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A Magazine for Clergy/July 1981 •

One reader believes our "creationist bent ... is clearly way
off track, '' while another believes the controversy over Creation versus
evolution ' 'is really a hermeneutical problem.
Creationists off track planes, atomic power, the internal com Bible a witness to God? I think most
I generally appreciate your publica bustion engine, et cetera. Just because Christians would agree that the Bible in
tion, even articles not quite on target as they were ignorant doesn't mean that its intent and execution is consistently a
far as I'm concerned. Your creationist they couldn't be inspired. But neither witness to God. Everything in the Bible
bent, however, is clearly way off track. does it mean that we must accept their serves that purpose. The arena of the
The March article "How Old Is the ignorance as our starting point.— hermeneutical problem seems to be:
World?" was neither science nor reli Richard E. Green, United Methodist 1. The words of the text that are before
gion! There are some grounds for ques Church, Maryland. us and that were chosen by the author to
tioning evolution, but Biblical chronol It is obvious that the Bible writers, express what was in ...
ogy games are no grounds at all. The basic although inspired, did not have all knowledge 2. the mind of the author as a result of
problem is assuming that because the and that they operated within certain cultural
Biblical writers were inspired, they knew 3. the revelation that he had received,
and social contexts that affected their think which was his understanding of ...
everything. It seems to me that some ing and outlook on life. It is the essence of
consistency is called for. If we want to 4. the revelation that God had given him
divine inspiration, however, to convey time' in the hope that he would understand
accept the world view of Bible times, why less truths through such individuals. The
not accept the social and cultural views what was in ...
Bible says nothing about such modem 5. the mind of God.
too? This whole creationist trend smacks inventions and discoveries as those cited. It
of limiting God's actions to concepts of Now, of these, which is the most
does give information regarding the creation important? For me, there is no question. I
many centuries past. That the New of our world and its chronology. To
Testament writers accepted the Genesis want to know what it is that is in the
determine that its statements are mere mind of God. The relative importance
accounts of Creation proves nothing. reflections of a world view that no longer has
They didn't know any better! Neither did flows from number five to number one.
validity today is to set oneself up as the Sometimes I think I am more a Biblical
they know anything of printing, air- arbiter of what is truth in Scripture and what literalist than those who believe their
is mere cultural baggage. We believe that our faith lives or dies by the words of the text.
An outstretched hand rightful position regarding Scripture is to I believe those words are absolutely
If you are receiving MINISTRY accept at face value what it says when it important to us. They are the means
bimonthly without having paid for a purports to give a straightforward ac provided for us to ascend that "hermen
subscription, it is not a mistake. count. —Editors. eutical ladder" to the mind of God. And
We believe the time has come for what I don't see Robert H. Brown and
clergy everywhere to experience a A hermeneutical problem followers of the straightforward grammat
resurgence of faith in the authority Regarding Robert H. Brown's article ical-historical interpretation of the Bible
of Scripture and in the great truths "Theistic Evolution" (November, doing is paying attention to what the
that reveal the gospel of our salva 1980), the controversy over the Bible Bible actually says.
tion by grace, through faith alone in versus evolution is really a hermeneutical If the words of the Bible text are of
Jesus Christ. Since 1928 MINISTRY problem. Until the hermeneutical ques crucial importance to us (as they are to
has been designed to meet the needs tions are resolved, there is no hope of me, and Brown seems to feel they are to
of Seventh-day Adventist ministers. even sensibly addressing the questions him), then we first have to deal with at
However, we believe that we have raised in the Bible/evolution contro least three differing accounts of Creation:
much in common with the entire versy, and it will forever remain a matter (1) Genesis 1, which sees Creation
religious community and want to of one person playing checkers and the taking place in six days and a certain
share with you our aspirations and other playing chess with each wondering order in which things were created and
faith in a way that we trust will why his moves are ignored by his which sees the Lord suggesting that we
provide inspiration and help for you opponent. imitate Him by taking a rest on the
too. The conflict is not between science seventh day; (2) Genesis 2, which sees
We hope you will accept this and faith, although that is where it is Creation taking place all on one day with
journal as our outstretched hand to being fought. The real conflict is one of man created first and the creatures and
you. Look over our shoulders, take understanding what the Bible is. The things created in an order almost the
what you want and find helpful, and article contains a statement that points reverse of Genesis 1; (3) Psalm 104,
discard what you cannot use. us toward the real issues: "Faced with which sees Creation as God's continuing
Bimonthly gift subscriptions are denying either the ability of scientists to activity and God often working through
available to all licensed and/or interpret correctly the data available to the hands of men in His continuing
ordained clergy. Each request should them or denying the Bible as a reliable creative activity.
be on your church letterhead (if witness to earth history, many Christians When we do take the text seriously,
possible) and include name, address, and Jews sought a compromise." we find ourselves confronted with these
denominational affiliation and posi Here is an issue Brown must deal with three distinct accounts of Creation. We
tion. Clergy outside the U.S. and before he addresses the scientists: Is the then have two options: We can choose
Canada please remit $2.00 postage._ Bible a witness to earth history, or is the (Continued on page 15.)

J. Robert Sparigler
B. Russell Holt
Warren H. Johns
W. B. Quigley
Shirley Welch
CONTRIBUTING EDITORS A Magazine for Clergy/July 1981/Volume 54/Number 7
Robert H. Brown
P. Gerard Damsteegt
Raoul Dederen
Lawrence T. Geraty
Roland R. Hegstad How Churches Grow/4. Roger L. Dudley. Within the same
Arnold Kurtz
Leo R. Van Dolson denomination, some local congregations are growing while
CONSULTING EDITORS others are not. Why? A recent scientific sampling of white,
R. A. Anderson black, and Hispanic Seventh-day Adventist churches across
C. E. Bradford North America indicates some expected (and some
Mervyn Hardinge, M.D.
Richard Lesher unexpected) factors that definitely influence how a church
Enoch Oliveira grows.
N. C. Wilson
Sharing the Ministry/8. Harry J. Spaeth.
Donald Crane
Arturo Schmidt Why So Few Successes?/10. Sometimes the feelings of failure
almost overwhelm a pastor. Why, when he tries so hard and
EDITORIAL SECRETARIES prays so much, is he still unable to help his members solve
Marta Milliard
Dorothy Montgomery their difficult problems? A. D. Inglish, from a rich background
in pastoral ministry, looks at the failure syndrome and comes
Byron Steele up with some positive and helpful advice.
DESIGN AND LAYOUT Israel and the Church/12. Is the New Testament church the
Helcio Deslandes
Alan Forquer only heir of all God's promised covenant blessings for the
present and the future? When did the church begin? How do
Robert Smith Christ and the New Testament writers apply God's ancient
INTERNATIONAL CORRESPONDENTS covenants with Abraham, with Israel, and with David? Hans
Africa-Indian Ocean, N. C. (Ted) K. LaRondelle examines Biblical teaching on the relationship
Wilson between Israel and the church.
Afro-Mideast, Harry A. Cartwright
Australasia, A. N. Duffy I Believe in Jesus Christ/18. Raoul Dederen continues the
Euro-Africa, Johannes Mager
Far East, James H. Zachary series "This We Believe" with an examination of the central
Inter-America, Carlos Aeschlimann belief of the Christian faith—Jesus Christ, Son of God and
North America, William C. Scales, Son of man, Creator, Redeemer, and Lord of lords.
Jr., Samuel Meyers
Northern Europe, David E. Lawson The Devotional Life of Brother Lawrence/22. Many years
South America, Daniel Belvedere
Southern Asia, D. R. Watts ago, Robert M. Johnston came across a booklet about Brother
Trans-Africa, D. W. B. Chalale Lawrence, a Carmelite, which greatly influenced his life. He
shares with us insights into the life of this remarkable man
who truly practiced the presence of Christ.
MINISTRY (ISSN 0026-5314), Help for the Sight and Hearing Impaired/24. Donald B.
the international journal of the Simons. 1981 has been designated the Year of the Disabled
Seventh-day Adventist
Ministerial Association © 1981, Person. But the Christian Record Braille Foundation has been
is printed monthly by the providing free services for individuals with sight and hearing
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20012, U.S.A.
Subscription price, US$12.50 a Is Your Pick-me-up Letting You Down?/26. Leo R. Van
year; single copy price, US$1.25. Dolson. Hands holding the nation's coffee cups are shaking
Price may vary where national
currencies are different. more than usual because of recent reports of an increasing
For each subscription going to number of health problems linked to coffee drinking.
foreign country or Canada, add
US$3.45 postage. Prices subject Moving Can Almost Be Fun!/28. Bette Westfall. In a
to change without notice. mobile society, pastors and their families are among the most
MINISTRY is a member of the
Associated Church Press and is mobile. There are some things that can be done, however, to
indexed in the Seventh-day make it almost fun.
Adventist Periodical Index.
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20012. Unsolicited manuscripts World View/21 Recommended Reading/30
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stamped self-addressed envelope.— Shepherdess/28
growth rates found in other faiths. Why?
According to a The North American Division of
Seventh-day Adventists commissioned
sampling of 295 the Institute of Church Ministry at
Seventh-day Andrews University to conduct a research
study of church growth in Adventist
Adventist churches churches in the United States and Can
ada. Its purpose: to identify those local
across North institutional factors that are associated

America, growing with rapid church growth as well as those

associated with minimal growth or
congregations tend decline. Such information can enable
pastors and others to emphasize the most
to have certain productive factors, and it also provides a
basis for developing curricular and training
characteristics in materials.

common. What are Methods

Using random sampling methods, 295
they and how many Adventist churches throughout the North
American Division were selected. The
are present in total sample was subdivided into white,
your church? English-speaking; black; and Hispanic
churches. The pastor of each selected
church was asked to complete a personal
by Roger L. Dudley survey form and also to have each member
of his congregation present at a given
Sabbath worship service complete similar
The surveys were especially constructed

How churches grow to measure attitudes, behaviors, and fac

tors that might possibly be related to
church growth. The items surveyed were
selected after a review of church-growth
literature, analysis of questionnaires from
union and local conference presidents, and
interviews with "successful" pastors. The
pastor's survey contained sixty-eight items;
the member's survey contained forty-three
items. All results from a particular church
were averaged for each item to provide a
series of responses that would represent
that church as a unit.
The surveys were administered during
the late spring and the summer of 1980.
Although the following study deals only with numbers to church rosters without truly Pastors of 250 churches returned their
factors influencing church growth among integrating the new converts into the life surveys, a response rate of 85 percent. A
Seventh-day Adventist churches in North of the congregation or nurturing their total of 194 churches returned 8,336
America, readers in other parts of the world spiritual development is not only self- completed member surveys, a response rate
and among other denominations will certainly serving but counterproductive. And we of 66 percent.
find parallels and applications to their own can surely agree that the church does have To measure the amount of church
situations. Editors. a responsibility to society. Nevertheless, growth, records covering the eighteen
Christ's final word to His followers was a months between January 1, 1979, and June
commission to go to all nations, baptize 30, 1980, were used. Two different meas
believers, and make disciples of them (see ures of growth (or decline) were employed.
he church growth movement has Matt. 28:18-20). Unless a church is An actual growth rate was obtained by
drawn criticism for, among other things, experiencing conversion growth, unless subtracting a church's membership figure
having as its top priority the winning of people are hearing the gospel and leaving for January 1, 1979, from the membership
new members. This diverts attention, say the world to unite with the body of Christ, figure for June 30, 1980, and dividing the
the critics, from the church's longstand that church is not fulfilling its mission. result by the beginning membership. This
ing mission to minister to the needs of the - In the past decade a number of mainline figure was expressed as a percentage to one
entire community and to serve as its Protestant denominations have been decimal place. In cases where the result
conscience. declining in membership. Others have represented a decline rate, the negative
We readily allow that merely adding grown rapidly. Within a given denomina sign was used. The average actual growth
tion, some individual churches are grow rate for the year and a half was 6.1 percent,
Roger L. Dudley, Ed.D., is coordinator of ing rapidly while others are growing or about 4.1 percent yearly.
research and development, Institute of slowly, not at all, or even declining. In addition a measure was used that
Church Ministry, and assistant professor of Seventh-day Adventists have enjoyed disregarded growth or loss by the transfer of
church ministry, Theological Seminary, reasonably good growth compared with established members from one church to
Andrews University, Berrien Springs, many denominations. Yet individual SDA another. This would reveal how a church
Michigan. churches exhibit the same wide range in fared in terms of additions by conversion

and losses by apostasy. This was designated well as numbers; their ratio of apostasies to exercise of their spiritual gifts.
as kingdom growth and was calculated by baptisms was small. 8. Pastor's Bible class. Since baptisms
subtracting the number of members 3. Percent of membership meeting have been shown to correlate significantly
dropped for apostasy and as missing from in small fellowship or study groups. with a pastor's Bible class held during the
the number added by baptism and pro People are attracted to a church where Sabbath school, more emphasis should be
fession of faith during the period under there is personal warmth and caring, where placed upon this activity. The research
study. The result was divided by the they can not only celebrate the worship reveals that on any given Sabbath only one
beginning membership figure and service but can feel a part of a family. church in twenty is holding a pastor's Bible
expressed as a percentage to one decimal People, whether already church members class.
place. The average kingdom growth rate or still considering church membership, 9. Number of evangelistic series
for the eighteen months was 7.8 percent, will gravitate toward a group in which their held. Pastors were asked how many evan
or about 5.2 percent yearly. personal needs are met. gelistic series were held in their church
Each item on the pastor survey was 4. Belief in growth potential. Pastors areas during the previous year. The
correlated with both actual and kingdom were asked to rate the growth potential of responses were significantly related to
growth rates for the church being sur their local churches on a continuum from kingdom growth. This predictor is closely
veyed. A multiple regression program was "no potential" to "unlimited potential." related to predictor number 5.
used that not only revealed direct correla Those indicating a high potential pastored
tions but also calculated a prediction churches experiencing rapid growth. The white sample
equation in which a series of items was While it might be assumed that the pastors Each of the nine predictors of church
chosen that, taken together, provides the knew what their churches were capable of, growth listed above for the total sample
best explanation for the variation in the it is more likely that the result represents was also influential in the white sample
growth rates. The program also deter the spiritual principle "According to your and in roughly the same order. Focus on
mined the order of strength for each items faith be it unto you." Simply put, we church growth was the most important
selected in the equation. The program was cannot do anything unless we believe that factor for both actual and kingdom growth.
run on the total sample and also on the we can. This variable is related to the idea Prayer meeting, small fellowship groups,
white, black, and Hispanic churches of "possibility thinking" that has been belief in growth potential, public evangel
separately. The entire process was repeated articulated so well by Robert Schuller. istic meetings, and skill in personal deci
for the member survey. 5. Public meetings effective in bap sions all ran strong. But in addition, three
tisms. Pastors were asked to rate how other predictors stood out in the white
Findings from the pastor survey effective public evangelistic meetings had sample:
When the 68 items on the pastor survey proved to be in their churches as a method 1. Church growth goal. Pastors were
are compared with both actual and king for gaining baptisms. Rating the method asked to state their church's growth goal
dom growth, a pattern begins to emerge. effective was correlated with both indices for the year in terms of a percentage of their
Certain responses were definitely asso of church growth. Apparently the age of present membership. Responses ranged
ciated with either or both growth meas public evangelism has not passed away. from no goal at all (25 churches) to one
ures. When the total sample is considered, Growing churches are finding the method church that had set its growth goal at 100
the following items, roughly in the order of effective. percent of its membership! The higher
importance, seem to be the best overall 6. Skill in personal decisions. Pastors goals were correlated with church growth
predictors of a growing church: were asked to rate their skill from low to in one of the strongest relationships
1. Focus on church growth. Pastors high in gaining decisions for Christ uncovered in the study.
were asked, "To what extent is every phase through personal visitation. High ratings 2. Educational level of the congre
of church activity focused on church were correlated with actual growth. A gation. According to the survey, the more
growth?" Those whose response tended growing church has a pastor who is highly educated the white congregation is,
toward a complete focus in this area were comfortable talking with people on a the more likely it is to experience both
pastors of growing churches. personal level about spiritual things and actual and kingdom growth.
Peter Wagner lists as one of seven vital who can lead them to a commitment to 3. Preferred time in ministry to
signs common to healthy, growing Jesus Christ. members. Pastors were asked what per
churches in America the fact that they 7. Time spent in administration. centage of their time they would like to
have their priorities straight. He also says, Pastors were asked to indicate the average spend in ministry to members. Those
"The indispensable condition for a growing percentage of their time spent in church pastors who wish they might allot a smaller
church is that it wants to grow and is willing to administration. On actual and kingdom percentage of time to internal ministry
pay the price for growth,'' The present study growth rates, the correlation was negative. were more likely to be in growing
has confirmed this for Seventh-day This indicates that growing churches have churches. This probably means that they
Adventist churches. In growing churches pastors who spend a proportionately are oriented to their mission to the world
nothing is allowed in the program that smaller share of their time on administra rather than to a shepherding style.
does not have soul winning as its aim; tive duties. Pastors need to be freed from
every individual activity is tailored to soul much of the machinery of running the The black sample
winning. church to devote themselves to direct soul The indicators of actual and kingdom
It should be added, however, that winning and to training members in the growth in the black sample turned out to
church growth is not merely baptizing
people. It also includes incorporating them
into responsible church membership and
equipping them for further service. It is as
concerned with quality as with quantity. Churches where most members have been in the
2. Percent of membership regularly
attending prayer meeting. Regular congregation for twenty or more years are not
prayer meeting attendance ranged from 1 growing. Growing churches have a great
percent to 98 percent, with an average of
about 25 percent attending regularly.
Churches with larger prayer meeting
proportion of their membership made up of
attendance were growing in spiritual life as recent converts.
be quite different from those in the total rating was associated with both actual and be more active in telling his friends what
and white samples. They are as follows: kingdom growth. the Lord has done for him.
1. Percent of membership in wit 2. Bible studies by the pastor effec 3. Amount of family income. This
nessing classes. Pastors were asked what tive in securing baptisms. This variable factor is difficult to explain in terms of
percentage of their membership was also correlated with both actual and church growth, but it did show a good
enrolled in or had graduated from classes in kingdom growth. correlation. Congregations with higher
witnessing or giving Bible studies. A high 3. Preferred time in ministry to average incomes tend to grow more rap
percentage response was significantly nonmembers. Pastors were asked to list idly. Perhaps this is because more money is
related to both actual and kingdom the proportion of their time they would available to invest in soul-winning pro
growth. like to spend personally working for grams. Perhaps also the more affluent
2. Leadership style. Pastors were nonmembers. A high proportion corre congregation is seen as more prestigious by
asked to rate their leadership style on a lated with both actual and kingdom its surrounding community and has better
continuum from "I make most of the growth. facilities. This may illustrate the sociologi
decisions" to "members run the church." cal principle that people are more likely to
The more democratic style proved most Findings from the member survey wish to affiliate with a group that they look
favorable for both actual and kingdom The following indicators seem to be the up to and respect.
growth. best overall predictors of a growing church 4. Assurance with God. Where mem
3. Accessibility of church to pros as indicated by the results of the member bers are more certain about being in a right
pective converts. This surprising finding survey. In terms of the total sample, they relationship with God, the church tends to
showed negative correlations to both actual are listed in roughly the order of their grow. People cannot share what they do
and kingdom growth; the more inaccessi importance: not have. An attempt to proclaim the
ble the church, the more it grows! More 1. A soul-winning church. It is easy truths of the church's message that is not
study and thought needs to be given to a to pick this as the number one factor, for it undergirded by transformed lives
valid interpretation of this factor. had the highest correlation with both experiencing joyous and satisfying living
4. Study of the local community. actual and kingdom growth. This also held may only come across as empty words.
"How much effort has your church true for the white and Hispanic samples. When church members know that they are
invested in a study of your local commu Members were asked to rate their forgiven, justified, and filled with the
nity, its makeup and needs?" Much study churches on a scale of 1 to 5 as soul-win Spirit, they will be able to "go home . . . ,
correlated positively with actual growth. ning churches. Those with higher ratings and tell . . . how great things the Lord hath
5. Health ministries effective in tended to be the growing churches. A done for [me]." And listeners will respond.
baptisms. Rating health ministries as an certain mindset is operating here similar to 5. Holds church office or service
effective means of securing baptisms was the variable "belief in growth potential" position. The larger the proportion of the
associated with both actual and kingdom that was found in the pastoral survey to be congregation who are put to work in the
growth. a good predictor of church growth. Even as church, the more likely it is that growth
6. Ministry for all ages. Pastors were the pastor needs "possibility thinking," so will take place. Pastors alone cannot get
asked how completely their churches do the members. There is a sort of team the mission accomplished. As members
conducted a ministry for all age groups. spirit here—"God is working through us! become actively involved in the life of the
Those who had programs for all age groups We are in partnership with Him! Our church, they feel a commitment to it and a
were churches experiencing growth. church is serious about fulfilling the divine responsibility to help carry out its goals.
While this factor may appear to be an commission." When the members sense Ways must be found to turn passive
internal work, remember that people will that their church exists for the purpose of members into active ones. This variable
join a church where their felt needs are bringing people to Christ, things begin to was an even stronger selection in the white
met. happen. sample.
2. Years as a baptized Adventist.
The Hispanic sample Churches where most members have been The white sample
The Hispanic sample proved similar to in the church for twenty or more years are Of the five predictors of church growth
the other samplings in some respects, not growing. Growing churches have a listed above, all except "assurance with
while differing in others. Five of the great proportion of their memberships God" were strong selections in the white
indicators for church growth found in the made up of recent converts. This is logical. sample. In addition the white churches
total and white samples are also found in New converts are the best potential had three other important indicators:
the Hispanic sample: focus on church soul-winners because they still have many 1. Pastor places emphasis on soul
growth, belief in growth potential, percent contacts with nonchurch members in the winning. Members were asked to rate the
of membership attending prayer meeting, environment from which they came. emphasis their pastor places on soul
number of evangelistic series held in the Adventists who have been members for winning on a scale of 1 to 5. Growth is
church area, and a pastor's Bible class many years find most of their close friends more likely in those congregations where
effective in securing baptisms. and social environment among fellow the pastor averages a higher rating. The
The Hispanic sample also shared two members. They simply do not have the pastor is definitely the leader of church
indicators of church growth with the black open doors of the newly baptized. And growth. While he cannot do it all by
sample: the negative correlation with often the new convert in his first love will himself, his members take their cue from
church accessibility and the percent of
church membership enrolled in or grad
uated from classes in witnessing or giving
Bible studies.
But the Hispanic sample also had three Growing churches have pastors who spend a
other strong indicators not found in the
Other groups: proportionately smaller share of their time
1. Percent involved in personal out
reach. Pastors were asked to give the
on administrative duties. Pastors need to be
percentage of their congregations who
were actively engaged in some form of
freed from much of the church machinery in
personal outreach to nonmembers. A high order to devote themselves to soul winning.
him. If he is constantly putting soul extensive facilities, or sophisticated bership develops a deep, inner spiritual
winning and church growth into top equipment. They must be capable of being life. They come together to pray and praise
priority categories, so will they. If he directed by pastors of multichurch dis God. They meet together in small fellow
relegates them to a lesser role, the congre tricts. ship and study groups marked by loving
gation will relax their efforts. 2. There is no size advantage when it and caring. They have assurance that their
2. New members involved in the comes to church growth. Small, medium, sins are forgiven and they are accepted by
church. Respondents were asked to rate or large churches can all grow at the same God. They identify, accept, and use their
the church's attitude toward new members rate if other conditions are equal. Pastors particular spiritual gifts. God adds His
on a continuum from "ignored" to and members of small churches need not blessing to these congregations with an
"involved." Growing churches involve become discouraged and feel that they do influx of converts. Because the church has
their new converts. People are more likely not have a sufficient base from which to quality, it can be trusted with quantity. It
to join a church where they feel needed. work. Pastors and members of large is a safe environment for new members.
Involved members are not as likely to grow churches need not feel that the task of 7. Church growth comes to a congre
discouraged and drop out. making a good percentage gain is too gation that is trained and working. The
3. Years of attendance at Adventist herculean. Any church can grow if its members are likely to have a higher
schools. Growing churches average more leaders and constituents really want it to educational level than non-growing
time spent by members in Christian grow. churches, and the education is more likely
education. The Adventist school provides 3. There are some differences in to have been gained in Adventist schools.
a channel for biological growth. It also growth-facilitating conditions between The members have a prominent role in
furnishes a staying power, controlling the total church in North America and its making decisions and operating the
apostasy and thus facilitating church ethnic components. White churches tend church. A large percentage hold church
growth. to have growth indicators very much like office or other service positions. They
the overall pattern. Black churches, while enroll in and graduate from classes in how
The black sample sharing some common predictors, tend to to witness and give Bible studies. They put
The black sample was similar to the total grow under quite different conditions from the information to use. They are actively
sample in selecting "a soul-winning the total church in many ways. Hispanic engaged in various forms of outreach
church" and "years as a baptized Advent churches tend to have some indicators in ministry to those within the circle of their
ist." In addition there were two unique common with the other groups plus a few influence and especially to their non-
selections: uniquely their own. Adventist relatives.
1. Attended witnessing training 4. Church growth is a result of concen 8. Church growth is found where new
program within the past year. In black trated effort and planning. There is no members are quickly incorporated into the
churches this showed the strongest rela stronger finding in the study than the one life of the church. Converts are not
tionship with actual growth. Proper train that reveals that growth does not just ignored but given meaningful work to do.
ing of members is necessary and can make a happen. The growing church sets a yearly A high proportion of the growing congre
difference. growth-rate goal. Everything that happens gation consists of relatively recent mem
2. Certainty about spiritual gifts. In in that church is focused on reaching that bers who in the zeal of their first love are
black churches where a high proportion of goal. Every other program and ministry is sharing their testimony with their uncon
the membership feels quite certain that evaluated by the extent to which it verted friends. This church tends to have a
they have identified their spiritual gifts, contributes toward attaining the goal. The somewhat younger average age also. Young
both actual and kingdom growth are likely pastor places prime emphasis on soul people and young families are essential to
to be taking place. The church growth winning. He spends less time on church the growing church.
movement has been much concerned with administrative duties and in routine min 9. Church growth follows the use of
the identification of spiritual gifts. In order istry to members and devotes major por proper methods. Skillful use is made of
for churches to grow, members must not tions of his time in ministry to non- public evangelism. The pastor holds a
only become involved, but they must be members and in training laity. The church Bible class during Sabbath school. He
doing those tasks that God has best fitted studies and knows its local community. It visits prospective members in their homes,
them to do. gears its programs to meeting the felt needs studies the Bible with them, and has
in that community. developed his skills as a personal soul
The Hispanic sample 5. Church growth is an adventure in winner. The church reaches out to the
The Hispanic sample revealed some of faith. The pastor is a "possibility thinker" needs of the community with various
the same correlations as in the total who dreams great visions. He believes in creative approaches.
sample. Two other variables were unique the potential of his church to grow. He 10. Church growth, both numerical
selections for this group: believes that nothing can stop it from and spiritual, moves forward when apos
1. Working to win non-Adventist growing. The members also are filled with tasy is controlled and eliminated. This is
relatives. Those churches with large pro eager anticipation. They have a sense of best accomplished by fostering the spiritual
portions of the membership reporting that camaraderie. They are a team working life of the members, actively involving
they are actively working to win their together for God. They know that their them in the internal and outreach life of
non-Adventist relatives are churches church is a soul-winning church. the church, and creating a climate that is
experiencing kingdom growth. 6. Church growth comes as the mem warm, friendly, and caring.
2. Age group. The younger the aver
age age of the baptized membership, the
more likely the church is to be growing.

Conclusions Where a high proportion of the membership feels

An examination of the findings that
have been presented suggests several con they have identified their spiritual gifts,
1. The North American Division is
growth is likely. Members must not only
composed largely of small churches. Pro
grams and strategies must be planned that
become involved; they must be doing those tasks
will not depend on large congregations, that God has best fitted them to do.
includes all "the saints" as well as their
leaders to whom the letter is addressed
(chap. 1:1). The leadership gifts or offices
listed in verse 11 are specific and parallel
such other lists of specific gifts as those
found in 1 Corinthians 12:4-11, 28-31 and
Romans 12:3-8. The New Testament
declares that all believers have gifts in
varying degrees of fullness (see 1 Cor. 7:7;
1 Peter 4:10, 11). In creation and in the
church, God has been prolific in His
giving, and what He gives He expects to be
used in good stewardship, including the
gifts given each believer or servant of
In His giving, God endowed the church
with leadership to help prepare the church
for ministry. As it reads in the K.J.V.,
Ephesians 4:12 appears to say that God
gave apostles, prophets, evangelists, pas
tors, and teachers for the threefold purpose
of: (1) "the perfecting of the saints"; (2)
"the work of the ministry"; and (3) "the
edifying [building up] of the body of
Christ." The prepositions of the Greek
text indicate, however, that it is not a
series of three parallel phrases, and no
comma should follow "saints." Thus, it
should read that God gave apostles,
prophets, evangelists, pastors, and
teachers for the perfecting (or equipping)
of the saints to the work of the ministry and
the building up of the body of Christ. The
meaning is that oil believers are part of the
ministry. The entire congregation has a
responsibility for fulfilling the church's
ministry, aided and equipped by the

Sharing the ministry leadership.

The answer to the question "Whose is
the Christian ministry?" is not apostles,
prophets, evangelists, pastors, and teach
ers. The answer is, Everyone believing in
Pastors need m he majority of members are involved
Jesus Christ. The ministry belongs to the
people of God. Pastoral ministry does not
to teach both by very little in the life and ministry of the comprise the church's total ministry; it is
church. This sad fact is illustrated in the but a pan of that ministry.
example and word architect's rule of thumb that congrega What is the Christian ministry? The last
tions ought to build a sanctuary to seat one phrase in Ephesians 4:12 indicates the
that ministry is third of their membership. The church ultimate purpose for which God has
not some optional resolutely needs to face the task of nurtur
ing and developing her own members.
endowed the church with gifts, and for
which the saints are to be prepared for
phase of Christian This painful confession is forced on the
church by experience and some cold
service: "for building up the body of
Christ." Verses 13 through 16 (R.S.V.)
living. A church statistics. For whereas her prize asset—the describe something of what is involved in
members—should be a ready force helping this building process, and the concluding
may have only to fulfill her ministry, a majority seems to words speak of growing "in every way,"
be a part of the field to be harvested! The with "each part" carrying out its function.
one pastor, but church must become more of A grass roots Most of the gifts or offices mentioned in
every member is a people-movement. The clergy alone can
not fulfill the church's ministry.
this passage relate primarily to the internal
ministry of the church. The reference to
minister sharing In Ephesians, chapter 4, Paul speaks to
this concept of ministry. Reading it, one
"evangelists," however, highlights the
church's external ministry to the uncon
responsibility senses that verses 4 through 6 form the verted, to whom all saints are "witnesses."
womb for an embryo that develops as the (See Acts 1:8; Matt. 28:18-20; 2 Cor.
with leadership. passage continues, namely, the church's 2:14-17; 3:2, 3; 1 Peter 3:15.)
one, united ministry. "Each of us" (verse In 2 Corinthians 5:17-21, every new
7, R.S.V.) has been given something; this believer in Christ is seen as having a
by Harry J. Spaeth ministry, "the ministry of reconciliation."
Hairy Spaeth is pastor of the Hollidaysburg All who have been reconciled to God are
Church of the Brethren, Hollidaysburg, commissioned to this ministry. The
Pennsylvania. church is to appeal to men and women to

turn from their sin, from all that estranges evaluating the pastor's ministry. Here the efforts of many, is required. The pastor
them from God and others. This ministry congregation may indicate more readiness needs to be something like the player-
has several dimensions—divine and to work at and incorporate change, espe coach who plays in games and is also
human, personal and social, internal and cially if the pastor initiates the idea. Is the responsible for instructing the players and
external, qualitative and quantitative— style and performance of the pastor's coordinating the offense and defense. The
but all is "body building." ministry compatible with and facilitating coach has and uses assistant coaches as
In gathering for their inner-life min the spirit of a shared ministry? The well. The attitude in leading needs to be
istry, believers come to be ministered leadership style may be too autocratic; one of adult to adults, not one of parent
unto, and also, though sometimes forgot performance may foster the notion of a over children.
ten, to minister to one another. In "one-man band." A sense of shared leadership is crucial to
scattering to their outer-life ministry, they How a pastor and congregation perceive the realization of shared ministry. The
go forth to minister beyond the circle of the pastor's role and position in the life of pastor is not the only leader in the
faith. These two directions depict the ebb the church is critical. A pastor's ministry congregation but a leader among leaders,
and flow of the fundamental ministry that benefits from a clarification of his or her and of course, a servant among servants.
God has given to both pastor and people, role and functions in and for the congre Church leadership must be seen as serving
one in which everyone has some responsi gation. It helps to have some stated a function that needs to be fulfilled, not as
bility in both directions. Together they priorities and a job description, which is a position from which to lord it over others
form the one ministry all believers share, evaluated and revised periodically. Setting or as a status symbol.
to which all else is subsidiary, the building down on paper the pastor's role in ministry To share the ministry or not to share the
up of the body of Christ through its establishes some intentional goals for ministry? Neither theologically nor prag
entrusted ministry of reconciliation. which a pastor will want to be held matically is this a live option. The
Everything flows from, or feeds into, the accountable. It also adds another thread in question is: How can pastor and people
expression and fulfillment of this essential shared ministry, working toward greater most effectively fulfill their common calling
ministry. congregational involvement in pastoral- and ministry? The church must seek to
It is the theology of the wagon wheel. As parish planning. A logical next step could utilize the trained, ordained pastor's skills
the spokes of the wheel get closer to the be working at setting some challenging, and all the resources of all her members.
hub they also are closer together. Like attainable congregational goals. This pursuit will produce some new learn
spokes, when God's people come closer in Whatever plan of pursuit is chosen, the ing and growth in pastors and parishioners
love and obedience to Him, the center of pastor has to be serious about his or her role to the glory of God and the enrichment of
their life, they are closer to one another. in ministry and guide the congregation the church. For a fully-shared ministry to
Similarly, the closer they come in love and into being serious about its share as well; take root and blossom in a congregation,
ministry to one another, the closer they are pastor and parishioners must be involved pastor and people must possess a shared
to their Lord. The one movement cannot together in ministry. In establishing plans, vision. The pastor dare not be viewed as
happen without the other. (See Mark there probably will be some division of "doing" the church's ministry, but as
12:28-31; Matt. 18:20; 1 John 1:3, 7; 2:9, opinion. This must be recognized and dealt charged with overseeing and helping to
10; 3:10, 14, 17, 23; 4:7, 8, 11, 12, 20, with in a spirit of understanding with some promote it. Shared ministry is an attitude
21.) When scattered, believers serve in friendly, Spirit-led give-and-take regard and a process of recognizing that all
Christ's name, they invite others at the ing what is to be done when and how and Christians are called to ministry; ministry
periphery into the circle of faith. Believers by whom. Since setting goals and minis is not some optional phase of Christian
are thus in continual movement between tering faithfully do not always produce the living. Though there may be only one
God, one another, and the world. hoped-for results, seek progress, not per "pastor," all members are "ministers."
To involve every believer in Christian fection; persevere with patience. Some churches have incorporated this
ministry is a major ongoing agenda item for The church is a slumbering giant to be truth into their services of baptism and
pastor and parish leadership. Pastors must awakened. A priority task of leadership is reception of members. In every possible
affirm the validity and worth of this quest, to arouse her to fulfill the potential way a growing vision and practice of shared
and congregations must own their full promised by her Lord (see John 14:12-14). ministry must be fostered.
responsibility. If only the pastor has this Pastors can help their congregations realize Shared ministry is a multifaceted
vision, a preaching and educational pro this promise of ministry and, as well, be adventure that seeks to discover and use
gram is required, and a plan will need to be helped by their congregations in focusing the gifts of every believer, to help each
constructed that takes into account the their own ministry. member mature to the fullest extent of his
particular denominational heritage and Shepherding a congregation in the or her potential. To that end, pastors and
any peculiarities of the congregation. pathway of an increasingly shared ministry congregations need to make the most of all
Where to begin and how to proceed must is something that is as much caught as the members already available, to uncover
be given much thought, research, and taught. Pastors and parish leaders need to the hidden treasure in their own back yard.
patient foundation-laying. have awareness of modeling Christian lead Chances are that "acres of diamonds," or
A growing consensus is that evaluation ership and servatithood. Active and flexi at least many precious "gems in the
is a helpful tool in seeking change and a ble pastoral leadership that involves others rough," are being overlooked.
prelude to good planning. By helping the in a team approach to ministry, which You know what your church is. Do you
congregation to assess "What are we initiates, assimilates, and reinforces the envision what it may become?
doing?" "Where are we going?" "Where do
we want to go?" you can help them to
consider the current situation and areas
that need further consideration. In this
process a concern for strengthening and To share the ministry or not to share? Neither
enlarging the various aspects of ministry
being currently performed by the member theologically nor pragmatically is this a
ship needs to be raised. Although all live option. The question is: How can pastor
congregations practice some forms of "lay
ministry," the full potential is rarely
and people most effectively fulfill their
Another possible starting point is common calling and ministry?
and discouragement that threatens to
deepen into depression.
The problem is not in the public areas of
his ministry. Bob knows he is not a great
preacher, but he feels that he is a
reasonably good one. Nor is he compla
cent. He works hard at his preaching, and
indications are that he is improving
steadily, if not spectacularly.
His plans and programs meet with no
more than the usual amount of apathy and
inertia on the part of his members. He
knows, from talking with other pastors of
his denomination, that their programs
encounter the same apathy and inertia and
in approximately the same degree.
It is in the private areas of his work, in
working with individuals and families, that
Bob Smith feels he has failed.
The just-finished telephone conversa
tion has brought the problem into sharp
focus, and the knot in his stomach tells
him that he has failed again. He had called
Joyce Powell to ask whether she would
teach in the kindergarten department
during the coming year.
"I'm sorry, pastor, I can't." Her voice
was tight and strained. "I might as well tell
you now. Bill packed his things and left
this morning. We spent most of the night
screaming at each other. I've called my
lawyer to arrange a divorce."
The words came like a kick in the face.
Bob had been counseling with the Powells
for three months. At the first session, he
had evaluated their marital problems as
serious but not fatal. The counseling had
been uphill work. Each partner had felt

Why so few that it was the other who should make the
necessary changes in attitude and behav
ior. Recently, however, Bob had become
somewhat optimistic. The Powells' mar
riage was still far from ideal, but he thought
he saw definite improvement.
Now it is over; the dream of a restored
With a shelf———— Christian home has been shattered. The
hours of counseling, the patient reasoning
•I astor Robert Smith has j ust replaced the first with one and then the other, the
full of books on telephone receiver. Now he sits slumped in seasons of prayer—all gone for nothing.
his chair, staring blankly at the books on For Bob, it is the latest in a long series of
how to handle the opposite wall of his study. His eyes are similar incidents. Of the married couples
dry, but tears are in his heart. For the first he has recently counseled, one besides the
all kinds of time, the thought flickers across his mind Powells has divorced, one has separated,
difficult problems, that perhaps entering the ministry was a and one appears to be reestablishing a truly
mistake. Christian home. The others are still
why does a pastor Five years ago, just out of seminary, Bob
Smith had begun his ministry with a
together, but Bob knows that their prob
lems lie just beneath the surface, ready to
find nothing but feeling of anticipation, only slightly tinted explode into separation or divorce at any
with apprehension. Certain of his calling moment.
successful to the ministry, he was quietly confident Since his ministry began, Bob has put a
that, trusting in God and guided by the great deal of time and effort into visiting
examples in the Holy Spirit, he would acquit himself well alienated and missing members in his
books and so few in in the Lord's work. church. A few have responded by return
Now, halfway through the third year of ing to church once or twice before
his own ministry? his second pastorate, that feeling of confi
dence has given way to mingled frustration
disappearing again; one now attends
church regularly, and one does so on a very
irregular basis. Bob knows of no other
by A. D. Inglish A. D. Inglish is pastor of the Woodbury
results from his visits and prayers.
Ten years ago, before Bob even began
and Laurel Springs Seventh-day Adventist studying for the ministry, two families in
churches in New Jersey. his present church became estranged. A
trifling incident was blown out of propor the Christian church, the leaders met in Their chief flaw is not that they give bad
tion, feelings were aroused on both sides, council at Jerusalem to settle the issue. advice. Rather, their main fault lies in the
and things were said that left lasting scars. Paul, Barnabas, and Peter were there (see fact that so many imply that the methods
Both families were prominent in the Acts 15:1-11). Who can doubt that the they recommend are not only effective but
church, and Bob had seen right away that Word of God was wielded with mighty virtually foolproof. Only success stories are
the bad feeling between them was cooling power at that council? And with great related; the failures never get into the
the warm Christian love that should exist effect! An issue that might have virtually books. The pastor is often left with the
in the church. halted the spread of the gospel among the impression that if he simply follows the
Last year he decided to make a serious Gentiles was laid to rest—or was it? methods outlined in the book, he cannot
attempt to bring the two families together. Sometime later, members of the Jerusalem fail. When he does fail, he feels defeated
Going to one, he appealed to them to be church came to Antioch and raised the and disappointed in himself. He feels that
reconciled and found them receptive. The issue again. So successful were their somehow he must have mishandled the
situation, they agreed, had gone on far too disruptive efforts that Paul's beloved friend situation.
long, and it was time to forget the whole Barnabas, and even Peter, who had argued In actual fact, what has usually hap
thing. forcefully on Paul's side at Jerusalem, were pened is that neither the pastor nor his
Full of optimism, Bob had approached deceived and misled by their hypocrisy. method has failed. What has failed is sinful
the other family, but his hopes were In the church at Philippi, friction arose human nature. The pastor works, not with
quickly dashed. They listened coldly to his between two Christian women, Euodias things, but with people—human beings,
plea for unity, and stated flatly that only a and Syntyche, both of whom had actively created in the image of God but with
formal apology from the other family, in assisted Paul in his labors in that area. The natures twisted and scarred by sin. As Paul
the presence of the congregation, could situation became serious enough that the reminds us, "The carnal mind is enmity
bring about a reconciliation. When the apostle himself had to plead with them to against God: for it is not subject to the law
first group learned of this response, their settle their differences (see Phil. 4:2, 3). It of God, neither indeed can be" (Rom.
own attitude hardened. is tempting to assume that both women 8:7). Even among sincere Christians,
The net result of Bob's effort is that the heeded his plea, and perhaps they did. But enough of this carnal mind often remains
breach between the families and their we have no evidence that the great apostle to make the work of the pastor extremely
supporters is now wider than before. was any more successful in this case than is difficult.
Now, with Joyce PowelPs words echoing the average pastor of today in a similar The Word of God is indeed "quick, and
in his mind, Bob asks himself whether he situation. powerful, and sharper than any twoedged
was mistaken in thinking that he was In fact, Paul himself had a disagreement sword" (Heb. 4:12), but the human heart
called to the ministry. If his call was a with Barnabas that became so heated that can nevertheless resist it. The door of the
genuine one, why does he seem to be so these two great missionaries could no heart can be opened only from the inside
clumsy at it? Why are the defeats so many longer work togethei (see Acts 15:37-39). (see Rev. 3:20). In most cases where the
and the victories so few? Even the Lord Jesus Christ Himself was pastor's efforts to resolve an unfortunate
Bob Smith is suffering from a common not uniformly successful in His dealings situation have failed, the real reason for
complaint among pastors—the "I must not with others. Instead of accepting His the failure is that a heart has not been
have handled it right" syndrome. Its chief teaching, many of His listeners turned opened from the inside to allow the Holy
symptom is the pastor's nagging feeling away, never to follow Him again (see John Spirit to come in and take possession.
that whenever he is unable to resolve a 6:66). A wealthy young man came to Jesus This, of course, does not excuse the
problem, he is somehow personally asking the way to eternal life. The Master pastor who fails to study and apply the
responsible for the failure—that there answered his question with divine skill, yet principles of sound psychology and the
must have been some method that would the young man "went away sorrowful" proper use of Scripture to the problems of
have led to a complete solution, and he (Matt. 19:22). his work. Christ Himself has told us that
failed to find it. If the apostles, and even the Lord we are to be "wise as serpents" (Matt.
The pastor's reasoning usually goes Himself, were unable to find a solution for 10:16). It should, however, reassure the
something like this: I am a minister of the every problem, surely no pastor can justly pastor who sometimes feels close to despair
gospel. My weapon is the sword of the reproach himself for not always succeed as he sees his best efforts fail time after time
Spirit, the Word of God (see Eph. 6:17). It ing. in spite of much prayer and earnest labor.
is a perfect weapon; therefore, if it fails to One of the causes of Bob Smith's The following guidelines may help the
achieve the desired result, it must be the perplexity is the flood of books pouring discouraged pastor as he struggles to bring
fault of the one who uses it. It follows, from the religious press today, telling him Christian order out of the chaos that sin
then, that I am to blame. how to handle personal and marital coun often creates even within the Christian
Such reasoning is a blend of the true and seling and difficult church situations. church:
the false. The pastor's weapon is indeed Within arm's reach of where Bob sits 1. Approach every difficult situation
the perfect Word of God. It does not slumped in his chair is a whole shelf of such with much prayer for an outpouring of the
follow, however, that the pastor is neces books. Although many give helpful guid Holy Spirit. Christ has promised the Holy
sarily to blame if his use of this perfect ance, some of them can do more harm than Spirit to all who ask for it (see Luke 11:13).
weapon does not lead to a perfect solution. good if the pastor does not use them It is God's will that harmony and love
Certainly it is possible, even with the very carefully. (Continued on page 14.)
best intentions, to use the Word of God
unskillfully, and no pastor is as expert in its
use as he would like to be. But this does not
mean that the pastor bears the responsi
bility for every failure when he has used the In most cases where the pastor's efforts to
sword of the Spirit. Use of a perfect
weapon, however skillfully one may use it, resolve an unfortunate situation have failed,
does not guarantee perfect results!
A few examples, taken from Scripture
the real reason for the failure is that a heart
itself, may help to illustrate this point.
When the issue of circumcision for
has not been opened from the inside to allow
Gentile converts arose in the early days of the Holy Spirit to take possession.
Pentecost (see Acts 2). Therefore, the
church is not a subject of Old Testament
prophecy, and "is not fulfilling Israel's
promises." Consequently "Israel herself
must fulfill them and that in the future." 2
The church will be raptured away from the
world before God again deals with Israel.
Ryrie concludes, "The essence of dispen
sationalism, then, is the distinction
between Israel and the church."' He
appeals to 1 Corinthians 10:32 to confirm
his thesis that "natural Israel and the
church are also contrasted in the New
Testament." 4
However, the question is not Does the
New Testament contrast the church with
"natural Israel"? but rather, Is the church
called in the New Testament "the Israel of
God," and is it presented there as the new
Israel, the only heir of all God's promised
covenant blessings for the present and the
future? Further questions that should be
examined are When exactly did the church
begin according to Christ? And How do
Christ and the New Testament writers
actually apply God's ancient covenants
with Abraham, with Israel, and with
Old Testament remnant concept
Dispensational theology accepts the fact
that the Old Testament distinguishes
between a national Israel and a spiritual
Israel within that nation. Ryrie states,
"This kind of distinction within the nation
was often made in the Old Testament."'
This is indeed a Biblical distinction of
profound theological significance. The
prophets expressed this distinction in their
"remnant" idea, the heart and center of

Israel their eschatological perspectives.

Amos was the first prophet who rejected
the popular idea that Israel as a national

and the church whole would be saved in the day of

Yahweh's judgment of the world (see
Amos 3:2; 9:1-4, 9, 10). He stressed the
fundamental condition of Israel's religious
Does the New——— response to the covenant promises: "Seek
•icclesiology, or the doctrine of the the Lord and live, lest he break out like fire
Testament represent church, is said to be the "touchstone" or
decisive test of dispensationalism.' Charles
in the house of Joseph" (chap. 5:6).
Only a "remnant" from national Israel
the church as C. Ryrie argues that the church is distinct would survive God's future judgment (see
chaps. 3:12; 5:15). This "remnant of
the new "Israel," and separate from Israel in two respects:
(1) in the church the Gentiles are placed Joseph" would therefore be a religiously
on equal footing with the Jews; and (2) faithful remnant.
the only heir to Christ dwells within the church as His In Jerusalem the prophet Isaiah likewise
God's present and spiritual body. announced that Israel, just like other
The church must have been unknown in nations, would fall under the Lord's
future covenant Old Testament times, he infers, because
the apostle Paul calls her a "mystery" (see
punishing justice because of her religious
apostasy from Yahweh and her social
bkssings, or Eph. 3:4-6; Col. 1:25-27)* and explicitly injustice (see Isaiah 10). Nevertheless,
refers to the church of Christ as a "new God would graciously save "the remnant of
does it keep man" (Eph. 2:15), a creation that was the Israel," "the holy seed" in Zion in the
result of the death of Christ. The church is purging fires of judgment (see chaps.
Israel separate built upon Christ's resurrection and 1:24-26; 4:2, 3; 6:13; 10:20-22). This holy
and distinct from ascension (see chaps. 1:20-23; 4:7-13),
and became operative only on the day of
remnant is "recorded for life" (chap. 4:3)
as the heir of the election promises,
the church? Hans K. LaRondelle, Th. D., is professor of
because it is a believing remnant that trusts
fully in Yahweh (see chaps. 10:20, 21;
theology, Andrews University, Berrien 30:15).
by Hans K. LaRondelle Springs, Michigan. Both Amos and Isaiah reveal a surpris-

ing but essential characteristic of Israel's terman states as his conclusion from Isaiah New Testament remnant
"remnant" promises: A remnant of Yah- 56: "Membership of the community which For the eschatological fulfillment of the
weh-believing Gentiles from all nations worships Yahweh is now based upon Old Testament remnant prophecies we
will also be drawn into the circle of the resolve, a free affirmation of this God and must first ask the' Lord Jesus Christ how
eschatological remnant of Israel and the of his worship. No longer is it thought of in He, the true Interpreter, understood and
house of David: " 'In that day I will raise up national but individual terms. The chosen interpreted Israel's covenant promises.
the booth of David that is fallen and repair people has turned into the confessing Although Christ said that He was sent
its breaches, and raise up its ruins, and community. ... As early as here we find only to the lost sheep of the house of Israel
rebuild it as in the days of old; that they present important elements of the New (see Matt. 15:24; notice, however, that
may possess the remnant of Edom and all Testament's concept of community. . . . Mark 7:27 adds "first"), and although He
the nations who are called by name,' says He 'gathers' Israel also from those who sent His twelve apostles first only to the
the Lord who does this" (Amos 9:11, 12). hitherto have not been able to belong to lost sheep of the house of Israel (see Matt.
Amos predicted clearly that by Yah- her." 8 10:5, 6), His future outlook included their
weh's sovereign will and act a remnant of Gerhard F. Hasel, in his dissertation The mission to the Gentiles (see verse 18; Mark
non-Israelites, coming from Edom and all Remnant, considers the remnant motif in 13:10). Christ even stated explicitly that
nations, will also share in the covenant Isaiah to be "a key element of Isaiah's He had come to gather Gentile believers
promise of David. 6 Such Gentiles would, theology" and concludes, "He [Isaiah] does into the flock of Israel. Referring unmis
just like Israel, be called by the honorable not know the distinction of a 'secular-pro takably to the "gathering" promise of
name of Yahweh, and therefore belong to fane' and a 'theological' remnant Isaiah 56:8, He announced: " 'I have other
the people of Yahweh (cf. Deut. 28:10). motif."—Page 401. sheep, that are not of this fold; I must bring
The prophet Isaiah unfolds even further The prophet Micah unites the promise them also, and they will heed my voice. So
how God's universal outreach to all the of a "remnant of Israel" (Micah 2:12), the there shall be one flock, one shepherd'"
Gentiles will ultimately be fulfilled new people of God, with the promise of the (John 10:16; The New Scofield Reference
through a new Israel whose essential Messiah who would come out of Bethle Bible [N.S.B.] acknowledges the "other
characteristic will be not ethnic descent hem (chap. 5:2). He will gather the sheep" to be the Gentiles of Isaiah 56:8).
from Abraham (the blood of Abraham), remnant of Israel "like sheep in a fold, like As the Messianic shepherd, Christ
but the faith of Abraham, the worship of a flock in its pasture" (chap. 2:12). "He declares here that He was sent to fulfill
the Lord in spirit and truth. Isaiah shall stand and feed his flock in the Israel's covenant promises of the gathering
envisions a future—after Israel's Babylo strength of the Lord" (chap. 5:4). of Israel. 9 As the Messiah He came to
nian exile—when two classes of people, In summary, whenever the Old Testa gather Israel to Himself (see Matt. 12:30),
foreigners and eunuchs, who were forbid ment prophets portray the eschatological but more than that, to gather the Gentiles,
den entrance into the worshiping assembly remnant of Israel, it is always characterized even all men, to Himself (see John 12:32).
of Yahweh according to the law of Moses as a faithful, religious community, which This called for a decision of faith in Him as
(see chap. 23:1-3), will be given the right worships God with a new heart on the basis the Messiah of Israel. For this universal
to worship in the new temple on Mount of the "new covenant" (see Joel 2:32; mission He called from Israel His twelve
Zion if they accept Yahweh and His Zeph. 3:12, 13; Jer. 31:31-34; Eze. 11:16- apostles who in their chosen number
covenant with Israel. " 'These I will bring 21). This faithful remnant of the end-time clearly represent the twelve tribes of Israel.
to my holy mountain, and make them will become God's witnesses among all the By officially ordaining twelve disciples as
joyful in my house of prayer; their burnt nations to gather also non-Israelites, His apostles (see Mark 3:14, 15), Christ
offerings and their sacrifices will be regardless of their ethnic origin, into the constituted a new Israel, the Messianic
accepted on my altar; for my house shall be true worship and kingdom of the Lord (see remnant of Israel, and called it His church
called a house of prayer for all peoples'" Zech. 9:7; 14:16; Isa. 66:19; Dan. 7:27; (see Matt. 16:18). In the ordination of the
(Isa. 56:7; cf. chap. 45: 20-25). 12:1-3). twelve, Christ founded His church as a
When Gentiles join themselves in faith The total picture of the Old Testament new organism, with its own structure and
and obedience to the Lord (see chap. eschatological remnant reveals that Irael's authority, endowing her with " 'the keys of
56:3), the God of Israel will give those covenant blessings as a whole will be the kingdom of heaven'" (verse 19; cf.
foreigners within Israel "a monument and fulfilled, not in unbelieving national Israel, chap. 18:17). He designated His twelve
a name better than sons and daughters;. . . but only in that Israel that is faithful to apostles as the judges of " 'the twelve tribes
an everlasting name" (verse 5). In other Yahweh and trusts in His Messiah. This of Israel' " in the future age (chap. 19:28;
words, believing Gentiles would enjoy the remnant of Israel will incorporate the Luke 22:30). To this church He said:
same rights and hopes of the covenant faithful remnants of all the Gentile "'Fear not, little flock, for it is your
promises as believing Israelites. Israel's nations. Father's good pleasure to give you the
God will not limit His restoration of Israel The question remains, How will this kingdom'" (Luke 12:32; see Dan. 7:22,
to the Jewish people, but will also include prophetic Israel be realized in its historic 27).
believing Gentiles within the post-exilic fulfillment? Will it be fulfilled only after F. F. Bruce states that "Jesus' calling of
Israel. "Thus says the Lord God, who the second advent of Christ, during the disciples around Himself to form the 'little
gathers the outcasts of Israel, I will gather millennium? What does the New Testa flock' who were to receive the kingdom . . .
yet others to him besides those already ment disclose about the Old Testament marks Him out as the founder of the new
gathered" (verse 8). remnant? Israel." 10
In other words, the God of Israel
reveals clearly that He will also gather
Gentile believers into the fold of Israel.
It becomes apparent that Isaiah uses his
"remnant" motif in a profound spiritual As the Messiah, Christ came to gather Israel
sense. The Old Testament scholar
Edmond Jacob explains, "In Isaiah the to Himself, but more than that, to gather
remnant is essentially distinct from a the Gentiles, even all men, to Himself. This
purely political reality; it is essentially an
Israel kata pneuma [according to the
Spirit]." 7
called for a decision of faith in Him as the
The Old Testament scholar Claus Wes- Messiah of Israel
G. F. Hasel concludes from Jesus' the sons of the kingdom will be thrown prophecies about the exaltation of the
preaching of faith and repentance as the into the outer darkness; there men will Messiah to the right hand of God (see
condition for entering the kingdom of God weep and gnash their teeth'" (Matt. 8:11, chap. 2:33) and of the Messianic gathering
(see Mark 1:15), "It can hardly be con- 12; cf. Luke 13:28, 29). of the Israel of God. Thus the church is
ceived of anything but the beginning of the From Christ's position we learn that His plainly prophesied in the remnant prom
gathering of a remnant of faith along the church is not separated in God's covenants ises of the Old Testament as confirmed by
lines of the remnant hopes of the OT from the Israel of God because it is the true these and other writings of the New
prophecies." 11 remnant of Israel, the Messianic Israel, the Testament.
Christ constitutes His church, not heir of God. Christ's church is eternally
1 C. C. Ryrie, Dispensationalism Today (Moody
beside Israel, as dispensationalism asserts, separated only from a Christ-rejecting,
Press, 1965), pp. 132, 133.
but as the faithful remnant of Israel that natural Israel. 2 ————, The Basis of the Premillennial Faith
inherits all the covenant promises, Christ's election and ordination of (Neptune: N.J.: Louizeaux Bros., 1966), p. 126.
including the promise of the new earth, twelve apostles denies the position that 5 ————, Dispensationalism Today, pp. 46, 47.
not just Palestine (see Matt. 5:5; cf. Rom. His church began to operate only on the 4 Ibid., p. 138.
4:13; 2 Peter 3:13). The church as it is in day of Pentecost. The church was already 5 Ibid.
Christ will ultimately dwell together with in existence, so that the new believers 6 See G. F. Hasei, The Remnant: The History
the true Israel of the old dispensation in were explicitly "added" to her (see Acts and Theology of the Remnant Idea From Genesis to
one and the same New Jerusalem (see 2:41). The most clear evidence of all that Isaiah, Andrews University Monographs, Vol. V
(1980), pp. 207-215, for a fuller treatment of
Revelation 21). Gentile Christians will the church was not an unforeseen, unpre-
Amos 9:11, 12.
enter that city of God through twelve gates dicted entity is the fact that everything 7 E. Jacob, Theology of the Old Testament (New
on which are written the names of the that happened at Pentecost was in direct York: Harper & Row, 1958), p. 324.
twelve tribes of Israel (see verse 12). Yet fulfillment of prophecy. Peter quotes Joel 8 C. Westermann, Isaiah 40-66. A Commen
the city has walls with foundations on 2:28-32 (see Acts 2:16ff.) and adds, " The tary. The Old Testament Library. (Philadelphia:
which are written the names of the twelve promise is to you and to your children The Westminster Press, 1977), pp. 313-315.
apostles of Christ (see verse 14). What [Jews] and to all that are far off [Gentiles], 9 See E. Achtemeier, The Old Testament and the
God has joined together, let no man every one whom the Lord our God calls to Proclamation of the Gospe! (Philadelphia: The
separate! him'" (verse 39). Westminster Press, 1973), pp. 93, 94.
-10 F. F. Bruce, in The New Bible Dictionary, ed.
Jesus has revealed the apocalyptic truth He explains further, " 'And all the
byj. D. Douglas (Grand Rapids, Mich.: Eerdmans,
that His church would inherit the kingdom prophets who have spoken, from Samuel 1979), p. 588.
together with Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob. and those who came afterwards, also 11 G. F. Hasel, "Remnant," article in The In
" 'I tell you, many will come from east and proclaimed these days'" (chap. 3:24). In ternational Standard Encyclopedia, Section III C 2.
west and sit at table with Abraham, Isaac other words, since Pentecost, God was
and Jacob in the kingdom of heaven, while bringing about the fulfillment of all Israel's " All Bible texts in this article are from the
Revised Standard Version.

Why so tew successes? Continued from page 11

prevail among Christian brethren (see 1 might, nor by power, but by my spirit, saith scope of his pastoral responsibilities, can
John 4:7-11), and that Christian homes be the Lord of hosts" (Zech. 4:6). The Word often save himself from an unnecessary
preserved (see Mark 10:9). Therefore, you of God has a force and power of its own. If defeat (and perhaps from a great deal of
can be sure that your aims and the aims of you have sincerely tried to use the Word to unnecessary embarrassment).
the Holy Spirit are one. accomplish God's purposes, you have done 6. Recognize that there are some situa
2. Maintain an attitude of Christian all you can do. The failure is not yours; it tions that, although they lie within the
love for all parties concerned. All are belongs to those who have refused to yield scope of the pastor's responsibility, cannot
children of God, even though many of themselves to the control of the Holy be handled at all without making them
them do not act the part. Spirit. worse. Failure to realize this was Bob
3. Maintain your objectivity. This is 5. Before trying to handle any problem, Smith's mistake when he tried to reconcile
not always easy to do. Sometimes, as you ask yourself whether it is really your the two estranged families. Problems of
try to straighten out a tangled situation, responsibility. One of the shortest encoun long standing, especially if previous pastors
you will come to feel strongly that some of ters of Jesus' earthly life is recorded in Luke have tried unsucessfully to deal with them,
the people involved are "right" and others 12:13, 14. A man requested the Lord's often fall into this category. Remember
are "wrong." Remember that you are not assistance in obtaining what he regarded as that the funeral director is going to have to
on anyone's side. Your aim is not to place his rightful share of an inheritance. Jesus' solve some of your church problems for
blame or assess responsibility. Your aim is brief reply was final: "Man, who made me a you.
to restore harmony and Christian love. judge or a divider over you?" Without Learning to live with unsolved or
4. Recognize that it is impossible to entering into the rights and wrongs of the partially solved problems is a part of life for
force people to believe or to behave in ac case, Jesus flatly refused to become everyone, and pastors are not exempt. In
cordance with the principles of Scripture. involved. Pastors today would do well to be fact, they probably find this learning
The Holy Spirit will not do this, and you guided by His example. It is not unknown experience a bigger part of their "lives than
cannot. If, after giving your best effort in for church members to request the pastor's do most people. It is a frustrating part, but
Christian love, you find that you cannot help in matters that are, frankly, none of an unavoidable one. A clear under
resolve a problem, accept that fact and do the pastor's business. If this happens to standing of this fact, and a realistic
not blame yourself. Do not tell yourself you, remember Christ's attitude. You appraisal of what one may reasonably
that if you had only used a different passage might wish to make your reply somewhat expect to accomplish when dealing with
of Scripture, or if you had explained the less blunt than His, but it should be no less human beings who are free moral agents,
situation more clearly or presented it more final. The pastor who, when he faces a will help the pastor avoid depression and
forcefully, you would have succeeded. It is problem, takes a moment to ask himself self-accusation when the defeats, as they so
very unlikely that this is true. "Not by whether this matter really lies within the often do, seem to outnumber the victories.

Letters Continued
one of the accounts and take our stand enlarges upon it. The movement is from the Scripture likewise undermines our confidence
upon it. This means that we must state general to the specific. Thus the correct in the Christ of Scripture.
why and how the Bible is literally true in sequence for Creation activities is found in There are two basic approaches to the
this account and false in the others. The Genesis 1, not Genesis 2. subject of Biblical inerrancy the deductive
second option is to accept all three Dr. William Shea, an accomplished and inductive. Those who come from the
Creation accounts as expressions in Hebrew scholar, has done an excellent study deductive direction start with their conclusion
words of men's understanding of the for Origins, a semi-annual journal examin first: "I have concluded that Scripture is
revelation they received. At this level, ing the relationship between scientific theory inerrant, based upon its claims, and therefore I
we find that disagreement within the and Biblical models (Vol. 5, No. I, 1978), will not find any errors or discrepancies of any
Bible itself no longer exists. In addition, pointing out that Genesis I and 2 are the kind in studying God's Holy Word." Those
this second option permits us to view the products of one mind and design even though who come from the inductive direction wait
various evolutionary theories as expres differences in vocabulary, style, and content before making their final conclusion: "I 'will
sions of man's exercising the dominion are present. MINISTRY readers may obtain a examine carefully the claims and statements in
granted him by God. free copy of this study by writing: Geoscience the Old Testament and New Testament
In this search for understanding, we Research Institute, Loma Linda, California Scriptures and formulate a doctrine of iner
soon find we are no longer wrestling with 92350. Editors. rancy after inductively examining the evi
words but with the living God. It is a dence." The ultimate goal in each method is to
"fearful thing" and also a very fruitful Gains from each Issue hammer out a teaching of Biblical inerrancy.
thing to thus fall into the hands of the Although a Missouri Synod Lutheran Both approaches have their hazards. Dr.
living God.—William H. Snyder, clergyman, I must admit that MINISTRY is an Henry has rightly pointed out some of the
Lutheran Church, Pennsylvania. excellent ministerial journal. Regardless ot hazards in the inductive approach. The
one's views of Seventh-day Adventists and deductive approach has its liabilities as well.
We can find wholehearted agreement with their teachings, any Christ-preaching pas When a researcher locks his concept of
such sentiments as: (I) the root controversy tor can gain much from every issue. I inerrancy in concrete before he has thoroughly
between Creation and evolutionary theories is commend you on your excellent, first- examined some of the discrepancies (such as
a hermeneutical one; (2) the question of quality work.—Terry E. Greenwood, the contrast between O. T. and N. T. chronol
whether the Bibk can be considered a Lutheran Church, Maryland. ogy and the differences between the synoptic
' 'reliable witness to earth history'' needs, to be accounts), he is forced into "proving" that no
addressed; (3) a "hermeneutical ladder" Scripture as base mistake has been made by the Biblical author.
exists, the bottom of which resides in the God bless you for saying it like it is and Thus he often goes to great lengths to justify the
words of Scripture; (4) at least three for reminding us to rely on the Sacred discrepancy and come up with some rational
different accounts of Creation are found in Scriptures for the basis of our faith.—Bor explanation through a process that can be
the Bible; and (5) at the climax, of our gia Sondag, Roman Catholic Church, labeled as ' 'exegetical gymnastics'' rather than
wrestling with hermeneutical problems, we North Dakota. "sound exegesis." An example of this is in the
ought to be willing to throw ourselves into the number of the cock Growings at the time of
hands of the Living God. Reliability of Scripture Peter's denial. Do we have to hypothesize that
We would like our correspondent to give There are many good emphases in there were four, five, or six cock Growings in
thought to the following points: (1) The Warren Johns's essay on the inspiration of order to harmonize the synoptics? If we thus
author of the article "Theistic Evolution" the Bible (March, 1981), but he leaves in treat the Biblical text plastically and stretch it
does not actually view the controversy as a midair several points that carry implica in various directions in order to bring harmony
war of science against Scripture or of geology tions erosive of the reliability of Scripture. out of discrepancies, can this not also have an
against theology. Dr. Robert H. Brown, a If New Testament writers interpret Old eroding effect upon our confidence in the
physicist with many years of experience in Testament passages "inaccurately," if the message of Scripture?
both research and teaching, is a scientist and words of Scripture, "being human, may be One more hazard often (although not
sees a proper role for science in giving at times fallible," I do not see how he can always) occurs with those following the
credence to the Biblical testimony. What he draw the conclusion (except as a private deductive approach: the Biblical exegete often
is attacking is not science, but a form of belief without public validity) that no relegates the "mistakes" and "discrepancies"
scientism that clashes with the Word of God. major teaching or doctrine is affected and found in Scripture to the category of "copyist
(2) The hermeneutical ladder is of no value if that "our regard for Scripture as God's errors.'' He thus affirms his conviction that
the first rung emphasizing the words of the word" is unaffected. I can't even see that, Scripture is inerrant in the autographs. But if
text is missing. It is true that Dr. Brown as Johns contends, "the messages of God's we greatly increase the number of copyist
deals largely with the first rung of the ladder, . . . plan for man's salvation" assuredly errors, may this not also have an erosive
but that is the proper place to begin. (3) "remains infallible." influence on our confidence in the actual
Because it is stated that three Creation Finally, are there such oddities as fallible Scripture that we now hold in our hands? On
accounts exist, it does not follow that all three words? Is not truth carried by sentences or the other hand, the incredible accuracy of the
are contradictory. In the same way, because propositions? And if Scripture need not be Isaiah scroll found in the Qumran cave tells us
four accounts of the life of Christ appear in true in what it teaches, how can Johns give that God's hand was not only over the process
Scripture does not imply that each is us his infallible assurances?—Carl F. H. of the recording of Scripture but also over the
contradictory or that one is more reliable Henry, Arlington, Virginia. process of its transmission. Most copyist
than the others. As in the case of the four We appreciate Dr. Henry's concerns mistakes can be readily detected through the
Gospels, the three Creation accounts are because they represent concerns that we have process of textual criticism.
complementary to one another. Just as most as well. Actually, we have a broad base of In an age of increasing skepticism, both the
scholars feel that Mark is prior to Matthew agreement we are both deeply concerned that inductive and the deductive approaches to
and Luke, which are expansions from it, so nothing erode or undermine our confidence in inerrancy will have their appeal to various
many conservative scholars feel that Genesis the complete trustworthiness of the Word of individuals and will serve a useful function in
I must be placed prior to Genesis 2, which God and its all'Suffitiency in matters of restoring confidence in the Word of God as
takes only one aspect of Genesis 1 and salvation. Whatever erodes our confidence in indeed God's word. Editors.
SEMINAR Sponsored by MINISTRY and
Andrews University
for church professionals of all faiths

August 30 to September 4,1981

Sunday, August 30 Evening keynote address: Charles E. Bradford.

Monday, August 31 Featured speaker: John S. Savage.

Activating the Inactive Member

Tuesday, September 1 Featured speakers: Des Cummings, Jr., Mark Finley,
John Fowler, T. A. McNealy.
The Pastor's Role Afternoon workshops: Pastoral Evangelism;
in Church Growth Leadership Pastoral Nurture and Religious Education;
Pastoral Leadership in Worship and Preaching;
The Pastoral Personality and Church Growth.

Featured speakers: James Engel, Mark Finley,

Wednesday, September 2 Clarence Grusbeck, Eldon and Arlys Walter.
Motivation and Training Afternoon workshops: Telephone Evangelism;
of the Laity Motivating the Member; Discovery, Development,
and Deployment of Spiritual Gifts; Pastoral Leader
ship in the City.

Featured speakers: James F. Engel, Ivan Warden.

Thursday, September 3
Afternoon workshops: Pastoral Evangelism;
The World: Our Role Evangelism in the Urban Context; Strategies for
in Communicating the Gospel Community Outreach; Broadcast Evangelism;
The New Member: Whom Are We Reaching and How?

Friday, September 4 Featured speakers: J. R. Spangler, Douglas A.

The Church and Seminar closes at noon.
Social Change
Come spend five stimulating days with these specialists in church growth and leadership!

Douglas A. Walrath, Des Cummings, Jr., director,

church development consultant Institute of Church Ministry,
and research specialist; associate Andrews University. With the
editor of the Review of Religious Institute staff, Cummings is
Research and author of Leading involved in such issues as:
Churches Through Change indicators of church growth;
(Abingdon, 1979). He is the pastoral personality and
currently coordinating research church growth; the pastor and
to identify the needs the church spouse: morale in ministry;
must address in the 1980s and 1990s. and the new member: whom are
we reaching and how?
John S. Savage, president of
Leadership Education and Roger L. Dudley, coordinator of research and development for
Development (LEAD) the Institute of Church Ministry, Andrews University. He has recently
Consultants, Inc. He is a United completed a research project to identify local institutional factors
Methodist minister whose associated with rapid church growth.
presentation on "The Inactive
Member" will utilize his Mark Finley, director, Lake Union Soul-winning
extensive research on the critical Institute, Chicago. From his experience with
factors involved in the church this unusual, live-in evangelistic training center,
dropout. Finley will be outlining strategies for
community outreach.
James F. Engel, director, Billy
Graham Graduate Program in T. A. McNealy, pas*or,
Communication at Wheaton Maranatha church, Atlanta.
College Graduate School and Pastor McNeaty's church has
originator of the Engel Model of grown by 967 new members
Receptivity. His background in in three years! How?
consumer behavior and market
ing research uniquely fits him
to address the problems the
church faces in communicating
the gospel.
Charles E. Bradford, author
of Preaching to the Times. The
world church and its problems,
the pastoral mission, and the Plus: James Chase, broadcast evangelism • Raoul Dederen,
current situation in Christian ministry of the Word • John Fowler, administration and
theology are concerns that he church growth • Clarence Grusbeck, church growth princi
has shared with thousands of ples • Arnold Kurtz, motivating members • William Liver-
ministers. He will present the sidge, spiritual gifts • Norman Miles, urban ministry • J. R.
keynote address at the opening Spangler, editor, MINISTRY • Steven Vitrano, worship and
convocation, Sunday night, preaching • Eldon and Arlys Walter, telephone evangelism •
August 30. Ivan L. Warden, pastoral leadership in the city.

Designed to meet the church growth needs of every pastor who longs to see a resurgence
of power-filled ministry in his church, this seminar will be a tremendous opportunity
for fellowship and learning in a beautiful campus setting. Take a few days' vacation;
bring your spouse and share this unique enrichment!

One hour transferable credit: $100 Seminar on Church Growth and Pastoral Leadership
Two hours transferable credit: $190 Institute of Church Ministry, Andrews University
Noncredit participation: $80 Berrien Springs, Michigan 49104
Per-day charge for those who cannot
attend the entire seminar: $25. No
tuition charge for spouses who do not
desire academic credit. Address
Meals and Lodging:
City Srarp 7ip
Meal charge per day (3 meals): $10
Residence hall lodging, two people to a Arrival: dare rime ( ) I will he alone
room, per person, per night: $7.50
Residence hall lodging, one person to a Departure: date
room (when available): $10.65
Nearby motels are also available. University housing requested? ( ) Yes ( ) No
We believe in ... one Lord Jesus Christ, the Son of God, begotten
of the Father, only-begotten, that is, of the substance of the
Father, God of God, Light of Light, true God of true God, begotten,
not made, of one substance with the Father, through whom all things
were made, things in heaven and things on the earth; who for us
men and for our salvation came down and was made flesh, and became
man, suffered, and rose on the third day, and ascended into the heavens,
and is coming to judge the living and dead. The Creed of Nicaea.

This We Believe/3 by Raoul Dederen

I believe in Jesus Christ

it the center of the Christian religion
is Jesus Christ. Our religion is not, in the
first place, the acceptance of a creed or of a
certain number of clearly defined funda
mental beliefs. In its innermost essence it
is a commitment to a Person. Being a
Christian means to say Yes to Christ, and
to do so unreservedly.
The same is true of the Christian
message. The gospel is about a Person. It is
about an event at the center of which is
Jesus Christ. In Him God has acted and
spoken. In Jesus Christ He has come. The
New Testament Scriptures ascribe ulti
mate significance to Jesus of Nazareth,
"born of woman" (Gal. 4:4), * yet who was
before Abraham (see John 8:58). Christi
anity does not go back simply to an early
community of believers; it is rooted in Jesus
of Nazareth.
But who is Jesus? Just a first-century Jew?
It is difficult to allow that a man of the first
century, however great, has said the last
word on all that matters. The demand that
we surrender ourselves to Him as a person
has even more alarming implications.
Who is He?
He was certainly a man. His earliest
disciples were in no doubt regarding the
genuine humanity of the man of Nazareth.
They spoke of Him as "a man approved of
God" (Acts 2:22, K.J.V.), a man
" 'anointed . . . with the Holy Spirit'" and
who " 'went about doing good'" (chap.
10:38). At the same time they maintained
that they saw God in every aspect of His
work—past, present, and future. He was,
they declared, nothing less than divine.
Looking back to His earthly life, they saw

Raoul Dederen, Ph.D., is professor of

historical theology, Andrews University
Theological Seminary, Berrien Springs,
Michigan, and a contributing editor of
the miracles He performed as "signs" from than God (see verse 1). Matt. 8:24; John 4:6). He could express
God, i.e., acts of God attending Jesus and Having asserted Christ's essential deity, love and compassion (see Mark 10:21;
investing Him with revelational signifi John goes on to state that an incarnation Matt. 9:36), and needed prayer to sustain
cance (see chaps. 2:22; 10:38). They also took place: "the Word became flesh" Him (see Matt. 14:23; Luke 16:12).
saw Him as the object of Old Testament (verse 14). Years earlier Paul had made a Yet in the most natural fashion Christ
prophecy, both in general terms (see similar statement: the One who was in the claimed sinlessness (see John 8:46), a
chaps. 7:52; 10:43) and also with reference form of God took the form of a servant and claim His enemies apparently never chal
to such particular events as the crucifixion was "born in the likeness of men" (Phil. lenged. The New Testament writers freely
(see chap. 3:18) or the resurrection (see 2:7). God the Son became a man; a union repeated it (see Luke 1:35; Mark 1:24; 2
chap. 2:25-31). While some set Jesus at took place between God and a created Cor. 5:21; Heb. 4:15; 1 Peter 1:9; 1 John
naught and rejected Him, God, they human nature so close that a man, one of 3:5). I would not wish to assert here that
maintained, had glorified Him (see chap. our own race, could say, "I am God." At a Christ's sinlessness arose from some auto
3:13), had exalted Him to His own right particular moment in history God the Son matic necessity of His nature that, for
hand (see chap. 2:33) and, as the first entered this world in a unique, unprece instance, placed Him above temptation.
recorded Christian sermon states, had dented fashion and began to exist as man! While He was sinless and free from
"made him both Lord and Christ" (verse The Incarnation cannot be explained by tendencies or propensities toward evil, He
36). God had chosen Him to be the judge what went before; it must be joined by a was indeed tempted, sorely tempted. "In
of all, living and dead alike (see chaps. vertical line directly with God. every respect . . . tempted as we are, yet
10:42; 17:31). While it would be altogether arrogant to without sinning," specifies the author of
Theirs may not have been, from the boast that we can know Christ's mind, we the Epistle to the Hebrews (4:15). The
start, a highly developed Christology. We are not without evidence of Jesus' view of reality of Christ's temptations forms a
may well have to wait until we come to Himself. Among other things, He knew considerable part of the evidence of His
some of the more theological writings of Himself to be God's Son in a unique sense manhood. This reality is highlighted by
the New Testament for such formal and (see Luke 2:41-52; John 20:17; 5:17, 18), the record of Christ's encounter with
systematic statements, but these early as well as the Son of man, who has Satan in the wilderness (see Matt. 4:1-11)
affirmations contain all the raw materials authority to forgive sins and who is lord of and the agony He underwent in the
for a thoroughgoing Christian doctrine of the Sabbath (see Mark 2:10, 27). Christ's Garden of Gethsemane (see Luke 22:39-
the person and work of Christ. self-understanding comes out most vividly 46), to mention only these. Clearly, Jesus'
The New Testament writers also liked to in the great "I am" statements recorded in sinlessness did not result from some auto
think of Jesus as standing in a specially the fourth Gospel. '"I am the bread of matic necessity of His nature as much as
close relationship to the Father. Paul, for life'" (John 6:35) and '"I am the light of from His moment-by-moment committal
instance, is so much in the habit of the world'" (chap. 8:12) are unique of Himself to the Father.
thinking of the Father and the Son as claims. The same may be said of" 'I am the He probably described His role best
intimately related that he ascribes many resurrection and the life'" (chap. 11:25) or when He stated that the Son of man
gifts and graces indifferently to either. of His claim to be " 'the way, and the truth, " 'came not to be served but to serve, and
Thus, the gospel is the gospel of God as and the life'" (chap. 14:6). These asser to give his life as a ransom for many'"
well as the gospel of Jesus Christ just a few tions could hardly be more comprehensive (Mark 10:45). Likewise, the gospel that
verses later (see Rom. 1:1, 16). The two and universal. It seems difficult to escape Paul both received and delivered began by
are so close that it hardly matters which the conclusion that in the mind of Jesus declaring that "Christ died for our sins in
name is used. Forgiveness-is from God or there was a definite connection between accordance with the scriptures" (1 Cor.
from Christ (see Col. 2:13; 3:13), or from Himself and the great I am as the name of 15:3). It would be difficult to exaggerate
God for Christ's sake (see Eph. 4:32). One Yahweh in the Old Testament (see Ex. the importance of Jesus' death in the New
day we shall stand before the judgment seat 3:13, 14). We see this even more clearly in Testament, whose authors are concerned,
of God, which is also referred to as the another of Christ's statements: "'Before to show historically how that death
judgment seat of Christ (see Rom. 14:10- Abraham was, I am'" (John 8:58). Those occurred and what it means theologically.
12; 2 Cor. 5:10). And if it is true that in who heard Him were so very much aware of This is indeed the very heart of the gospel
the Old Testament the great day at the end the implications of such a statement that message. To Paul it was essentially an act
of the world, when judgment will be "they took up stones to throw at him" of God, the act of God, and absolutely
effected, is the "day of the Lord," it is also (verse 59). central. He made it the center of his
described as "the day of our Lord Jesus Though fully God, Jesus was also fully message (see Gal. 6:14; 1 Cor. 2:2).
Christ" (1 Cor. 1:8, cf. Rom. 2:16). How man, as attested by the New Testament It was basic to Paul that Christ died "for"
could anything more strikingly demon writers who tell us that he "grew and sin, that He was crucified "for" men.
strate the place accorded Christ in the became strong" (Luke 2:40) and Christ, he explains, "was put to death for
minds of the first Christians than the "increased in wisdom and in stature" our trespasses" (Rom. 4:25), he "died for
spectacle of convinced Jewish monotheists (verse 52), and that He "learned obedi our sins" (1 Cor. 15:3), and "gave himself
so freely ascribing divine functions and ence through what he suffered" (Heb. for our sins" (Gal. 1:4). Christ Himself
attributes to Jesus of Nazareth? 5:8). They describe Him to us as knowing portrayed His death in this very light when
John's gospel opens with the baffling hunger (see Matt. 4:2) and thirst (see John He commented, " 'This is my body which is
statement, "In the beginning was the 19:28), and the need for sleep and rest (see given for you. Do this in remembrance of
Word." The imagery is foreign to us, and
we hardly know what to make of it. But the
term logos (word) was common in the first
century. It is precisely against this back
ground (which, as John knew, Jews and
How could anything more strikingly demonstrate
Greeks would understand and appreciate) the place accorded Christ in the minds of the
that the apostle claimed that Jesus of
Nazareth was responsible for all creation, first Christians than the spectacle of
as well as for giving men and women the
true light (see John 1:3, 4, 9). For John, convinced Jewish monotheists freely ascribing
the logos with which his contemporaries divine functions and attributes to Jesus?
were so familiar was a person and no less
me'" (Luke 22:19). This is why we speak of results of a single action of God in return to His people (see John 14:3, 18, 19;
Christ's death as "vicarious," i.e., a death vindicating Christ after His humiliation 16:16, 22), when there would be a
He died for others, or with their benefit in on the cross (see Rom. 8:34; Phil. 2:8, 9; resurrection of the dead (see Mark 12:25-
view. There have been great differences of Eph. 1:20, 21).' The two, however, 27; Luke 14:14; John 5:25-29) and a final
opinion concerning this phrase "for you," remain clearly distinct. It is one thing to separation between the saved and the lost
and the distinction has frequently been affirm that Jesus has been raised from (see Matt. 8:11, 12; 13:24-30, 36-43;
made between "in your behalf" (hyper) and death; it is another, however closely 25:31-46).
"in your stead" (anti). I believe that related, to assert that He now shares in the So our Lord will appear a second time in
Scripture does not warrant such a radical sovereignty of God over heaven and earth. glory. He will return to earth and fulfill His
distinction. "In the stead of" and "in For this is indeed what Christ's ascension promise to " 'take you to myself, that where
behalf of" neither contradict nor exclude proclaims. It affirms that Christ, risen from I am you may be also'" (John 14:3). God's
each other. The cross is bigger than any the dead, is both king and priest. As king, redemptive purpose, centered on Christ,
definition, deeper and more profound than He shares the throne of God, and all will reach its fulfillment.
any rationale. Christ's death was fully "in authority belongs to Him in heaven and One of the most surprising things about
behalf of" because it took place "in the earth (see Matt. 28:18; Acts 2:33; 1 Cor. Christ's return, though, is that we Chris
stead of." His was a vicarious and substitu- 15:25; Heb. 1:3; 1 Peter 3:22). He sits in a tians are supposed to want it, to look
tionary death, a demonstration of God's unique position of dignity and honor at the forward to it. It is, remember, the "blessed
love. Truly, as John declares, "In this is right hand of God. But He is also priest. At hope" (Titus 2:13). The early Christians
love, not that we loved God but that he God's right hand He makes intercession for longed for it and were impatient at its
loved us and sent his Son to be the us (see Rom. 8:34; Heb. 7:25; 9:24; 1 John delay. This seems strange to our present
expiation for our sins" (1 John 4:10). 2:1, 2). Christ's priesthood is most fully mentality. They desired the end of the
Still, a theology of redemption that expounded in the Epistle to the Hebrews, world, and we dread it. Could it be that our
would pay exclusive attention to Christ's where the apostle depicts the resurrected notion of the end no longer corresponds to
death would inevitably be unbalanced and Christ as our "high priest" (see chaps. theirs?
impoverished from a scriptural perspec 2:17; 7:27) who "offered himself without We are used to associating the end with
tive. Indeed, the gospel both received and blemish to God" (chap. 9:14). He is at some cosmic disaster and have come to
proclaimed by Paul, referred to above, did once high priest and sacrifice, taking us not dispense with the cosmic significance of
not merely reveal that "Christ died for our into a "sanctuary made with hands" but Christ's work, which the early believers
sins in accordance with the scriptures," but into the true sanctuary, the heavenly kept ever in sight. For them, the end of the
immediately adds "that he was buried, that sanctuary, appearing in the presence of world, though cataclysmic, meant the
he was raised on the third day in accord God "on our behalf (see verses 11-15, 24; triumph of Christ. Christ's death and
ance with the scriptures" (1 Cor. 15:3, 4). chap. 10:19, 20). His work is for us; it is resurrection already marked the beginning
Jesus' death and resurrection Paul pro also in us (see chap. 10:16). In him only are of the end of the world, introducing into
claimed as belonging together at the very we made "perfect" or "complete" (see this world and into human history the final
heart of the gospel. His reluctance to speak chaps. 2:10-18; 10:14). order of things. The new creation had
of one without the other is reflected in He is our mediator (see chaps 8:6; 9:15; begun, and we already have eternal life.
Romans 8:34, "Christ Jesus, who died, yes, 12:24). But He is that in a richer sense We live in the last days and already enjoy
who was raised from the dead." There is an than is indicated by the usual translation. the life of the world to come. The final
indissoluble bond joining the death and He is not between God and man. 2 He is not order of things exists, now—fully in Christ
resurrection of Jesus Christ in the one just a third party between God and man; Himself, but in an incomplete way in the
mystery of salvation. He is infinitely more than that. In Him, rest of creation. So, when all is ready,
Christ's resurrection is central to the who is both human and divine, God and Christ will come again "to save those who
Christian faith. On the basis of their man meet directly. He is not a middleman. are eagerly waiting for him" (Heb. 9:28).
experience of the resurrection, the early As true God, He brings God to man; and as No wonder the first Christians were
disciples saw the life and death of Jesus in a true man, He brings man to God. He is a impatient for everything to be settled
whole new light. The ambiguity and the "merciful and faithful high priest in the quickly. No wonder that at the end of the
feeling of defeat that surrounded them service of God" (chap 2:17). Apocalypse John should cry out: "He who
disappeared. Most likely, its faith in the His mediatorial priesthood, however, testifies to these things says, 'Surely I am
resurrection was the primary factor that will come to an end; for, as the same coming soon.' Amen. Come, Lord Jesus!"
caused the early church to acknowledge Epistle concludes, "Christ, having been (Rev. 22:20)._______________
the divinity of Jesus. And once the early offered once to bear the sins of many, will ; In several passages the resurrection is not
believers had accepted His divinity, they appear a second time, not to deal with sin treated as an event separate from the ascension.
began under the guidance of the Spirit to but to save those who are eagerly waiting See, for instance, Acts 2:32, 33; Eph. 4:9, 10; 1
lay the foundations for the doctrine of the for him" (chap. 9:28). Jesus expected that Tim. 3:16; 1 Peter 3:21, 22.
2 As translated in the only other passage
Incarnation, proclaiming Jesus as the Word there would be a time on earth when His referring to Christ as mediator, namely, 1 Timothy
made flesh (see John 1:14). From the disciples would have to go about their work 2:5. Interestingly enough, the Greek text has no
doctrine of the Incarnation they were led without His visible presence (see John word for between.____________________
ineluctably to the preexistence of Jesus (see 7:34-36; 13:33; 14:1, 2). He also visualized Unless otherwise noted, Bible texts in this
verse 1; Phil. 2:5-9) and to the issue of His an end to history, a day when He would article are from the Revised Standard Version.
relationship to the whole of creation and to
the history of salvation (see Col. 1:15-20;
Rom. 8:19-22; Eph. 1:9, 10, 22, 23). The
message of the New Testament became,
and still is, the message of the resurrected It would be difficult to exaggerate the
Lord, for the resurrection of Christ is the
beginning and not the end of the story. importance of Christ's death in the New
Nor did the New Testament writers Testament, whose authors are concerned to show
separate the resurrection from the ascen
sion of Christ. In their eyes, the resurrec
tion, the ascension, and the present status
historically how that death occurred and what
of Christ at "God's right hand" are all it means theologically.
World view
Koland R. tiegstad has some strong feelings about voting on Sunday.
You may be surprised at the reasons for his stand. He also shares
with us some encouraging statistics about religion in the U.S.S.R.
Vote on Sunday? itself; so disturbed were the authorities by another person and not with a theological
Should National Election Day be the number still witnessing to belief in God or spiritual being such as God.
changed from Tuesday to Sunday? U.S. that the census returns were burned and Just how this case will end up is hard to
Rep. Mario Biaggi (D-N.Y.) believes so. the census takers imprisoned. No question predict, so far as human justice is con
He has introduced a voting bill that would on religious belief has been asked since.) cerned, that is. When it comes to the last
require all general elections to be held on Today Soviet churches are experiencing appeal before the judgment seat of Christ,
Sunday, and all polls across the country to a new infusion of youth disillusioned with it doesn't seem likely that He who knows
open and close during the same nine-hour the empty promises of materialism. Some even the thoughts and intents of the heart
period of 12:00-9:00 P.M. (EST). The church congregations are predominantly will be in doubt concerning the facts of the
six-year trial period would begin in 1982, youth—under 25. But statistics on believ case. And one must suspect that a plea for
with the Federal Elections Commission ers remain hard to get. forgiveness would receive more considera
monitoring the impact of the changes on A recent visitor to the Soviet Union tion than an appeal to "get away" with it.
voter turnout. Identical legislation was came up with his own method of comput
recently introduced into the Senate by ing belief. While in Leningrad he went to
Sen. S. I. Hayakawa (R-Calif.). Biaggi says the Yuzhnoye Kladbishche ("Southern Cem Rhetorical redaction
that his proposal "has received enthusias etery"), which appears to have been open Have you ever noticed that most dic
tic endorsements from religious leaders, since 1973-1974, and studied a total of 222 tionaries take a decidedly morbid approach
State election officials, leading newspa graves. These fell into three categories: to definitions? For example, separate is not-
pers, and numerous other interested groups Those marked with a cross, those with no defined (as a happy preacher might have
and individuals around the country." distinguishing marks apart from names and written) "to separate, as truth from error,"
Certainly the change would pose no dates, and those marked with a red star. but rather "to disunite, disconnect, or
problems, theological or otherwise, for According to his data: sever, as friends." Proceed to definition
Seventh-day Adventists. And I suspect it Number 2 and you'll find that it means "to
would not for most Sundaykeeping Chris Year Cross Nothing Red Star part, as by a legal separation, as man and
tians. But I wonder how the Lord's Day 1974 31 24 8 wife."
Alliance feels about this. A group that has 1975 51 18 4 Matters only get worse with such a term
so long striven to make Sunday a day of 1978 28 14 2 as Jew. All leading English dictionaries
worship could hardly applaud exercise of 1978-1979 22 17 5 have included such definitions as "usurer,"
partisan political preference, even if dur "an extortionate tradesman," "money
ing nonchurch hours. 132 73 19 lender," "unscrupulous usurer," and "a
Adventists have long decried the legal- shameless or dishonest bargainer."
ism of the Lord's Day Alliance, and not a Thus: Crosses, 59.5 percent; Nothing, But now, if Marcus Shloimovitz, a
few times through the past century have 33 percent; Red Star, 7.5 percent. Manchester, England, textile merchant,
been on the opposite side of legislative Of course, a cross on a grave does not has his way, definitions are going to be
proposals. But should the Alliance or other mean that the funeral was conducted by turned sunny side up, at least so far as Jews
Sundaykeeping Christians object to elec the clergy. But its being there indicates a are concerned. After 10 years of trying, he
tions on Sunday, I suspect Seventh-day statement of faith either by the deceased or has got English dictionaries to remove
Adventists will join them in opposing the his relatives. It would seem fair to say that some negative definitions of a Jew. His first
bill. Not because Adventists are incon the word from the beyond is: Belief success has come with the latest edition of
venienced or their conscience compro survives in the U.S.S.R. Emphatically! CasselFs, one of the leading publishers of
mised, but because that of our Sunday- English dictionaries, and others have
keeping brethren is. Therefore we will seek promised to follow suit.
to do for them as we would wish them to do When to stay off your knees The new edition has eliminated all
for us if the issue were a seventh-day Who said prayer always pays? Not for descriptive definitions condemned by Mr.
Sabbath voting bill. Every American Morris Davie it didn't. Morris was accused Shloimovitz as unjustifiable and
should be given opportunity to exercise his of setting a forest fire in Cariboo County, maligning and has substituted: "Jew. Heb.
franchise as a voting citizen without, at the British Columbia. Alone in a police Y'hudah, Judah, son of Jacob, but later
same time, violating his religious convic precinct room shortly after his arrest, he used for all adherents of the Mosaic Law,
tions. fell to his knees, raised his hands, and frequently also called 'Israelite' or
prayed: "Oh, God, please let me get away 'Hebrew,' now applied to professing mem
with it." His plea was picked up by police bers of the Synagogue and, loosely, to
The U.S.S.R—does belief survive? monitoring the room with a closed-circuit racial descendants of the Hebrew tribe;
How many Soviets retain religious camera and a hidden microphone. incorr., a citizen of the State of Israel."
beliefs after a generation of atheism? The The prosecution was barred from using
last official census to ask this question—in the evidence against Mr. Davie, and he
1937—revealed that 40 million Soviets was acquitted. But on appeal the prosecu Items in World View, unless otherwise
still believed in God. (The question was tion argued successfully that the law credited, are from Religious News Service.
asked contrary to the Soviet Constitution protects only private communication with Opinions, however, are the author's.
Lawrence obediently observed the times,
The influence of a seventeenth-century but he gave up on the specified prayers, for
they seemed dead to him. He didn't get
Carmelite lay brother who practiced the much benefit from the set times either, and
presence of Christ reaches down into our day. declared that "he was more united to God
in his ordinary occupations than when he
left them for devotion in retirement, from
by Robert M. Johnston which he knew himself to issue with much
dryness of spirit." So he said, but of course
we do not know what his life would have

The devotional life been like if he had not had regular times of
special devotion.
He found no value in penances and

of Brother Lawrence
mortifications, felt no need of spiritual
directors, and believed that the only
remedy for sin was simple faith in God's
forgiveness by the blood of Jesus Christ. He
declared: "Many do not advance in Chris
tian progress because they stick in pen
ances and particular exercise, while they
neglect the love of God, which is the end."
But it was not a question of human merit,
for he said plainly: "The greater perfection
a soul aspires after, the more dependent it
is upon Divine Grace." Even his turning to
uring my college years I wandered his novitiate he was put to work in the God in prayer he acknowledged to be
into a Presbyterian church, and in the kitchen as a cook and a washer of pots and solely the work of God in him; his
foyer I spied something that has had a pans; it was a line of work he naturally devotional practices, he said, "are to be
lasting impact upon my life. I saw there a detested, but he welcomed it because he imputed solely to the mercy and goodness
literature rack, well stocked with pam expected that the mortification of it would of God, because we can do nothing
phlets and booklets. The title of one be good for his soul. But things turned out without Him, and I still less than any. But
caught my attention: Brother Lawrence: His differently. when we are faithful to keep ourselves in
Letters arid Conversations on the Practice of The Discalced, or Barefoot, Carmelites His holy presence, and set Him always
the Presence of God. I did not know who were a branch of the Carmelite order that before us, this not only hinders our
Brother Lawrence was, but those words followed a strict rule of abstinence from offending Him and doing anything that
seemed to promise something I wanted. flesh food, absolute poverty, and much may displease Him, at least willfully, but it
I took the little booklet with me, and as I solitary meditation and prayer. Brother also begets in us a holy freedom, and, if I
read it, many of its phrases and maxims Lawrence "had desired to be received into may so speak, a familiarity with God,
sank into my mind and continued to linger a monastery, thinking that he would there wherewith we ask, and that successfully,
there, even though later I nearly forgot be made to smart for his awkwardness and the graces we stand in need of." In one of
about the book for many years. I read it faults he should commit, and so he should his letters he wrote: "God has many ways of
again recently and found myself once more sacrifice to God his life, with its pleasures; drawing us to Himself. He sometimes
profoundly moved and deeply affected. but God disappointed him, he having met hides Himself from us; but faith alone,
Who was Brother Lawrence? He was a with nothing but satisfaction in that which will not fail us in time of need,
young man named Nicholas Herman, born state." ought to be our support, and the founda
in Lorraine during one of the times when "In the beginning of his novitiate he tion of our confidence, which must be all
that territory belonged to France. He was a spent the hours appointed for private in God."
simple, unlearned peasant, who described prayer in thinking of God. . . . By this short His devotional method, simply put, was
himself as "a great nwkward fellow who and sure method he exercised himself in this: "That we should establish in ourselves
broke everything." the knowledge and love of God, resolving a sense of God's presence by continually
He was converted at the age of 18. "In to use his utmost endeavor to live in a conversing with Him." In other words, he
the winter, seeing a tree stripped of its continual sense of His presence, and, if put into actual practice Paul's maxim "Pray
leaves, and considering that within a little possible, never to forget Him more. . . . without ceasing"!
time the leaves would be renewed, and When he had thus in prayer filled his mind Brother Lawrence's experience had a
after that the flowers and fruit appear, he with great sentiments of that Infinite visible effect, and others began to notice.
received a high view of the providence and Being, he went to his work appointed in One who knew him described it this way:
power of God, which has never since been the kitchen (for he was cook to the "As Brother Lawrence had found such
effaced from his soul." He said "that this Society). There having first considered comfort and blessing in walking in the
view had perfectly set him loose from the severally the things his office required, and presence of God, it was natural for him to
world, and kindled in him such a love for when and how each thing was to be done, recommend it earnestly to others; but his
God that he could not tell whether it had he spent all the intervals of his time, as example was a stronger inducement than
increased during the more than forty years well before as after his work, in prayer." any arguments he could propose. His very
he had [since] lived." A man's religion can be better than his countenance was edifying; such a sweet
In 1649, when he was middle-aged, he theology. In Brother Lawrence's case, he and calm devotion appearing in it could
entered the monastery of the Barefoot simply didn't have much theology; he had not but affect all beholders. And it was
Carmelites in Paris, as a lay brother. After difficulty following theological discussions observed that in the greatest hurry of
and was usually bored with them. So he business in the kitchen, he still preserved
Robert M. Johnston, Ph.D., is associate concerned himself only with knowing his recollection and heavenly-minded-
professor of theology, Andrews University God, not with knowing theology. ness. He was never hasty nor loitering, but
Theological Seminary, Berrien Springs, His order prescribed set times of prayer, did each thing in its season, with an even,
Michigan. and set prayers to be said. Brother uninterrupted composure and tranquillity
of spirit. The time of business,' he said, trust I had in God, and which served only said he, "by rising after my falls, and by
'does not with me differ from the time of to increase my faith), I found myself frequently renewed acts of faith and love, I
prayer, and in the noise and clatter of my changed all at .once; and my soul, which am come to state wherein it would be as
kitchen, while several persons are at the till that time was in trouble, felt a profound difficult for me not to think of God as it was
same time calling for different things, I inward peace, as if it had found its center at first to accustom myself to it."
possess God in as great tranquillity as if I and place of rest." But Brother Lawrence well understood
were upon my knees at the Blessed But I have not yet brought into focus human frailty and the difficulty of forming
Sacrament.'" that feature of Brother Lawrence's religion the habit of practicing the presence of
Brother Lawrence never wrote a book. that causes us to thank God most for him: God. In a letter he gave this gentle
What I have quoted comes to us from two He practiced the presence of God by counsel: "He lays no great burden upon us:
sources. The abbe M. de Beaufort, grand making every action of his daily work an a little remembrance of Him from time to
vicar of Cardinal de Noailles, archbishop act of worship. Everything he did in the time; a little adoration; sometimes to pray
of Paris, came to know of Brother kitchen or elsewhere, he did for the love of for His grace, sometimes to offer Him your
Lawrence and sought to discover from him God. And he used to talk to God this way: sorrows, and sometimes to return Him
the secret of his joy. The old cook told the "When he was about to undertake some thanks for the benefits He has given you,
grand vicar that if it was his desire to serve thing, he said: 'Lord, I cannot do this and still gives you, in the midst of your
God sincerely, he could come to visit as unless Thou enables! me,' and he testifies troubles. He asks you to console yourself
often as he pleased, without any fear of that then he received strength more than with Him the oftenest you can. Lift up your
being troublesome; but if not, he ought no sufficient. When he had failed in his duty, heart to Him even at your meals and when
more to visit him. The grand vicar had he simply confessed his fault, saying to you are in company; the least little
several conversations with him, and was so God, 'I shall never do otherwise if Thou remembrance will always be acceptable to
impressed with the profound simplicity of leavest me to myself; it is Thou who must Him. You need not cry very loud; He is
what this dedicated man said that he wrote hinder my falling, and mend what is nearer to us than we think.
down afterward all that he could remem amiss.' Then he gave himself no further "To be with God, there is no need to be
ber. uneasiness about it. 'If I fail not, then I give continually in church. We may make an
Brother Lawrence began to get a reputa God thanks, acknowledging that the oratory of our heart wherein to retire from
tion for being a spiritual adviser, some strength comes from Him.' " time to time to converse with Him in
thing for which he personally had not Once he was sent to Burgundy to buy meekness, humility, and love. Every one is
much use. He told the grand vicar that he some provisions for the Society, a task that capable of such familiar conversation with
"had no occasion to consult with anybody was very unwelcome to him; he had no God, some more, some less. He knows
about his soul" and "that when he had expertise in business and was lame. But "he what we can do. Let us begin, then.
attempted to do it, he had always come gave himself no uneasiness about it, nor "We cannot escape the dangers which
away more perplexed." Nevertheless, about the purchasing. ... He said to God, abound in life without the actual and
others wrote to him for spiritual counsel, 'It was His business he was about,'" and continual help of God. Let us, then, pray to
and he answered their letters faithfully. afterward he found it very well performed. Him for it continually. How can we pray to
We have a collection of these letters from "Our sanctification," he said, "does not Him without being with Him? How can we
the last decade of his life (he died in 1691, depend upon changing our works, but in be with Him but in thinking of Him often?
at about the age of 80). The year after his doing that for God's sake which commonly And how can we often think of Him unless
death the grand vicar published his con we do for our own." "The most excellent by a holy habit of thought which we should
versations and letters in two little volumes, method he had found of going to God was form? . . . We must know before we can
and it is a selection from these which have that of doing our common business with love. In order to know God, we must often
been translated into English and published out any view of pleasing men, and (as far as think of Him; and when we come to love
in a booklet. No one knows how many we are capable) purely for the love of Him, we shall then also think of Him
times it has been reprinted, or in how God." "We ought not to be weary of doing often, for our heart will be with our
many editions, but it has been a blessing to little things for the love of God, who treasure."
all kinds of people. regards not the greatness of the work, but Such was the gentle counsel Brother
Like his contemporary John Bunyan, the love with which it is performed." "We Lawrence sent to a weak soul. And so
Brother Lawrence went through an can do little things for God. I turn the cake would he counsel us, knowing that most of
anguished period early in his Christian that is frying on the pan for love of Him, us need only the courage to begin with God
experience during which he felt he was and that done, if there is nothing else to and the courage to keep on even when we
lost. This is the way he spoke of it in a call me, I prostrate myself in worship fail, knowing that God forgives us and
letter: before Him, who has given me grace to accepts us and accepts our poor offerings,
"The apprehension that I was not work; afterwards I rise happier than a king. and knowing that so sweet is that fellow
devoted to God as I wished to be, my past It is enough for me to pick up but a straw ship that we will develop with God that, as
sins always present to my mind, and the from the ground for the love of God." in his own experience, our chief joy will be
great unmerited favors which God be "As he proceeded in his work he to hold continual converse with God and
stowed on me, were the matter and source continued his familiar conversation with to do all that we do only for Him,
of my sufferings. During this time I fell His Maker, imploring His grace, and renouncing with a single heart all that is
often, yet as often rose again. It seemed to offering to Him all his actions." "Thus," not His.
me that all creation, reason, and God
Himself were against me, and faith alone
for me. I was troubled sometimes with
thoughts that to believe I had received
such favors was an effect of my presump "We must know before we can love. In order
tion, which pretended to be at once where
others arrive only with difficulty; at other to know God, we must often think of Him; and
times, that it was a willful delusion, and
that there was no salvation for me.
when we come to love Him, we shall then also
"When I thought of nothing but to end
my days in these times of trouble and
think of Him often, for our heart will be
disquiet (which did not at all diminish the with our treasure.
creed, or denominational affiliation!
The United Nations It all began in 1899 when a blind man
has designated 1981 from Nebraska, Austin Wilson, urged the
General Conference of Seventh-day
as the International Adventists to increase its concern and
services for the blind. The result? Wilson
Year of Disabled was hired, along with his wife, and the
Christian Record Braille Foundation was
Persons. Since born. Initial steps were pioneering ones
indeed. The first issue of the Christian
1899 an unusual Record BraiUe Magazine (a total of 75
copies) was produced using an old wash
organization, the ing-machine wringer as a stereotype
Christian Record machine! Through the intervening years,
God's blessing on dedicated personnel has
Braille Foundation, brought great growth to the work of the
CRBF and a multiplication of its services
has expressed its to the blind and disabled.
The Christian Record Braille Founda
Christian concern tion certainly has its work cut out for it.
Approximately 6 million legally blind and
by providing 500,000 totally blind persons live in the
devotional materials United States, along with 14 million
hearing-impaired and 2 million deaf per
for the blind and sons. Of course, outside the United States
the disabled population becomes an even
deaf. larger, more staggering figure.
Pastor Harry Sutcliffe, Ph.D., a
friendly, articulate, blind minister, is
by Donald B. Simons director of the Episcopal Guild for the
Blind in New York City. He is also an

Help for the sight

enthusiastic Bible student and an avid
reader of Braille and recorded materials
produced by the Christian Record Braille
Foundation. When interviewed in Okla

and hearing
homa City by CRBF officials, while
attending a convention of the American
Association of Workers for the Blind
(AAWB), he spoke of blind pastors,

impaired church leaders, and laymen who are

"crying out for the deeper things in life" in
addition to the rudiments of faith.
"As you sit there, in Lincoln, Nebraska
(location of the CRBF headquarters)," he
said, "you may think, 'Who is reading this
material? Is anyone out there being
reached?' I assure you, souls are being
saved; growth in grace is taking place. My
prayer is that the Lord will continue to
bless you and make you a blessing."
The chaplain of a State rehabilitation
center recently wrote the CRBF. "We
thank you for the large-print materials sent
to us to bring the joy of Christ to those with
limited vision. The materials are much
id you know that blind or legally appreciated and used." He adds that
blind persons in your congregation can although "we are a State-operated com
receive a variety of services from an prehensive center," we still have the
unusual organization—the Christian Rec "freedom of making your materials avail
ord Braille Foundation? Currently, 167 able to our clients."
full-time workers and numerous volunteers What services does the Christian Rec
are making Christian publications and ord Braille Foundation offer, and how
programs available to more than 60,000 extensively is its work being utilized?
blind persons. And these services are Since its initial work was for the blind,
provided without charge to those who this aspect still receives a primary empha
have need of them regardless of race, sis, although recently the CRBF has
instituted efforts to aid individuals with
other types of disabilities. Hundreds of
Donald B. Simons is director of public wholesome, inspirational books and
relations for the Christian Record Braille monthly magazines, including titles on
Foundation. travel, biography, science, and religion,

are provided in formats to meet the needs
of various visual handicaps—Braille, large
print, flexible discs, and cassette record
ings. These bring joy and self-fulfillment to
blind readers. Several Bible study courses
are also available that have brought
spiritual guidance and salvation to thou
sands. Approximately eight thousand of
these were distributed during 1980.
Last year thirty-six summer camps for
the blind attracted a combined attendance
of two thousand campers. The first CRBF
winter camp (held in Colorado) involved
twenty-six youth from seventeen States in
such activities as skiing, snowmobiling,
and cross-country hiking. Another such
camp was held this year.
Six glaucoma screening clinics were
held in 1980 in which 1,000 persons were
examined. Forty-six were referred to oph
thalmologists in an effort to prevent
glaucoma-caused future blindness. And
August of 1980 saw a newly acquired
Canadian branch office of the CRBF
opened in British Columbia in order to add
impetus to the work in Canada.
After eighty years of serving the needs of
blind citizens, the CRBF launched an
additional program in March, 1980, to
provide for the long-neglected needs of the
deaf and hearing impaired. Under the
guidance of a trained director of services, a
monthly newsletter, New Dawn, has
already reached a circulation of 1,100;
thousands of manual alphabet cards have
been distributed to churches and other
groups; and a teletype phone (TTY) has
been installed at the CRBF's Lincoln office
to provide contact with deaf persons. As
funds are available, future plans include
sign language classes, Bible study guides,
camps and retreats for deaf persons, as well
as workshops and seminars to assist pastors
and laymen in providing for the spiritual
and social needs of deaf people.
To carry out such an extensive program
requires a large number of individuals Pastor Harry Sutcliffe (p. 24) is an enthusiastic reader of Christian Record
actually making contact with those who materials. Children at camps for the blind enjoy swimming, getting acquainted
need such services. A team of about one with horses, and exploring such things as helicopters. Below: a sampling of
hundred district representatives and ten services for blind and deaf readers produced by Christian Record. (Photos: CRBF.)
area directors visited 32,000 blind persons
during 1980 and processed 304,000
requests for free services. These represent
atives also contact businessmen for contri
butions to assist in the support of this
humanitarian work. In addition to other
sources of funding, the annual offering
taken in Seventh-day Adventist congre
gations across North America helps to
support the work of the Christian Record
Braille Foundation. The offering date this
year is July 11.
If you have blind or hearing-impaired
individuals in your congregation or com
munity and would be interested in learning
more about the free services the Christian
Record Braille Foundation can provide for
them, write or call: Christian Record
Braille Foundation, P.O. Box 6097, Lin
coln, Nebraska 68506. Telephone (402)
Health and Religion/Leo R. Van Dolson

Is your 'pick-me-up' letting you down?

That cup of coffee so many need in order to get going in the morning
may be doing more than just getting the eyes open. In fact, the long
list of health problems coffee seemingly causes is a real eye-opener.
from insomnia and nervousness to cardio strong that Dr. Sanford Miller, director of
vascular problems. During World War II the U.S. Food and Drug Administration's
experimenters in Germany learned that Bureau of Foods, cautions: "My -recom
"although caffeine was a strong mental mendation would be that if you are in a
stimulant, it resulted in a very undesirable susceptible group—a pregnant woman or a
impairment of motor coordination (in young child still undergoing brain develop
target shooting, writing, and simulated ment—you should limit your intake of caf
auto driving). There was also a 'hangover' feine. It is the prudent thing to do. Why
effect, in which mental efficiency, after take a chance?" 5
having been improved, fell off below
normal values—from one to three hours Pancreatic cancer linked with cof
after taking the stimulant." 1 fee drinking
Then came a report, later questioned, As if this growing evidence of health risk
from Dr. Philip Cole, of the Harvard were not enough to fill the coffee lover's
School of Public Health, that for women cup to the rim with grim, there's the latest
who drank one or more cups of coffee a report that associates drinking coffee with
day, the risk of developing bladder cancer pancreatic cancer—a disease that causes
was two and one-half times greater than for more than 20,000 deaths each year in the
those who did not use coffee. 2 United States.
In 1972, the British journal Lancet As a result of questioning 369 patients
added to the attack on the drink that with cancer of the pancreas, along with
gradually replaced tea in America in the 644 control patients, about their use of
years that followed the Boston Tea Party. tobacco, alcohol, tea, and coffee, a group
It reported on findings from the Boston of researchers from Harvard University
Collaborative Drug Surveillance Program concluded that there is "a strong associa
that those who drink coffee have up to two tion between coffee consumption and
and one-half times greater risk of heart pancreatic cancer." This was "evident in
attack than do noncoffee drinkers.' both sexes." 6 The relative risk for con
hen the prestigious New England Then Vanderbilt Medical School sumers of one to two cups of coffee per day
journal of Medicine came out with its recent weighed in with a study that indicated a compared with those who drank no coffee
report associating coffee with cancer of the measurable increase in blood pressure from was 2.1 times; for those who drank three to
pancreas, it merely added to the chorus of the use of caffeine. Next, in April of 1980, four cups a day it was 2.8 times; and for
scientific voices currently questioning the The Nation's Health reported a Food and those who drank five or more cups per day
use of coffee and other caffeine-containing Drug Administration (PDA) study with it was 3.2 times. 7
products. laboratory rats that indicated that caf A finding that there is an "association"
Although the estimated 100 million feine-containing food and beverages might does not establish a causal relationship.
Americans who drink coffee daily have not be responsible for fetal deformities. But the Harvard scientists observed that
taken these reports seriously enough to Reportedly, the PDA is considering "it is worth noting that some of the
lower significantly the amount they are requiring that products such as coffee and descriptive features of the epidemiology of
using, undoubtedly hands holding the tea have labels on the containers warning cancer of the pancreas seems to be
nation's coffee cups have been shaking a that pregnant women should limit their consistent with such a relation. The
little more than usual as the result of this consumption of these beverages. 4 apparent increase in frequency of cancer of
bombardment of bad news. In fact, some Currently, pregnant women are being the pancreas in recent decades and the low
users are feeling that their daily "pick-me- advised to avoid caffeine-containing prod rates observed in Mormons and Seventh-
up" is now letting them down. ucts, because additional studies have indi day Adventists would be compatible with a
It has been common knowledge for cated that the drug can pass from the causative role for either coffee consump
many years that the caffeine in coffee woman's bloodstream through the pla tion or cigarette smoking. However, the
causes a wide range of health problems, centa to the fetus. Caffeine also shows up relatively small excess of men with the
in mother's milk. disease in proportion to women would
Leo R. Van Dolson, Ph.D., M.P.H., in Concern also exists for children less seem to be more suggestive of a role for
addition to being an associate editor of than 8 years old who drink caffeine-con coffee rather than for cigarettes." 8
Adventist Review, is a minister and a health taining soft drinks that could impair the Cancer of the pancreas is the fourth
educator. He has had numerous articles development of their brains and/or central most common fatal malignant disease in
and several books published. Dr. Van nervous systems. the United States. The Harvard scientists
Dolson is a former editor of Life & Health. The evidence of such possible harm is so estimate "the proportion of pancreatic
cancer that is potentially attributable to cancer. Actually, a recent case-control 6. Relax frequently, get adequate sleep,
coffee consumption to be slightly more study found that more cases of pancreatic and take a hot bath daily.
than 50 percent." 9 cancer existed among those now drinking 7. If you have a religious faith, this is
So the evidence is piling up that coffee is decaffeinated coffee. The researchers the time to draw on spiritual
potentially harmful to health. This should point out, however, that the use of resources. Especially when the crav
come as no surprise to those who realize decaffeinated coffee is a recent phenome ing is strong you should pause for a
that there are 75 ix> 155 milligrams of non that reflects generally high consump few minutes in prayer for divine
caffeine in one fiylpbunce cup of coffee tion of regular coffee in the past, and that help.
(more in brewed coffee, less in instant). the time factor involved in developing this If you follow these seven suggestions,
This potent substance acts on the central kind of cancer would suggest that it was not you'll soon find that you're feeling a lot
nervous system, causing irregularity of the decaffeinated coffee that caused the cancer better and peppier than you ever did while
heartbeat, constricting blood vessels, cases observed. 10 using coffee or other caffeinated beverages
making the brain keep on working when it or foods. These health habits will give you
should relax, and causing insomnia. It also How to break the coffee habit a "pick-me-up" that will never let you
elevates blood pressure. But its effects are If you are among those considering down.
followed several hours later by fatigue and giving up coffee because of the health
decreased alertness. Taking caffeine in questions now being raised, how do you go 1 H. A. de Vries, Physiology of Exercise (Du-
large amounts sometimes leads to tremors, about breaking the coffee habit? Here are buque, Iowa: Wm. C. Brown, Publishers, 1966),
agitation, and ringing in the ears. Ingest some workable suggestions: p. 395.
1 "What—Coffee, Too!" Newsweek, July 12,
ing a potent chemical like this daily cannot 1. Eat a good breakfast to keep energy 1971. p. 82.
help being harmful. levels high during the morning. ' "Coffee Drinking and Acute Myocardial
Coffee is not the only beverage that 2. Because your nerves will react to Infarction," report from the Boston Collaborative
contains caffeine. An average-size cup of caffeine deprivation, you will need Drug Surveillance Program, Lancet, Dec. 16,
1972. pp. 1278-1281.
brewed tea includes 28 to 44 mg, and a cup all the vitamin B you can get from 4 American Public Health Association, "Possi
of instant tea has as much as 131 mg. A can natural sources. Cut out desserts and ble Hazards Found in Caffeine," The Nation's
of cola or "pepper" soft drink contains from sweets, and eat plenty of fruits, Health, April, 1980, p. 11.
32 to 65 mg of caffeine. Most stay-awake grains, and vegetables. 5 Molly Sinclair, "Americans' Favorite Caf
feine 'Pick-me-up' Comes Under Fire," Washing
pills, diuretics, and some headache tablets 3. Substitute cereal beverages and herb ton Post, March 23, 1981, p. A-10.
also contain as much as 40 mg of caffeine. teas for a while, if necessary. Even 6 Brian MacMahon, M.D., et al., "Coffee and
The PDA estimates that in the United better, drink a glass of water one-half Cancer of the Pancreas," New England Journal of
States approximately 2 million pounds of hour before eating, then do not drink Medicine, March 12, 1981, p. 630.
'Ibid., p. 631.
this chemical is added to foods and anything with your meal. Be sure to s lbid., p. 632.
beverages each year. In fact, cola drinks drink at least six glasses of water a 9 Ibid., p. 633.
must include caffeine in order to carry that day. 10 R. S. Lin and H. Kessler, "A Multifactorial
label. 4. Stop smoking—drinking coffee and Model for Pancreatic Cancer in Man: Epidemio-
logic Evidence," JAMA, vol. 245 (1981), pp.
As you might expect, manufacturers smoking are so closely associated for 147-152.
that produce caffeine-containing products most people that one automatically
insist that the studies to date do not prove goes with the other.
the potential dangers of caffeine. Neither 5. Instead of the usual coffee break,
This article is reprinted by permission, from the
is it certain that it is the caffeine in coffee take a short, brisk walk, breathing July, 1981, issue of Life & Health. Copyrighted ©
that is responsible for the association deeply. This is one of the most 1981 by the Review and Herald Publishing
between coffee drinking and pancreatic beneficial habits you can form. Association.

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Shepherdess/by Bette Westfatt
Moving can almost be fun

Don't let the prospect of those boxes and barrels send you into a panic.
All you need are some helpful hints from an expert of twenty-four moves,
a little organization on your part, and presto, order from chaos!

ou don't agree? Perhaps I can change are also good for packing; these usually can and eliminate the possibility of the whole
your mind. After reading some tips from be obtained from factories, bakeries, or unit toppling over. They put handles in
my own experience, as well as some I've custodial suppliers. These sturdy barrels the ends to make carrying easier, and stack
gleaned from several pastors' wives, * are especially good for packing dishes, pots the boxes in order on the truck. When
maybe you too will come to believe that and pans, lampshades, and other large or they reach their destination, they put the
changing parsonages isn't so bad after all. easily broken items. (They will also make boxes back up, and the books are automati
It may not really be fun to pack up all your fine lampstands in your new home when cally in the same order as before, readily
belongings and transport them and your covered with fringed tablecloths.) Those available when needed. Shelves such as
family to a new location, but if you who are moving overseas will want to pack these can be used as a room divider or may
approach it with the right attitude and in round metal drums that can be welded be placed against one wall.
practice some tricks of the veteran mover it shut, thus protecting your valuables while There is no need for your house to look
can be a challenge that is a/most enjoyable. in transit. all torn up before moving day arrives. If
Actually, moving can be a real blessing As you pack each box or barrel, label you have chosen your boxes well they can
if you have been living in one house for each as to which room in your new home it be stacked out of sight, with their content
several years. I am the type of individual should go, including attic and basement. labels on the ends. If you are in need of an
who believes in the theory "When in You may also wish to number each, and item that you packed prematurely, it won't
doubt, throw it out," so my family has not make a list of the contents—either on be hard to find.
accumulated a lot of excess articles cards or in a notebook. It is especially I have found that using linens to pack
through the years. Having moved twenty- important that you list the contents of dishes saves many hours of dishwashing.
four times in thirty-two years, I have found each barrel when packing for an overseas Newspaper may be a cheap packing agent,
that the fewer earthly possessions needing move so that if anything is lost or stolen, but the black print rubs off on the dishes.
to go on the truck, the better. you know exactly what is missing when Tupperware can be used for packing
Let's start with the basics of moving. As filling out insurance claim forms. And no kitchen utensils or packed inside itself to
soon as you know your new address, pick matter how far you move, an accurate list save space. Save time at the other end by
up some change-of-address cards, at the of the contents of each box or barrel will slipping your silverware and utility trays
post office, to send to the publishers of prove invaluable as you unpack. into plastic bags and fastening them
magazines and papers you are now receiv Small boxes are best for books, since securely.
ing. Most publishers request that you they are heavy when filled. Rather than list In fact, plastic bags can be used to pack
notify them six weeks in advance. each book on your contents sheet, pack many things, including houseplants—
Next, begin saving good sturdy boxes of your books by category, and list only the especially during a winter move. One
various sizes. Or moving companies will subject area—history, preaching, chil family moving themselves towed their car
sell you boxes that can be broken down and dren's stories, recipes, et cetera. behind the truck. In the car they placed
folded flat after each move. Fiber barrels One couple decided that moving books their plants, nestled in shallow boxes with
would be much easier if they had a paper towels and newspapers as padding.
Bette Westfall, who has moved 24 times in bookcase that was actually a set of wooden They watered the plants, towels, and
32 years, now makes her home in Michi boxes with removable lids. They had a newspapers sufficiently before they left.
gan, where her husband pastors the Eau church member build such a bookcase, The warmth of the car resulted in a
Claire and Coloma Seventh-day Advent- with each box, or shelf, increasingly larger greenhouse effect, with enough humidity
ist churches. than the one above it to provide a firm base to keep their plants perky until they

arrived at their new home. the dressers until the furniture is on the you have frozen, can be put back in the
Plants often prove to be a problem when truck, and then put the drawers back in. freezer after it is loaded on the truck, and if
it comes time to move. One family had no This will save many hours of unpacking you aren't moving too far will stay cold
room to take them at the time of their time at your new home. until you arrive in the new location. Your
move, but left them with friends who Do not save cleaning the oven, washing refrigerator is a good place to store cleaning
planned to visit them later and who offered windows and light fixtures, cleaning clos rags, rolls of toilet paper and paper towels,
to bring the plants with them. Another ets, and removing fingerprints and sheets, and other light-weight things you
family sold their plants and used the money smudges until the last day. Do them ahead will need upon your arrival.
to buy new ones. Small plants can some of time. The oven, if not self-cleaning, can Moving with children, especially small
times be moved to your new home, but be sprayed with Fuller Brush silicone spray. ones, can present special challenges. Prob-
large ones should probably be sold or given Spills and spots can then be wiped up in a ably someone will volunteer to keep your
away, as they break easily. The church hurry. children while you pack, but you may find
you're leaving can usually use extra plants, If possible, clean, paper, and paint your that it is better to keep them with you
and your friends would appreciate being new home ahead of time. Then when the during the packing process. Older children
remembered with something that you have van is unloaded, unpacking can be done can help, especially in packing their own
cared for lovingly. quickly and smoothly. Incidentally, if you things. Even a 5-year-old can help in many
Drapes that do not need cleaning before are moving yourself, let me give you a hint ways. A move is very hard for small
packing can be left hanging until the last about loading the truck. Boxes should go children to understand; it is difficult for
thing. Folding drapes with the pleats at the on first if at all possible, followed by them to comprehend how their things are
top as a guide will result in soft folds when furniture. Then when you get to your new to get to their new home. So it is best if
you rehang them. After you have folded home, the furniture will be unloaded first. they help (or at least watch) you pack their
each drape, cut bands of paper from If the truck is packed in such a way that the things, see the boxes put on the truck, and
grocery bags and fasten them snugly at boxes must be unloaded first, have them then watch them being unloaded at their
each end of the drape with tape. The drape put in the garage or some other unused part new home. It may take more time, but will
can then be folded in half and packed in a of the house until the furniture has been help them adjust to their new home more
suitable box. Using string to secure drapes put in place. easily. The book I'm Moving, by Martha
tends to cause wrinkles. If you are selling Having blankets, bedspreads, throw W. Hickman (Nashville: Abingdon Press,
your home, the drapes usually stay with the rugs, curtains, and drapes clean before you 1975), may also be helpful in explaining to
house. If you are moving from rented move will aid in settling quickly. And small children that they will be moving to
quarters, save your drapes, don't sell them when you arrive in your new home, a new home.
at a garage sale. If you buy drapes and making up beds and placing lamps will give It is a real challenge to pack up all of
curtains in basic colors you may be able to a feeling of being settled in. one's things, put them on a truck, move to
use them again in another home. Another timesaving tip involves food. another part of the country, and put a
When making arrangements for a mov Before moving day arrives, make double home back together. The things are
ing van or a do-it-yourself truck or trailer, batches of your favorite recipes, putting important—they provide a feeling of
order plenty of packing blankets to protect the extra in your freezer. When you are home. But it is people that really make a
your furniture. It is also wise to save the exhausted and the job seems insurmount home. No matter how many times you
packing boxes or covers from end tables, able, a favorite casserole baking in the move, no matter how many boxes are lost
mattresses, and other pieces of furniture. oven will lift your spirits tremendously. A or dishes broken, you will still have your
These can be used on moving day to slow cooker can also prove useful during family. And that, after all, is what a home
protect these items. moving days. A lentil-vegetable stew is is all about.
Save yourself as much time and bother easy to make, and served with bread and
at the other end as possible. Small items cold milk makes a nutritious and satisfying I wish to thank especially Carolyn Fekete,
such as pictures can be packed in dresser meal. Cook-ahead casseroles can be used Linda Small, Ruth Ambler, and Sandy Rusker,
drawers with clothing. Linens and hanging during the packing time, and also when who served with me on a Graduate Guild panel at
clothes can also be folded and packed in you first arrive in your new home. Such Andrews University, December 3, 1978. It was
dresser drawers. Take the drawers out of food, along with the vegetables and fruit from them that I gleaned many of these ideas.

Prayers from the parsonage

• he newsphoto makes me flinch. A big killings, sick of reports about persons found murder of her young Jeffery at the hands of
woman, her face contorted with grief, is on molested, mutilated, murdered. I cannot a heartless person must be overwhelming.
the way to her son's funeral. Behind her a understand why hate-crazed people are "For God so loved the world, that he
young man sobs. He carries a child whose allowed to prey on the innocent or why gave his only begotten Son, that whoso
back is turned, so I cannot see whether he perverted minds are allowed to carry out ever believeth in him should not perish,
is crying too. their schemings. but have everlasting life" (John 3:16).
"Grieving relatives of Jeffery L. Mathis, It isn't that I blame You. It's just that I For every injustice causing me to doubt
one of eighteen black children murdered in get confused about where Your control Your concern, there is some specific
Atlanta in the past nineteen months, ends and Satan's begins. How much agony demonstration of Your love. I worship You
follow the slain youth's mother," says the must humans endure before they realize as a God who weeps at death and takes no
caption. that "the wages of sin is death" (Rom. pleasure even in the just punishment of the
Oh, Father! I am sick of senseless 6:23)? wicked. A God who lost His son Adam and
Willie May Mathis wears a crucifix on a numberless others after him. A God who
slim band around her neck. Does she think promises to raise dead sons and daughters
of the cross and the sacrifice of Your Son as and bring them to their parents.
she walks to church this sad day? To accept Deliver us soon, Father, from this planet
_By Cherry B. Habenicht_ death is hard enough, but to deal with the where life seems so lightly valued.
Recommended reading
Reading books wont make your church grow, but the ones on this list
will at least give you the principles and insights necessary for
increasing congregational numbers and improving spiritual vitality.
The Apathetic and Bored and spiritual growth. How to Grow a Sunday School
Church Member: Theological and Win Arn, Donald McGavran, Charles
Psychological Implications Design for Church Growth Arn, Christian Communication, 1980.
John Savage, LEAD Consultants, Pitts- Charles L. Chancy and Ron S. Lewis,
ford, New York, 1976, 142 pages, $5.95. Broadman, 1978, $5.50, paper. Leading Churches
Through Change
Why do people become inactive? The Down to Earth Douglas Alan Walrath, Abingdon, 1979,
answers are based on the author's research John Stott and Robert Coote, Eerdmans, $4-95, paper. (Creative Leadership
project; his findings are important for an 1980, 276 pages, $7.95. Series.)
effective program of evangelism. This book contains seventeen papers The author uses case studies of six
Assimilating New Members delivered at the Willowbank Consultation churches, both rural and urban, and deals
Lyle E. Schaller, Abingdon, 1978, $4.95, on the Gospel and Culture held in January, with the leadership principles that can
paper. 1978. The three major sections are Focus emerge when change occurs.
ing on Culture and the Bible; Culture,
Explains how to bring people into the Evangelism, and Conversion; and Culture The Living Church:
church family and actively involve them in and Ethnic Ethics. A Guide for Revitalization
church programs. (Creative Leadership Donald J. MacNair, Great Commission
Series.) Effective Church Planning
Publications, Philadelphia, 1980, $4-50,
Lyle Schaller, Abingdon, 1979, $5.95.
Building an Effective paper.
Youth Ministry Forty Proven Ways to a Make Your Sunday School Grow
Glenn E. Ludwig, Abingdon, 1979, Successful Church Through Evaluation
$4-95, paper. Al Stauderman and Jim Morentz, Abing Harold J. Westing, Victor Books, 1977,
don, 1980, $4.95, paper. 120 pages, $1.95.
This handbook discusses the basic prin
ciples of organizing and leading youth Global Church Growth Bulletin Making the Small Church Effective
groups. (Creative Leadership Series.) Bimonthly publication of O. C. Minis Carl S. Dudley, Abingdon, 1978, $4.95,
tries, Box 66, Santa Clara, Calif., 95052 paper.
Church Growth: America
(Edited by Donald McGavran.)
Bimonthly publication of the Institute for
The Measure of a Church
American Church Growth, 150 South Los Growth: A New Vision for Gene Getz, Regal Books, 1975, $2.25.
Robles, Suite 600, Pasadena, Calif., the Sunday School
91101. (Published by Win Am.) Charles Arn, Donald McGavran, and Win The Minister of Education as a Growth
Arn, Church Growth Press, Pasadena, Agent
Church Growth and
California, 1980, 152 pages, $5.95. Reginald M. McDonough, Convention
Christian Mission
Press, 1978.
Donald McGavran, ed., William Carey Three well-known specialists apply
Library, 1976, 256 pages, $4.95, paper. church growth principles to the Sunday Ministering to Youth—
school. Step-by-step directions are given a Strategy for the '80s
Church Growth: for bringing effective growth and outreach
Strategies That Work David Roadcup, ed., Standard Pub., 1980,
to the Sunday school. 256 pages, $5.95, paper.
Donald McGavran and George Hunter,
Abingdon, 1980, $4.95, paper. How Can I Get Them to Listen? Roadcup has pulled together a broadly
James Engel, Zondervan, 1977, $4.95, based handbook for youth ministers facing
Current trends in the church growth
paper. the uncertainty of the 1980s. Each chapter
movement are explored, along with effec
is written by a specialist in that phase of
tive strategies for church growth. (Cre How Christians Grow youth work and almost every phase is
ative Leadership Series.) Russell T. Hitt, Oxford University Press, considered. A thirty-two page appendix is
A Comprehensive Plan for 1979. $7.95. included that lists books and other
Evangelism: Local Church resources.
How Churches Grow in an
Planning Guide
Harold K. Bales, Discipleship Resources, Urban World Missions, Evangelism,
Francis Dubose, Broadman, 1978, $5.95. and Church Growth
Nashville, Tennessee, 1978, $3.00.
C. Norman Kraus, ed., Herald Press,
Contemporary Christian How to Grow a Church 1980, 176 pages, $5.95, paper.
Communications: Donald McGavran and Win Arn, Regal
Books, 1973, 180 pages, $4.25, paper. Written from a Mennonite perspective,
Its Theory and Practice this book will challenge you with its high
James F. Engel, Thomas A. Nelson, 1979, How to Grow an Effective view of the church. It contains seven
$12.95. Sunday School addresses on the history and theology of
This book looks at Christian communi Elmer L. Towns, Accent Books, 1979, mission given in the Discipleship Lecture
cation and how to motivate conversion $3.95, paper. Forum series at Goshen College. Authors

include Howard Snyder and Peter religion in America in the eighties, espe This short book looks at the church's
Wagner. cially for conservative churches. The first cultural accommodation and concludes
chapter deals with teen-agers, the second that there are better ways of witnessing
A New Face for the Church with the home and family values. Chapter than copying Hollywood. Various contem
Lawrence O. Richards, Zondervan, 1981, three explores new feelings in the Catholic porary approaches must be used, but the
288 pages, $6.95, paper. community. The results of a 1978 poll and local church cannot be replaced as the
A well-known Christian educator a study of the unchurched American make primary evangelization unit.
focuses on the basic issues facing the up chapter four. The last two chapters look
church today and suggests steps that can be into the future of religion in America. A Understanding Church Growth
taken at the local level to bring renewal twenty-two-page appendix includes some (revised)
and revttalization. of the poll data on which the six chapters Donald A. McGavran, Eerdmans, 1980,
were based. 488 pages, $12.95, paper.
Organize to Evangelize: McGavran updates his widely accepted
A Manual for Church Growth Secrets for Growing Churches
Charles Myland, Harper & Row, 1979, treatise on church growth and applies its
LarryL. Lewis, Victor Books, 1980, $2.95, missionary principles to the North Ameri
paper. 149 pages, $4.95.
can situation.
This book is directed to church leaders
Our Kind of People: The Ethical Understanding Church Growth and
and is similar to other church growth
Dimensions of Church Growth in Decline, 1950-1978
books. There are helpful sections, but
America Dean R. Hoge and David A. Roozen, eds.
readers may disagree with some of the
C. Peter Wagner, John Knox, 1979, 163 Pilgrim Press, 1978, 398 pages, $9.95.
author's basic concepts.
pages, $8.95.
Strategy for Leadership
Paul's Idea of Community: Red W. Engstrom and Edward R. Dayton,
The Early House Churches Revell, 1979, $8.95.
in the Historical Setting
Robert Banks, Eerdmans, 1980, $4.95, Survival Tactics in
paper. the Parish
Lyle Schaller, Abingdon, 1977, $4.95,
The Pastor's Church Growth paper.
Win Arn, The Institute of American Ten Steps for Church Growth
Church Growth, Pasadena, California, Donald A. McGavran and Winfield C.
$4.95. Arn, Harper & Row, 1977, $3.95.

Planning Strategies A Theology of Church Growth

for World Evangelization George W. Peters, Zondervan, 1980, 368
Edward R. Dayton and David A. Fraser, pages, $8.95, softcover.
Eerdfflans, 1980, 537 pages, $14.95. This full-length theological discussion
This is a management book, a how-to of church growth principles is a first! It is
manual—but one that emphasizes think not a polemic against the various other
ing rather than doing. Since each situation schools of thought. Neither does it apolo Where Have All Our People Gone?
is unique, the book suggests the use of a getically defend church growth and multi New Choices for Old Churches
ten-step model to analyze and plan for each plication, although the author believes Carl S. Dudley, Pilgrim Press, 1979,
special missionary project. Goals are use this to be valuable. Rather, he draws $5.95, paper.
ful, not as end-alls, but statements of faith. church growth principles from the whole
Bible, focusing primarily on those found in Why Conservative Churches Are
The book is full of helpful charts, dia Growing (revised)
grams, graphs, and models. the book of Acts.
Dean M. Kelley, Harper & Row, 1977,
A Theology of Church Leadership $3.95, paper.
Planting Churches Lawrence O. Richards and Clyde
Cross-culturally Hoeldke, Zondervan, 1980, 425 pages, Your Church Can Be Healthy
David J. Hesselgrave, Baker, 1980, 462 $12.95, cloth. C. Peter Wagner, Abingdon, 1979, $4-95,
pages, $12.95, paper. paper.
Christ's body, the church, is not an
Donald A. McGavran has written the organization but an organism. The living Eight common church growth problems
foreword to this church-planting guide. It head of the church, Christ Himself, is also are described; then the author uses illus
is a practical one-step-at-a-time approach a servant of the church. Based on these trations from actual churches to show how
for beginning work in a new community. propositions and their implications, the churches can be made to operate effec
Racial Transition in the Church authors argue that authoritarian and man tively. (Creative Leadership Series.)
James H. Davis and Woodie W. White, agerial attitudes are not appropriate to Your Church Can Grow:
Abingdon, 1980, $5.95, paper. church leadership. The authority of Seven Vital Signs of a
leaders is for building; their position is to Healthy Church
This book is based on six years of be that of servants. Church members are
research in twenty cities and hundreds of C. Peter Wagner, Regal, 1976, $3.95,
ends, not means; thus church activities paper.
congregations. It studies ways the church should be people oriented, not project
leadership can cope with the challenge of oriented. The book contains more than Your Church Has Real Possibilities
our changing cities. forty charts and several exercises for group Robert H. Schuller, Regal, 1975, $4.95,
The Search for America's Faith interaction. paper.
George Gallup, Jr., and David Poling, The Total Image: Or Selling Jesus in Youth Ministry: Its Renewal in the
Abingdon, 1980, 153 pages, $8.95. the Modern Age Local Church
The authors report current trends and Virginia Stem Owens, Eerdmans, 1980, 97 Lawrence O. Richards, Zondervan, 1979,
attitudes and predict a favorable future for pages, $4.95. 364 pages, $11.95.
Shop talk
The five-volume Interpreter's Dictionary of the Bible, one of the
most comprehensive and authoritative of such works, is now available to
readers of MINISTRY at a substantial savings off the regular price.
Christian best sellers, who will be explor commitment and welcome that is printed
ing the topic of evangelism through the in a special bulletin insert and involves
home. both new member and congregation; pre
• H. Norman Wright, beloved pastor- sentation of "membership packets" (com
psychologist, dealing with teen-age and posed of whatever items you think would
premarital counseling. prove helpful to new members learning
• Alberta Mazat, former head of the about your church and its programs); the
Marriage and Counseling Department of extending of the "right hand of fellow
Loma Linda University, Loma Linda, ship"; and a prayer. The special bulletin
California, who will conduct a' mini-semi insert can also incorporate a brief autobio
nar on a Christian perspective of human graphical statement about each new mem
sexuality. ber. I have the individual himself or herself
Other speakers and workshop leaders write this statement, since who knows the
Save more than 30 percent will cover the spectrum of what it means to person better? I make suggestions, but they
Readers of MINISTRY can save signifi be a Christian family in what some have write whatever they care to.—Richard
cantly on the well-known, five-volume called the "post-Christian world." Cook, Edison, New Jersey.
(including supplementary volume) Inter Family Life Workshop '81 is open to all
preter's Dictionary of the Bibk, published by interested individuals and carries academic Your turn
Abingdon Press. Library Journal called it credit for those who desire it. Cost for the Have you thought of a good, new idea
"the most comprehensive and authorita ten-day program is $275 for either credit or that makes your ministry more effective?
tive Bible dictionary to appear in English audit (spouses of tuition-paying partici Have you run across a new product, a
in over half a century." Serious Bible pants may attend for $30). For registration shortcut, a better way of doing something?
students will find in the Interpreter's forms or further information, write: Life Would your fellow pastors be interested in
Dictionary of the Bibk a complete treasury of long Learning, Director of Family Life it? For each idea or helpful hint printed in
Biblical knowledge. Every person, town, Workshop, Administration Building, this column, MINISTRY will pay $10 to the
region, hill, stream, plant, animal, doc Room 322, Andrews University, Berrien person who first sends us the item. Keep
trine, and daily household object is ac Springs, Michigan 49104- your contributions short (no more than
knowledged and defined. General articles 250 words) and mail to: Shop Talk Editor,
on a variety of topics, including each Bible Filling wasted time MINISTRY, 6840 Eastern Ave., NW.,
book, complete its well-rounded presenta Time prior to the morning worship Washington, D.C. 20012.
tion. service and the prelude (as the congrega
The Interpreter's Dictionary of the Bibk tion is taking its place) is often wasted. In
regularly sells for $84.95, but if you order order to center the thoughts of the people
through the Andrews University Book on the Word and the message that will be
store, Berrien Springs, Michigan 49104 shared in the sermon, why not project a
and identify yourself as a MINISTRY reader, verse of Scripture via overhead projector
you can secure the five-volume set for only onto a screen behind the podium? You can
$57-95—a savings of $27, or more than 30 choose a verse that "ties in" with your
percent! Please include an additional sermon or use the text being read for the
$5.00 for postage and handling. Remem day. For added beauty, write the text on a
ber, order directly from the Andrews transparency either of an open Bible or a
University Bookstore, but be sure to scroll. Both transparencies may be pur
mention MINISTRY. Ask also to be put on chased from Faith Venture Visuals, Inc.,
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of similar specials on various theological Using a nonpermanent marker means the
volumes and study aids. visuals can be used from week to week with
a new verse. You can encourage your
Family Life Workshop members to commit the verse to memory
A Family Life Workshop will be held each week if you wish.—Robert L. Neu-
again this year on the Andrews University
man, Lansing, Illinois.
campus, Berrien Springs, Michigan, Sep
tember 7-16. This intensive seminar is
designed especially for training minister Welcoming new members
and teacher couples in church-based fam A simple way of getting to know new
ily ministries. Featured speakers this year members and helping in the "inclusion
will include: process" is to have a special time in the
• Larry Richards, author of A New Face worship service called "Welcoming New
for the Church, Youth Ministry, and other Members." I usually include a litany of