self role and her own real identity. Earning quick money was basic reason for women to start a new venture along with deep rooted independence and desire for doing something meaningful with their time
Status of Women entrepreneurship in India As per the 1991 census 4.2% of the total self employed persons were women. low technology. It has been seen compared to men women are less concerned with making money and often start a new venture as a result of career dissatisfaction.Women with high education view it as a challenge while women with no education find entrepreneurship merely as a means for earning money. and low productivity jobs in the rural and unorganized sector. Concept of Women Entrepreneurs May be defined as a women or a group of women who initiate organize and run a business enterprise.5% of the total self employed persons were women. handicrafts and handlooms. beauty care and fashion designing. During 1995-96 nearly 11. Earlier entrepreneurship was just an extension of kitchen activities mainly the 3 Ps viz pickles. agro based industries. low skilled. Most of them were engaged in unorgansied sectors like agriculture. They find entrepreneurship as a tool for meeting their career and childcare role. electronics and energy.Again most of them were in low paying. Profile of a women Entrepreneur • • • • • • • • • First born child of middle class College educated Married Early 30’s Desires Independence Self confident Moderate risk taker High tolerance for ambiguity Problems faced by her is lack of training in business and finance . powder and papad. Push and pull factors induced Indian women to start their own enterprise With growing awareness and education women have started shifting from 3 P’s to 3 Es viz engineering. Most business owners are either housewives o fresh graduates engaged in traditionally women oriented business like garments.
• Accepts challenges • Hard working • Patient • Optimistic • Ambitious • Educated • Perseverance Problems Faced by Women Entrepreneurs • Family responsibilities • Social attitude • Low mobility • Lack of education • Low need for achievement • Shortage of finance • Stiff competition • Low risk bearing ability Government Support to Women Entrepreneurs 1.a for availing loan under this scheme. It is restricted to 1 Lakh • Cost of project not to exceed 10 lakhs . Prime Minister’s employment guarantee scheme. National Equity Fund • Implemented by National Bank or State finance Corporation • No condition of age or education • 10% of the project cost to be contributed by the individual • 15% to be granted by the bank towards capital @ 10% equity fund as loan. 75% of the project cost granted by bank as loan. central govt’s scheme for educated unemployed • Minimum qualification is 10th std • Maximum age limit is 35 years • 95% of the loan is granted by the bank15% Subsidy is available that is remitted by the central govt to the bank • The income limit of the parent’s should not be more than 24000 p. 3.Qualities of a women entrepreneur. 4. Seed Capital Scheme • Govt provides 10% of the total cost of the project to unemployed youths and women. • The maximum seed capital available if 5 lakhs • Qualification should be 7th std and should be between 18-50 years of age • The seed capital granted is to be paid within the period of 7 years 2. Women Industries Fund Scheme • Women get 15% seed capital of the total cost.
food centers. Zunka Bhakar Kendras at all ST depos Scheme by Banks • Mahila Udyog nidhi and Mahila Vikas nidhi • Launched by IDBI • Provides finance up to 10 lacs • Provides assistance for training and also support • Manufacturing. • Rs 50000 is the ceiling and loan is to repaid within 8 years • No restriction of age or qualification 7. Single Window Scheme • Applicable for projects where total expenses is upto 20 lakhs • Loan to be repaid within one year • Entrepreneur’s share to be 25% 6. electronics etc • Self employment schemes include vehicle licensing scheme. Joint loan scheme • Artisans living in rural areas where population is around 5 lacs get loans to purchase instruments and meeting working capital needs. marketing of non farm products and also training . sugar packing jobs. tourism hotel consultancy etc are applicable under this scheme Stree Shakti Yojana of SBI • Women should have 50% stake in business • Loan up to 25000 are provided to women professionals NABARD is promoting entrepreneurship among rural women by providing assistance by granting credit to omen in their non farm activities.• Women entrepreneur to contribute 10% of the total project cost 5. Subsidy on Interest scheme • Implemented by Indian Finance corporation • Subsidy is granted on loans up to 10 lacs • The industry should be run by women entrepreneur her contribution being 51% Others Mahila Arthik Vikas Mahamandal • Objective is economic and personality development of the needy women in Maharashtra • Gives training and employment opportunities • Training regarding Industry .business.