A BRIEF HI5,TORY OF OPERATIONS IN ELJRO,'PE

1 AUG'U5T 1944 to 8M A'f 1945

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ANTIAI RCRAFTARTI,LILERY

THIR'D U'INIITEIO STATE,S ARMY

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PART A e~MPAION OF F.RANC.E:

f August - 24 September 't'9'4:4

L Tl\J.~ TlhErd US Army beeame cperattonal at ncert, 1 August 1944 .. A~ t'lrra.t time. <I major 1.llreakithrQugh bad been accomplished on the Normand¥ front. The VIII Corps, iniUaHy the only CortHi cpe.li[atiCJfta] i!n tih,e .Al!'~y.w,a5 Mi,flingisouth along the west side or ~fle Cg't~nitil1 !P,eninsula, (inca headed 'fuy [the 4:th and 6tl1. Annored Divisiorls, was Eldssiro.'gJ thrQiust,'h AWf@nches.

Somewhere in 'Franec

2. Th~ vtu Corps Arnfiiaiir'Udn, ineludin g the AAattached to divisions, was gi.ven as I~S nrs~ major task the pwfedle.lI'l (;If tihf' v,naY]y important bottleneck at Avranches. the protecti~n of Avranches had, attuaH¥ ltleg,ufi the day before, ~1 July; when th(;l 't:n'Uh SF ~n (61th Armored Divisionl :E.ll%~ed two batteries on the Avranehes-Pcnteuit>i)lUH od(igeSl, end was pr~tedin9~ fih@ pas S<l9e' 4))~ tlile Division, When the Division ,deal'ed, Lne ] [Jth ,~AA IGwup ~vm (:iDrps~ [~H~veQ the 777th by Corps AA. In the tiwo days" Aug [-'"2" the I,nth shot down 18 E/Ac. I'M! 1l3th AAA Group was, in turn, relieved hy ~he Ji8th, AAA B.ji''igade f:lft 4 August, wHh the 24th and 207th Groups, and br¥ th~' end' o! ailt aGUy;Hy n AU9"USt" more thart ~400 E/A had been engaged, and at least 160 shot d@wn~ but fIa6 once was any vital bridge or other installation seriously hit, [twas the Ifi[~s·c lli(;fjQ( eFl·t\'OilY etr sltr.iiK8 Qn ~he . continent, and remained as the mostfmense enemy [dir efti'@[~ in the lhftrrd lIS Army' until the Ardennes campaign, It j·s I.fi.ter.esUng ito n@'t~ 'that a rgr~,§!t lilHI',jorillty oB ,the attacks. were at night, aided lby bri.,g'l\t. ffioQoligl1t and clear weather, ($ee' !pli;lbe [J

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3, After most of the troops had passed through the Avranches bottleneck GAF activity declined rapidly. CIS. the luftwaffe moved their bases to the rear. The Vltl Corps, after passing through. cut west and southwest, and overran the Brittany peninsula, The XV Corps followed the VIII Corps through Avranches, 4 August. drove southeast to Le Mans; and than 5\.'1UOg sharply northeest towards Argentan and V:reux forming the southern arm of the pincers dosing the Falaise 9ap, The XX Corps followed on 7 August; drove to the Loire River. (hen headed east, covering the Third Army south flank, On 15 August 'the XX Corps: turned northeast and headed for Chartres, turulng over the south flank to thH XU Corps, which had become operational in the meantime and had rec tved the 4th Armored from the VIII Corps. On 15 August the XV Corps also started unew push from Dreux, crossed the Seine River. and was north of Paris on 24 August! when thE! Cc rps was transferred to the First US Army. It was dur.ing the bridqehead operations at the Ssfrte that the Luftwaffe struck a second time,

Dawn alert

4" The AA action Cit the Seine. while of a shorter duration, was, in some respects, more intense and spectacular than at Avr anches. Here: the GAf made most of their attacks by day, aided by 0 low ceiling that qrourided Allied aircraft at their distent bases, In the three days of most activity, 21--23 August, mOf€ than, 250 airq.;lh attacked the bridges and motorized columns, and at least 63 were shot down. willi! a peak of 24 on the second day. No significant damage was caused at any defended area. The 456th AW Bn shot down 23, and the 411th Gun Bn clalmed 25, for the two days, 21-22 August [See plate II)

5. The vm Corps, in Brittany, less the. 4th and 5th Armored Divisions which joined the XII Corps, was transferred to the Ninth US Army, 5 September, ~e,<il\riflg only nil.'"

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);:n and XX Corps for the s,we~p across ~rance. '[he XX CQI:PS advancec!rapidly nertheast to Cb ateeu-Thi err y and ~eim5. theii1 easrf mF'ough Verdun, and by the end 101 August had reached the. Meuse Riv.N, the XU Corps, on the south flank, headed for S1 Mihiel, and also reached the Meus'e; in that vldnily by the end of the month. Due to the gasoline shortage, fihe Q:d'llanee he9an to slow down rn early September. The XX. Corps crossest the Moselle B:iver, and by the end of the month was across the 1I1'ler in the vi.cinity of Metz. The XU Corps captured Nancy, and was across the Moselle River in that vicinlry bV the end of September. The XV Corps was returned to the Third US Army, came in ©n It'he Army south flank, and was in the Lunev ille area by the end of the rnortth. The XV Corps also made contact with the Seventh V15 Arm v, pushing up frorn the §itii}u'th, and was transtered to the Seven th US Arm y 2:8· September.

6. I.n dill H~d.@rs, enemy direraH were cil.'G:lttve" fOlf th~ erHirc P(Z rXu(i , Ibu! aHddts steadilv declined In intensity and were TIe~~igilbre by the end of September, Most or the acttvitv was air reconnaissance. thQlucg:n ~here were some strikes al targets of opportunity, and seattered raids agains~ «lumps. bridges and TOdd centers, InHially most attacks were at night, but vdth Ih€ lidPDd ddv,mce of the Third US Army the LuftwaJfe shilled to day attacks, and m@5,Uiy against Ier w ar d areas, At the end 01 lh8 period [.H,(}ctically all E/A operaling rWN'(;~ o'n nigl1t'reconnaissance. During the entire period, 1 AUf!usL - 24 Septl'rnber.. 'Third lI:JS Army AA engcJged approximatelv 2200 enetny&irCTaft, and claims totalled 43:1.

7. Not many planned engag'emenls wiltil AJN ill]. a ground role occurred during the period, largely because of the need for Al'J. .1m u primary role, arid because of the fast rnov inq s i tuatio n. There were many instCl'I1(;eS Qr skirmishes, ambushes, and chance

meetinqs wi th smell group,s w~ the enemy, whf:rt? AA tnjlop,s fought tt DUll on, JOQ L There we-re manv mstances ef l'.W shootin9i up i::<:jliumns" rHH1,se~, and enernvvehtcles, and spraying wacds al[~ Mdgt!,rowsj with multiple weapons. Ii. Ifew ef the more in teresting are:

(a) Batten! B" !'t/Jth SP :]311, captured t'ne town of BROONS, and was used as support with CCBI" 5th t&rmotedl Division, in anattaLk, 8 August.

(b) Battery' I), 4f3:d SP :Klfi~ 'hred p[O!nned missions, across the river at ANGERS, 26---27 Augu.st" gJ treops andi MG positrOl[ s, and sank several small boats,

(c) Batt-e.fY C. 46m'tlJ SF' lin, ambush ed endcaptured a railroad train, and took many PWs, inciudringa: l<JOik, 2HAugusL

(d) Batteries B. IC, .;md D" 4BOth AW lin, with Infantry Task Forces; VIII Corps, in attack on HREST,30 Augusl- 2 September.

(eJ Battery E, 457th AW Bn (provislortal half-track battery), as reconnaissance screen, with 2d Ca.vatry Group, X I I Corps, ,in the race acrcss France, 22 Aug - 20 Sept (f) Battery A, 717th SPBn. fired planned mtssionsecross estuary southeast of BREST, 3----4 September, at troops, MG, f".A~,liiouscs used as CP's and billets, and SEl_nk S~¥l€lrai srnafl b!])(llts.

g .. Due I{n tM need ti@i; 'he~¥¥ Aft, 9·0mm CU!i1 lBatlhrlicms were not used as FA unu] the last part of the period. Except for the 119th Gun Bn, wbich operated in a pdmary ground role 'in Normandy, and had its own especiall.y trained section, normal fire direction was from the local FA commander. The 407th GunRn was attacne(jj, to the Field Artillery for the assault OQ Brest, 30 August - 4 September, the ,l28th Gun, Bn fired more than 600 FOunds, I&:Igely harassing and interdiction, g._n September, and Batteries C and D, I. 19th Gun Bn, Ifitedmret? t 4,00J nHlfias, 0.']80 [,arrgel,]' 'liicdl'dscslng and tnterdtctios. t5-24 September.

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NANCY _ rol4

PART B

THE SAAR CAMPAIGN

25 Septembes -, 18 December

L This eampeiqncan be divided into two J)edods. The first was up to 7 Nov~m~N, lC£~vo:te4 to agreqsive defensealonq the Moselie, Whlh~ units rested, refitted, reqrouped, rand brouqht up supplies (mainly gasoline) trom the ~l;a1i, Thel second 'was an o;ffense, jurnpinq off on 8 November, and continu inq ~Q:s~w<lrtd ufltH tlhc ArOfrflneS: counter» @Hensive to (he north forced a shift of t[Ql[))l.I!3 rand the l\ult (il[ tile Saar 'C:ampalgn.

2. During (he first. period very fevtgains of any consequence were made. The XV Corps passed to the Seventh US Army28 Septemb'er, so for practically the entire period only two Corps, the XII, on the south (right) Hank, and the i\x., OIl! the north, weD!:! operational. Lines were straightened, and a firm bridqebead wes established along the MoseUB:,except in the vicinity ·of Metz, which resisted strongly.. Enemy aircrartactivity wa:s slight, and there was but one raid of iiIIny consequence, Nancy, on 19 October, was raided by 75 E/A, but the raid was abortive as (here was; no attack. It is bctieved that poor Visibility and heavy AA rue> caused abandonment. of. the mission. (P'late IV)

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3. In the second period, which resulted in the capture of Metz and practkal~y aU of the Saar, there was considerable hard fighting, and by the middle of li1ecember, both Ciorps were across the Saar River and preparing toassauIt the Siegfried, Line, The m Corps was assigned Third US Army and held a 'sector for a few QilYS, In December, between the XII and XX Corps. Divisions and Corps were then shif~e,d north to meet the mounting Ardennes counteroffensive. There was a flurry oJ£ ~nem¥ ,ait acUvHy over forward areas in the middle of November, aided by excellent Uy-ing weather, and there was a noticeable increase in enem yair reccnnalssance <.It the end !:)~ the l>eflQd. iJS the Luftwaffe obvioustv wished 'to< see how t:fle Third trs, Army 'Would react to the Ardennes counteroffensive. rt appeared that the GAF was buildinq up Us reserve for a more advantageous strike. (Plate V)

GAF pilot surveys his plane, shot down !lom~h~ "Io'liIg the Sa.m Valley

4. For the entire campaign,opproximalel y three months.only 355 E/A were engaged, and claims totalled /2, Most aircraft were on reconnaissance, although there were some a~ta('ks. As a liesullt of !'he dej.diFl€ lin lair acllV!u~y" and "he slow advances oft the ,gI'oUliKI dga:inst organized ~·;esi5Ital1ee., AA \.'1.,15 used mere extenstvelv in gfQund roles than ever before.

5. The 115Lh, 119th, and 41lth Gun Battalions accounted for practically all tn€il ground firing of 90mm guns. Batter.ies A, B, and D, 411 th Gun Bn, fired over 50001 rounds as FAt and Batteries C and D. 119th Gun Bn, fired over 10,000 rounds, including a large amount used In the assault on Mctz, The 119th, .I 20th, and 41lLh Gun Bettalions also participated in marking a "flak line" to aid Eighth Air Force bombers in the attack on Metz, 9 November. Ordinary 90rnm arnmuni lion was used, with great success,

,6." ifl1e[:e werle manTi planned e'ngQgem~EillS' wilEn A. W !I:J,J a glJQund tQ~e Irlur~n9 Ule pe,rj!oi;l. Some r(lf Hie more 'interesHn'9i ~re IdS ~I!.lUgws:

fa) EU!ries· 1\, IS:! "'I' BJ3di A'W Bn, 5lJpgldrt o,f SOUi] InfanlFTi Ji)j:yJsiom in attaILk., B~!:J 'D~lQber. Hi M<'J1 mounts, 'fiFedl [nearly (J,Q~IOO)O IQJI,mds.

(b) Btrles A and ~B, 117tlhi :SP' [In, li~nilced o'b,jectirve a:Ha:ck, 6th Armored, 8~9 October.

fel Btfie~,B and D\ 19:6'Hl S,P Bn" ('@f:tt'i)a:l p,atrol:; M;th 10th Armo red , ~4 OC'~Qber, (d'i 633'd A.W BrII.,80lth ffifan[[;1 lJiliision atfack, '1 No,y;,em'ber.

{;e~ 'IBtr]' :D, 4S7tlt A:W' En" pI[f'OtetWJ!1 t(}1 Engineers: in. :o,ffdgin'9 operation, B ,November.

Iffl Btry Ie, 54,'jl'tn A:""V: Bll, ass'CJ.lllt on Mea, 'forts, ~.'Jtljj I:nrantrv Diy~sioo, l3 N@\ol'ern.'r.H~l?"

I('g') Bt~~ 1(', 39Qth SP Bin" [a,tt&ek on wooded mea, 26th [nfantr¥' Division, 2:~3 lJi)eCemiJer.

fllJ ~t]'Y' ,8, ?96th SIP Bn, CDpe"wiUQns w\(h ICa'Jlahry" ! ~th Ann@re~l D.i,~isi'on, ! 4, December.

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PART C

ARDENNES TO THIE RHINE

18 December 1944 - 12 March 194.~1),

1, Troops of the Third US Army were shifted fiofr[h Irom U"JI? Saar to meet the growing enemy offensive in the Ardennes, in a sudden move, 16 December. ThB IH Corps moved to Arlon, Belgium, XU COTpS to Luxembourg, the VBI Corps, (from the Flrst US Army) was committed on the left of the III Corps, and the XX Corps held the southeastern flank with little rno vernent. The Seventh U3 Army absorbed the former Third US Army zone (le,55 XX Corps), W, VIII and :xn Corps attacked north, pivoted on the XX Corps, madre contact with the First US Army, and swung east toward the Siegfrid Line, (Plate VIl

P'an of the Christma$ Week Bag

2, The period Qpeliled with a noticeable increase in enemy air activity, mostly reconnaissance: NS the army moved north, the jammed hiqhw ays began to get some attention. The GAF unleashed their 5~riking power in the last ten days of December, sending up over 690' EtA in the Army Mea, with a peak of over 150, 26 December. Traffic, Class. III and V dumps, and airfields were attacked, with many reconnaissance flights. AA claims lolaUe:d 160, The J90th SP Bn (26th Inf Div] claimed 16 out of 22, 26 December, in a haU houri the l09th Gun Bn claimed 6 out of 17. 23 December. and 4 out of 15. 24 December, and the l29th Gun Bn claimed 6 out of 13.23 December;

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[N"ear 8a'stognl!, He1g1litll'l

W!Itz, Luxembourg

3. The pace was continued in Janllary, with ,a peak of 240 enemy aircraft on New Years Day - the biggest day since Avranches, Highways, congested troop areas, and Field Artillery were attacked, and many E/Acame over on reconnalssance. On that day 'the 217th Gun Battalion claimed 11 out of 47, mostly unsaen fire with radar, The 45Sth AW Battalion claimed 15 out of 64 in two hours, the 537th AW Battalion claimed 5 out of 12, nnd the 547th AW BattaliQn ldaimed 110' out ;or 40. On 10ne single attack by 25 aircreft, in twenty minutes" tiW(jl' baaenilE:S Q~fM1e 3S6th :SP' .NIaiUahofi claimed 8, the 41Hh Gun Battalion 7, anci oQn~ battery 0.1 the 46\St'irll SP BaLi@lieJl1 ~, IOf IBJ total oif 17. In addi lion there were num~'C'~us 'sJrOg,les and ooubl@$ des'tr@yea, Claims for the day were 78,

Lonely Vigi~

4. As suddenly as the air aclivity appeared', It declined. for about a week tfu<?flel were practically no E fA. Then, as weather improved, there was a nUTTY, mostly attach, on highways and other tar~ets of opportunity, This quickly died down, and, in the: lest half of January, activity .. vas almost zero ..

S. The enemy salient had, by this time, been eliminated, and the Third US Arm'y was driving slowly ahead through tb.€: Siegfried LLne. Them Corps left the Armv' 11 February, and the lin.eup consisted of the VIII Corps (on: the north) and the XU Corps, with the XX Corps standing fast on the south, Good gains were made through, February and. early In March. the VIII an.d XII Corps broke loose and raced to fiM' Rhine. The rest of the period was devoted to mopping up, north of the Moselle andi west of the Rhlna.

6. Absence ot ~j[ dctivHy canie«l lfun:lUgh February and March. From the midd'fe ~f January ~Q the end 01 tbe: period, Dr about two months; a total of 54 E! A Were ohsep/ed ever the' Army area, mosH.y reconnaissance. A slight increase in activily was nll)tedJas 'th.eperiod. closed, £lAd! U\e luftwaffe sensed the impending Rhine River Q1ossings.Tlbe F.tn\st lUiS Army ha.d made: a crossing. and the Third US Army assault CJoul<i not be far 0r~.

Typical jscene ill fl).e Ardenne'.'l

1, Therre was oensrderabte A'W <l(:'ti,Yity 1ft a gmund :m]e rlu:r;iFlg ~he 'peri@ci. Early II').] the campaign AW was used frequently in. counterattacks, tater; as the advance to ithe Rhine began, many planned missions were executed, A few of the more COilspicuous are;

~(al Batterles A" B:, land C 3·9Qt'h SP Bn, 'Infantry >1lHack,s, 26th Infantrv Division, De,cember ana .January,

lb) 6J.Jd A'W Bn" man~ :pl:a:nned missions, 60th ]n'fanu¥ ID~¥isiom" January and Fe'bruary.

ft~ Ba HEwy A, J'l:7th A W BTIl, man ¥ planned rntssions, ,Uh [nfatHJfY :mVIiSlyfi., January i.Hid fefnuary.

In) 8atte]ii~~ ~, C, and D, 4B5th SIP Bn, [nfantry attacks, !ll4th tnfant[¥ Di,vis,i6n, iFelbruary.

te~ 8aJterie~ ,1\ and D" 449fh AW' lin, rnfantn{' attacks, ,5H'l. InfElntr~ Division, JE'linuary "lind. Feb'IluOlFY.

m !!g:Ue;ry B, 196th 'SP Brr ,(10th Armored] and I!gHer1 C, 48Zd SP Bn {9th AnnolFed) , ,d)efensive (ires W'i,'tcll Wlst AJit'lDornE!1 ill. iast'ogne. December. BeoU,! Batteries received Uniit Citations.

(g) Battery A, with two secuons BaUeq' D a.UaGned, 4812d $P :8.0 t9th Arrnoredl, defensive fires, December. (Ba:M:el!¥ ,i',ecei1led 'Unit 'C1MMonl

(h) Batteries A and' D, 531HI. AW' En, in support of 90th Infantry Division, December.

(i~ Batteil:lhes ]3· and D, 575th SP Bn,aUack DE i: 1 tJh Armoli~cl., Div1f;li(m., JgnU'd]"Y.

S. 1:'fieH'~ was v:ety ll U:le hring' @f90mm as: F,~E!:rct Attil11eIPf, [p.'ft:hQugh Oil: ~ew' missions WNe execuled by nile ] Ulfu, i,19th, and, 'Ji[ '~lh C;'un Ems. Tlile 1 mthrliQ$6me: unseen firing at. nigIH, radar con[tr!Jl~ed, aga:inst h igh~a,r ba.nk.

9. Ila:tlfery Rlj, :226ith $'.earchtigh[ !!In, was] with 'uhf! Antly part ~f [he pe.iod, and! '[ufID.lshed cnlgb.~, il!uml,Q.a'Hon Oll tlh.,e bame~He']d for ~he SUi" 26th, ~Gfbr,80th and 9Qth rnfanlry Di¥.~si.ons, and! the: Wth Anncred [)f¥isf0.ltl~ The :hgh'ts, opeFta'ted under the XHand XX iiC!Jr:ps:and, aner front" line troops' became .acoJst.(Jrne:d to tilem., Wlercli1 very' popular. Light,s were used ror night work by Engineers, dty fighting cat nig:ht~ and generally for arrmrery observation and adjustment, and ainrfriip il1um!i.ro:atoiot'].

OCUl,lmim!'tl{)l} £~l" fnfantry Attaxk

10. The ~([)nOwifi<J lIliflitS, served wHh thee1 Third US Army a~ serne 'lime' dUfl.fig ,the pe1f1ilod 18 Decernber ~ t ii! Ma:rcih:

~(!I ,3icHh AAA Bril:gade

:;i'lh AAA Group P8(1\ lfhdg'l' 16th AAA GlIOup pat:h Bdg) 24th jj.afl.. Group, (38t'Fi. BI;l'j) '2'~th AAAGitOup !XU C"mHl~1

32d AAA Group ('III & V1H C~,l!P~)1 '1 14th AM Gwu,p ,(XX Corps]

I~]th AAA (;w1up (\I'm Curps~1 ~Jl7'~h A,AA 1[;r,QlUP (38th BililigJ

~bl N'IQ;¥ andiCotps: Bus: 1001 Gun 8n

IlS Cun Bn

us Gun Bn

J201 Gun Bn

128. Gun 8n

'1291 Oun Bn

211' Gun Bn

8:-226 $tt Btl, ,]131 A W Bn, 3B6 A'W 8n t] l Gun Bn 440 AW IBn

4~;1l A'W ~n ~:S~ A,W Bn 45,51 AW B,til 456 AW B,m 4>5'1 AW Btl

·t 465 :gp OJ))

46:jl SF' 8n .:168 SF J3n ~U;H AW En

~, 54'6 A W Bn

550 AW Sn

~5~ AW' eO! .5'65 AW Bn ..5'61 AW 8n $14 AW Bn 59~' AW Bn 635 A.W 8n 776 AW 8n 791 A'W Bn 79S AW En ats AW Bn ~94 ,A'W 8n

(I(;!, [)i ... lsi(H,al Bns:

:iJ77 A W Bn If :]nf lD.ii¥)1 ~'Vm, XU Crorps:): 390 SP Bn(.26 [of JDi:¥JI (IM', XX C(['!rpsl

,1l4f1 AW Bn (3~ 1M Divl, nu. XU Corps) 449 AW Bn (5]nf Div) ~J{I], XX Corps) 482 :$1' BlJJ U9, Armd D,j,v! l'1Vm C'Drps)t 489 5P Btl! 14 ArmQl !Jill! OCUlI, XU Corpsj

,SCj7J AW Bn (9ID illnf Dhrj ID[J, VUI, XU, X.X C([,!rp5;) 5:41 AW Bn (9~ :]nf 1D1¥)1 rvnr. XX: Co[psl

.549 .A W' Bn (8~ 1M IDN)I [Vm, XII Corp~)

5f§ SP Ihn 'U l Armd Im")1 ~\f'm Corps)

G33 A W Bn (lMJ 'InT ,Jl)i¥) (1 a, x U Corps)

777 SP Bn tG Armtl :m,,) (Ill, VOl, XU, XX Corps) 778 SP 5n (761 [Ftf IDt¥j1 rvnt, XII Corps)

796 SP Bn (lOI Armd Div) (XII, xx CO'l1jp~J 'til 81 AT En m)1 AB Div) (VIII Corps)

telement~ w!lill Imd )<[~ Corps TT elements w'VIII IbOTIP'"

~ 447 A'N Oll'- 'w!2H alar Iil,iv' <Ina I7 AB Dl\'. both VIllI ('(l)rpsJ ~ 465 SP Bn _ ~/94 Inf ijiv, XX COfllSi

~ 546 AW Bn _ wi6:5 'lIM O~V1" XX Corps

PART D

IS: Mareb - 8 May

ACH:.OSS TUB RHINE AND INTO CENTRAL EUROPE

,1. The jbf'~t phase, dosing the Third Army on the 'west bank of the Rhine, in",@lv~"d a ''brea'l\:; SOYlh€()!s~ !lC'lf05S the Moselle, and a pincers movement i.n conjui)(;':tign witbl tl1e Seventh US Army',. sealing off the Palatinate. The XU Corps made the initial thrust 'tQl the south and! souUh.easL The X;X Corps, south of the Moselle, struck east and made contact with t1he ,Seventh US Army, T}1e VIII Corps, north of the Moselle, protected tlile Army north [tank, and as the phase ended, was: prepared to cross the Rhine" Adually. two [,ltnceJrS were formed, 'One, by the XII C;:orpsand the XX Corps, and the ether, by [the }i.X C'.otps and the XV 'C@xps ,(5eyerHh 1)1$. Army;). The' wlJi.idwand 'campaign, whic'h captured all the erea west of' 'tlhe Rhine" ILQIDk !but. tlen dlarys, end ]ies\:lI~ted :]11 the de.st:rm;:tion of two Gerrnan Armies. (Pla'te V][!

2. The ned phase, that of crossinq the Rhine ~nd the drtve mto Central r:iermany, wa~, made: w~th 5utp.risin.g ease .. The Third US Army did not sto,p to mop up, but continued 'headlol\\_9 over the river and, in lWO days the XU rC01rp:s" ow:hitll made rFi.~ assault UQsJjing, w<1s wdl. beyond, 9:nd harl swung sharply north. .frankfort was bypassed and. the ratte' began, driving north and northeast. The vm: Oorps, on the north flank of lthe Army, was pinched out east of the Rhine and, arter 'blIQlSSl1f1.g, mopped up the ::!~(j)(kel left 1gehind. The XX Corps was in between me vm "H1.d :x.IE Corps, and, after ![liQi$sing, heaoed gener~lly northeast. (Plate '\(U1)I

3. As tll1e period opened, the LuftwaHe beqan t!]. ('hlY ,~til:lenLim! to (he thrusts of Third US ,l:\:Ifm't ArmQr. Initially rnost ©f ~he IE1;A were om reconnetssance. over the ,entire front, primarily over forward elernerits. VeFf f:e\;'i Bbi\ were reported in rear areas, Then • ss the full realization QJfi !tle sltl!Itl'tllron csUruck" the ,iL:!(Jf'tiw«lffe made an all out effort lIt! avert disaster. The rapid advance lor '~he Arnry to tlhe :Rhine and points east resulted in sorne of the heaviest 'oM aUacks, 'ret lel(pe!f~enced" !Due to the lack of ground Jle_sls'ta:nce the GAPattemptedl '~1iJ) stop 1II'l1e: clJi~ve bYi5!ttacking forward elements, paueku\arl y i[1 the XII Co rpSi " '[he' mo~t intense activity occurred 17-26 March, dlH~ng wlilich time the Corps aavamlceci to" nosse.di" !ilnd ~Q!llned out beyond the Rhine, How1e·vef, the speed of the advance made the Rhine b.rdgeheads profitable ~at'l9;et$, '~©r ~nrU'i ~ short time,

()n 11 March, ~he489 SF] en (4[n Atmd Dh!j arid lpe 492'd1 A,.W 8n ~XU O)lipS li\xlillery) knocked down 20 or 53: on 18 March. 235 E A attacked! the area during 'fihe day, and 50'werB destroyed with the 452dcredit~d with 16 and the 489th with 11; lilfl the next two days 12 planes ..... ere shot down. the 489th accounting for 5; on the 21d of j\;!dfCh. of 58 E l\, .27 planes were credited to AA, with the 452d getting 10; on th£' ?4th and 25th of March, 63 rnore, with the 129111 Gun Bn credited with 23; and Oil the 26th, the GLctivily declined, with i'l baq of but 5 for the day. The grand lotal 'V,ilS 191 01 815, with 110gligible damage to the defended area.

4, The Third US Arrnv wa" now he{Lded east and northeast. XX Corps on the North, XII Corps on thesouth. and VIII Corps mopprnq LIp. The Vl l I Corps was then given lill :ZOJ1.E: in belwk'cn, m ak inq three Corp-; allred::;!. heq.ded almost due east In the middle of Apri], f:lS the phase ended, the XII Corps had swung southeast, toward Czechoslovakia. All units w~re haJted by Twelfth US Army Croup, 13 April. which set up Ul n'1eHilfdini1flg line. rJ'l:dhibi~jngl furtll[1l'.!I i)lhri1lnEi(" rt~! Ilrl(' ~i~sL

26

S. 1&5 the anonfh wi AprrU opened, the intenstty of enemy air attacks increased, The 4'~h .and 6th Arrnored Dtvi5i0!'ls were heavilv attacked, as was Field ArUHer¥. il.fi·ClI AuCQb!dhn traffic. Velf¥ ~ew lE fA were seen in ~ea[ of Corps boundries. 01')] ~~he :M of A;pfi] AW battalions, afiD!il.e made Id~lirns: 't!)talling 104, Cat I and n. Of these, tile 4139hh SF Sn [(4th Arrnd Div] l(["lalmeci ,lOr. ('!Fld the 77?th SP Bn [6th Armel Div) clalmed 4i4~ Another peak was: H~lilCh('dl (tm 4 A.,prili, Q'rter whi{Jh acW'/ity gr,adually deel,jlil€,d. SeY~rd'1 A ~~ It\l'lsexperiel'lc€'d sliJ.o)'rp e.di]'O'i l'y and Ql ~hle';i,ed fine results, Tt:'l,e "jl'jlS th SP' Bn ~16th lnf Dft",,, in one IS 'lnQUIr;' period, ~ihol down 12 OUlt of ii!~" ,ta:nd an ~nle: 5 minute peri~dl'. U) jl.!~rl1. the 390[lh SP eIll ~26th ]n~ J)~"I,f! shot down, 9 old (Dr! ~:3'. [hrning [the mid'dle' of Aprrnil, .;!s forward rn(!v.I~meDt slowed" the LufltwQ'I~e b:egan to till. supply esita!bf,ils!hrne!il'Cs, and, increased the IrH~r~eI1tlQge of mig,hl aU<lcks:" :H:irghw<l¥ l:ra:!fic was eonstantly atlcaeKed, day and nlghl. There ,..;r.~s gn increase 11]1 reconnatssance HiLghi(s. In the one msnth, 13 March - 14. April. Thhd US Army AAA claimed 455 Cat 1 and 260 Cat H, aI 't@'~arl of 715, with 2 April. when L04! were claimed, as the all time. peak,

6. The a'Gist phase of the period was <,1 shifft Itt! U1e 50>0t'01 ill¥, ~h(t Third. US ,;.Vn:lilY. :Some uril ts were left in pI ace, while new units were received. Tlh~ IJ~[ CO[P:'l ~YI(T~ QlI11 Che Atm'r wes~ flank, XX Corps in the center, and XU Corps on tile'e'd.st. The~ l'l l C1Rdl xx Corps s{ruck south, and the XII C~[lPS SQJl).tli1P(il,st, A pi.n(Pi"'s ~Mlas ~fifme(!, aTs !he In CO,F1PS aMI! the Seventh US Arro'll" srtriking €'I(-lS[_ ]nade contacU :illl [tfH; south e l (ienna:tl'rl', Tlh~ XX Corps, on (1 paralte[ ,adYanCl!.?" i'11'50 reae'fu~d thQl southem herder bV the end ~f ~lle month. The XU Corps, ~ n tihe' 1!?1Ql.St, p,ruf:'ettcg the Oank of ~fuf:' Ann ljf" and, being' jJoined by the V Corps on 3 Md'~, plls'n~d ,ea'sLwalr(i: lliltn ('zedwsc~~Wdkilai, arnl wes e0l5 n of PUs€'n when wac erideel.

'C!) IN Q.

-

a"

III o

.' e

.. ....

'I, There was. ~ b(Fief increase in efieITl'f gi( are:1fhdty dl fh~. :euCl! @f ApYil but generall y speaking, actlvi ty decreased 'gradualll¥ to the end of the war. An acid. thing h&ppenedin :the last few daysr wbareas FW 1'90 and ME 109 comprised the bulk of EtA throuqhout the war, every t¥P~1 was ,seen at Ute; end, including obsolete and rarely seen. planes, Many E!A landed in Third US, Anny t'~rritory_and surrendered. As the war ended, attacks were fewi most or ~he planes apparently were on reeorinaissence.

8, There was extensive use of AW in ,ia, 9ftOunCli .!lQre by 'some units throughout the period, as support for Infantry attacks, artd [Ill river crossings. Practically all units fired at targets of cpporturrity, so a l'isUng of each eng,agementwould be superfluous. Engagements dwindled: to almost Zcr!']l near the end of the period, as the speed of !i!dvs.nce and: lack ef ol'gsnized resistance made planned missions tmpracttceble, The ~ 19th ,Gun. Bt'l! and ~fi6! 2,I51th Gun "l311oid Some ground firing as FA early in the period. A f'ew 01 tIDe ftlOc~G promiment lAW ,ac'etOfls are listed below',

[al' 39i;lhhi SP en 126th Inf DtiIJ)I, liver crossing, 15-17 Mar, and manv planned

missions through March and A]:IrH.

(b) 6330 AW En (80th Inf Db;j" Inlfantry attacks, Man::'!'! (c) 465th AW Bn (94th lnfDiq)l, I'nfant.ryaUacks, Mattc!1l.. tctl 7961h sp en nOth a,rm(D ,Olv) , In.fanll:¥ aUacks" Ma:F{;h. tel 546th cAW Bn {65th [nr D:iv!. Infantrry a t'fiacKs , Match. 0fl 635thl! A W BI1 - Indirect fire. .Rhine .crossinqs, Mt'Hcn.

29

~ at) 38th 1'\ A A iB rig (idle

Inl] i}.i\.'A GF'OUp (38lh Brig) It6:lh tlAA, Gr0)ulP ~1lU Corps) 21st AAA Group (38th Brig) 24th AAA Group (38th Brig)

(b) Army and Corps Battallons

3;lfi!it AAA C1VUI1 jXU Corps! '~ UtlF! AAA CtQI.lP IXX Corps) U:]iUl AAA Group rvnt Corps) I i.5th. AAA CrQup tV Corps) 20llh AAA Croup j38th Brig)

115th Gun fin 433d AW Bn
119lh 'Gun En 452d AW Bn
120th Gun Sn 4551h AW Bn 128th Gun Bn 129lh Gun HIl 2 [11th Gun Bn

226111 S L Bn fB try H) 386th AW En

W~ n [~h QUn 811

551 st AW En
5G51h Aw Bn
5b7th AW Btl
S\)!,1LJ, .xw l3n
634111 AW J31l
[:BSth AW Bn
7H5l.h AW Bn r·J
IH5th AW Bn 45f5th AW Bn 4S7th A,W Bn 460th A'W Sn 4G7Lh SP Sn 4Blst AW En

(IT~~ 1l&3:lh l'iJ'> !31l nnt:h ,~rTll')! ",n'ft! ~:Y41Ih ,;,Ill 8n, I/Lllh l\rlnd) "ho S['I,'<'d us r \rIllY At>. part o~ !ni' p:rr.wd I

(c) IDikvls,jonaI! Ba:tfilliohs.

I·OJd ,AW :mOUIl sop 3,93i1.Frl :5Pl 1144:UI1J. A \'!J 41l7uh AW 449th AW 4b2d AW 2I65tl1 SP

4.68t11 SP Bn - 20th Arrnd Piy

482('[ SP Bn - 9L1'l Armel DIY

4!89th SP Bn - 41h Armel Di\!

530lh AW Bn -7lst In! Div 535~h AW Bn - 99th In[ Div .S37lh A W Bn - 90th Inl Div ~4G1h AW En -""- 65th Inl Diy 549th AW So 87th Iul Div 550t11 AW Bn - l3Qth Inl Div

:57151 SoP
572d SP
:574th SP
:575ll1 SP
(;<l:~d ,:l\W
l1';i"fill , §:p
Y'ii6U1 SP'
!!§-6H', ;sil?
B]!'ll'hI A'SJV
~]r7;n1
'30' Bin 1 st. lor niv
En 26th Int rnv
Sn 14th Arrnd Di.v
Bn 97th In! t»v
Bn 28th [nl' Dlv
Bn 5th lrrl Div
En - 2d lof Div
Bn - 94th In! Div - 'V Corps

- XX <HV\ X I I Corps

- :E[ I Corps

- XU and V Corps

- '111m Corps

- XII and XX Corps

V Corps XX Corps 1lI Corps V Corps

XII, vur arid XX Corps XII and XX Corps

III Corps

XII Corp's

XX and VII [ Corps VII! Corps

X II and V II I Corps

Sn lGlh Arrnd Div XX dnd V Ctnps

En 12th .L\i·li"ld Div XX Corps

Bn 1:11b Arrnd Di v - XX Corps

Bn l l Ih Armel Div Vir I , Xlf and XX O)[P;;;'

!lInJ - BOlh l nf Div XX Corp"

rio bUt. Armel Div Xli, XX dn<i VIIl Corps

I311 ~ 7(ll11 11!1 Div XII. VJII .md Xx. Corps

gflJ -~- l Glh Arllld Div- XX Co;ps

Ihll - BGth Jnf DI\'-- III Corps

lc\~V: Bn !4th 1111 Disl i!:;;gd TUSA but [lol operatio'lh11H

ANNEX A

STj\._TISI'lCAL, ;-\N}\LYSIS

GElr~IAN AU{ 'lli'A.CTICS ACi.l\INST GROUNO l'Am:GET$ IN THE THIRD US ARMY AREA

t Priee ti@ '~he. nUiecl' [andingSOlft the ICQ ntinea t, 6 June [9414" ij gmea'ti deal Qb~acl 'f w as IkflQ'WO Qf lthe t<':u;:l!'cs of the Germen Air Force liFl a:Uackimg grQund '(arm:ets, AtJt.acks ,~r appn;l((:iabtc siJ;':e bad Qcculiedi in Dtah; and! S'tcd'y and a:loogj the Norfih A~rfcaI1 (f{,)<lSt" end some 'tlime had b,een devoted to tmeir .stlJd ~\ T,a~·gets Qr Q1P,pvrt1llni'ti'f IiI'! f'ellcwrard areas received 63,% ,Qf Q.ttacks, highw,g1)fs snd 'bridges oc-ec€'j'\lf,ed lOut 4'% of <l!ttleftl(i()H11, and 'F;l©rts and harbors, q,idiei:cls snd ammunicion Ilumps received 3;;)%, 55:(,;, of :;rHacksl were ty dive"iJ(Drnrbing, 2(1)';;, level-bernbinq; LC!% ,stFdfing, 12% unknown, afiQi 3<:; reconneissance flights. Bombers made !l11l!l,~1'F! use l@f cloud cover !il'ITd '~h@ blimling effcct Qt the biight sun lin rnaJkJng their app'lTOaches to the ta:rget ;;,.reaS, In brief.. strcrmg', elese-tn defenses of ~]] 'Y~ hIt ~bje((;tlives seemed cli(;;ltalecl b,y 'EFJ.S't [;.uf~· ~vaff\;' performances, wlith lQJ:waT'CD zones Q}~ ill.ivis-ions:, ,amI f(!)acds, ~ml bridges be'lFl!:j 'Of prime importsnce. An atte<JYtltte a!er~ status "mel alt lemcien't warn'ing system were l'le!E"lt!ssary to gUEludi a9ainsl 5 lJI;Pris.e,

2. Experiences in Italy were. to a certain extent, I'epea ted !;1UF~ng ithecourse oE ThirctUS Arnpjl"'s operatiQns 1f)l1. !the (;Dm:nlnen~ f'!'QUIl ] A1l!.gus't 'lS)'4JI Lo rit! Ma¥, :l~iJi5" Tbus, cl'm!ngl ,peF!Qcb 0 r ftapidi and thrIC'i;! Lening' ad'\!'~nce, armered spearheads were com.tinua[lly attacked by large number.'> of law"'flyiiQ,.9i ai[o:;:raft 'wfhic:h attempted to blunt their thrusts. As rivers were reached, ernphasis lurned 10 attacks upon the bridges and crowded bridge areas, a the air er~IDFfi W~lS- p;:u-Hculady Ia[gJel much of it cspilled over into troop and artillery areas of infanuy dhrisiorts fi!,)lloVJlingl Ithe armor. Little if any air activity was encountered behind corps reer boundaries during such limes. Sole Iarqe-scale exception to thi.:'\ was cilurling the imlUClI break-tbll10ugh drive of Third US Army's VIH Corps down the Co tentin Pen~F1SlJra:, DUf~l1g thart :y.terj!)d, from 1 August to 12 August 1944., the CAF made a rremded efIoo-fi, l1hal struck ~lght and day not only at lhe.spearheadingarmor and mrotorizeQ Iflrafilfry', 'but a't bridges, Toad defiles, dems and anliaicr:;crfl'n Ibehind them up andl IdLawn~ the: historic A¥li:{lnches supply route. Thus, targets were chosen '10eicause !)f tne:ir vil.al lrnpertanee. and merely vulnerable targets, such as supply dumps, oirf1iR1'ds, and tfue Hl(e were left q]mos[ untouched,

], During periods: of c@mpa~aU'\f,e'~'f little forward movement. such as eccurred along the M.osejlle' Ri¥lt:'J 111 lftr,&fiI;;I£', there were few a ttacks made: but, ~';[eath~F permittinq, recenriatssance ,\lils flown almost daily over divisson and eorps ";!)lI.es: while some nuisance strahfuQ rulniLl bornbinq gf e rttllery pcsitiona occurred.

4. The onry time Htis over-ell pattern varied was during lIH~ cGeifmanr IPFlcak-tlhn:mgh erTort in LUliemi)<imvg and BelghrTI1 in lthe Fhst llS Army sector, As] ThIrd iUS Army wifti1drew ,Hs; dlivlsitms r WIll its m:;rn lit'f1~ and lutnedi InQrl'I1J.1 :t<li slliilKe ,(;f~ Ul<? sou th Bank j)f lhe Cetma.fi IDulg-e, the luftltwcrUe f:<:;lt' Uhe {,!["s!t time penHnltJed deep1.¥ ifii'tQ U'10 ermv iil!r~a bellind Gorp'Sl fei1'J leWunQarics. :Suppfl'l' Ij'n:jlta'MElltior'1s" bdd\ge's, railwa'], supply trams, troop assemblies and convoys, CPs - all were bombed and strafed while at [he same lime close support was furnished German penzerunits by attacks upon our artillery

tanks and belc~(Ig.Lir€.~d garrisons. sueb 'ilJsaL B<Jstogne; Bel,gil:,lll1. Several nuisance attacks and one largc~sc'1!0 dUack W·(i1.8 Iffi<:Hle on airfields in the- dlT.[ll1]' fiH'\lt. hit ®:d€mioD, IndllY leC\JnIlai$sann~5()rtiC's were [!Or~~rrL i\ cornperIson of II~i£lm't;'!-l "flow'S !ihar whirl' I h.<2 Hun w as on the deterisive, up{DrQlxima ~cly 2Q', ot air 'dctlh.ril\,y 9t:GUI~'if(!" l:whlilt>l(~ corps boundaries, but that durill~ U'l(' f'Q'tl]'!tlet\~oHenshie !)PDl'QN:illl&'tel,¥ ~(l',;, 'Qi ;JIll. sorties' were reported be'hirid corps, !'m~! IMls ~t Il' ~ill1e ... ,,:I1kll !hc;:Arm;y rn\(l-(~ tl}l_ltr ('@fpSJ Instead of the us'tl<11 L", .. ·o or throe.

5, It. I:; dif ficult to slale ,dliludes ,at which at(ae.k~ wer€' nMde 54r::w~' ma:ny liil~~i,lI"Ik.'S combined several tacticS, and straling Ire quentlv followed bombll1g. For the entire course of the army's operations. 2 . .-163 raids by 6,192 enemy aircralt were reported by AAA S~)\'H('eS~ (]I[ ]I/es{'," 11022(G raid's de velcped into actuo! attucks. the remaining r,rids bein~1 f'Oflie'G@f1fl'dls5<n)c{f' {)Y, unknown purposes. A graphical pre~,;clltdliotl oJ types of al't!lc~$ ~ppe<'i:fi$J beim£" The type 01 attack was unknown on 3.7', of the 1,221§. r~lidS' ilH'Or~rLn~! .jl'HiHIW:,; .

....

" ,\,

,

\.

\

"

'\,

\

,

:HIGH ,A'LTlrroJlDEJ

l abov,e UJOOO (ee{l

'\

!i., '\

'\ '\

ts,

LOW' At 'nTlJDE l~und'E'[ ~,OOO ~eebJ.

",

'\

\

\

"

\i

'\ ~

It

,

II I

5. A tQltat illf iJ,~9C! enetny ah"<raft were over the entire army eree ~r which A.4"A, gunne,rs engag.e,di 4,98£. ,[,h~ t~m.aining 1,207 airplanes were observed by l n!.D~ fired upan J'a·]' \.r,QriQlU's eeasone, such a$i beiriq out of range, etc. However, n1~l'J.,¥ ~f ~h~~~ 4,985 ,air~uIJ~ we:r;e s~efi and ~&gag~r4 by several units in succession, Thel L~b.ulatjlol'l be'raw laDLes] C_ermanl Mr~Jra.:6t <1s' thE;Plf were separately observed and !!I'e~rt~d t.nl '~he va:rLoJlU!S AAA baH<lh~flS'. Sere€Hling to eliminate duplicate repetts of Ibhe ~~m~ ail'''planes has not been done.

Frequence of Engagements by Plane Types

3043 Mei-109

2261 FW-'~ 90

311 J~-a8

3$9 M.t;lf-~62

L'J4 Mel"'2'lO and Me-410 5:6 He~~P

4:Q ~~2'34

3~ M€:"] 10

1!~ J'1I1"8 Ii

ie J!l·l88

1 D Ju<52:

~O: [)oJ':;.u 7

91 ErH81 4 Me.,W8 4, Me~]63 a FW'-200 a F1·,)S6

2 H:(e,-177 2 Hs-126 l ,uo·1.45

Claims Cat I

426 296 35 22 10

7 2 8 3 2 4 3 7 2 o

1 o

Cat II 225 174 29 21

5

9

3 1 2 1 1 o 1 o 1 o o o o

2'1'4'1l Unkn.Qlwn 2')16 106

4Q ©osn ,arid l':rm:g 'l'Y,pes ') 6 3

,:--~"",,1~'1 J'e'f,-pr'opel'fed t¥pes 0 0

Unfi.lteredl TQ'tail ~204 Uolfi'lI.Nei1, CJValmS! '1 ]2:3 500·

Filtered '[\(ltal ,6~!%~ ApPtQF~',ed Claims 9271 '2;')I!;)

1,. TaG;U~s iQf anaekimg e:ilfr(;'r~fl v~r-~e~ ~~n5'i@.€[ab:l.y hu.t, 8 Qrrte: getiH~,i'''aI~n:fes ma'F~-e ,state<il. Thus, 'W'l1li~ i;'ltl~:ny p[IQt~ t,t)Q~ ,ac!lvao['ltag~' o'fl & :~@\.., SUfi i.n inak:~n9 attacks ,at Q'l1lsk and @aWiR, flQ J)I'~'f~[;ene:1jl f\)f the~~ pcarth;ulalf' :l1@m~~ '\It,Ci:s s,'fi.@wl'l and attacks! WNft sp[;eaGi tliJ.Ir~'Ug:Aoldt Plet:iQd!! ((If 'hh~ G;ia<y ~md flfg:hL CIQud (::o¥er ,a.Ts@ ~l..r\a~ used whece ,Ci¥aHa'l)'te. AJtlta~k]fig' l'll~fl~S! ti~n.cledi ~~ ,n Y: (;'I@~~If' to Ul.G1 gITGund, ~Qwat((i t~,een.d of tM

'.'iCif'J tJ'lu!j' Ft€lpii'ilg. r~ d~f~a~ D'adJ@'J'N],'~'f' wdrn.~Fl9' IMc"iiJ,i He!:?! tlN9.1 atso ~t@ JeBI1lG:'El bime wlfhiN ~aI'J.g~ Qf hgh~ A.AA w~iaPQnS'" TIh.~r~ 'W~i'\711 'FlC!;'l ll1.a!js~:d b01:ru.'lliing· Citlla~k'9 aH\"!m~t!i;ld. I'ndhdduOl] ~<:l.~ll.k5 and ]"\[l!ses, W~U~l M~~d ~S' rQl~I@'wsl;

~~~ . 'Wiil1dow' ·W0.5! occesrenell ¥ dr~pp'e,d In ~Ql11ge '(;PJQn"li'~le$ IDlJ~ QJc1 ~firy @fir; oceeslon did lit mate radar t~'arCkjjng QJF aj'r[l~iJneSJ imIPOS5ib!e,

(b): El1em'y Q;iiunah ,[tUt Lhectr maters to glide si!en~ly ~~@W'ard a '~inget, t!hus, hQpln~ to eseape delecU!)fi,

~c] Enemy aiFICliaEL rrtCid!e IIi.We use of h'a.(';:er ammunitton tn th,e:i,r fl'l,g,ll.l sftrafi.fig a t ~ a: c'lin._.

:n

[d) Some E/A flew in low to attract light AAA fire, even turning their landing lights on for this purpose. When fire was opened from the ground, other planes at higher altitudes and out of range bombed the disclosed positions.

Ie} Most attacks were by E;A attacking one, two, or three at a lime. In raids involving 50-75 airplanes, the formations broke up into small elements of 2 to 4 plane5,aHacking from all directions.

If) E fA engaged in mock dogflghts, leading ground troops to believe allied aircraft were pursuing German aircrall.

(g) Rocket-firing techniques appeared to be to dive at an angle at 45°, releasing the rockets at 500-1,aOOn altitude.

(h) Most frcquenll y used evasive maneuver, when engaged by AAA, was to dive low and level off near the ground. In avoiding AW fire, violent turns were used, or planes dropped 'to hedge-hopping levels. Bursts of speed also were employed. Those E/A which tried to climb or make bank turns were often shot down, except where they climbed to cloud cover or directly into the sun.

The' ~oll,O'w,ing tables 9LV~ a: rda:¥ by daJ"1I account of enemy air El!;Jl.1lH¥ If,g[ th~ flnUfe 'l'!erl~d, ~ August 1,~4,4 to 8: May" [9451, lH'lNe is an apparent distrepaflc¥ bel\{'e€lili. [Some or the figlllF€S shown. andl Lhp.: tex,f, as ~h€ ~(J:'1t>le g5v:es, uflfi'n~[ed~ata, kequeil!'Uy amended by' subsequent inform.afiio\llt"

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ApEll'o'J'ed. claims for all enemy ahl'Graft de5tro~~d lor damaged, j Aiugus,t ~9441 to :8 May ~945, while units Iisted w,ete -ser'J'ing 'w'H'1i1 the 1i'hird U'3l . .Armv.. nilS' tabulation. oo@s ~otindl!lde (l g[l?at many a;(llditiolna] etrcralt d(lime0l" ldnd ,e,Clnned, whiiel units, 1Ven:! lID'efached (,wm Jhh',Jj USJ Pnl.l.'rny and selivin~r elsewhere. '1JttHs: nat Jjlsted m.ade fig claims under the Army"

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1 15th, Gn B:n 3'4 1'2' Hi 4
119lih Cn Bn 2L 1,2 ? 2:
L20!h Gn !;hl ~4 IJ 4
U28l1ii1 en Jan 1,5t I 4i 3 3
~2Yl'1r1 Gn 'Bn !H (iG 4 'J:2: 2
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Zl1llfl len IBn 2~ 91 ;)
J8~tfl xw En a L'I] 3i 1
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39~th SIr' 8n 3g]j 12 ]) 4
39fWt SF) £n l6,
41'lluh Gn llin 45516 t 1 l
44!4,fih AW 8n 1
H5lh AW Bn 2"01 2 l,
44Slhi A'W IJn 5 114, 2 ~
449th AW IBn 12 ~QI .5
4.52nd AW 80 67 11,12 m 11
45.'Hh AViV' 1311 SO 113 ~Il 23
45Mh A\V 13m 33 112 ~4
457111 AW En fS1ilZ ? 1ir2 6
4G3rd AW En 26 51 1
465lh SP En 1'9 I.iJ 4 '2
4G7th SP IBn ll2 2 1
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473rd sr Btt l3 4.
43 lsi A \r:/ Bn ]
/4.119.th S}I 8ft ~ lfl1il2 II 312
saou. AW Bn ~ t
537lh AW Sa :n I 4J l,2 b
54bth AW ~11 21 6 2'
.'i4Jlh AW En 4 i 51
S49lh AW Bn I
55Qth AW Ba ]7 9 io
5,5 1 5[t AW Bn l8 U2 L I
5SQLh AW Bn 'I
565lh AV'l Bn '2 '1:
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S72nd AW Bn ~I '} ~~
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575111 AW Bn 15314 l '1
5lil9l1) AW Bn t3
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77lit'h A'W Bn :~, 2'
1lJhh SP Irhi 6411'1 l~ 2;6
77f:lth SP en ~4 2,3 5 l
7nnd A'vV BIl I I :~J
7QStll A\N !~n I
7!)bth .sp ~rfi 5 4 2
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Ti)Iflh ~l't? 219 1,8a

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