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Social Issues in film “Doghla Ikhtiyaar –

(Embracing Duplicity)”

HIV/ AIDS

The human immunodeficiency


virus (HIV) is a lent virus (a
subgroup of retrovirus) that causes
HIV infection and over
time acquired immunodeficiency
syndrome (AIDS). AIDS is a
condition in humans in which
progressive failure of the immune
system allows life-
threatening opportunistic
infections and cancers to thrive. Without treatment, average survival time after
infection with HIV is estimated to be 9 to 11 years, depending on the HIV
subtype. In most cases, HIV is a sexually transmitted infection and occurs by
contact with or transfer of blood, pre-ejaculate, semen, and vaginal fluids.
Non-sexual transmission can occur from an infected mother to her infant
during pregnancy, during childbirth by exposure to her blood or vaginal fluid,
and through breast milk. Within these bodily fluids, HIV is present as both
free virus particles and virus within infected immune cells.
Click here to watch a medical animation on HIV/AIDS.
Click here to view an interview of a HIV positive man who survived for 28
years.
Depression
Depression (major depressive disorder) is a common and serious medical
illness that negatively affects how you feel, the way you think and how you
act. Fortunately, it is also treatable. Depression causes feelings of sadness
and/or a loss of interest in activities once enjoyed. It can lead to a variety of
emotional and physical problems and can decrease a person’s ability to
function at work and at home.

Depression symptoms can vary from mild to severe and can include:

o Feeling sad or having a depressed mood


o Loss of interest or pleasure in activities
once enjoyed
o Changes in appetite — weight loss or
gain unrelated to dieting
o Trouble sleeping or sleeping too much
o Loss of energy or increased fatigue
o Increase in purposeless physical activity
(e.g., hand-wringing or pacing) or slowed
movements and speech (actions
observable by others)
o Feeling worthless or guilty
o Difficulty thinking, concentrating or
making decisions
o Thoughts of death or suicide

Depression affects an estimated one in 15 adults (6.7%) in any given year.


And one in six people (16.6%) will experience depression at some time in
their life. Depression can strike at any time, but on average, first appears
during the late teens to mid-20s. Women are more likely than men to
experience depression. Some studies show that one-third of women will
experience a major depressive episode in their lifetime.