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Discuss critically the use of assessment of learning and assessment for learning when teaching

Physical Education. Use detailed examples from student observations and recent and relevant
literature to support your arguments.

1. Introduction (e.g. what is assessment? Why is it necessary?);

2. Critically discuss the nature of assessment for and of learning and the contribution they make to
pupils learning;

3. Critically reflect on the relationship between lesson planning, delivery, accurate lesson evaluations
and assessment of pupils’ learning;

4. Refer to relevant literature and practical examples from student observations to support the claims
you make in sections 2 and 3.

5. What can you conclude from your critical appraisal?

Assessment is at the heart of a successful curriculum and is a fundamental part of good teaching and learning. It
enables learners to recognise achievement and make progress, and teachers to shape and adapt their teaching
to individual needs and aspirations. Effective assessment enables learners to make smooth progress throughout
their time at school. (

Assessment helps pupils to progress in their learning(indire).

Assessing pupils work against levelled criteria, which generates a statement of achievement
It can generate a report for each child, inc personal qualities such as attitudes and effort
as well as reporting on their attitudes and effort within lessons and provides a NC level
for each child based on data from the whole of the Key Stage programme
The key features in the use of assessment in the raising of standards of achievement.
(all above from journal)
Identify the strengths, weaknesses and needs of pupils.
Determine the progress made by pupils (capel, 1997)
The only reliable way of finding out what pupils have learnt is through assessing
them/assessment (Brooks, 110)
The most important factor influencing learning is what the learner already knows;ascertain
this and teach the student accordingly (Brook, 114,slyindi)
Assessment=process that attempts to make ‘relevant, appriopriate and accurate judgements
about pupils achievement’ (Department of Education and Science/Welsh Office
Assessemetn judgements are normally made by teachers (teacher assessment), by pupils
about their own performance (Self assessment), or another’s peer (peer assessment), or by an
external examination body (eg gcses, a leveletc)- (Piotrowski, S. and Capel, S. (2000p.2 100)
Deearing agreed that’teacher assessment is fundamental to good teaching’ (SCAA, 1996a:i)
Assessment thus refers to techniques you can use to monitor pupils’ progress in terms of specific
learning outcomes (Kyriacou, p.107)
Assessment activities-monitoring normal classwork activities, designated assessment task integrated
within normal classwork, homework, assessment tests designed by teacher, standardised tests,
formal examinations (kyriacou, 113)
Assessment should be-fair;relating to the work covered, relate to learning outcomes planned, pupils
should be informed the nature and purpose of assessment activities, valid

It is in the feedback phase, in reports, when frustration and despondency can occur from a
Formal assessments can destroy the recreational value of physical education and the
enjoyment of this subject
Difficulties in objectively assessing some dimensions of the subject (e.g. the process to
improve performance) might lead to a distortion of the subject through increasing the
emphasis on more easily measurable aspects (e.g. theoretical understanding of concepts and
knowledge related to physical education)p.103 (Piotrowski, S. and Capel, S. (2000)

2a. Assessment of learning

The National Curriculum for PE requires pupils to be assessed at each end of the year and
Key Stage(Capel, 164, controverse)
The end of year report allows teachers to make ‘rounded summative judgements at the end of
each Key stage about each pupils attainment (SCAA, 1996)
For a unit of assessment all pupils need to be assessed against the same criteria..should reflect
the ages and levels of ability of the pupils (capel, 169)
To grade students in accordance to the requirements of the examinations boards. Or you may
need to give students predictions of grades to aim for/give use 4 applications (capel, 170)
Assessment that identifies the standard of attainment achieved at a particular moment in time,
normally at the end of a period of instruction (di-Kyriacou, 109)
Typically it results ina grade or level and signifies the end of something such as a unit of
work or a Key Stage (Brook, 111di)
Widen the gap between high and low achievers
Promote high anxiety levels amongst pupils and erode the self-esteem of low attainers
(Harlen and Deakin Crick 2002, available at
Narrow the curriculum and encourage rote(repetition without real understanding of its
significance) learning(last 3 all brook 112di)
Assessemtn of learning is a summative assessemtn which summarises pupils learning at the
end of a period of time;usually a lesson, unit, year or key stage (O’Neill n Ockmore in
For a more detailed assessment of learning, teachers need to be able to write assessment
criteria in relation to each differentiated learning outcomes (O’neill n ockmore, 139, capel)
It provides greater accountability to pupils who are entitled to have their attainment assessed
in ways which guide their future learning, progress and achievement....Pupils are entitled to
know whether they are learning intended content and progressing at a rate comparable to their
peers. (Piotrowski, S. and Capel, S. (2000)p.105
Enables teachers to observe pupils’ attainment and to apply criteria in a more focused way than might
otherwise be possible. (Piotrowski, S. and Capel, S. (2000)p.107
-ve-the selective nature of formal assessment may limit accuracy-teacher knows what they are
looking for, dont take into account of students different abilities (Piotrowski, S. and Capel, S.
Formal assessment may bias the subject and its delivery-the teaching may be concentrated on things
that are measurable (Piotrowski, S. and Capel, S. (2000)p.108
Formal assessment can provide public acknowledgement of pupils’ achievement. This can be highly
motivating for some students. (Piotrowski, S. and Capel, S. (2000)p.109
-ve-formal assessment can be harmful to those whose results are insufficiently encouraging to
motivate them (Piotrowski, S. and Capel, S. (2000)p.10?
The activities themselves are intensely competitive and this is an essential ingredient of PE, so pupils
inevitably measure their performance against others (Carrol, 2004, 136)motivation..
Summative is a more overall assessment, a summing up of a person’s performances either
over a specifi course or courses, at a particular assessment such as in an examination grade.
(Carroll, 13, 2004)
An emphasis of summative assessment, leading to the reporting of results that offer little help
to pupils in understanding their difficulties or on how to improve (Weston 1989)

DIFFERENCE-is of timing with formative taking place during and summative taking place at
end of a learning event (brooks,110)
“is the assessment FOR learning (formative) or assessment OF learning (summative)?

2b. Assessment for Learning

Assessing their performance to help them to understand how they can improve and to
challenge them to greater achievement..assessment here will be for guidance or feedback
Assessment aimed to promote effective further learning pupils. This can be in the form of
feedback or (information that will enable teachers to meet the pupils future learning needs in
the future.teacher) Kyriacou-109
It is recognized that assessment is most useful when it is an ongoing and integral part of
teaching and learning (brooks, 110di)
Formative assessment must have feedback and feedforward-feedback from one stage is used
at the next stage to improve subsequent teaching and learning
Formative assessment reduces the spread of attainment whilst raising it overall
Formative assessment helps all pupils but is especially beneficial for low attaining pupils who
it helps more than the rest
The learning gains associated with formative assessment exceed those produced by most
other educational interventions designed to raise attainment (all 3 abuv points, brooks, 112di)
AFL helps to differentiate students (Brook, 113) USEEEE
It should be clear that assessment for learning is a process which uses ongoing assessment of
pupils’ learning to raise their achievement.. it is based on the principle that pupils improve
most if they understand what they are aiming to learn and how they go about it. Clearly this
must involve careful planning and teaching.(O’Neill n Ockmore, 134,in capel, 2006)
Teachers must plan lessons so that differentiated outcomes are clear, concise and easily
assessed and relate specifically to the learning outcomes. (O’neill n ockmore, indi, capel,
Feedback allows sound practised to be reinforced and mistakes to be corrected (Piotrowski, S.
and Capel, S. (2000)p.99
It is particularly difficult for teachers to concentrate on making accurate, observational
assessment while teaching classes of approximately thirty actively involved pupils and also
attending to relevant safety consideration. (Piotrowski, S. and Capel, S. (2000)p. 107
Formative refers to assessment which are used in the process of interaction to develop the
person, such as in the teching-learning situatoin in PE where diagnosis, feedback, correction
or comfirmation takes place. (Carroll, 13, 2004)
4. assessment is needed to judge the quality of learning outcomes of a lesson and so make an
essential contribution to lesson evaluation.(indi) Assessment therefore informs the planning
of future lessons (di,capel, 97,159)
Determine the degree to been effective or ineffective
Inform teachers’ planning and identify where emphasis should be placed in teaching (last2-
Assessment of pupils achievement against ipsative assessement (compared with pervious
performance in the same activity or task, norm referenced assessment(comparison with
performance of others, measurement against predetermined criteria (criterion referenced
assessment)...These judgements provide evidence of the extent to which any intended
learning is achieved. Such judgements are crucial to educational contexts, including physical
education , where the development of pupils’ learning is a defining characteristic (Piotrowski,
S. and Capel, S. (2000),p.100
AFL helps to differentiate students (Brook, 113)
Planning-identify prior learning that need only be revised, rather than wasting time repeating
this.(indi-Brook, 115)
Identify strengths that can be used as a foundation for buiding new knowledge and
skills(brook, 115, indi)
Differentiate to meet the particular needs of individuals (brook, 115di)
Questioning, peer and self assessment n other techniques-p.116-120in brook
Evaluating lessons-teacher’s record of the assessment of pupils’ learning in relation to the
differentiated outcomes, together with some information on what to teach in the next lesson
(AfL), inc info on’pupils who represent the different ability bands, evidence to show why the
learning outcomes were/were not achieved, recognition of what to plan for the next lesson in
order to progress pupils’ learning (O’neill n ockmore, indi n di, 139)
Information gained from assessing pupils’ learning is used systematically by informing the
planning and delivery of, for example the next lesson (O’Neill n ockmore, 143capeldi.)
Provides the teacher with information on whether the learning objectives aer set at an
appropriate level of difficulty (Piotrowski, S. and Capel, S. (2000)
Self assessment, peer assessmetn and Reciprocal teaching methods (see for example, Mosston and
Ashowrth, 2004) as these provide methods of drawing ‘ the pupil centrally into the assessment
process (Loose and Abraham, 1993:8) and allow pupils to practise their observation and evaluation
skills (McChonachie-Smith, 1991). (Piotrowski, S. and Capel, S. (2000)p.113

Purpose of assessment-feedback, diagnosis (strengths and weaknesses), motivation of pupils,

(Carroll, 1994)

Brooks, V.(2004) ‘Using Assessment for formative purposes’. In Brooks, V., Abbott, I and Bills, L
(Eds.) Preparing to Teach in Secondary Schools, Maidenhead, Open University Press.

Capel, S. (1997) Learning to Teach Physical Education in the Secondary School. A companion to
School Experience. London: Routledge.

Carroll, B. (1994) Assessment in Physical Education. London: Falmer Press.

Kyriacou, C. (1991) Essential Teaching Skills. Cheltenham: Stanley Thornes

Peach S and Bamforth C (2002) ‘Tackling the problems of assessment, recording and reporting in
Physical Education and Initial Teacher Training’, The British Journal of Teaching Physical Education,
(33), 1, pp 18 – 21

School Curriculum and Assessment Authority (SCAA)(1997) Physical Education at Key Stage 3 and
4. Assessment, Recording and Reporting Guidance for Teachers, London: SCAA Publications

O’Neill, J. and Ockmore, D. (2006). ‘Assessing Pupils’ Learning’ in Capel,S., Breckon, P. & O’Neill, J.
(eds) Learning to Teach Physical Education in the Secondary School –a Practical Guide. London,
Routledge, pp 133 – 143.

Piotrowski, S. and Capel, S. (2000). ‘Formal and Informal Modes of Assessment in Physical
Education’, in Capel, S. and Piotrowski, S. (eds.). Issues in Physical Education, London, Routledge