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Osborn’s rule

From previous examples we can see that the close comparison


between identities in trigonometric functions and hyperbolic
functions can be converted into a formulae known as Osborn’s rule,
which states that the cos should be converted to cosh and sin
converted to sinh, except when there is a product of two sines, we
must change the sign.

cos 2 x 
cosh  sinh
sin 2 2xx11

However, whenever using Osborn’s rule care must be taken as the

product of two sines is sometimes disguised eg


sin 2 x
tan x 
2

cos 2 x
Calculus of Hyperbolic Functions

If 
f x   cosh x  e  e
1 x x
2

then f ' x  1 x x
2

e  e  sinh x

d
cosh x   sinh x
dx
Similarly

If f x   sinh x  
1 x x
2
e e 
then f '  x   
1 x x
2

e  e  cosh x

d
sinh x   cosh x
dx
From this it follows that
 sinh xdx  cosh x  c


and
cosh xdx  sinh x  c
Example

Differentiate

(a) tanh x
(b) cosech x
Example


0.5
Find the derivative of cosh3x and evaluate sinh 3xdx
0
Example

Find (a)
tanh xdx
(b)

3
sinh xdx
Example
Integrate with respect to x e x cosh x
Inverse Hyperbolic functions
The inverse hyperbolic functions are defined in a similar manner to
the inverse of trigonometric function.

If y  sinh x then x  sinh 1 y

If y  cosh x then x  cosh 1 y


The graphs of inverse hyperbolic functions are obtained from those of
the hyperbolic functions by interchanging the x and y axes.
1
y  sinh x y  cosh 1 x
y y

0 x 0 x

This function is a one to one function This function is a one to many function
Example

Let y  tanh 1 x so x  tanh y

a) Express tanh y in the terms of ey and hence show that

1 x
e 2y

1 x
1 1 x 
b) Deduce that tanh 1 x  ln  
2  1 x 
Derivatives of inverse Hyperbolic functions
Example
 x
Find the derivative of sinh 1   with respect of x.
a
Example
 x
Find the derivative of cosh 1   with respect of x.
a
d
 
sinh 1 x 
1
dx x2 1
d
 
cosh 1 x 
1
dx x2 1
Example

Differentiate

(i) cosh 1 2 x  1
1
1
(ii) sinh  
 x
dy
y
dx
sinh x cosh x
cosh x sinh x
tanh x sech 2 x
1
sinh 1 x
x2 1
1 1
cosh x
x2 1
Use of Hyperbolic functions in integration

Example

Using the previous results write down the values of


1
(i) dx
x 1
2


(ii) 1
dx
x 1
2
Example

 x
1
a) Differentiate sinh   with respect to x
3


b) Hence find
1
dx
x 9
2
Example
Use the substitution of x  2 cosh u to show that

 x

1 1
dx  cosh    c
x 4
2
2
In general

 x

1 1
dx  sinh    c
x a
2 2
a
1  x 

1
dx  cosh    c
x a
2 2
a

dx
Example Evaluate
3x 2 1
Example

a) Express 4 x 2  8x  5 in the form Ax  B   C where A, B


2

and C are constants.


7
1
b) Evaluate in terms of natural logarithms dx
4 4 x  8x  5
2
Example


1
Evaluate x 2  6 x  13dx
3
Leaving your answer in terms of natural logarithms.