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“In October of 1999 best friends Alex Lowe and Conrad Anker were overcome by an

avalanche in the Tibetan Himalaya. Conrad barely survived the avalanche and soon
began to suffer from Survivor’s Guilt. In the months following the tragedy, Conrad and
Alex’s widow, Jennifer tried to comfort each other and unexpectedly found love.

Alex’s death was but one of many tragedies that unfold when families lose loved ones
in the mountains. The celebrated high altitude Sherpa families suffer this same fate
more than any other group as they work at extreme altitude for Western expeditions.
In honor of Alex’s legacy Jennifer and Conrad seek meaning beyond tragedy with a
mountaineering school for Sherpas and high altitude workers - The Khumbu Climbing
School.”1

Photo: CJ Carter
Interacting
Intera
Interacti
era cting
cting wit
with
h Extr
E
Extreme
xtreme
xtr eme En
Envir
Environs
virons
vir ons V2
There is always a medium—a common ground through which two dissimilar cultures
can connect. For this project, that medium is climbing. The Sherpa have been
assisting ascents of Mount Everest since the beginning of its legacy as an object of
conquest. Both natives of the Himalaya and foreigners aspire to achieve the goal that
it presents. But the mountain takes many lives. Irrespective of race or creed, peoples
of the east and west alike have perished on its slopes. However circumstances have
made the Sherpa an unsuspecting target for the mountain’s temper. Approximately
one-third of all of the lives claimed by Mount Everest have been Sherpa.3 And yet
these people are the greatest asset to every individual that comes to set their sights
on its peak.
3
Climbing is not simply a means of employment for the Sherpa, it is an opportunity to
have fun. And through the joy that this type of recreational climbing brings, a culture
is strengthened and its ties to other cultures are deepened.

The Khumbu Climbing School has taken place now for over five years, training the
Sherpa in how to climb safely and enjoyably. While an impact has been made, only so
much can be done on a dusty snowy field without facilities. As word of the school has
spread, more and more Sherpa have become interested in climbing and participating.
With greater numbers attending, there is a need for a building where the Sherpa can
come to learn and to climb. That is where this project begins.

Introduction
Introd
Introduct
roduction
uction Photo: CJ Carter
INTERACTING WITH EXTREME ENVIRONS VOLUME 2:
INTEGRATED DESIGN PROPOSALS FOR
THE KHUMBU CLIMBING SCHOOL
NEPAL
SCHOOL
OF
ARCHITECTURE

Published by the School of Architecture at Montana State University (MSU).

© 2008 Montana State University. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America.

This book was submitted by Chris Hancock, Justina Hohmann, Dylan McQuinn, Jaron Mickolio, Sarah Mohland, Nick Molinaro, Dean Soderberg, and Emily Van Court as
educational credit for the “Interacting with Extreme Environs” design/build studio.

Instructor: Assistant Professor of Architecture Michael Everts AIA, NCARB

Project Supporters: MSU Division of Graduate Education, MSU College of Arts and Architecture, NCARB Grand Prize Award 2006, MSU School of Architecture, Chris
Bergum

Unless otherwise noted, all photographs in this book were taken by members of this studio.

Cover image taken by Heather Archer (modified by Dylan McQuinn).


Opposite image taken by C. J. Carter.
ABSTRACT 9
CULTURAL IDENTITY 15
EDUCATIONAL JOURNEY 25
PERFORMANCE 37
ARCHITECTURE
BUILDING USE 43
ENVIRONMENTAL SYSTEMS 49
BUILDING FORM 65
MATERIAL AND
STRUCTURAL SYSTEMS 75
DESIGN PROPOSALS 99
THE NEXT STEP 125
APPENDIX 133
NOTES AND BIBLIOGRAPHY 139

7
1
Purpose: To present several performance-based design proposals for the Khumbu
Climbing School in Phortse, Nepal.

Performance Question: How can new technologies, which increase warmth and
structural safety from earthquakes, and new uses, such as climbing education,
reading, and medical training, not only be integrated with, but reinforce the existing
traditional forms, uses, and materials that define the Sherpa identity?

Concept: Pairing the usually conflicting attributes of old and new through the use of
design strategies, such as view manipulation, skill capacity equalization, and method
familiarization, can create solutions that simultaneously strengthen traditional identity
and enhance performance.

Thesis: Heritage-dependant design strategies integrate the existing Sherpa identity


with new forms, materials, and construction methods that are safer, perform better
environmentally than existing architecture, and incorporate new uses.

Project Brief 10
Introduction 11
People/Social Resource Map 12

9
PROJECT BRIEF

Main Collaborators: Alex Lowe ALEX LOWE CHARITABLE FOUNDATION


Charitable Foundation, MSU School of
Architecture “Alex Lowe was not only one of the great alpinists of his time, he was also a man
who had a remarkable impact on many of the people indigenous to the high mountain
Location: Phortse, Nepal regions where his expeditions took him. Alex was blessed with many unique gifts
including the ability to climb the world’s most challenging peaks, and the capability to
Size: 2500 square feet connect with, and love, the people he met in some of the most remote areas of the
world. His sheer enthusiasm for adventure and compassion for the difficult lives led
Estimated Completion Date: 2009 by these people stands as a continuing inspiration for those who knew and admired 5

Alex.
Land Doners: Lhakpa Sherpa, Panuru
Sherpa “The Alex Lowe Charitable Foundation (ALCF) is dedicated to preserving his legacy by
providing direction and financial support to sustainable, community-based humanitarian
Use: climbing school, climbing training programs designed to help the people who live in remote regions of the world. This
and recreation, community events, library, foundation carries on Alex’s spirit of adventure.”2
potato seedling testing and dispersal
KHUMBU CLIMBING SCHOOL MISSION STATEMENT
Factors of Influence: tradition and
culture, safety, warmth “To increase the safety margin of Nepali climbers and high altitude workers by
encouraging responsible climbing practices in a supportive and community-based
program.”3 6

MSU SCHOOL OF ARCHITECTURE MISSION STATEMENT

“The mission of the School of Architecture is to prepare students for the lifelong critical
engagement in the arts and science of architecture. We teach and practice a moral,
ethical and aesthetic responsibility to society and the natural world in the design of the
built environment.

To that end, we empower students to assume a leadership role in the synthesis


of human activity, place, materials, systems, theories and methods from a critical,
responsible and mature perspective. Concurrently, we strive to support the faculty in
the active engagement in creative and research activities that advance the mission of
the school and the university.”4

Interacting with Extreme Environs V2


INTRODUCTION

The Sherpa have been sequestered in the Khumbu Valley of Nepal for over 400 The Alex Lowe Charitable Foundation has risen to the task of saving Sherpa lives and
years, quietly living near the “roof of the world”, Mount Everest. A devout group of reinforcing their cultural heritage. One of their initiatives, the Khumbu Climbing School
Buddhists, they fled religious persecution in Tibet and settled the sacred Khumbu (KCS), has made a direct impact on the climbing culture of the Himalaya. Now the
Valley of the Himalayas: the ultimate environment—exotic, extreme, intense, and Sherpa have the opportunity to be trained not just in the skills of climbing, but in the art
untouched…untouched until the early 1900’s when climbing for sport was popularized of climbing as well. Climbing is not simply a means of employment for the Sherpa, it is
by the English. an opportunity to have fun. And through the joy that this type of recreational climbing
brings, a culture is strengthened and its ties to other cultures are deepened.
Since the 1950s, over two million foreigners have visited the Khumbu Valley, the
main access route to Mount Everest and its neighboring peaks. This has introduced The successful response to the annual school session has created a need for a more
Western attitudes and commercialization, directly affecting the livelihood, beliefs, and formal space in which to teach the Sherpa. Because of this, the Alex Lowe Charitable
lifestyle of the Sherpa, and transforming the region from an agricultural economy Foundation has partnered with the School of Architecture at Montana State University
into a service economy. The agricultural economy naturally supported indigenous to design and build facilities for the school in Phortse, Nepal. Although small in scale,
development; by nature, the service economy, focuses on networking with outside the capacity for the building to influence the Sherpa and the Region is astronomical.
communities, and reinforces outside influences. Climbing, previously a necessary This strategy of teaching climbing skills and English, coupled with constructing a safer
method to get from one village to the next, is now a world sport. The Sherpa, with and more comfortable building that becomes an exemplary self-sustaining model, can
few technical climbing skills and broken English, have become low-paid porters. This redirect the forces of change to strengthen the Sherpa cultural heritage.
combination of conditions have put Sherpa cultural heritage, traditions, and lives at
risk. In fact, one-third of the deaths on Mount Everest have been Sherpa. Designing a climbing school for the small village community of Phortse may initially
appear to be a simple task. And yet the precarious position of the Khumbu Valley
Realizing the impact on the region, in 1978 the Nepalese Government commissioned and its inhabitants—straddling the gap between their cultural heritage and the 21st
two Italian architects, Valerio Sestini and Enzo Somigli, to research Sherpa architecture Century western world—infinitely complicates this project. By defining clear factors
in the Khumbu Valley. Their findings were documented for the United Nations of influence and establishing strong achievable goals, the process of designing
Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization as one of the first formal steps to performance architecture can be used as a guiding approach for the project.
preserving the Sherpa culture of the Khumbu. In their book, Sherpa Architecture, Performance architecture emphasizes superior building performance over design
they noted the changes occurring in the region and caution against influences that might moves that represent purely aesthetic ideals. It quickly navigates designers through
irrevocably altar the Sherpa culture. Trailoka Nath Upraity, Nepalese Ambassador to questions of how to balance culture and tradition with environmental needs, and filters 11
France, concludes his forward to the book with this statement: through uncertainty created through unsubstantiated design decisions.

“…Hence this study represents a very useful and unique record of a style of architecture This book documents the process and product of eight students and a professor
which may largely disappear in a few generations…. [This] document is an important charged with this task: design a building that can serve as a facility for the Khumbu
contribution to the studies of traditional architecture of a people accustomed to living Climbing School in Phortse, Nepal. Address issues of culture, environment,
in a very challenging environment.”8 technology, and ownership. Work with a vast array of collaborators. Design a building
for the Sherpa that they can and will take ownership of themselves.
It is clear, from this report and other sources, that If nothing is done to temper the
outside influences penetrating the Khumbu Region and rectify this imbalance, the
21st Century will use the Sherpa and destroy their culture for the sake of climbing.

Introduction
PEOPLE SOCIAL Jenni Lowe-Anker
KCS Administrator

RESOURCES MAP Conrad Anker


KCS Administrator

Adam Knoff
The Khumbu Climbing School is made This diagram documents the collaborators KCS Instructor

possible by a multitude of efforts for this project, their affiliations, and their Panuru Sherpa
KCS Instructor
stemming from the mission of the Alex contribution capacities as it relates to the
Lowe Charitable Foundation (ALCF). design performance. Amy Bullard
KCS Instructor
The interactions with the foundation
and its affiliates have allowed the Many factors of influence had to be Kris Erickson
MSU architecture team to accumulate considered to ensure the success of this KCS Instructor

information vital to the building design. project. Some of them are internal to the Pete Athans
KCS Instructor
Khumbu Valley while others stem from
The people of the Khumbu Region external forces. This diagram documents Renan Ozturk
KCS Instructor
supplied critical cultural information the starting point for defining goals for
the project. It is against these goals that Ross Lynn
to the studio. Experiencing the place KCS Instructor
and participating in charrettes with the the design schemes will be compared
in order to determine if the architecture Pamela Hainsworth
villagers of Phortse became crucial KCS Administrator
to the design process and would not performs adequately to meet the needs
of the school and the people. CJ Carter
have happened without the support of
numerous people. Heather Archer
The most important factors of influence MSU SOA Student

Numerous people also contributed to include heritage views, cultural Chris Hancock
time, money, and information to the preservation, western influence, and MSU SOA Student

design process. The MSU architecture building comfort (or lack-thereof). Justina Hohmann
MSU SOA Student
team communicated with professional
architects, engineering students, Dylan McQuinn
MSU SOA Student
instructors of ALCF, and directors of
affiliated organizations. The information Jaron Mickolio
MSU SOA Student
obtained from these social resources was
Nick Molinaro
then utilized to create a fully integrated MSU SOA Student
design. Sarah Mohland
MSU SOA Student
Many people also assisted the design Dean Soderberg
team with supplementary information MSU SOA Student

and design critiques. The success of Emily Van Court


MSU SOA Student
this project is due to the collaboration of
all of these individuals, the residents of Michael Everts
MSU SOA Professor
Phortse, and the design team.

Interacting with Extreme Environs V2


Lisel Clark
Magic Yeti Library

Lila Bishop
Means+Methods English Program

Dr. Luanne Freer


Everest ER

Lhakpa Norbu

Lhakpa Dorji

Peter Janke
BuildingUse Architect

Chhongba Sherpa

Marie Wilson
Architect

Bob Mechels
Architect

Hadrian Predock
Environmental Architect

S y s t e m s Chris Bergum
Architect

Steffan Dorsling
Architect

Reed Kroloff
Director of Cranbrook Universtiy

Anders Larsson
BuildingForm
MSU COE Professor

John Cooney
MSU COE Student

Britney Giles
MSU COE Student
13
Tom Kujawa
MSU COE Student

Bill Grey
M a t e r i a l MSU Plants Sciences

S y s t e m s

Introduction
Interacting with Extreme Environs V2

Photo: CJ Carter
The success of this project depended upon collaboration with many individuals
and groups, including the Alex Lowe Charitable Foundation and its affiliates, other
departments within Montana State University, and guest critics. Specific architectural
processes and strategies were chosen and executed based on appropriateness,
resultant capacities, and student capabilities.

Sherpa Cultural Identity 16


Khumbu Geospatial Profile 17
Traditional Use 18
Traditional Construction 19
Village Organization 20
Phortse Architype 20

15

Cultural Identity
SHERPA
CULTURAL IDENTITY
Sherpa culture derived from ancestral Foreign influences have affected the The global influences on the Khumbu maintain a distinct, culturally sustainable
roots in the Khams region of Tibet. vulnerable Sherpa culture in ways both region have caused a radical adaptation identity.
Devotion to the sacred traditions of detrimental and beneficial. The western and integration process of the Sherpa
Himalayan Buddhism was a factor in incursions of the 1800’s introduced cultural assemblage. The Sherpa desire The intent of the Khumbu Climbing
their exodus across the highest terrain trade and occupational commerce. some of the elements of modernity. School reflects the desire to offer a
on the planet to settle in the remote The contemporary forces of the late They want to live more comfortable conscientious building that will provide
valleys of the Solu-Khumbu in the 1900s brought new forms of industry: lives and be economically sustainable. benefits toward the consolidation and
1500s. Their identity is dependant upon mountaineering and tourism. Each Globalization has had an effect on the stabilization of the Sherpa cultural identity
a fragile relationship with their extreme era brings new opportunities and Sherpa culture, but through effective as it continues to evolve with the modern
environment. challenges. design decisions and processes they can world.

Khumbu Timeline

- http://www.everyculture.com/South-Asia/Sherpa-History-and-Cultural-Relations.html
- Stevens, Stanley F. Claiming the high ground : Sherpas, subsistence, and environmental change in the highest Himalaya. 1993. University of California Press.
1900s CONTEMPORARY FORCES
KHUMBU
Chomolungma
(Mt. Everest)

• Sagarmatha National Park (est.1974)


GEOSPATIAL PROFILE • Tibetan Refugees

• Lukla Airport (1964)


• Phortse

Historical events have shaped the geo- To help offset these de-territorializing • 5000 Tibetan refugees enter Khumbu Tengboche
Monastery

spatial distribution of the Sherpas in forces and help stabilize the cultural after Chinese occupation (1959) Sagarmatha Nat’l Park
the Khumbu Valley. Each event helps identity of Phortse, the Khumbu Climbing •

to territorialize or de-territorialize their School will act as a community center • Hillary/Norgay summit Everest (1953)

cultural identity. and offer such services as showers and • Shaha Dynasty encourages western Lukla

a library. Ideally, the school will become tourism and mountaineering (1952)
For many years the village of Phortse a destination and help to invite more •

has been dissociated from the Everest tourism and economic value to Phortse, • Tengboche Monastery founded (1916) Western Tourism Sherpa emigration to Darjeeling

base camp trail and is experiencing while simultaneously preserving its • Sherpa emigration to Darjeeling
a de-territorializing force from the cultural heritage. The project will be a (1900)
contemporary factors of western tourism consolidating factor that will strengthen Chomolungma
(Mt. Everest)

and mountaineering. and enhance the community identity.


1800s WESTERN INCURSIONS

• Nepalese Government divides Khumbu Phortse

into separate administrative districts Namche Bazar

(1886)

• Irish potato introduced into region (pop.


increases)

• Namche Bazar founded (1828) Nepalese gov’t



administrative districts
• British/India est. trade routes to Tibet british-tibet trade route

Chomolungma
1500s EARLY MIGRATIONS (Mt. Everest)
17

• Pangboche and Dingboche - meditative TIBET MIGRATION

retreats Dingboche


Phortse

• Phortse first settled (1533) Pangboche

• Sherpa initial emigration from Khams


region in Tibet

Record of visitors to the Sagarmatha National Park displayed at the park entrance

Cultural Identity
TRADITIONAL USE

Buildings in the Sherpa culture are used


for living and gathering. They provide
minimal protection from the elements
and are designed to accommodate the
basic needs of their lifestyle.

Homes and lodges contain sleeping


space, a kitchen, and gathering space for
eating and drinking tea. Larger buildings
contain more area for gathering spaces.
Many of their buildings, large and small,
contain separate religious spaces for
prayer. Traditional architecture originally
incorporated space for animals on the
first floor, but this is changing.

11

11 11

Interacting with Extreme Environs V2


TRADITIONAL
CONSTRUCTION
Construction in the Khumbu is limited by
available tools and material transportation.
Everything must be carried on the backs
of porters or yaks to the site. Buildings
are constructed by hand using mostly
stone and wood: stone is harvested
from local quarries and carved, wood is
hand-chiselled, and every piece is hand-
placed. Skilled craftsmen live throughout
the Khumbu and the quality of their work
is determined by the cost of construction.
Buildings are cold and drafty from the
dry-stack stone construction and lack of
insulation, as well as structurally unsafe.

19

Cultural Identity
VILLAGE PHORTSE
FOOTPRINT SIZE
ORGANIZATION ARCHETYPE
Phortse’s location in such an The Sherpa culture and the Khumbu
extreme environment coupled with Valley developed in isolation from the rest
the materials available in the region of the world from the 1500’s until 1951,
led to it’s development of a visual when Nepal was opened for climbing.
language common to its buildings. This As a result of its 400 years of isolation,
language encompasses both the spatial the Sherpa culture developed a unique
relationships between buildings as well cultural identity. However, outside
as the proportions and organization of influence penetrating the Khumbu Valley
facades. Each building is unique but to the high peaks has changed the unique
nonetheless has many attributes in character of this place and its people.
common with the rest of Phortse. All culturally relevant buildings in The vast majority of buildings in the
In 1978 the United Nations Educational, Phortse and the Khumbu are built from Khumbu are two stories, and are based
From a collection of photographs, we Scientific and Cultural Organization a prototypical block. The block has an on the various footprint configurations.
documented every culturally relevant (UNESCO) and two Italian architects elongated linear plan. This plan is the The base floor historically was used
building in Phortse to understand visited the Khumbu Region of Nepal in module that forms the basis for a series for agricultural functions and shelter
and distill the attributes common to an effort to document the Sherpa culture, of variations that accommodate different for livestock, while the upper floor
the village’s buildings. The attributes and more specifically its buildings. In needs for space. was appropriated for domestic uses.
include orientation, facade proportioning, their report titled Sherpa Architecture, Because agriculture was the vocation of
composition, roof forms and datum. they categorize the buildings according to The first of two addition variations in plan the region for over 400 years, there are
their most essential elements of design is another elongated linear plan formed very few single-story dwellings.
To explore some of these attributes, such as orientation, form, material, and by two inline modules. The second is an
studies were done based on two- relationship to the landscape. L-shaped plan formed by rotating one
dimensional views. Other attributes module with respect to another (shown
pertained more particularly to perspective From the UNESCO report we distilled below).
and thus required a three-dimensional the attributes common to buildings built
analysis. before the influx of foreign influence.
These attributes are common to most
It should be noted that while exhibiting buildings in the Khumbu Valley and are
some attributes common to Phortse, highlighted in the report in an existing
the contemporary lodges were omitted building in Phortse. This particular
from this analysis in order to maintain structure exemplifies the essence of
cultural integrity and consistency with typical Sherpa residential/non-religious
the conclusions drawn. buildings.

Note: These images were created using computer modeling software Rhino 4.0.

Interacting with Extreme Environs V2


ROOF ORIENTATION TERRAIN

Dwellings are crowned with a low The culturally archetypal buildings in Because the landscape of Phortse
pitched ridge roof that ends in either a Phortse all are aligned parallel with the slopes, the buildings are dug into the
gable or hip. Gable roofs typically have topography. The town slopes down terrain, allowing for both thermal and
an “eyebrow,” or built-up continuation of to the South-West, giving the village material efficiency. Buildings are set into
the eaves along the facade beneath the east-west topography. The southern- the terrain at roughly half their depth and
gable. most facade is the primary fenestrated height, making it possible to connect the
face of the building, and therefore second story with the terrain at the rear
The L-shaped forms have a hip and establishes the axis by which the building of the building.
valley condition at the junction of the two is elongated. The resulting short north-
modules. south axis and elongated East-West axis
allows for maximum daylight penetration.
The doors are typically placed on the
south face, but are more flexible in their
placement than the windows.
21

The Sherpa culture was traditionally one


of agricultural vocation which is reflected
in their built environment. To the south
of most buildings is an area of open
land that receives the most sunlight
and historically is used to dry, sort, and
temporarily store buckwheat, rice, and
millet.

Cultural Identity
TERRACING HERITAGE PLANE COMPOSITION

The Sherpa’s historical vocation was The built landscape is a reflection of the
agriculture which necessitated finding or Sherpa’s reconciliation with the extreme
making arable land. As a result the typical nature of their environment. Because
town sites were south-facing shelves at these shelves were chosen for their
the threshold between the mountain and access to sunlight for crops, Phortse’s
the river gorges. These shelves however buildings take advantage of the village’s
were not level enough to be viable fields orientation towards the sun for light and
for crops and needed to be built into heat. HERITAGE PLANE COMPOSITION
terraces to help facilitate the agricultural
process and soil maintenance.
MOUNTAIN PEAKS

PHORTSE PLATEAU

RIVER GORGE

TERRAFORMED LAND MANIPULATION We studied the relationship of openings There is a more or less independent
to mass proportions of the buildings of relationship of organization between the
Phortse and found that most any facade upper and lower level openings in the
proportion typically had 3-4 windows buildings of Phortse, Openings roughly
on the upper level that were of a typical ever “stack” structurally but vary widely in
small rectangular shape. There also were both number and alignment with regard
instances where an elongated window to the upper story.
was used in which cases typically only
2-3 windows were used.

Interacting with Extreme Environs V2


ROOF PATTERNING DATUM PROPORTIONS

The gable roof is common to all dwellings


in Phortse. As such it is a dominates
the visual language of Phortse. The
roof is the one element that is seen from
all perspectives around the building.
Because the roof is such a pervasive
element, it deserves special consideration
as to how it will be viewed.

Our studies took into account parallel


views as well as perspectives around
and above the building to account
for the organizational logics as well
as the experiential nature of dynamic
viewpoints.

23
The datum is a pervasive logic in the The basic massing of the buildings in
Phortse archetype. This low linear roof Phortse fall in to four typical lengths
line as well as the alignment of windows some more common than others. The
from the eaves of the roof establishes proportions are primarily a result of the
a strong datum. On the gable end, the need for maximum southern exposure
datum is continued through an eyebrow. so tend to form elongated masses 2-3
A secondary logic present in most every times wide as they are tall.
building is a symmetry of the facade with
regards to openings and accentuated by
*4 the gable ends.

Cultural Identity
Interacting with Extreme Environs V2
The success of this project depended on collaboration with many individuals and
groups, including the Alex Lowe Charitable Foundation and its affiliates, other
departments within Montana State University, and guest critics. Specific architectural
processes and strategies were chosen and executed based on appropriateness,
resultant capacities, and student capabilities.

Project Timeline 27
Site Research: Visit 1 28
Design Charrette: Visit 2 30
Design Studio: Fall 2008 34

25
PROJECT TIMELINE MSU ACADEMIC TEAM
Mike and Bob

Heather and Marie


This diagram shows the times at which Fall ‘08 Design Team
certain people and design processes
were involved in the project. See social Spring ‘09 Design Team

resource map (p.12-13) for complete list PROCESS


of contributors.
V Visit 1: site, school, and cultural research

V Visit 2: design charrette


Mike and Bob Performance-driven Design

V Visit 3: present 4 schemes

CDs and Mock-ups


Spring 2009 Design Team
RESEARCH
Cultural

Environmental

PERFORMANCE-DRIVEN ARCHITECTURE DESIGN


Building Form

Structure

Use

Environmental Systems

Materials

Means and Methods

CONSTRUCTION
B Breaking ground

Build Climbing School

Jan 2008 Aug 2008 Jan 2009 Aug 2009 Jan 2010

Interacting with Extreme Environs V2


27

Educational Journey
SITE RESEARCH:
VISIT 1
During the January 2008 session of the
Khumbu Climbing School, MSU student
Heather Archer and MSU graduate
Marie Wilson trekked to Phortse, Nepal
to research the site and see the school 1
in action. They also explored the culture
of the Sherpa and spent over a week
with them, learning about the people and
their lives. These images are merely a
glimpse into what they saw.

Upon their return, Heather wrote the first


volume of Interacting with Extreme
Environs to record their research and
trip. It describes the history of the Alex 2 5
Lowe Charitable Foundation and the
Khumbu Climbing School, as well as
documents the site and the program for
the building design. Further research
into Sherpa culture and architecture was
also included. See Interacting with
Extreme Environs Volume 1 for more
information.

4 6

Interacting with Extreme Environs V2


7

10

29

9 11

Educational Journey
DESIGN CHARRETTE:
VISIT 2
In August of 2008, MSU graduate
students Justina Hohmann, Dylan
McQuinn, Sarah Mohland, and Nick
Molinaro travelled with MSU Professor
Michael Everts to Phortse, Nepal to hold
a design charrette with the local Sherpa
community. The map to the right shows
the trekking route of the group. Along
the way they ammassed nearly 6000
photographs, some of which are shown
below.

A design charrette is a collaborative


architectural process where architects,
clients, consultants, and other project
affiliates work together on a portion of
the design process. Usually this takes
place in the early stages of design as
a way of jump-starting the process and
allowing many parties to brainstorm and
participate in the design. In a charrette,
architects serve as facilitators, guiding
the parties involved and translating their
ideas into architectural designs.

Interacting with Extreme Environs V2


everst base
ase camp
mt. everest
8850m
neptuse
7861m lhotse
se
8414m
8414 lohste shar
2 month climb 8393m

khumbi yul
ul lha
m
5761m phortse

ama dabl
dablam
6856m
6856

4 day hike

lukl
lukla
30 minute flight from kathmandu

12 31

Educational Journey
The design charrette in Phortse consisted
of the architecture team from MSU, the
team’s guide, Chhongba Sherpa, and
several community members of Phortse.
Initially the team met with Chhongba and
a few community members to gather
initial ideas. Three long days were then
spent measuring and documenting the
site, creating design schemes, building
models, and producing drawings and
diagrams to express those ideas. The
team worked with materials that they had
either brought with them to Nepal or had
acquired along their journey, including
traditional Nepali paper and several
cardboard boxes that had to be portered
from Lukla to Phortse.

Twice the community met to review the


work of the team, express their thoughts
on the schemes, and provide feedback.
The team worked to ensure that a broad
spectrum of ideas was presented to the
community and explained that portions
of one design scheme could easily be
incorporated into another. Ultimately the
community expressed their desire for a
simple building akin to their traditional
architecture that incorporated daylight
and an advanced climbing wall.

At the completion of the charrette all of


the models and drawings were packed in
a box created from cardboard scraps so
that they could be transported back to
Bozeman, Montana.

It should be noted that this entire process


would not have been possible without the
help and translation skills of Chhongba.

Interacting with Extreme Environs V2


33

Educational Journey
DESIGN STUDIO:
FALL 2008
The majority of the research and design
work in this book was created and
compiled during the Fall 2008 semester
design studio at MSU. For this studio four
undergraduate students—Christopher
Hancock, Jaron Mickolio, Dean
Soderberg, and Emily Van Court—joined
the team that had travelled to Nepal in
August. The undergraduate students
were quickly briefed on the project and
design charrette, and then the studio
began working to create several design
schemes that will be presented at the
2009 Khumbu Climbing School session.

Several architectural design processes


were incorporated into this studio
including cultural, environmental, and
material research and analysis, visual,
volumetric, and spatial design exploration,
and performance-driven architectural
design. The resulting design schemes
can be found in the Design Proposals
chapter of this book.

Due to the large number of people


associated with this project, a critical
component became presenting
information and design work and soliciting
feedback. Presentation discussions
throughout the semester provided the
studio with valuable information and
insight into the project and its context.
Several guest critics visiting the MSU
School of Architecture also gave
thoughtful comments and direction.

Interacting with Extreme Environs V2


35

Educational Journey
Interacting with Extreme Environs V2 Photo: C.J. Carter
Performance architecture is “an emerging design paradigm in which building
performance, broadly understood, becomes a guiding design principle. This new
kind of architecture places performance on par with form-making; it utilizes digital
technologies of quantitative and qualitative performance simulation to offer a
comprehensive new approach to the design of the built environment.”1

The Khumbu Climbing School design proposals are required to meet several performance
criteria that address factors such as warmth, light, usability, constructability, and
traditional architectural forms. Focusing on performance provides a natural way of
measuring the potential success of each design proposal.

Project Goals 38
Site Parameters 38
Site Description 38
Phortse Site Plan 39
Building Site 39
Performance Component Map 40

37

Photo Opposite Page: C.J. Carter


GOALS SITE PARAMETERS SITE DESCRIPTION

As a performance-driven architectural design project, each design proposal must meet There are several key constraints that The site for the Khumbu Climbing School
the following goals: have been placed on this project. sites on a field to the southeast of the
village adjacent to two lodges and the
THE DESIGN PROPOSAL MUST BE HERITAGE-DEPENDANT. They must be MATERIAL SIZE nearby hillside. This field is where the
routed in the traditional Sherpa culture. First, material transportation to the Khumbu Climbing School currently meets
site severely limits the type and size of for training purposes during its sessions.
IT MUST INTEGRATE NEW FORMS, MATERIALS, AND CONSTRUCTION building materials. Every material used The land is owned by the owners of the
METHODS WITH THE EXISTING SHERPA IDENTITY. While the building is routed must be small enough to be able to be two lodges who have agreed to donate
in traditional Sherpa culture, it must also bridge the gap through the use of forms, carried on a porter’s back and weigh less equal portions of their land for the
materials, and construction methods, to the 21st Century. than about 100 lbs. construction of the climbing school.

THE BUILDING MUST BLEND IN VISUALLY WITH THE LOCAL ARCHITECTURE. MATERIAL LOCATION The site slopes to the southwest with
Its forms should be recognizable as part of the Phortse archetype when viewed from Second, the limited material resources about a 19-foot difference in height from
key vantage points throughout the village and the area. in the area must be used in lieu of back to front. A rock wall surrounds
flying in materials imported from other the fields and an additional wall runs
THE BUILDING MUST BE SAFE. Current construction practices do not produce locations such as the USA. Although directly through the site, dividing the field
structurally sound buildings. one shipping container may ultimately be between its two owners. To the edge of
used for a specialized item, the majority the site is a large juniper tree, one of the
IT MUST PERFORM BETTER ENVIRONMENTALLY THAN EXISTING SHERPA of the materials used in the construction only trees in Phortse. Since this village
ARCHITECTURE. In particular, the building must overcome the taxing environmental must be obtainable from either Nepal or exists approximately at the tree line of
conditions of the site. The building must be warm. It must make use of daylight. It China. For instance, wood is currently the mountains, it is important to keep this
must incorporate other environmental strategies to increase comfort. unavailable in the region. tree in the design if at all possible.

THE BUILDING MUST ACCOMMODATE THE KHUMBU CLIMBING SCHOOL LOCAL INVOLVEMENT
SESSION ACTIVITIES. The design must allow for climbing education, reading, Part of the intent of this project is to help
medical training and new forms of activities to take place. stimulate the economy of the Khumbu
Region. Therefore the construction
THE DESIGN SHOULD FOSTER COMMUNITY INTERACTIONS. It should be a process needs to be designed and
place where community events can occur as well as house a community library. implemented with an emphasis on
labor. This is opposite of how buildings
IT SHOULD GIVE BACK TO THE LAND. Since the building is occupying a precious are designed and constructed in the
growing field, it should compensate in some way for the growing area it displaces. USA, where time and efficiency are
prized. Local Sherpa will porter as
THE DESIGN MUST BE SUCH THAT THE COMMUNITY CAN TAKE OWNERSHIP many materials from Lukla to Phortse as
OF IT. If this does not happen, the community will not use the building. possible and will construct the building
themselves. 2

Interacting with Extreme Environs V2


PHORTSE BUILDING SITE
SITE PLAN
The Khumbu Climbing School building: The site is home to a 26’ juniper tree,
site has been donated by two villagers; a rare occurrence in the terraformed
Phortse Monastery Lochpa Sherpa and Panuru Sherpa. village. The tree provides the opportunity
They wanted to provide an equal to be a focal point for the design, but
contribution, so the building should also constrains the exact location of
straddle the two sites approximately the building due to its root system
in half. There is some flexibility on the and disadvantageous shadows. Site
exact building location on the 5250 sq. circulation and easements for yaks
ft. area. as well as view corridors of adjacent
buildings need to be respected.
Main Street Trail

UNESCO Phortse School


‘Architype’ Building
Ridge High Point
(3,900 meters)
lochpa lodge

10 ft wide no-
build easement
building site
approx. 5250 sq ft

N
Ma
in E

panuru lodge
0 25’ 50’
ntr
yT

39
rail

LEGEND
PATH
0 100’ 200’

50’ TERRAIN CONTOUR

PHORTSE BOUNDARY

BUILDING

SITE

Performance Architecture
A. Means & C. Environmental
PERFORMANCE Methods
B. Building Use Systems

COMPONENTS
1. Environmental 1. Climbing 1. Climate
Performance-driven architectural design
requires that many design aspects must 2. Monetary a. Training Wall a. Sun
be examined thoroughly. These aspects,
or components, once explored, provide a
Fundraising b. Climbing Wall b. Wind c. Air Quality
series of options that can be strategically
combined to produce a performance-
driven design. This diagram shows the 3. Quality 2. Gathering c. Comfort i. Air Barrier
components explored for this project.
4. Availability a. Community 2. Systems ii. Air Circulation
The following pages document the
research and exploration undertaken for iii. Cross
a. Local 3. Living a. Warmth
many of these components. Ventilation

Since our project has several b. New 4. Learning i. Direct Solar Gain d. Power
performance-specific goals, a few of
these component choices will take c. Specialized 5. Service i. Hydro
ii. Sun Space
priority over the others in the design
schemes. These components have
d. Available a. Showers iii. Trombe Wall ii. Solar
been highlighted in color. Please note
that components highlighted in grey will
be examined in subsequent semesters. 5. Skill Capacity b. Library iv. Thermal iii. Wind
Insulation

a. Stone Carving c. Potato Tubers v. Heat Exchange iv. Batteries

b. Carpentry e. Water &


b. Light Sanitation

c. Painting i. Sidelighting i. Water Retention

d. Other ii. Toplighting ii. Water Filtration

iii. Reflected Light ii. Solar Hot Water


*To be done as part of spring 2009
studio iv. Composting
iv. Electric Light Toilet

Interacting with Extreme Environs V2


D. Building Form E. Material and Structural Systems

1. View Sheds 4. Space 1. Materials 1. Structure

Heritage Planes a. Poche


a. Wood d. Mineral 1. Foundation 2. Gravity Load
Systems Systems
2. Building Form i. Poche - 1
i. Rough Cut i. Dry Stack Stone a. Rammed Earth a. Stacked Stone
Timber
3. Visual Presence ii. Poche - 2
ii. Dimensional ii. Stone with b. Helical Piers b. Built-up Wood
Lumber Mortar Sections
a. Visual Shadow b. Terrace
iii. Plywood iii. Slate c. Gabions c. Cable-chord
Roof Truss
b. Parallex i. Terrace - 1
iv. Bamboo iv. Mud Veneer d. Geogrids d. Aluminum
Rafters and Joists
c. Rhythm ii. Terrace - 2
v. Thatched Reeds v. Rammed Earth e. Cold-formed
Steel Sections
3. Volume iii. Terrace - 3
vi. Straw Bale e. Synthetic f. Bundled
Bamboo
a. Offset iv. Terrace - 4
b. Metal i. Foam f. Interior Bamboo
Bearing Walls
b. Geode c. Perspective g. Reuse
i. Sheet Metal ii. UPM Profi
3. Lateral Load
c. Embed d. Gap i. Nylon Systems
ii. Corrugated iii. Vapor Barrier
d. Passage e. Light Well ii. Down Fill 4. Details 41
iii. Rebar iv. Reflective Foil
Insulation
e. Inhabit f. Material iii. Newspaper a. Wall Openings
iv. Steel Cable f. Transparent
f. Tilt g. Direction iv. Oxygen Bottles b. Top | Bottom
v. Aluminum Wall Plates
Window frame i. Glass
g. Pry i. Direction - 1 v. Fly Ash
c. Green Roof ii. Fiberglass
ii. Direction - 2 vi. Climbing Rope

Performance Architecture
One of the most important performance criteria for the design is to make sure that the
spaces created will fulfill the fuctions of the program laid out for the school. While the
school is not in session the building will need to perform well for community fuctions,
such as banquets, ceremonial gatherings and as a meeting space.

The photograph to the left was taken at the Sherpa Museum in Namche Bazaar.
It shows a diagram of the Sherpa lifestyle throughout the year. It represents basic
Sherpa living and working activities as well as spiritual events.

Building Use 44
Seasonal Use Diagram 44
Climbing Wall 46

43
BUILDING USE SEASONAL USE
ANALYSIS Natural Resource Management
Potato Planting
The program for the Khumbu Climbing Gathering Space 1000-1200 sq ft The diagram to the right examines the Potato Weeding
School incorporates many traditional and potential uses of the building and the Potato Harvesting
new uses. The building will be a place Kitchen and 300 sq ft times of the year when these activities Dairy Production
where safe climbing practices can be Storage could take place. Firewood Collection
taught, along with English, and medical Equipment Room 300 sq ft Spinning and Weaving
training. It is intended to also serve as a and Storage Foilage Collection
center for community events. It will also
hold a small library, as well as a potato Office 100 sq ft Cattle Breeding
seedling room to test and disperse potato Living Space 200 sq ft Calving
tubers. Additionally the building will Barley and Buckwheat Sowing
contain living quarters for a caretaker. Meeting Room 200 sq ft
(12 people)
Religious
The chart to the right is a list of the Rest rooms 100 sq ft Pilgrimages (Kathmandu and India)
programmatic elements that are included
Shower 100 sq ft Losar (Gyalu Lhosar)
in the design proposals.
TOTAL 2300-2500 sq ft Mani Rimdu (Thame Monastery)
Mani Rimdu (Tengboche)
Yanchang

Social
Sherpa Weddings
Funerals
Trading with Tibet (Salt)
Trading with Solu (Grain)

Khumbu Climbing School


Climbing School Instruction
Projected KCS Instruction
Everest ER Training
Magic Yeti Library
Tourism
Mountaineering
Trekking (High Traffic)
Trekking (Low Traffic)

Note: This diagram


Interacting was modeled
with Extreme afterV2
Environs a diagram entitled “24 Hour Distribution of Active Programmes” from Unstudio Unfold by Aaron
Betsky, Daniel Birnbaum, Li Edelkoort, Neil Leach, Greg Lynn, and Mark Wigley (NAi Publishers 2002, 66-67).
Winter Spring (pre-monsoon) Summer (monsoon) Fall (post-monsoon)
11 12 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

45

Building Use
CLIMBING AND
PARAMETRIC CLIMBING WALL
TRAINING WALLS
Climbing is a new building use for the Through parametric modeling, the formal
Khumbu Region and integral to this extents of the climbing wall can be
project. While climbing walls are present extensively explored. The result is an
in Kathmandu, the Khumbu Region has understanding of the limits, function, and
yet to see one. The Khumbu Climbing mechanics of the wall. This allows for
School currently uses local trees and Spire Climbing Center, Bozeman greater design sensitivity to the wall and
ice formations around Phortse to train its surrounding space.
the Sherpa in safe climbing practices.
Incorporating a climbing wall into the
building design will increase the capacity
of the school to teach the Sherpa and
provide them with the means of training
during other times of the year, as well
as have fun.

Two climbing walls have been specified


for the school: a small indoor bouldering
wall (referred to in this project as the
climbing wall) and a large exterior
teaching wall (training wall). The climbing
wall will be simple in its design and will
make use of different holds to adjust the
bouldering difficulty. The training wall will
be designed and built by the local Sherpa
stone craftsmen.
Structure Behind Spire Climbing Wall
Climbing wall gyms and safety
specifications were researched for this
project. The specifications were then
used to model the parameters of the two
walls in order to establish a flexible volume
of space that could be incorporated into
each design instead of directly designing
each wall. Ultimately the climbing and
training walls will be kept very simple in
1
their design and construction.
Adjustable Climbing Holds Precedent: Climbing Gym in Kathmandu

Interacting with Extreme Environs V2


DIMENSIONS SAFETY GEOMETRY ANGLE THRESHOLDS

X<Y

X>Y

The height of the wall must be greater


than the length of overhang climbing
space (for top-rope conditions) to allow
for a falling climber to swing into the wall
The width of a wall is determined by The angle between the floor and wall
and not the floor.
the space it can occupy as well as the must allow for the wall to be climbable.
amount of climbers meant to be climbing If it is less than a reasonable angle, a
at once. A 6’-8’ section of wall is 5-foot panel must be introduced at the
needed per climber. floor.

47
This image depicts the programming
used to create the parametric climbing
The height of a wall is typically walls shown here. Grasshopper, a
determined both by the space it can plug-in for the 3D Nurbs modeling
occupy and the type of climbing it is program Rhino, allows the user to create
meant to support. For bouldering (low, The angles between two adjacent panels parametric models using simple graphical
no-rope) applications a wall may be The safety mat must extend a distance must be small enough to prevent a sharp coding functions and constants. Sliders
no taller than 12 feet and typically no from the wall of either 2.5 times the point from being created. If the angle can be added and given specific ranges
shorter than 8 feet. If the wall is meant overhang distance or 10 feet, whichever causes a point condition, an intermediate to show how increasing or decreasing
to accommodate roped climbers, then is greatest. This distance also increase panel must be added to transition one portion of the wall affects other parts
40 feet is a typical maximum height. as a function of the height of the wall. between the two wall sections. of the wall.

Building Use
Interacting with Extreme Environs V2

1
As a remote location on the planet, Phortse presents a unique set of challenges in
accurately predicting weather data and analyzing climate. Since there are currently no
weather stations in Phortse, a combination of data collected throughout the Khumbu
Region has been used to estimate and analyze Phortse’s climate. In particular, the
weather data sets for Pheriche (4258 m / 13970’) and Namche Bazaar (3560 m)
/ 11680’) have been averaged to estimate such data as average temperature and
relative humidity, because Phortse’s elevation (3840 m / 12598’) is almost halfway
between these two locations. These averages will provide numbers that are slightly
more conservative than what actually exists in the village.

Phortse Climate 50
-Sun 50
-Wind 52
-Comfort 54
Environmental Systems 56
-Warmth 56
-Light 57
-Air Quality 59
-Power 60
-Water and Sanitation 61
49
Heat Strategies 62
PHORTSE CLIMATE
SUN BUBBLE SUN PATH CHARTS
SUN
Phortse’s Climate at a Glance* This solar bubble shows how the sun will move across the site throughout the year. These images show the path of the sun
Because of the low latitude, the sun remains rather high in the sky during the year. across the site. The red shades describe
location: 27° 51’ North, 86° 45” East This means that the most important building surface in regards to both light penetration the solar irradiation hitting the site; deep
elevation: 12598 ft (3840 m) and solar heat is the roof. The section diagrams on this and the following pages show red depicts maximum solar irradiation.
avg. temperature: 36.4° F the solar altitude angles at various times during the day.
avg. relative humidity: 82%
avg. radiation: 19.4 Watts / sf
avg. annual precipitation: 25.8 in
avg. wind speed: 6.11 mi / h
avg. atmospheric pressure: 9.22 psi
summer zenith angle: 86°
Jun 21
winter zenith angle: 39° May 21
2

Apr 20

LINE
Mar 20
0 W E

OW
Feb 20
0

AD
Jan 21
2

SH
Dec 21
2
GE
RID
SW SE
S
AFT
ER
NO
3 pm ON NING
Dec 21 19 OPTIMAL D MOR
.4 AILY SUN A
NGLE
19.4 10 am
19.4
1:30 6.2 13.4 Dec 21
Dec 21 90
˚

12:20 11:15
Dec 21 Dec 21
67˚

3:00 pm, Dec. 21

Interacting with Extreme Environs V2


MORNING SHADE LINE SOLAR IRRADIANCE AND CLEARNESS INDEX

To the east of the site is a short ridge that contains a row of trees, estimated at about The solar irradiance describes how much sun energy is penetrating a horizontal
208 feet. This means that the site will be in shade for large portions of the morning surface. The clearness index refers to the percentage of clear days throughout the
throughout the year. year. Together this information can be used to determine how much sun energy will
heat the building or be collected by a solar collector.

GLOBAL IRRADIANCE CLEARNESS INDEX


(BTU/H FT2) (PERCENTAGE OF CLEAR-SKY SOLAR DAYS) 1
120

100

80

MAX
.5
60
21
C
DE

MEAN
40
AM

28
10

AR 21
JA

20
MIN
AM

winter pre-monsoon monsoon post-monsoon .1


M
10

0
10 AM

J F M A M J J A S O N D

51

90˚ 90˚
90˚ 90˚

55˚ 52˚ 51˚ 52˚

1:30 pm, Dec. 21 12:20 pm, Dec. 21 11:30 am, Dec. 21 10:00 am, Dec. 21

Environmental Analysis
WIND
WIND ROSE KHUMBU WIND PATTERNS

The wind rose displays wind speed and This map of the Khumbu Valley shows
direction for the site throughout the PHORTSE - YEARLY AVERAGES the weather stations that have been
course of the year. The mountainous N collecting data since 2002 and the
region of the Himalayas creates infinite microclimate wind patterns that they
microclimates each with their own subtly NN
W NN
E have recorded.
complex wind patterns.

NW

NE
The Phortse wind rose data was derived MT.EVEREST(29035FT)

and averaged from data collected at

EN
BASE CAMP(17600FT)

WN

E
the Namche and Pheriche weather
PYRAMID(16,500FT)
stations, two villages that have their N

own distinct microclimates. Some 10 20 30% NN


W NN
E

W E

NW

NE
intiuitive assumptions have been made

EN
WN

E
10 20 30%
N W
PHERICHE(13,975FT)
E

in averaging the data from these

ES
NN

WS
W E

E
NN

W
neighboring wind stations.

NW

NE
E

SW

SE
WS

SE

W
SSE

EN
SSW

WN

E
PHORTSE(12500FT)
10 20 30%
W E S
N

W
The Khumbu valley topography dictates

ES
WS

E
W NN
NN E

SW

SE

SW

NE

SE
much of the resulting wind directions.
SSE
SSW

EN
E
10 20 S
30%
E

The prevailing wind patterns are SSW


SSE NAMCHE(11,700FT)

ES
E
formulated by the directions of the valley

SE
SSE
SSW

itself, as shown in the regional map S

diagram.
S
LUKLA(8730 FT)

below 3 mph 3.1 to 6 mph 6.1 to 9 mph 9.1mph and above

WINTER (DEC-FEB) PRE-MONSOON (MARCH-MAY) MONSOON (JUN-AUG) POST-MONSOON (SEP-NOV)


N N N N

W NN W NN NN NN
NN E NN E W E W E
NN NN
NW

NE
NW

NE

NW

NE

NW

NE
W
W

EN
EN

W
WN

EN

EN
WN

WN
E

WN
E

E
10 20 30% 10 20 30%
W E W E 10 20 30% 10 20 30%
W E W E
WSW
WSW

ES
ES

WSW

WSW
E

ES

ES
E

E
SW

SE
SW

SE

SW

SE

SW

SE
SSE SSE
SSW SSW
SSE SSE
SSW SSW

S S
S S

Interacting with Extreme Environs V2


VALLEY WIND PATTERNS DIURNAL DAILY SURFACE WIND VECTORS

In general, the daily wind flows are southerly in direction and are initiated by the
heating of the atmosphere over the mountain slopes of the Khumbu valley. Horizontal
EVENING CURRENTS (KABATIC) thermal gradients are established and the prevailing valley winds flow upslope in an
anabatic process. The nighttime winds can be considered as kabatic flows in which
radiative cooling of the upper mountainsides flow downslope as the daytime solar
heating diminishes. These nocturnal mountain winds tend to fall downslope and into
the drainage systems of the valleys. The diurnal variations of the monthly surface wind
vectors have been collected at the Periche and Lukla weather stations and are shown

DAILY PREVAILING WINDS (ANABATIC)

53

SUNRISE- FLOWS UP MID-MORNING-CROSS NOON- FLOW


VALLEY SIDES BEGIN VALLEY THERMOCYCLE UP VALLEY

SUNSET-VALLEY SIDES LATE EVENING-INVERSE MIDNIGHT-FLOW


BEGIN TO DRAIN CROSS VALLEY THERMOCYCLE DOWN VALLEY

Environmental Analysis
COMFORT ACTIVITY / CLOTHING
BIOCLIMATIC CHART
METRICS

The Bioclimatic chart describes the 90 Metabolic Rates Met Btu/h


relative human comfort levels based on
Units ft2
the relationships the four variables of
dry-bulb air temperatures(Fº), relative 80 Resting, Sleeping 0.7 13
humidity(%), activity levels(met), and
Standing, relaxed 1.2 22
clothing levels(clo).
70 Walking
The comfort zone is a subjective and COMFORT ZONE 2 mph 2 37
relative condition. The chart depicted 60
here represents comfort levels based on 4 mph 3.8 70
Aug
a 55°F temperature level and assumes a Jun Sep
Jul
Office Activities, 1 18
0.8 clo level (typical winter clothing) and 50 May
Oct Reading
1.3 met level (typical for slow walking or
office work). Apr Walking about 1.7
40 Dec Nov
Feb Mar Occupational 1.6-2 29-37
Jan
The plots on the chart represent outdoor Cooking
conditions. A building will change 30
the overall microclimate in regards to Pick and Shovel 4.0- 74-88
insulation levels, material thermal lag, work 4.8
infiltration rates and any additive internal
20 Leisure Dancing 2.4- 44-81
TEMPERATURE (F°)

loads. 4.4
10 Rock Climbing / 3.0- 55-74
Comfort levels can also be modulated by
Exercise 4.0
wind and shade if too hot (not shown)
and by direct solar radiation if too cold. 0
Typical Clothing Insulation Values
Typical clear day radiation at Phortse will
provide 260 Btu/hr ft2. This condition
-10 Description (CLO)
becomes a critical passive design
Walking shorts, short sleeve shirt (0.36)
strategy, because it can drastically
RELATIVE HUMIDITY (%) Trousers, long-sleeve shirt, sweater
modify the comfort level as shown. -20 (1.01)
0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% plus long underwear bottoms (1.3)
Insulated coveralls, long sleeve thermal
underwear, long underwear
bottoms (1.37)

Interacting with Extreme Environs V2


TEMPERATURE (°F) PRECIPITATION (IN) CLEARNESS INDEX (%)

winter pre-monsoon monsoon post-monsoon winter pre-monsoon monsoon post-monsoon


60 9
MEAN 1
TOTALS
8
50
7

40 6
MAX

5
.5
30 MEAN
4

20 3
MIN

2
10
1
DAILY .1
MAX
0 0

J F M A M J J A S O N D J F M A M J J A S O N D

RELATIVE HUMIDITY (%) WATER AND WASTE

3500 100 100


100
MAX

Population w/ Accses to Fresh Water (%)


80

Population w/Adequate Sanitation (%)


55

Daily Water Use Per Capita (Gallons)


MEAN
60 2000
50 50

40
MIN

20
500
winter pre-monsoon monsoon post-monsoon
0
J F M A M J J A S O N D Montana Nepal Montana Nepal Montana Nepal

Environmental Analysis
ENVIRONMENTAL WARMTH
DIRECT SOLAR GAIN SUN SPACE
SYSTEMS
Due to the extreme environment in Phortse’s climate is such that heating
which this project located, the design is required throughout the entire year.
must respond to climate. The following Current building construction methods
systems demonstrate positive responses do not provide adequate protection from
to the climate analysis. They have the cold. A major focus of this project
been classified based on the type of is incorporating strategies that will
environmental comfort they provide: maximize the warmth of the building.
warmth, light, air quality, power, water,
and clean sanitation. These symbols Building heat loss depends on two
describe each system in terms of related things: resistance factors of building
technology, materials, and additional materials and infiltration rates.1
considerations:
It is necessary to increase the resistance
PASSIVE SYSTEM does
factors of building materials used in the
not require additional energy
(electricity)
construction of a basic Sherpa house: L A
ACTIVE SYSTEM requires R-Values of Construction Materials Direct solar gain systems comprise of By creating an indoor-outdoor space,
additional energy (electricity) sunlight penetrating through a window heat can be gathered in a sun space and
and warming a space containing a large transferred inside the building through a
EXISTING MATERIALS are thermal mass. Existing construction thermal mass.5 By adding interior stone
available Metal Roof .001 methods lack adequate interior thermal walls to the exterior stone construction,
Single Pane Glass 1.12 mass to absorb solar heat gain efficienty. glass windows windows can be used to
Stone Masonry .25 Modifying current stone construction and facilitate this type of heat gain. New
DIFFERENT MATERIALS need Wood Door 1.08
adding materials with higher insulating insulative materials will help the interior
to be introduced to the region
(R-value) 2 .25 .5 .75 1.0
properties will increase the capacity of of the building retain the heat that it
the space to store heat.4 gains.
SPECIALIZED SYSTEM
The majority (99%) of the heat lost
requires technical construction or
through building materials is lost through
maintenance
the roof. According to the sun path and
RELATES TO and affects another solar irradiance values at the site, the
system: roof contains the greatest potential for
passive solar heat gain throughout the
W L A P W day and year.3

Cracks in building construction must


also be minimized. 6

Interacting with Extreme Environs V2


LIGHT
TROMBE WALL THERMAL INSULATION HEAT EXCHANGER

It is necessary to guarantee certain


illuminance levels appropriate to specific
activities.
Activity Illuminance

Corridor 10
General Space 10 - 20
Plant Room *L1 15
Sports / Assembly 30
Office / Kitchen 50
General Inspection 100

(foot candles) 20 40 60 80 100

These are achieved through a combination


A A W of daylight and electric lights.
8%: difficult seeing tasks
Heat from the sun penetrates a thermal Sheet metal is used for insulation in the Heat exchangers transfer heat from
mass by first passing through a small Khumbu, which does nothing to insulate one source (such as air, water, or earth) 4%: moderate visual tasks
air space adjacent to a window or thin a building.9 It may help minimally to seal to another. While some are passive 2%: ordinary seeing tasks
wall. Heat can then be gathered into the up the cracks in the stone construction, systems, heat pumps and enthalpy
mass and released into adjacent interior keeping harsh winds out. Different wheels require additional energy.11 New Available Daylight
Daylight factors are ratios
spaces. However, this restricts views insulating materials, such as the earth, materials and methods may need to be of the amount of daylight
to the outside. Air must be circulated or those from jackets and sleeping introduced to impliment this system. penetrating inside the
building to the amount
around the mass to help move heat into bags, with which the Khumbu is already This system may be directly implimented *L2 of daylight outside the building.
the space. Insulative materials will help familiar, could be considered to help with the use of solar hot water to warm Glare prevention is necessary to improve
hold the heat inside the building.7 increase the building’s warmth. other portions of the building. light quality in the design. 57

8 10 *13 *L3

Environmental Analysis
SIDELIGHTING TOPLIGHTING REFLECTED LIGHT ELECTRIC LIGHTING

H H

2.5H 2.5H

W A W W A P
Window properties are rooted in Skylights in the Khumbu are made out By reflecting daylight into the space, Retrofit compact fluorescent light
Tibetan Buddhist traditions, but daylight of corrugated polycarbonate and have more even lighting can be created than fixtures (CFLs) are used throughout the
quality can be improved by adjusting no insulative properties. Insulative what currently exists. Daylight should be Khumbu. They use less electricity than
these factors.*L4 Window height is materials will improve performance and thought of as having one bounce before incandescent bulbs, however they can
proportional to light penetration into the minimize roof heat loss. Based on the it is distributed throughout the space.*L9 provide harsh light for certain activities.
space. Good daylight penetrates about solar path and irradiance, the optimal The material that light is bouncing off Specialized fixtures should be considered
15 feet, and reasonable daylight up to building surface for both light and heat of should be of a high reflectance to for some parts of the project in order to
30 feet. Beyond this electric lighting is gain is the roof.*L7 Skylights should be maximize the amount of daylight that provide the best lighting for visually-
needed.*L5 Window glazing with higher oriented accordingly, and adjusted to penetrates the space. Reflected light is challenging tasks. It is important to
insulative properties should be used. minimize heat loss and glare. commonly created with light shelves. minimize glare and maximize efficiency.

*L6 *L8 *L10 *L11

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AIR QUALITY
AIR BARRIER AIR CIRCULATION CROSS VENTILATION

Phortse’s location makes it susceptible


to massive wind gusts that sweep up the
village hillside from the south during the
day and change direction at night.*A1
In addition to this, the dry winter wind
brings excessive amounts of dust and
dirt into every building. While this winter
wind may not be constant, it has been
known to blow through the village for
three to four days at a time with enough
force to rip off roofs.*A2 Many use rocks
to help hold roofing material down during
severe gusts.

Also, decreasing infiltration through stone


cracks will help with building warmth. W W W L
Sheet metal and plastic are currently Warm air rises and cool air falls. This While too much air will cause the building
used as air barriers in the Khumbu. will need to be addressed if any two- to feel drafty, a little cross ventilation can
Both are inefficient at keeping the winter story spaces are incorporated into assist with air circulation and prevent
*A3
wind and monsoon humidity out of the the building design. While setting up stuffiness. Strategically placed operable
buildings, especially since it is unlikely positive and negative pressure systems windows can allow for air to be moved
that the barriers cover all of the building with the building and its surroundings through the building. This can be
walls without holes or gaps. Materials can help passively circulate air, fans can facilitated in spaces free of obstructions
such as Tyvek, or tent fabric should be also augment the movement of warm air that contain low inlet airs and high outlet
considered, along with more seamless throughout the building. areas of equal size.*A7 Microclimate wind
construction practices. 59
patterns will also affect this system.

*A4

*A5 *A6 *A8

Environmental Analysis
POWER
HYDRO SOLAR WIND

Phortse’s electricity needs are served by


a micro hydro power plant located on the
Khonar River. It is a 60kW turbine that
supplies 48kW of electricity to Phortse’s
households, monastery, school, and
clinic.*P1

The amount of power needed on site can


be determined by totaling the number
of Watts each electric component will
need.
Component Power Needs
Incandescent 150
Comparable CFL
Laptop
Desktop
52
15-45
65-250
L W L P W P
Phone Charger 8 The hydro plant on the Khonar River Photovoltaic (PV) panels, which Wind generators, which convert wind
11
iPod Charger provides electricity for Phortse.*P2 In convert sunlight to electricity, can be to electricity, already exist in the nearby
Electric Heater 600-4000
order to bring electricity into the building, found throughout the Khumbu. They village of Pheriche. At high altitudes,
(Watts) 50 100 150 200 250
this power source must be connected create power for light fixtures, other reduced air density makes it harder for the
to. Since Phortse already has electricity, electrical equipment, and heating water wind to turn the blades of the generator.
existing materials can be used for this. for showers. Orientation based on Inconsistent wind patterns also limit their
Amount of use for each of these items This electricity will be used primarily for latitude will maximize efficiency. The effectiveness. They currently must be
needs to be determined in order to light fixtures. Watts generated depends on the solar used in conjunction with another system,
calculate the total Watts needed in the irradiance and the efficiency of the such as PV panels, to generate needed
building. system.*P4 power.*P6

*P3 *P5 *P7

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WATER AND
BATTERIES WATER RETENTION WATER FILTRATION
SANITATION
Phortse contains no running water or
water source. A cistern at the edge of
the village helps supply water from a
mountain stream located a great distance
away. In the winter the pipe carrying the
water to the cistern freezes. Water can
also be carried from the Dudh Koshi
River Valley and the Konar River, both
great distances away.*W1

It is estimated that:
water used: 1.5 gallons/person/day
people per climbing school session: 65
days needed: 60
P total gallons needed: 5850
annual precipitation: 25.8 in
P W
Since it is anticipated that an excess of Since the Khumbu Valley receives much Standing water in cisterns will need to
power could be generated from solar and The annual precipitation provides more water during its monsoon season, barrels be filtered for many factors, including
wind systems, this will need to be stored than enough water for the climbing and cisterns are already being used to contamination and taste. Some systems
in batteries. Batteries should be sized in school facilities.*W2 capture and store water. When sized require energy, while others rely on
order to be able to provide power during appropriately for water retention from gravity. Portered components will require
the cloudy days of the monsoon season. the monsoon and storage throughout specialized installation and maintenance.
Deep cycle batteries are designed for the year, the additional factors that must A biosand filter can process up to
such storage and operate from 32˚F to be considered are filtration (of standing 15.85 gals. of water/hour, requires little
104˚F. Weight is a factor since they will water), preventing freezing in winter, and maintenance, and has been tested for
need to be portered to Phortse.*P8 potential roof loads from roof cisterns. multiple climates.*W5 61

*W1.1

*P9 *W4 *W7

Environmental Analysis
HEAT STRATEGIES
SOLAR HOT WATER COMPOSTING TOILET SOLAR ORIENTATION

• Solar orientation is the most important • Optimal solar orientation is denoted


aspect in passive solar heat gain design here for December 21st when total daily
strategies. radiation is at its minimum.
• The solar bubble describes the sun • The chart ultimately describes the
path specific to the site. best design opportunities for thermal
• Shadow lines are drawn to represent performance.
annual and daily site obstructions ti solar
radiation (eastern ridge in the morning).

Jun 21

W P L A May 21

Apr 20
2

Sunlight and photovoltaic systems can Traditional Nepali toilets do not

LINE
be used to heat water for showers or be incorporate composting. Composting
Mar 20
0 W E

OW
incorporated into other systems, such as toilets convert solid waste into reusable Feb 20

AD
heat exchangers that provide warmth. fertilzer.*W9 This natural decomposition Jan 21
2

SH
Dec 21
2
Roof systems are common in the region, can be incorporated into existing toilets, GE
but ground-level systems could also be however this requires specialized RID
used. Cistern and PV panel size and adaptations high altitudes.*W10 The SW SE
orientation should be considered in the system will need heating, ventilation, and
design. New technologies could help regular maintenance.*W11 S
increase the efficiency of the system. AFT
ER
NO
3 pm ON NING
Dec 21 19 OPTIMAL
MOR
.4 DAILY SUN
ANGLE
19.4 10 am
19.4
1:30 6.2 13.4 Dec 21
Dec 21
12:20 11:15
Dec 21 Dec 21

*W8 *W12

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MUROCAUST WALL
TRANSPIRED COLLECTOR THERMAL STORAGE WALL EARTH SHELTERING
WITH ROOFTOP SOLAR COLLECTOR WITH FIXED TRANSLUCENT INSULATION

• Roof surfaces are optimal for heat gain • This breathing solar wall preheats fresh • Acts as a modified trombe wall. • Earth berming increases resistance to
for high solar angles. outdoor air. • Exterior glazing traps solar radiation heat loss through floors and walls.
• Rooftop collectors heat air between • South facing dark perforated metal that is absorbed by vented thermal mass • Temperature difference between
corrugated metal absorber plate and an absorbs solar radiation. wall. outside and inside is reduced.
insulating layer. • Convected heat is collected in air space • Nighttime or translucent insulation can • R-values increase at depths greater
• Mechanical ducts move heated air into behind. be installed in the air space to inhibit than 2ft.
the wall cavity of external walls. • Duct work directs air into habitable conductive heat losses. • Insulative values depends on soil type,
• Murocaust refers to the wall cavity space. • The translucent material has high density, and moisture content.
between the thermal mass wall and an • Air is heated 10 to 40 degrees sunlight transmission, low emittance, • Stepped topography of site provides
external insulating layer. fahrenheit. and a U-value of less than 0.18BTU/ good opportunity for earth envelope and
• Heat is released into the habitable space • Floor plenum distributes heat to thermal hr ºF ft2. contouring on three sides of building,
through extended radiant transmission. mass floors for heat storage or directly • Deliberate use of apertures in while opening towards the southern
into living space. the thermal wall alow for controlled exposure.
• The solar wall and cavity also reduce daylighting within the building.
conductive heat loss.
• A small mechanical system can
DOUBLE GLAZING
BLACK CORRUGAT- augment air flow.
ED METAL PLATE

THERMAL MASS WALL


VENTILATED DUCTS

DAYLIGHTING APERTURES SOUTHERN EXPOSURE

THERMAL MASS FLOOR


63

FLOOR PLENUM

THERMAL MASS WALL


TRANSLUCENT
INSULATION
MUROCAUST CAVITY CONVECTED AIR

EXTERNAL INSULATION AIR SPACE

NORTHERN EXPOSURE
RETURN DUCT PERFORATED BLACK METAL EXTERIOR GLAZING GROUND CONTACT

Environmental Analysis
Interacting with Extreme Environs V2
The requisite factor in determining the building form was integrating the design into
the contextual fabric of the existing buildings in the village. The performance criteria
was created by establishing the specific views to the site and maintaining a traditional
composition in the designs from these specified heritage planes. Many studies were
developed to confirm and reconfirm the continuity of the design within the site with
respect to the traditional architecture of Phortse.

View Shed
Building Form Studies
Visual Presence
Volume Descriptions
Spatial Diagrams

65

Building Form
VIEW SHED PARALLAX SITE A
[X, Y, Z] [0’, 0’, 0’] [-4477’, -2030’, -197’]

This view sheds study explores the vantage points


LEGEND throughout the village and surrounding area from which the
C PATH site can be seen. This study is valuable for exploring which
areas of the site must respond and directly blend in with the
TERRAIN Phortse archetypes and which portions of the site will be
obscured from view and can be used to create opportunities
CENTER of VIEW
for bringing additional heat and sun into the building as well
VIEW RANGE as achieving other programmatic and performance goals for
the building.
PHORTSE
Using a technique called Parallax, the building roof was
VIEW POINT
manipulated so that from these five view sheds, or heritage
CAMERA VIEW planes, it appears to be a typical Phortse building. However,
further examination of the design proposals will reveal that
BUILDING it is only from these views that the designs truly reflect this
building style. See the heritage plane elevations defined in
D SITE [0’,0’,0’]
the each of the design proposals in chapter 5.

E
B

A 1

Interacting with Extreme Environs V2


B C D E
[-508 6’, 5560’, 1103’] [1217’, 695’, 370’] [340’, 0’, 121’] [-231’, 327’, 21’]

2 4

67

Building Form
BUILDING FORM
STUDIES
This studio has explored several
determining factors of building form
throughout the semester including siting,
visual, volumetric, and spatial factors.
Many study models were built to help
examine each factor and determine what
specific choices could be made for this
design.

Although a unique process was used to


investigate each factor, the end results
were the same: a series of models
that clearly displayed their particular
design approach. Once these design
approaches were precisely identified,
schemes could start to be created as a
result of combining several approaches
at once. These more complex design
explorations could then begin to
incorporate other project components
in order to create performance-driven
architectural designs.

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VISUAL PRESENCE
VISUAL SHADOW PARALLAX RHYTHM

These visual presence strategies Visual Shadow shows how certain Parallax refers to a principle where Rhythm reflects the inherent repetition
demonstrate different ways that the building elements can be hidden, or disjointed shapes appear to be a of windows, doors, roof elements, and
building can be designed to fit within the “shadowed” from view. completely connected object when other architectural features throughout
Phortse archetype and still express new viewed at certain angles. (See appendix Phortse.
building forms. page__.

69

Building Form
VOLUME
OFFSET GEODE EMBED
DESCRIPTIONS
These volumetric exercises show possible Offset refers to removing a portion of the Geode expresses the ability to Embed suggests pushing the building
architectural design moves that can be building, such as the training wall, away design something that looks like its into the landscape.
made with the overall building form. from the rest of the building in order to surroundings on the outside and yet
isolate an activity.

Interacting with Extreme Environs V2


PASSAGE INHABIT CLIMB PRY

Passage reflects carving a path through Inhabit explores the possibility of making Climb reflects the ability of the building Pry suggests that a portion of the building
the building that connects different the climbing or training walls “living walls” to move with the slope of the landscape, can be embedded under a part of the
spaces. that contain other programmed space or the ability of the circulation within the landscape that has been pulled up.
within their structure.

71

Building Form
SPATIAL DIAGRAMS
POCHE TERRACE PERSPECTIVE

Space studies explore strategies for Poche is an architectural term that Terrace responds to the land terracing Perspective creates a space that is not
designing the programmatic areas of the describes filling an area in a drawing, that exists throughout the Khumbu shaped as it appears to be. This creates
building, such as the gathering space. model, or design in order to focus Valley. Programmed space can either be opportunities to hide interior forms from
The ability to express dualistic qualities in attention on another space. In this case, nestled within the terraces or they can be the exterior vernacular architecture, or
each strategy was emphasized. this strategy embeds space in what used as a stair and/or seating element. other parts of the building.
appears to be a filled-in space.

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GAP LIGHT WELL DIRECTION MATERIAL

Gap looks at pulling apart portions of Light well specifically explores Direction refers to creating circulation Material suggests that spaces can be
the roof or wall to let in daylight and/or introducing daylight from above into patterns in the building that reflect either differentiated through the use of different
create additional space in the building. spaces. This can be linked directly with the Sherpa way of moving around and materials instead of using different
Such a gap could be used to create important programmatic elements as a through space, or the transition from forms.
indoor-outdoor space. means of marking them in the building. outside to inside.

73

Building Form
Interacting with Extreme Environs V2
As a remote location on the planet, Phortse presents a unique set of challenges in
accurately predicting weather data and analyzing climate. Since there are currently no
weather stations in Phortse, a combination of data collected throughout the Khumbu
Region has been used to estimate and analyze Phortse’s climate. In particular, the
weather data sets for Pheriche (4258 m / 13970’) and Namche Bazaar (3560 m)
/ 11680’) have been averaged to estimate such data as average temperature and
relative humidity, because Phortse’s elevation (3840 m / 12598’) is almost halfway
between these two locations. These averages will provide numbers that are slightly
more conservative than what actually exists in the village.

Materials
-Wood
-Wind
-Comfort
Environmental Systems
-Warmth
-Light
-Air Quality
-Power
-Water and Sanitation
75
MATERIALS WOOD
ROUGH CUT TIMBER DIMENSIONAL LUMBER

Material availability and transportation Wood is currently used in the Khumbu


are huge factors in the design and Region for roof framing, interior wall
construction of the Khumbu Climbing construction, wall coverings, and
School. Every material must be carried ornamentation. While there are now
to the construction site. Reusability is many trees along the path to Phortse,
also a high priority. While specialized the village’s location within Sagarmatha
products are being considered, strict National Park prevents anyone from
attention must be paid to the ability of cutting down trees in the village. Any
others in the region to acquire such wood that is used in construction will
materials in order to increase the safety need to be portered to the site.
and comfort of their own existing or new
construction. Below is a rating system
that identifies these factors for each
material:
REGIONAL

Rough-cut timber is currently the main Dimensional Lumber is used primarily


GLOBAL material used for structural support, but for door and window framing, framing
is a scarce commodity and difficult to embedded in stone walls, and finished
REUSABLE pack. Connecting two timbers can be interior carpentry. Ornate interior
done in a more structurally sound way, applications suggest wealth. It can be
allowing shorter, more packable sections used for difficult interior wall framing, like
PACKABLE to be joined. the climbing wall. New joinery techniques
can be introduced to expand its structural
NATURAL capacities.

MAN-MADE

This following is an overview of the


materials under considered. Subsequent
semesters will research more in-depth
information about transportation and
construction, as well as definitively
determine which materials will be used
in this design.
1

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PLYWOOD BAMBOO THATCHED REEDS STRAW BALE

3 5

Plywood is available in the area in 1/8” A mountain variety of bamboo already Thatching consists of reeds from the Straw bale is a highly insulating material
and 1/4” thicknesses. Currently it is grows in the Himalaya; these temperate surrounding region woven to form a with compressive load bearing capacities.
used as interior sheathing for walls and clumpers can survive freezing winters. low-cost and marginally watertight Its thermal rating can range from R-30 to
ceilings. Plywood’s relatively ductile Bamboo’s fast growth rate and packable membrane. Although the technique is R-45. A post-and-beam framing system
nature allows it to be twisted into curving nature make it a viable and sustainable time-consuming, it could be considered can be placed inside the straw structure,
forms that have structural and aesthetic replacement for dimensional lumber. for use as a low-tech vapor barrier. but it must have a watertight veneer.
applications. It has structural capacities as well as As straw is such a valuable commodity in
durable qualities for use as an interior the area as feed it is not viable to use in
finish. a building capacity.
77

2 4 6

Materials and Structure


METAL
SHEET METAL CORRUGATED REBAR

Metal is another common material in


the Khumbu Region. Corrugated metal
sheathing is used for roof cladding
and sheet metal is used for insulation.
However, the capacities of metal can be
greatly increased with a little ingenuity.

7 8

Sheet Metal is mostly used as a wind-or Corrugated metal is currently the primary Rebar is most commonly used to hold
low-tech vapor barrier. Its capacities for roofing material used in the valley. It is together stone and masonry units, and is
both of these tasks are low, making a packable and sheds water. However occasionally paired with mortar. Although
different application is necessary. It can without insulation, it is a poor roofing rare, if concrete is used, rebar serves as
be bent or rolled to increase its structural material due to extreme roof heat loss. reinforcing.
capacities or used as a way to reflect the Corrugated, like sheet metal, can be
sun and increase solar heat gain. bent to increase its structural capacities
so it is not only used as roofing.

Interacting with Extreme Environs V2


MINERAL
STEEL CABLE ALUMINUM WINDOW FRAME DRY-STACK

Mineral refers to the many types of


stone, soil, and mud that are available
throughout the region. Dry-stack stone
is the most prevalent building material
in the Khumbu Region. Occasionally
mortar is used, or walls are covered with
mud to help seal the cracks in the rocks
that otherwise allow cold air to penetrate
the building.

9 10

Tension bridges in the area make good Aluminum is a lightweight and watertight While, the Sherpa are very skilled in this
use of steel cable. The success and alternative to traditional wood-framed construction technique, the quality of dry-
usefulness of the tension bridges lends windows. stack varies with each construction crew
well to its use in other applications, such because all of the stone is hand quarried
as tension building systems. and chiseled. This construction method
can be manipulated with purposeful
cracks and challenges for an exterior
climbing wall.
79

11

Materials and Structure


STONE WITH MORTAR SLATE MUD VENEER RAMMED EARTH

12 13 14

Stone with mortar is also a common Slate can be used as a roof, wall, or Mud veneer uses simple building Rammed earth requires a relatively
construction method in the valley. This floor material. It is currently quarried in techniques to achieve a tighter air and simple construction technique, offers
system, as opposed to dry-stack, is the region, although not commonly used. water seal than dry-stacked stone a high level of insulation, and does not
quickly assembled and requires lower Its versatility makes it a viable material alone. need an additional exterior or interior wall
quality chisel techniques. choice. covering in order to be sealed from water
infiltration. Typically additives are used,
but the composition of the mixture must
be determined by testing local soil.

15

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SYNTHETIC
FOAM UPM PROFI VAPOR BARRIER

Synthetic, or man-made, materials


are already being used throughout the
Khumbu Region. However, introducing
new synthetic materials could help
increase the warmth and overall comfort
of the Sherpa buildings.

16 18 19

A wide range of foam products, including Typically used as an exterior decking Tyvek, an almost exclusively-used brand-
rigid-board and spray foam, offers a material, UPM ProFi can be used as a name vapor barrier in the USA, is applied
variety of insulating options. Foam is structural material and an exterior wall between the sheathing and the exterior
lightweight, easy to apply, has a high surface. skin. This material prevents moisture
R-value (which could be lost over time), infiltration. It would be a helpful to the
and can be reusable. Unfortunately, most building during the humid months of the
foam products are petroleum-based and monsoon season.
toxic when burned. The environmental
cost of foam is very high.
81

17 20

Materials and Structure


TRANSPARENT
REFLECTIVE FOIL INSULATION FIBERGLASS GLASS

Daylight penetration is important to


the Sherpas, making transparent and
translucent materials an important part
of the building. Currently single-pane
glass and corrugated polycarbonate can
be found throughout the region.

21 23

Foil insulation is a reflective vapor barrier Fiberglass is currently used in as a low- Glass is a valuable commodity in the
with insulating capacities. Like the other tech skylight material. Alternatively, more Khumbu valley, due to the level of effort
synthetic products, it is lightweight and insulating materials may be available and care required for transport. Its use
easily applied. (such as brand-name Kalwall) for similar is limited to exterior windows.
skylight applications.

22

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REUSE
NYLON DOWN FILL NEWSPAPER

Many existing materials have the potential


to be reused in building applications in
the Khumbu Region. Since much labor
is required to transport materials, it would
be optimal to recycle (especially upcycle)
some of these products.

24 26 28

Nylon, a high-technology fabric, can Alternatives to natural down fill are Old newspaper is a valuable fuel, as
both act as a waterproof barrier but allow available through synthetic fibers. Clima opposed to the commonly used yak
breathability. A possible partnership with Shield, a North Face product, resists dung, but burns quickly and is not readily
North Face could make larger quantities moisture retention, promotes wicking, available in the area. It may also be
of this material available and practical in and contains heat better than traditional used as a form of insulation, but is highly
a building construction application. down fill. Down is rated on a warmth to flammable.
weight ratio (900 fill down = 1 oz. that
expands to fill 900 cubic inches; 900 fill
is exclusive to North Face.)
83

25 27 29

Materials and Structure


OXYGEN BOTTLES FLY ASH CLIMBING ROPE

30 32 34

Discarded oxygen bottles can be found Fly ash is a by-product of burning coal. It is Climbing rope loses its level of safety for
throughout the region from climbers. most commonly used to replace Portland climbing purposes after a short period of
The bottles can be filled with water or Cement in concrete, but can be used as use. It is in abundance in the area.
air and used as a thermal mass to collect structural fill, embankment material, and
and dissipate solar radiation. However, as a soil stabilization agent.
this process downcycles the technology.

31 33 35

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STRUCTURE

During the Fall 2008 semester, three


civil engineering graduate students, John
Cooney, Britney Giles, and Tom Kujawa,
and their professor, Anders Larsson,
from the MSU College of Engineering,
researched and brainstormed several
structural options for the project, taking
into account material availability and
transportation, climate, and earthquake
safety. They explored foundation and
gravity load framing systems, providing
several suggestions for both. They also
developed some basic details that will be
crucial to the construction of the building.
Their research was presented to the
design team in the form of three separate
tech memos containing information,
sketches, calculations, and tables. They
also met with the design team and other
collaborators for the project to present
their research and discuss other potential
structural options. The following pages
contain portions of the tech memos
and supplemental information about
the proposed structural systems. As
85
the project continues into subsequent
semesters, the engineering team will
continue to research and develop lateral
load structural systems and hone the
structural specifications for the building.

Materials and Structure


FOUNDATION
SYSTEMS
A structurally sound foundation system will help ensure that the building is earthquake- Table 1: 2
proof in the high seismic zone of the Himilayas. It will also prevent the building from
FOUNDATION ELEMENT FEASIBILITY
settling and sinking unevenly as time passes. Currently the Khumbu Region uses little RAMMED EARTH HELICAL GEO-GRID DRY-STACKED
or no structure for foundation systems. Some walls are constructed directly on the W/ CORRUGATED STEEL W/ ICF’S PIERS GABIONS (MSE WALLS) STONE
ground plane. Others are dug into the ground a few feet, but contain no separation Footings N N N Y N Y
between the wall and the foundation. Foundation Walls Y Y N Y N Y
Retaining Walls Y N N Y Y N
Anchorage / Uplift N N Y Y N N
“In order to assist in the schematic design of the Khumbu Climbing School, we have
produced this document to summarize our findings for plausible foundation materials
and systems. Given the remoteness of the site and lack of traditional building materials (Y) = YES - This system could potentially be used as indicated foundation element
and methods, we considered unconventional and unique systems for this project. (N) = NO - This system should not be used as indicated foundation element
While modern building codes are not legally required for this building, it remains the
responsibility of the design team to strive for life safety during all reasonable design
events. This objective requires that all loads have a complete path from their point
of origin to where they exit into the earth – we anticipate connections between the
various structural elements posing the largest challenge. Ductile responses to seismic
Table 2: 3
and wind forces as well as ensuring global stability are also critical requirements.
FOUNDATION ELEMENT COMPARISON
“In addition to these somewhat esoteric and basic criteria, the process of determining RAMMED EARTH HELICAL GEO-GRID DRY-STACKED
potential candidates for the foundation was highly dependent on the challenges specific W/ CORRUGATED STEEL W/ ICF’S PIERS GABIONS (MSE WALLS) STONE

to this site. These include ease of transportation, availability, life span, cost, etc. Ease of transportation + +
Structural Integrity + + + + + -
These site-specific criteria essentially ruled out conventional methods of foundation Mostly on-site material1 + + - +
construction involving reinforced concrete footings with stem or retaining walls. The In-country availability + - - + +
systems we found to be viable options are summarized below. Ease of construction - +
Insulation + NA - + -
Life Span + + + -
“Please note, following these summaries are two tables: First, we have outlined the Cost + - + +
feasibility of the various systems for different element in the foundation. Second, we
graded the different systems based on a preliminary set of evaluation criteria important
to the project. We have not made a final recommendation at this time as our teams will ( +) = Excellent performance in this category compared to the alternatives
jointly need to address the relative importance of each evaluation criterion.”1 ( ) = Average performance in this category compared to the alternatives

( -) = Poor performance in this category compared to the alternatives


1Based on assumption that rock will be quarried elsewhere.

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RAMMED EARTH HELICAL PIERS

“Rammed earth within corrugated steel sheets utilizes highly-compacted soil walls as “Helical anchors are pre-engineered, galvanized steel shafts designed to be driven
the main load bearing elements. These walls could be constructed using only native in to the earth in much the same way a screw is driven into wood. They typically
soils from the building site, or small amounts of typical Portland cement could be mixed consist of a 1 1/2” or 1 3/4” square shaft with multiple helical plates (3/16” thick
in to provide increased strength and durability. The corrugated steel sheets would and 6” to 14” in diameter) welded to the lead section (see Appendix B for available
be placed on either side and initially act as the formwork during construction. After combinations)…. The sections will typically arrive at the site in prefabricated pieces
construction, the steel sheets would remain in place and provide protection from the 3’ to 10’ in length and several extension pieces will be added together to achieve the
elements as well as act as the wall’s reinforcement in much the same way rebar acts necessary embedment. For porter evaluation purposes, a 3-foot long section of the
in a concrete wall. Wall thicknesses vary depending on loading and construction, but smallest pier weights thirty pounds….
typically will be 1/8 to 1/10 of the wall height.…
“Advantages to this system:
“Advantages to this system: • Predicable results
• Majority of materials already on site • Installation equipment can reach limited access areas
• Other materials are easily sourced in-country and are fairly transportable • No excavation necessary
• Good geometric stability • Provides extremely high uplift capacities
• Long history of use in the region”4 • System is effective in cohesive and non-cohesive soils”9

5 6 10 87

7 8 11 12

Materials and Structure


GABIONS GEOGRIDS

“Gabions are large wire cages filled with cobbles and large gravel. They are typically 3’W “Geogrid and other types of geosynthetic frabrics are semi-rigid plastic meshes used
x 3’H x 6’L, (though other sizes are available). The cages are most often assembled to strengthen fill materials in earthwork projects. They are commonly used as the
on site and filled with native used as elements of retaining walls or to prevent erosion, reinforcing elements in mechanically stabilized earth (MSE) walls. This type of wall
but could also be successfully used as footings or foundation walls…. utilizes its own weight and friction to retain soil and is also capable of carrying significant
axial loads and absorbing large differential settlements without distress….
“Advantages to this system:
• Light weight transportation “Advantages to this system:
• Compliments current construction methods • Ability to easily retain
• Variety of uses (footings, foundation walls, retaining walls) • High ductility (seismic
• Wire cage provides backing for wall finish materials”13 • Lightweight reinforcing
• Use of native soils
• Easy to construct”16

14 17

15 18 19
1
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GRAVITY LOAD
STACKED STONE BUILT-UP WOOD SECTIONS
SYSTEMS
The next structural consideration deals Stacked stone walls with timber beams
with gravity loads and ensuring that are the existing gravity load systems
the building enclosure will stand. The in the Khumbu Region. It is likely that
amount of weight that the roof and floors stacked stone walls will be incorporated
need to hold is considered. Limitations into at least part of the design.
of available materials, material
transportation, and skill capacities of the
Sherpa builders have also been taken
into account.

GENERAL ASSUMPTIONS20

Loading:
Roof Dead Load = 15 psf
Roof Live Load = 20 psf
Roof Snow Load = 60 psf
Roof Wind Load = 15 psf
Floor Dead Load = 15 psf
Floor Live Load = 50 psf 89

IBC Deflection Limits:


Roof Total Deflection = L/180
Roof Live Deflection = L/240
Floor Total Deflection = L/240
Floor Live Deflection = L/360

Building Out-To-Out Dimension = 27 ft


Member Span = Varies
Tributary Width = Varies
21

Materials and Structure


BUILT-UP WOOD SECTIONS CABLE CHORD ROOF TRUSS

22 23

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CABLE CHORD ROOF TRUSS CABLE CHORD ROOF TRUSS

91

24 25

Materials and Structure


ALUMINUM RAFTERS / JOISTS ALUMINUM RAFTERS / JOISTS

26 27

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COLD-FORMED STEEL SECTIONS BUNDLED BAMBOO BEAMS AND TRUSSES

“Cold-formed steel sections can be


utilized as numerous framing elements
in trusses, bearing walls, braced
walls, shear walls, headers, and floor
joists. Cold-formed steel provides and 30
economical structural solution to many
applications and have high strength to
weight ratios.”28

31

93

29 32 33

Materials and Structure


BUNDLED BAMBOO BEAMS AND TRUSSES BUNDLED BAMBOO BEAMS AND TRUSSES

35

36 38

34 37 39

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BAMBOO TRUSSES BAMBOO ARCHES

42 43

40

44 45

95

41 46

*Note: These photo titles are from “Technical Memorandum III.”48 *5 “Preliminary Formwork for Main Frame”54
*1 “Example of Wood formwork with Bamboo Strips Applied”49 *6 “Main Frame Bamboo Poles”55
*2 “Completed Bamboo Panel”50 *7 “Bamboo Slats with Infill”56
*3 “Assembling Panels to Form Exterior Walls”51 *8 “Finished Product”57
*4 “Completed House with Plaster Finish”52
INTERIOR BAMBOO BEARING WALLS INTERIOR BAMBOO BEARING WALLS

“The International Network of Bamboo and Ratan (INBAR) have currently been “Bamboo poles are used for main wall frame of the bearing wall. Then bamboo slats
working on an eco-housing project in the western Tarai region of Nepal. The housing (laths) are nailed on either side of the bamboo poles leaving a hollow inside. The hollow
project consists of constructing prefabricated panels which are assembled together to space is then filled with cement mortar or packed mud or even rammed earth.”53
become the exterior walls of the homes. The panels consist of wood formwork with
pressure treated bamboo strips which are woven and nailed to the formwork. After the
house is assembled the panels are covered with cement mortar to provide continuity
between panels and a sealed finish. Using this construction concept could be very
valuable for an interior bearing wall application for the Khumbu Climbing School.”47

*1 *3 *5 *7

*2 *4 *6 *8

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97

Materials and Structure


DESIGN
PROPOSALS
The following pages document the four design schemes created by the design team
using a performance-driven architecture process. These design schemes will be
presented to the local Sherpa community during the 2009 session of the Khumbu
Climbing School, at which time the Sherpa will decide which design they would like
to have further developed and built. It should be noted that each scheme has been
designed as a series of components which are interchangeable with components in
other schemes. This allows for flexibility within the design, meaning that the Sherpa
can choose portions of each design to implement in the final construction.

Scheme A: SOD 100


Scheme B: STEP 106
Scheme C: SOLAR 112
Scheme D: SPLIT 118

99
SCHEME A:
SOD
This scheme optimizes thermal The open organization of the building
performance through its orientation and allows for the reconfiguration of
the idea of using the earth as insulation. certain programmatic elements and
It reflects the Phortse Archetype through demonstrates parametric design and LIVING

SHOWER
MAGIC YETI LIBRARY

ROOM
REST-
similar construction and materials, as well efficiency of space.
as with an elongated shape and roof line. DN FIREPLACE
The modified L configuration creates

BOULDERING
an exterior gathering space along the
climbing wall. GATHERING

LIVIN
GW
DN

The north portion of the building is

ALL
embedded into the earth to decrease LEVEL 2 ALL
GW
ININ
heat loss, while the south facade is TRA
oriented to expose maximum surface
area to the sun. A sod roof traps warmth
in the primary gathering space and
allows the building to look traditional
from viewpoints above the village.

ROOM

ROOM
REST-

REST-
STORAGE KITCHEN

UP FIREPLACE

BOULDERING
GATHERING
GATHERING

LIVIN
GW
ALL
L
WAL
G
ININ
LEVEL 1
UP TRA

3/64” = 1’-0”

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101

Design Proposals Scheme A: Sod


V I E W C O R R I D O R S

B C

A
C

VIEW A VIEW B

H E R I TA G E P L A N E A HERITAGE PLANE B

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VIEW C VIEW D 103

H E R I TA G E P L A N E C

Design Proposals Scheme A: Sod


U S E
D I A G R A M

CLIMBING WALL / FIREPLACE

LIVING WALL

GATHERING

LIVING

MAGIC YETI LIBRARY

KITCHEN

SHOWER & RESTROOM

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H E A T I N G W A T E R
D I A G R A M D I A G R A M

RESTROOMS
KITCHEN

RESTROOMS/SHOWERS

COMPOSTING SYSTEM

SOLAR APERTURES
ROOF CATCHMENT AREA: 1460
REFLECTED SOLAR RADIATION
(2) 250 GALLON CISTERN
ROOFTOP AIR COLLECTOR DRAINAGE
FILTER
MUROCAUST WALL ASSEMBLY
GRAY WATER
TRANSPIRED COLLECTOR
POTABLE WATER
COMPRESSED TROMBE WALL/ TRANSPARENT INSULATION ASSUMPTIONS:
GALLONS PER CAPITA PER DAY: 4.3
BLACK WATER
DIRECT GAIN THERMAL MASS POPULATION OF BUILDING: 65
USAGE: 1570 GAL
EARTH BERM INSULATION COMPOSTING SYSTEM NET H20: 434 GAL 105

Design Proposals Scheme A: Sod


SCHEME B:
STEP
This scheme originates from the Phortse
Archetypal L configuration. The L is DN
modified allowing the two southern walls DN
to match the optimum morning and BOULDERING WALL MAGIC YETI LIBRARY

FIREP
afternoon sun angles of the region. The RE
S
RO T-
structure rests in the site utilizing the OM

L
ACE
earth’s insulating properties on its north SH
OW
ER LIVING
side. The warmer southern side is ideal DN

for gathering and training. GATHERING

DN
Program organization is based around
TR
the climbing walls which sculpt the AIN
ING
DN

interior and exterior gathering spaces WA


LL
and also contain the stair. Again, an LEVEL 2
open plan minimizes circulation spaces
and allows individual elements to take on
multiple uses.

UP LL
G WA KITCHEN
DERIN

FIREP
BOUL
RE
S

L
RO T-

ACE
OM
N GATHERING
RE
S
RO T-
OM EQUIPMENT ROOM/
STORAGE
UP
UP

TR
AIN
ING
WA
LL
LEVEL 1

3/64” = 1’-0”

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107

Design Proposals Scheme B: Step


V I E W C O R R I D O R S

B C

B
C

A
D

VIEW A VIEW B

HERITAGE PLANE A HERITAGE PLANE B

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VIEW C VIEW D 109

HERITAGE PLANE C HERITAGE PLANE D

Design Proposals Scheme B: Step


U S E
D I A G R A M

CLIMBING WALL / FIREPLACE

GATHERING

LIVING

MAGIC YETI LIBRARY

KITCHEN

SHOWER & RESTROOM

Interacting with Extreme Environs V2


H E A T I N G W A T E R
D I A G R A M D I A G R A M

RESTROOMS/SHOWERS

RESTROOMS
KITCHEN

COMPOSTING SYSTEM

SOLAR APERTURES
ROOF CATCHMENT AREA: 1530 SQ FT DRAINAGE

REFLECTED SOLAR RADIATION


(2) 250 GALLON CISTERN
ROOFTOP AIR COLLECTOR
FILTER
MUROCAUST WALL ASSEMBLY
GRAY WATER
TRANSPIRED COLLECTOR
POTABLE WATER
COMPRESSED TROMBE WALL/ TRANSPARENT INSULATION ASSUMPTIONS:
GALLONS PER CAPITA PER DAY: 4.3
BLACK WATER
DIRECT GAIN THERMAL MASS POPULATION OF BUILDING: 65
USAGE: 1570 GAL
NET H20: 434 GAL
EARTH BERM INSULATION COMPOSTING SYSTEM 111

Design Proposals Scheme B: Step


SCHEME C:
SOLAR
This scheme originates from the modified
L configuration with both southern walls DN UP
oriented to match the optimum morning
and afternoon sun angles of the region. BATHROOM/
It sits in the site protected from the north SHOWERS

FIREP
and open to the south. CLASSROOM

L
ACE
The design takes into account and MAGIC YETI LIBRARY ALL LIVING
ING W
emphasizes the existing window rhythms TRAIN
of Phortse. A winding central stair
organizes the spaces surrounding it into
LEVEL 2
separate terraces and the training wall
pronounces the entry.

KITCHEN

FIREP
UP
DN

L
L

WAL
ACE
N GATHERING
MEETING ROOM

ING
ALL DN
ING W
TRAIN

R
LDE
BOU
UP
LEVEL 1

3/64” = 1’-0”

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113

Design Proposals Scheme C: Solar


V I E W C O R R I D O R S

B C

B C

A
D

VIEW A VIEW B

HERITAGE PLANE A HERITAGE PLANE B

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VIEW C VIEW C VIEW D 115

HERITAGE PLANE C HERITAGE PLANE D

Design Proposals Scheme C: Solar


U S E
D I A G R A M

CLIMBING WALL
ALL / FIREPLACE

GATHERING

LIVING

MAGIC YETI LIBRARY

KITCHEN

ESTROOM
SHOWER & RESTROOM

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H E A T I N G W A T E R
D I A G R A M D I A G R A M

RESTROOMS/SHOWER

KITCHEN

COMPOSTING SYSTEM

DRAINAGE

SOLAR APERTURES
ROOF CATCHMENT AREA: 1530 SQ FT
REFLECTED SOLAR RADIATION
(2) 250 GALLON CISTERN
ROOFTOP AIR COLLECTOR
FILTER
MUROCAUST WALL ASSEMBLY
GRAY WATER
TRANSPIRED COLLECTOR
POTABLE WATER
COMPRESSED TROMBE WALL/ TRANSPARENT INSULATION
BLACK WATER ASSUMPTIONS:
DIRECT GAIN THERMAL MASS GALLONS PER CAPITA PER DAY: 4.3
POPULATION OF BUILDING: 65
COMPOSTING SYSTEM USAGE: 1570 GAL
EARTH BERM INSULATION NET H20: 434 GAL
117

Design Proposals Scheme C: Solar


SCHEME D:
SPLIT
While optimizing southern orientation LIVING
110’
and respecting heritage view planes,
this scheme originated from the

FIR
relationship between movement through

E
PL
AC
a building and movement on a mountain.

E
Switchbacks in the form of short stair sets
UP
bring the user from space to space which
are arranged as a series of terraces.
MAGIC YETI LIBRARY
DN
106’
The building splits open to allow the
landscape inside and creates a gathering
space to celebrate the climbing wall. TR

RO ST-
AIN

OM
GI

RE
NG

RO ST-
OM
WA

R
RE

E
LL

OW
KITCHEN

SH
100’

DN

FIR
E
PL
GATHERING

AC
E
100’
UP
LEVEL 2

DN
EQUIPMENT ROOM/
STORAGE
TR 95’
AIN
IN
G
WA

BOUL
LL

DERIN
GATHERING

G WA
95’

LEVEL 1

LL
3/64” = 1’-0”

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119

Design Proposals Scheme D: Split


V I E W C O R R I D O R S

B C

VIEW A VIEW B

HERITAGE PLANE A HERITAGE PLANE B

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VIEW C VIEW C VIEW D 121

HERITAGE PLANE C HERITAGE PLANE D

Design Proposals Scheme D: Split


U S E
D I A G R A M

CLIMBING WALL / FIREPLACE

GATHERING

LIVING

MEETING / CLASSROOM / LIBRARY

KITCHEN

SHOWER & RESTROOM

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H E A T I N G W A T E R
D I A G R A M D I A G R A M

KTICHEN

RESTROOMS/SHOWERS

COMPOSTING SYSTEM

SOLAR APERTURES
ROOF CATCHMENT AREA: 1200 SQ FT

REFLECTED SOLAR RADIATION DRAINAGE


(2) 250 GALLON CISTERN

ROOFTOP AIR COLLECTOR


FILTER
MUROCAUST WALL ASSEMBLY
GRAY WATER
TRANSPIRED COLLECTOR
POTABLE WATER
ASSUMPTIONS:
COMPRESSED TROMBE WALL/ TRANSPARENT INSULATION GALLONS PER CAPITA PER DAY: 4.3
BLACK WATER POPULATION OF BUILDING: 65
USAGE: 1570 GAL
DIRECT GAIN THERMAL MASS NET H20: 10 GAL
COMPOSTING SYSTEM
EARTH BERM INSULATION
123

Design Proposals Scheme D: Split


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As a design/build project, the Khumbu Climbing School will not be completed until
the final stone is set in place. However this semester marks the end of a phase of
the project and an excellent opportunity to look back at what has been accomplished,
reflect on what has been learned, and look forward to the next step.

Conclusion
Reflections
The Next Step

125

Photo Opposite: C.J. Carter


Interacting with Extreme Environs V2
CONCLUSION

This phase of the design/build studio for the Khumbu Climbing School has
accomplished the following:

• established project collaborators, factors of influence, performance goals, and


design approach
• held a design charrette with the local Phortse community
• researched the cultural identity of the Sherpa
• analyzed the climate and the environmental impact on Sherpa architecture
• explored building components through models, research, and analysis
• created four design schemes to be presented ot the local Sherpa community at the
2009 session of the Khumbu Climbing School
• laid the foundation for the next phase of this project through structural, material, and
environmental systems research
• documented the above through drawings, models, diagrams, a book, and a
website.

127

The Next Step Photo Opposite: C.J. Carter


Interacting with Extreme Environs V2
REFLECTIONS

If someone had told me a year ago that during 2008 I would have the opportunity
not only to travel to Nepal and trek through the Himalays, but also help design a
building for the people of the Khumbu Region, I would have thought they were joking.
Realistically how often is it that a student, even a graduate student, gets to help design
real architecture, let alone architecture for another culture and country?

But here I am at the end of a semester and the end of another phase of the design/
build studio for the Khumbu Climbing School. Some have commented to me on how
great it must be to be a part of such an undertaking. Others have asked what I have
learn working on such a project. Many just want to know what it’s like to be involved
in something so big and so far away.

To the first group I must confess that this project is a once-in-a-lifetime opportunity
for any architect. For a student, the possibility of such an opportunity is entirely out
of reach. To be a part of such a rare project is overwhelming at best. To be so young
(24) and so inexperienced (1st-year graduate student) and still be allowed to work
on such an important project (that will help save Sherpa lives and strengthen Sherpa
culture) is an honor and a privilege.

To the second group I have to say that it would take another book to explain all that
I have learned as a member of this studio. Aside from the obvious of experiencing
a vastly different culture and learning how to design a building in a remote region of
the planet, there have been many things that I have learned about the design process
that I will carry with me through my professional career. Yet I think the most important
thing I have learned is how to work with a team of people for a common cause. Not
that I couldn’t do this before, but that the breadth of this experience has added depth 129
to my understanding that the design and construction of architecture is a community
process. Just as no man is an island, no design is created in a vacuum, and a strong
designer ultimately becomes the pen and the paper that the building occupants use to
create the spaces that they will inhabit.

So what is it like to be involved with something so big and so far away? AWESOME! It
truly is one of those things that you don’t quite understand or appreciate until you have
been involved yourself. And it is an experience that has empowered me to not only
continue to pursue architecture as a profession, but it has convinced me that it is only
ourselves that stands in the way of participating in meaningful projects in life.

The Next Step


Interacting with Extreme Environs V2
THE NEXT STEP

The photograph to the left shows lodge owners Lhakpa Sherpa and Panuru Sherpa
with the local Lama and others at a breaking ground ceremony on the site of the new
Khumbu Climbing School facilities. Although the design has not yet been agreed upon
by the villagers and the Alex Lowe Charitable Foundation, this even had to happen
during the 2008 calendar year in order to initiate a successful construction process.
As devout Buddhists, the Sherpa follow a calendar that connects their six elements—
fire, air, water, earth, wood, and metal—with the passage of time. Every two calendar
years is represented by a different element. The year of this writing, 2008, is an earth
year, an auspicious year to begin construction, according to Buddhist tradition. Next
year (2009) will inaugurate the first of two fire years, a poor time to begin building.
Now that construction has begun with the blessing of the Lama, it may continue
through the fire years.

However, before much can be built, several things must happen:


• The design schemes documented here must be presented to the Sherpas so that
they can vote on the final design.
• The final design must be modified to reflect the Sherpas’ comments.
• More research must be done in the areas of structural systems, environmental
systems, and materials.
• Decisions about materials and how the building is to be constructed must be made.
• Construction documents (official and/or representational) must be created.
• Funds must be raised to continue the project.

All of these steps will take place in subsequent semesters with some original
students and collaborators continuing on with the project, joined by new students
and collaborators. During the Spring 2009 semester, students will modify the design 131
based on the responses of the Sherpas, and explore wall and roof assemblies, material
performance, and overall building performance. Once this is done, construction
documents can be created and material purchase and transportation can be finalized.

Ultimately several students will travel once again to Phortse to assist in overseeing and
helping with the construction process.

The Next Step


Interacting with Extreme Environs V2

1
These pages are intended to supplement the information presented in the main portion
of this document. Also included are model photos, a bibliography, and an endnotes
section.

Photosynth
Studio Models
Site Model
Notes
Bibliography

133

Photo on Opposite Page: C.J. Carter

1
PHOTOSYNTH
3D REPRESENTATION VIEW STUDIES

Photosynth is a web-based medium in Phortse without having taking


for stitching together large collections measurments of the entire town.
of photographs of the same subject/
space, taken from different views, into
a cohesive and interactive panoramic.
Unique to this utility is its function that
creates a 3-dimensional representation of
the space/form depicted in the collection
of photos by relating the viewpoints from
which the photos were taken.

We are using this utility as a means for


remote study of the site in terms of the
3-dimensional relationships between the
terrain and structures of Phortse. As our
approach to the design of the climbing
school hinges on the building maintaining
a respectful relationship with the town of
Phortse we need to understand the views
and relationships that the site has with
the rest of Phortse. Photosynth allows
us to study and dynamically explore the
3-dimensional relationships of Phortse,
and ultimately coupled with Photoshop
allows us to place design concepts in the
virtual space of Photosynth as a means
for substantiating and testing ideas.
Photosynth is pivotal in our research
process because it does not need
specific dimensions in order to model
the town of Phortse but instead relies on
the proportional perspective relationships
inherent in photographs. Coupled with
having dimension of our site we can
extrapolate the size and relationships
in space of other buildings and views

Interacting with Extreme Environs V2


STUDIO MODELS

135

Appendix
KHUMBU VALLEY
MODEL

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137

Appendix
NOTES 9

10
Heather Archer, Site and Context, maps and photos of Phortse, Interacting
with Extreme Environs, (Bozeman: MSU, 2008) page 4.
Heather Archer, Site and Context, maps and photos of Phortse, Interacting
with Extreme Environs, (Bozeman: MSU, 2008) page 4.
11 C. J. Carter, 121 Nash Creek LN, Bozeman, MT 59715, 406.600.3807,
1 The Endless Knot DVD, Alex Lowe Charitable Foundation, 15 Dec. 2008, Phortse, Nepal, 2008.
http://www.alexlowe.org/store_kcs_endless.shtml. 12 Nepal, map, Google Earth 4.3.7284.3916 (beta), 8 Jul. 2008.
2 “MSU’s Mission -- Bozeman Campus,” Mar 2002, Montana State University,
16 Dec 2008, http://www.montana.edu/opa/policy/MissionBozeman.html.
3 T. R. Ried, “The Sherpas,” National Geographic May 2003: 42-71. CULTURAL IDENTITY

INTRODUCTION 1 Heather Archer, Sherpa Dancing, Phortse, Nepal, 2008.


*2 “History of the Sherpas: A Chronological Chart,” Sherwa Mi :Website on the
1 Heather Archer, Closing Celebration, Phortse, Nepal, 2008. Sherpas of Nepal, 2008, Nepal Research, Sherpa International
2 Alex Lowe Charitable Foundation, 30 Nov. 2008 http://www.alexlowe.org. Trekking & Expedition, Kathmandu, 09 Dec. 2008 http://sherwa.
3 “Khumbu Climbing School Mission Statement,” Alex Lowe de/background/sherpa_history.htm.
Charitable Foundation, 30 Nov. 2008 http://www.alexlowe.org/kcs.shtml. *3 Heather Archer, Phortse, Nepal, 2008.
4 “Program Overview,” 13 Sep. 2007, MSU School of Architecture, 16 Dec. *4 Heather Archer, Phortse, Nepal, 2008.
2008, http://www.arch.montana.edu/ProgramOverview.htm. 5
5 ALCF Logo, Alex Lowe Charitable Foundation, 30 Nov. 2008 http://www. 6 Heather Archer, Phortse, Nepal, 2008.
alexlowe.org. 7 C. J. Carter, Phortse, Nepal, 2008.
6 Khumbu Climbing School Logo, Alex Lowe Charitable Foundation, 30 Nov. 8 Heather Archer, Phortse, Nepal, 2008.
2008, http://www.alexlowe.org/kcs.shtml. 9 Heather Archer, Phortse, Nepal, 2008.
7 “Montana State University School of Architecture,” 5 Jun 2008, MSU School 10 Heather Archer, Phortse, Nepal, 2008.
of Architecture, 16 Dec. 2008, http://www.arch.montana.edu/index.htm. 11 Heather Archer, Phortse, Nepal, 2008.
8 Valerio Sestini and Enzo Somigli, Sherpa Architecture, (Paris: UNESCO, 1978)
10. ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS

PEOPLE AND PROCESS 1 Heather Archer, Phortse, Nepal, 2008.

1 Heather Archer, Phortse, Nepal, 2008. PERFORMANCE ARCHITECTURE


2 Heather Archer, Phortse, Nepal, 2008.
3 Heather Archer, Phortse, Nepal, 2008. 1 Branko Kolarevic and Ali Malkawi, eds., Performative Architecture: Beyond
4 Heather Archer, Phortse, Nepal, 2008. Instrumentality, (New York: Spon Press, 2005), back cover.
5 Heather Archer, Phortse, Nepal, 2008. 2 Heather Archer, Phortse, Nepal, 2008.
6 Heather Archer, Phortse, Nepal, 2008.
7 Heather Archer, Site and Context, maps and photos of Phortse, Interacting BUILDING FORM
with Extreme Environs, (Bozeman: MSU, 2008) page 4.
8 Heather Archer, Site and Context, maps and photos of Phortse, Interacting 1 Heather Archer, Phortse, Nepal, 2008.
with Extreme Environs, (Bozeman: MSU, 2008) page 4. 2 ??

Interacting with Extreme Environs V2


3 Robert Cave, Everest Base Camp Trek, 30 April 2008, Flickr, 9 Dec. 2008, 18 Geogrid, 2001, Qingdao Chemetals Industries, 13 Dec. 2008, http://www.
http://www.flickr.com/photos/bobcav/2456374358. chemetals.net/A.htm.
4 Heather Archer, Phortse, Nepal, 2008. 19 Steve Moler, “A Tale of Two Canyons,” Public Roads, Mar.-Apr. 2004: 27.
20 John Cooney, Britney Giles, Tom Kujawa, and Anders Larrson,
STRUCTURE “Technical Memorandum II: Gravity Load Framing Recommendations—Khumbu
Climbing School,” memo to Architectural Design Studio Team, Montana State
1 John Cooney, Britney Giles, Tom Kujawa, and Anders Larrson, University, Bozeman, 11 Nov. 2008: 1.
“Technical Memorandum I: Foundation Recommendations—Khumbu Climbing 21 Cooney, Giles, Kujawa, and Larrson, “Technical Memorandum II” Appendix C.
School,” memo to Architectural Design Studio Team, Montana State University, 22 Cooney, Giles, Kujawa, and Larrson, “Technical Memorandum II” Appendix C.
Bozeman, 15 Oct. 2008: 1. 23 Cooney, Giles, Kujawa, and Larrson, “Technical Memorandum II” Appendix A.
2 Cooney, Giles, Kujawa, and Larrson, “Technical Memorandum I” 5. 24 Cooney, Giles, Kujawa, and Larrson, “Technical Memorandum II” Appendix A.
3 Cooney, Giles, Kujawa, and Larrson, “Technical Memorandum I” 6. 25 Cooney, Giles, Kujawa, and Larrson, “Technical Memorandum II” Appendix A.
4 Cooney, Giles, Kujawa, and Larrson, “Technical Memorandum I” 1-2. 26 Cooney, Giles, Kujawa, and Larrson, “Technical Memorandum II” Appendix B.
5 Christine Louise Rutherford, How They Clean Their Paintbrushes at the End of 27 Cooney, Giles, Kujawa, and Larrson, “Technical Memorandum II” Appendix B.
Each Day P1070080, 2 Jul. 2007, Flickr, 13 Dec. 2008, http://www.flickr. 28 John Cooney, Britney Giles, Tom Kujawa, and Anders Larrson,
com/photos/christinelouise/page7/. “Technical Memorandum III: Additional Framing Recommendations—Khumbu
6 Christine Louise Rutherford, Tibetan House Building Outside Shangri-la Climbing School,” memo to Architectural Design Studio Team, Montana State
P1070066, 2 Jul. 2007, Flickr, 13 Dec. 2008, http://www.flickr. University, Bozeman, 12 Dec. 2008: 1.
com/photos/christinelouise/page7/. 29 Cooney, Giles, Kujawa, and Larrson, “Technical Memorandum III” Appendix A.
7 Christine Louise Rutherford, Buying Tickets To Enter the Shangri-la Monastery 30 Cooney, Giles, Kujawa, and Larrson, “Technical Memorandum III” Appendix A.
P1060076, 2 Jul. 2007, Flickr, 13 Dec. 2008, http://www.flickr. 31 Cooney, Giles, Kujawa, and Larrson, “Technical Memorandum III” Appendix A.
com/photos/christinelouise/page4/. 32 Cooney, Giles, Kujawa, and Larrson, “Technical Memorandum III” Appendix A.
8 Christine Louise Rutherford, And This Is How It’s All Done P1070069, 2 33 Cooney, Giles, Kujawa, and Larrson, “Technical Memorandum II” Appendix D.
Jul. 2007, Flickr, 13 Dec. 2008, http://www.flickr. 34 Cooney, Giles, Kujawa, and Larrson, “Technical Memorandum II” Appendix D.
com/photos/christinelouise/page7/. 35 Cooney, Giles, Kujawa, and Larrson, “Technical Memorandum II” Appendix D.
9 Cooney, Giles, Kujawa, and Larrson, “Technical Memorandum I” 2-3. 36 “Fish-Mouth Joint,” Deboer Architects, 13 Dec. 2008, http://www.
10 Cooney, Giles, Kujawa, and Larrson, “Technical Memorandum I” Appendix B. deboerarchitects.com/BambooThoughts.html.
11 Cooney, Giles, Kujawa, and Larrson, “Technical Memorandum I” Appendix B. 37 Cooney, Giles, Kujawa, and Larrson, “Technical Memorandum II” Appendix D.
12 Cooney, Giles, Kujawa, and Larrson, “Technical Memorandum I” Appendix B. 38 Cooney, Giles, Kujawa, and Larrson, “Technical Memorandum II” Appendix D.
13 Cooney, Giles, Kujawa, and Larrson, “Technical Memorandum I” 3. 39 Cooney, Giles, Kujawa, and Larrson, “Technical Memorandum II” Appendix D. 139
14 “MGS Assembly Guide,” 2005, Modular Gabion Systems, 13 Dec. 40 ?? Marcello Villegas, New Bamboo Architecture and Design (Bogata: Villegas
2008, http://www.gabions.net/downloads/Documents/MGS_Assembly_ Asociados, 2003)
Guide.pdf 1. 41 ?? Marcello Villegas, New Bamboo Architecture and Design (Bogata: Villegas
15 “MGS Assembly Guide,” 2005, Modular Gabion Systems, 13 Dec. Asociados, 2003)
2008, http://www.gabions.net/downloads/Documents/MGS_Assembly_ 42 Cooney, Giles, Kujawa, and Larrson, “Technical Memorandum III” Appendix B.
Guide.pdf 1. 43 Cooney, Giles, Kujawa, and Larrson, “Technical Memorandum III” Appendix B.
16 Cooney, Giles, Kujawa, and Larrson, “Technical Memorandum I” 4. 44 ?? Marcello Villegas, New Bamboo Architecture and Design (Bogata: Villegas
17 Geogrid, 2005, Global b2b Network, 13 Dec. 2008, http://www.global-b2b- Asociados, 2003)
network.com/b2b/73/708/81976/sell_geogrid.html. 45 ?? Marcello Villegas, New Bamboo Architecture and Design (Bogata: Villegas
Asociados, 2003)

Notes and Bibliography


46 ?? Marcello Villegas, New Bamboo Architecture and Design (Bogata: Villegas 7 MEEB Trombe Wall
Asociados, 2003) 8
47 Cooney, Giles, Kujawa, and Larrson, “Technical Memorandum II” Appendix E. 9 Refer to traditional Sherpa architecture calcs
48 Cooney, Giles, Kujawa, and Larrson, “Technical Memorandum III” Appendix B. 10
49
50 “Bamboo Eco-Housing Project in Nepal,” INBAR, 13 Dec. 2008, http://www MATERIALS
.inbar.int/board.asp?BoardID=130.
51 “Bamboo Eco-Housing Project in Nepal,” INBAR, 13 Dec. 2008, http://www 1 Heather Archer, Nepal, 2008.
.inbar.int/board.asp?BoardID=130. 2 Nancy Sansom Reynolds, Double Twist, 2000, photo, 2004, Sansom
52 Reynolds, 14 Dec. 2008, http://sansomreynolds.com/six.jpg.
53 Cooney, Giles, Kujawa, and Larrson, “Technical Memorandum II” Appendix E. 3 Bamboo Flooring, 2008, Advanced Buildings, 14 Dec. 2008, http://www.
54 advancedbuildings.org/bamboo-flooring.html.
55 “Bamboo Eco-Housing Project in Nepal,” INBAR, 13 Dec. 2008, http://www 4 Christoph Tönges, Interior View, Construction with Bamboo, 14 Dec. 2008,
.inbar.int/board.asp?BoardID=135. http://www-users.rwth-aachen.de/Christoph.Toenges/pagesEN/bauwerke.
56 “Bamboo Eco-Housing Project in Nepal,” INBAR, 13 Dec. 2008, http://www html.
.inbar.int/board.asp?BoardID=135. 5 John W. MacDonald, Hay Bales, 22 Jul. 2007, Flickr, 14 Dec. 2008, http://
57 flickr.com/photos/johnwmacdonald/871339358/.
58 ?? Marcello Villegas, New Bamboo Architecture and Design (Bogata: Villegas 6 Straw Bale House, 2006, Solar Haven, 14 Dec. 2008, http://www.
Asociados, 2003) solarhaven.org/NewStrawbale.htm.
59 ?? Marcello Villegas, New Bamboo Architecture and Design (Bogata: Villegas 7 Paul Woodhouse, 304 Stainless Steel Sheet Metal, 19 Feb. 2007, The Tin
Asociados, 2003) Basher, 15 Dec. 2008, http://www.butlersheetmetal.com/tinbasherblog/wp-
60 Cooney, Giles, Kujawa, and Larrson, “Technical Memorandum III” 1. content/uploads/2007/02/304_stainless_steel_sheet1.jpg.
61 Cooney, Giles, Kujawa, and Larrson, “Technical Memorandum III” Appendix C. 8 Bryan Costin, Rebar, 9 Sept 2007, Flickr, 14 Dec. 2008, http://www.flickr.
62 Cooney, Giles, Kujawa, and Larrson, “Technical Memorandum III” Appendix D. com/photos/bcostin/1353072365/.
9 Steel Cable, TST Outdoor Toys, 14 Dec. 2008, http://www.tstshop.co.uk/
BUILDING USE images/steel-cable.jpg.
10 Rib Mountain Glass Inc, 24 Dec. 2008,
1 “Climbing Wall Holds - Intermediate,” Robbins Sports, 16 Dec. 2008, http:// http://www.ribmountainglass.com/yahoo_site_admin/assets/
www.robbinssports.com/sporting-goods-store/climbing-wall-holds-intermediate-pi- images/storm_window02.17770941_std.jpg.
2852.html. 11 Heather Archer, Nepal, 2008.
12 Huge-NC-Stacked, TJ Imports, 15 Dec. 2008, http://www.tjimports.com.au/
ENVIRONMENTAL SYSTEMS images/huge-nc-stacked.jpg.
13 Brian Walsh, Mud Wall, 10 Sept. 2007, Flickr, http://flickr.com/photos/
1 Benjamin Stein, et al., Mechanical and Electrical Equiipment for Buildings, 10th thepartycow/1356620103/.
ed., (Hoboken: Wiley, 2006) 204. 14 Andrew Dunn, Rammed Earth Wall Surface, 17 Sept. 2005, Wikipedia, 14
2 Benjamin Stein, Dec. 2008, http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/1/17/Rammed_
3 Refer to previous climate pages earth_wall_surface.jpg.
4 MEEB direct solar gain 15 Christine Louise Rutherford, How They Clean Their Paintbrushes at the End of
5 MEEB sun space Each Day P1070080, 2 Jul. 2007, Flickr, 13 Dec. 2008, http://www.flickr.
6 com/photos/christinelouise/page7/.

Interacting with Extreme Environs V2


16 Thingermejig, Extruded Polstyrene XEPS Insulation, 28 Jul. 2008, Flickr, 14 34 Andrew McLaren, Mammut_Flash, University of Strathclyde, 14 Dec. 2008,
Dec. 2008, http://www.flickr.com/photos/8586443@N03/2710835196. http://personal.strath.ac.uk/andrew.mclaren/pictures/mammut_flash_.jpg.
17 Foam Form, 2006, Sunlight Homes, 14 Dec. 2008, http://www. 35 Jonathan Smith, Climbing Rope, 1 Jan. 2005, Flickr, 14 Dec. 2008, http://
sunlighthomes.com/large-images/foam-form.html. www.flickr.com/photos/greencracker/2783756/.
18 UPM ProFi Deck-Terassilaudat, Suomela, 15 Dec. 2008, http://www.
suomela.fi/huoleton-terassilauta-uutuus.aspx?menu=68734&area=&category= THE NEXT STEP
&std=true.
19 Tyvek Homewrap, How To Paint the Town Ron, 14 Dec. 2008, http:// 1 C. J. Carter, Phortse, Nepal, 2008.
silenceisdefeat.org/~tgp/info/images/Tyvek_Dupont_logo1.jpg. 2 Pa Nuru Sherpa, Phortse, Nepal, November 2008.
20 Scott Ehardt, Tyvek House Wrap, Wikipedia, 14 Dec. 2008, http://upload.
wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/1/1d/Tyvek_house_wrap.jpg.
21 Foam Aluminum Heat Insulation, Zhixing Plastic Exporting Company, 14 Dec. APPENDIX
2008, http://www.easybizchina.com/product/d171525/Foam_Aluminum_
Heat_Insulation.html. 1 C. J. Carter, Lhakpa, Lhakpa, Contega and Thamserku, Phortse, Nepal, 2008.
22 Heather Archer, Nepal, 2008.
23 Sequentia Fiber, Crane Composites 14 Dec. 2008, http://www.
showroom411.com/media/directoryentries/sequentia%20fiber.jpg.
24 Adult/Youth Nylon Journey Pants, Sierra Pacific Apparel Ltd., 14 Dec.2008,
http://www.sierrapacificapparel.com/images/nylon6.jpg.
25 The North Face Particle Tent, Joe’s Waterproofs, 14 Dec. 2008, http://www.
joeswaterproofs.org.uk/the-north-face-particle-13-tent_259.jpg.
26 Down Jacket, 2005, Yangzhou Green Down Products Ltd. , 14 Dec. 2008,
http://www.green-down.com/images/products/garment/down%20jacket.jpg.
27 Topper, Red Oblong Limited, 14 Dec. 2008, http://www.u1a.co.uk/
images/4_ topper.jpg.
28 Anthony Watts, Newspaper, NorCal Blogs, 14 Dec. 2008, http://www.
norcalblogs.com/watts/images/newspaper.jpg.
29 Karen Johnson, Shredded Paper, 17 Sept. 2008, IStockPhoto, 14 Dec. 2008,
http://www.istockphoto.com/file_thumbview_approve/1184770/2/
istockphoto_1184770_paper_shreds.jpg. 141
30 Poisk 1, Poisk Oxygen Equipment & Metal-Plastic Vessels, 14 Dec. 2008,
http://nepal-expeditions.com/expedition_index/pictures/poisk-1.jpg.
31 MVC-0159, Osers, 14 Dec. 2008, http://www.osers.com/MVC-015S.JPG.
32 Fly Ash, 2008, Sonag Ready Mix LLC, 14 Dec. 2008, http://www.
sonagconcrete.com/images/fly_ash.jpg.
33 Kevin J. Folliard, Michael D. A. Thomas, and Kimberly E. Kurtis, Section with
Class F Fly Ash and Placitas, Feb. 1999, Guidelines for the Use of Lithium
to Mitigate or Prevent Alkali-Silica Reaction (ASR), (McLean, Virginia: Office
of Infrastructure R&D Turner-Fairbank Highway Research Center,July 2003)
http://www.tfhrc.gov/pavement/pccp/pubs/03047/images/fig18.jpg.

Notes and Bibliography


BIBLIOGRAPHY Dunn, Andrew. Rammed Earth Wall Surface. 17 Sept. 2005. Wikipedia. 14 Dec.
2008. http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/1/17/Rammed_
earth_wall_surface.jpg.

Gronzik, Walter T. Kwok, Alison G. Reynolds, John S. Stein, Benjamin. Mechanical


Archer, Heather. Interacting with Extreme Environs. (Bozeman: MSU, 2008). and Electrical Equipment for Buildings 10th ed. (Hoboken, New Jersey: John
Wiley & Sons, 2006).
“Bamboo Eco-Housing Project in Nepal.” INBAR. 13 Dec. 2008. http://www.inbar.
int/board.asp?BoardID=130. “History of the Sherpas: A Chronological Chart.” Sherwa Mi :Website on the Sherpas
of Nepal. 2008. Nepal Research. Sherpa International Trekking & Expedition.
Bamboo Flooring. 2008. Advanced Buildings. 14 Dec. 2008. www.advancedbuildings. Kathmandu. 09 Dec. 2008. http://sherwa.de/background/sherpa_history.
org/bamboo-flooring.html. htm.

Bertolani, L. Tartari, G. Toyotsu, K. Ueno, K. Stepwise Onset of Monsoon Weather Huge-NC-Stacked. TJ Imports. 15 Dec. 2008. www.tjimports.com.au/images/
Observed in the Nepal Himalaya. Monthly Weather Review. Vol. 136. 2008. huge-nc-stacked.jpg.

Brower, Barbara. Sherpa of Khumbu: People, Livestock, and Landscape. (USA: “Khumbu Climbing School Mission Statement.” Alex Lowe Charitable Foundation. 30
Oxford University Press,1993). Nov. 2008. www.alexlowe.org/kcs.shtml.

Brown, G.Z. Sun, Wind, and Light: Architectural Design Strategies. (Hoboken, New Kolarevic, Branko. Malkawi, Ali. Performative Architecture: Beyond Instrumentality.
Jersey: John Wiley & Sons, 1985). (New York: Spon Press, 2005).

Cabini, E. Tartari, G. Verza, G.P. Vuillermoz, E. Summary Report 1994-2006. Lowe-Anker, Jennifer. Forget Me Not: A Memoir. (Seattle: Mountaineers Books,
(Khumbu Valley, Nepal: Pyramid Meteorological Network, 2008). 2008).

“Climbing Wall Holds – Intermediate.” Robbins Sports. 16 Dec. 2008. www. MacDonald, John W. Hay Bales. 22 Jul. 2007. Flickr. 14 Dec. 2008. http://flickr.
robbinssports.com/sporting-goods-store/climbing-wall-holds-intermediate-pi- com/photos/johnwmacdonald/871339358/.
2852.html.
Marcello Villegas. New Bamboo Architecture and Design. Bogata, Colombia. Villegas
Coburn, Broughton. Nepali Aama. (New York: Anchor Books, 1995). Asociados. 2003.

Cooney. Giles. Kujawa. Larrson. “Technical Memorandum I, II, & III.” (Bozeman: “MSU’s Mission -- Bozeman Campus.” Mar 2002. Montana State University. 16 Dec
MSU, 2008). 2008. www.montana.edu/opa/policy/MissionBozeman.

Costin, Bryan. Rebar. 9 Sept 2007. Flickr. 14 Dec. 2008. www.flickr.com/photos/ Nepal. Map. Google Earth 4.3.7284.3916 (beta). 8 Jul. 2008.
bcostin/1353072365/.
“Program Overview.” 13 Sep. 2007. MSU School of Architecture. 16 Dec. 2008.
Delanda, Manuel. A New Philosophy of Society: Assemblage Theory and Social www.arch.montana.edu/programoverview.
Complexity. (London & New York: Continuum, 2006).

Interacting with Extreme Environs V2


Reynolds, Nancy Sansom. Double Twist. 2000. photo. 2004. Sansom Reynolds.
14 Dec. 2008. http://sansomreynolds.com/six.jpg.

Rib Mountain Glass Inc. 24 Dec. 2008. www.ribmountainglass.com/yahoo_site_


admin/assets/images/storm_window02.17770941_std.jpg.

Ried, T.R. “The Sherpas.” National Geographic. May 2003: 42-71.

Rita Sherpa, Ang. Subba, Sara. Sacred Sites of the Khumbu Region. (Katmandu:
The Mountain Institute, 2005).

Rutherford, Christine Louise. How They Clean Their Paintbrushes at the End of Each
Day P1070080. 2 Jul. 2007. Flickr. 13 Dec. 2008. http://www.flickr.com/
photos/christinelouise/page7/.

Sestini, Valerio. Somigli, Enzo. Sherpa Architecture. (Geneva: UNESCO, 1978)

Sinclair, Cameron. Stohr, Kate. Design Like You Give a Damn. (Los Angeles:
Metropolis Books, 2006).

Steel Cable. TST Outdoor Toys. 14 Dec. 2008. http://www.tstshop.co.uk/images/


steel-cable.jpg.

Straw Bale House. 2006. Solar Haven. 14 Dec. 2008. http://ww w.solarhaven.
org/NewStrawbale.htm.

The Endless Knot DVD. Alex Lowe Charitable Foundation. 15 Dec. 2008. www.
alexlowe.org/store_kcs_endless.shtml.

Tönges, Christoph. Interior View. Construction with Bamboo. 14 Dec. 2008. www- 143
users.rwth-aachen.de/Christoph.Toenges/pagesEN/bauwerke.

Walsh, Brian. Mud Wall. 10 Sept. 2007. Flickr. http://flickr.com/photos/


thepartycow/1356620103/.

Woodhouse, Paul. 304 Stainless Steel Sheet Metal. 19 Feb. 2007. The Tin Basher.
15 Dec. 2008. www.butlersheetmetal.com/tinbasherblog/wp-content/
uploads/2007/02/304_stainless_steel_sheet1.jpg.

Notes and Bibliography

Related Interests