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Volleyball is a team sport in which two teams of six players are separated by a net.

team tries to score points by grounding a ball on the other team's court under organized rules.
The game of volleyball, originally called “mintonette,” was invented in 1895 by William G.
Morgan after the invention of basketball only four years before. Morgan, a graduate of the
Springfield College of the YMCA, designed the game to be a combination of basketball,
baseball, tennis, and handball. The offensive style of setting and spiking was first demonstrated
in the Philippines in 1916. Over the years that followed, it became clear that standard rules were
needed for tournament play.

General Volleyball Gameplay

A point or rally is started when one team serves the ball. The player serving the ball must
stand behind the end line or restraining line at the back of the court until after they have
contacted the volleyball. To serve a player hits the ball with their hand over the net and into the
opposing team's side. If the ball doesn't go over the net or hits the ground, the point is over. The
opposing team must now return the ball without letting it hit the ground. They can hit the ball up
to three times. No single player can hit the ball twice in a row (blocks don't count). Typically a
team will try to set up an attack. They use the first two hits to set the ball for a spike or hard hit
over the net. The two teams continue hitting the ball back and forth until the point ends. A point
can end by one team hitting a winning shot that hits the ground within the opponent's court or by
one team causing a fault and losing the point. Which volleyball team serves the ball is
determined by the previous point. Whoever won the previous point gets to serve next. At the start
of a match, the first serve is determined by a volley.

Team Rotation

Although players play certain roles on a volleyball team, they all must play all positions.
There are three players on the front line and three in the back. Each time a team gains the serve
they must rotate. The entire team rotates in a clockwise manner with one player moving to the
front line and another player moving to the back line. This way each player plays each spot.
Scoring Scoring in volleyball is pretty simple, but it also has changed over time. Most matches
are divided up into sets. A typical match may be a best of 5 sets where the first team to win 5 sets
wins the match. In each set, the first team to 25 points wins as long as they are 2 points ahead. A
point is scored on every rally, regardless of which team serves. It used to be that only the
volleyball team serving could score a point on a won rally. Also, sets were typically played to 15
points. This was changed in 1999.
Volleyball Faults

 There are several ways to fault and lose the point. Here are some examples:
 Hitting the volleyball illegally - you must strike the ball in a manner such that you
don't hold the ball or palm, carry, or throw it.
 Stepping over or on the line while serving
 Not hitting the ball over the net
 Touching the net
 Reaching under the net and interfering with a player or the ball Not serving in the
correct order
 Hitting the volleyball out of bounds
 Double hitting - when the same player hits the ball twice in a row
 Hitting the ball more than 3 times

Volleyball Equipment’s and Facilities

The Ball
The standard volleyball is made of leather or synthetic leather, weighs between 9 and 10 ounces
and has a circumference of 25.6 to 26.4 inches. The ball has a rubber bladder and can be one
color or a combination of colors. Synthetic leather is lighter and is fine for beginner players.
Junior volleyballs for children 12 years old and younger weigh between 7 and 8 ounces.

The Net and Court

The outdoor volleyball court measures 18 x 9 m, surrounded by a free zone that is 2 meters wide
on all sides. The minimum playing space for U.S. volleyball competitions is 7 meters. The
volleyball net is 32 feet long by 3 feet wide. For women, the net should be 7 feet, 4 1/8 inches
high. For men, the net should be 7 feet, 11 5/8 inches high. U.S. regulation volleyball playing
surfaces must be flat and not present any hazards to the players.

The playing court is marked by two sidelines and two end lines. All lines must be 2 inches wide
and must be created with a light color that is easy to discern from the playing court. An attack
line should be placed three meters from the center line. The center line divides the court into two
9 x 9 meter courts.

Posts and Cables

The volleyball net structure is held together with metal cables and posts. Posts are placed 0.5 to
1.0 meter outside the sidelines and 2.55 meters high. Posts should be round, smooth and padded,
to prevent injury to the players should they dive or crash into them. Metal wires and cables may
need to be covered if it is determined that they present a danger to the players.
Antenna and Side Bands
Antennas are flexible rods that are 1.8 meters long made of fiberglass, fastened at the outer edge
of each side band. Side bands are two white bands attached vertically to the net and placed above
each sideline.

Knee pads
Knee pads should be sturdy enough to protect your knees from falls, slides and dives, but flexible
enough to allow you to bend comfortably. Your volleyball knee pads must be made of fabric that
breathes and manages moisture. Good quality pads have a gel or foam shock-absorbing material
that will cover and protect your patella. It is best to purchase your pads from a reliable sporting
goods store that will allow you to try them on. If you have difficulty finding the right fit, have
the store professional measure you and order custom-fit pads. Popular volleyball knee pad brands
include Asics, Mizuno, adidas, Nike and Mikasa.

Arch and ankle support is key when choosing a volleyball shoe. Mizuno, Asics and Nike are just
a few of the popular brands of volleyball shoes, which are lightweight, allowing you to be faster
on your feet, as well as bearing good shock absorption on your toes. Volleyball shoes also
provide for better lateral movement than typical running or cross-training shoes.

Clothing and Jewelry

All clothing should be lightweight to allow maximum flexibility and breath-ability, as well as
made of a material that absorbs sweat and keeps skin dry. Spandex shorts are a good option, as
they are flexible, light and absorb odor. Socks, while not required, absorb sweat and prevent
blisters. Jewelry is not permitted in volleyball, with the exception of smooth wedding bands.
Glasses must be worn with a strap to keep them secure.

1) Passing is the act of sending the volleyball to a setter so that he or she can, in turn, present the
ball to the spiker for an attack. The two primary passing methods are the bump and the dig.

2) Setting the ball is a critical area of the overall offensive attack. If the set is poorly placed, it
can dramatically lower the effectiveness of even versatile spikers, because it limits their hitting
options and their likelihood of hitting a kill shot for a point or side out. Conversely, a well-
delivered set gives a hitter a much better chance to avoid blocks and direct the ball strategically.

3) Spiking is the act of driving the volleyball hard into an area of your opponent's court. The
two basic power shots are the cross-court shot and the baseline shot. Once an opponent has
developed a healthy respect for a team's spiking power, alternative offensive shots such as tips
and dinks can be employed with greater effectiveness.

4) Blocking is the primary defensive skill used to neutralize strong spiking attacks. It involves
using players' arms to form a wall in front of the spiker, thus making it more difficult for him or
her to hit the ball into the opposite court. When properly executed, a good block can be an
effective weapon in scoring points or securing side outs. In high-level competition, teams
commonly employ more than one blocker against good spikers.

5) Serving is a very important element of volleyball. A server who can serve the ball reliably and
skillfully will help his or her team far more than will a player who, for instance, is inconsistent
with their serving. There are a variety of serves that are employed in competitive volleyball,
from "floaters" that seem to shimmy and shake on their way over the net to hard-driven jump

6) Receiving the serve is vital to success for any team. Poor reception of service puts teams
hoping to get a side out at a huge disadvantage right from the beginning. If the person receiving
the serve is unable to make a good pass to the setter, then the setter's task of setting a good ball to
the spiker is made that much more difficult. Receiving the serve sets the tone, then, for the whole
offensive sequence that follows.
Volleyball Officials

Volleyball officials that make up the officiating crew are first referee, second referee,
scorekeeper, assistant scorer, and line judges.

The first referee is in charge from the beginning of the match until the end.

The first referee has authority over all other members of the officiating crew.

The first referee should talk to all the officiating crew members before the match starts, going
over any questions officials might have about their responsibilities.

The first referee should have a talk with the second referee before the match starts discussing
issues such as pre-match protocol and anything that will help the match run more smoothly.

The second referee should establish a rapport with the scorekeeper and libero tracker. If the
scorer and libero tracker have a problem or don’t understand something, they should be
comfortable enough to ask the second referee for help.


The scorekeeper’s main job is to make sure the score is correct at all times. The scorekeeper
uses a score sheet to keep track of the game.

If there is a difference between the score on the score sheet and the visual score (flip score,
electronic scoreboard, etc.) the visual score should be changed to match the score on the score
sheet unless the mistake on the score sheet can be determined and corrected.

Assistant Scorer

The assistant scorer (or libero tracker) sits at the scorer’s table next to the scorekeeper.

The assistant scorer’s main function is to record libero replacements on to a libero tracking
sheet. The Assistant Scorer:

 Notifies any fault with libero replacements

 Operates the manual scoreboard on the scorer’s table
 Checks the score on the scoreboard with the score on the score sheet

Line Judges

If only two line judges are used, they stand at the corner of the end line that is closest to the
right hand of each referee, diagonally from the corner.

The line judges watch the end line and sideline of their respective corners.

Line judge’s main responsibility is to make signals to help out the referees in making judgment

Line judges may be instructed to use flags to make the signals.


 Ball in and out whenever the ball lands near the lines
 Touches of out balls by players receiving the ball
 Ball touching the antennae
 A served ball crossing the net outside the crossing space (the space between the
 Any player standing off the court at the moment of service
 Server foot faults