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I am very thankful to Mam Sofia which gave us valuable information. We pay gratitude Mam

Walled giving valuable guideline.

We are also very thankful to all the participants who helped us a lot by giving up to date

We are very proud of our teacher Mam Sofia Walled whose help and instructions enable us to

Papers into project manner. We are very thankful to her


͞The most beautiful things we can experience are the mysterious .It is source of all true art and


(Albert Einstein, 1930)

This thesis is based on the topic which is assigned to us by our respected teacher Miss Sofia

The topic which I took for it:

Recruitment and Selection Process

In the thesis, I have covered all the topics related to Recruitment and Selection Process
Table of Content

Table of Contents


Chapter # 1


Multi-level Staffing: Linking Individual Staffing to Organizational Effectiveness:


Multi-level Theory

Multi-Level Staffing Models


Chapter # 2

Literature Review

Recruitment and Selection


Recruitment and Selection Process

1.0 Scope

1.1 Purpose of the Procedure

2.0 Recruitment and Selection Framework

3.0 Recruitment and Selection Provisions

3.2 Design Selection Process

3.2.1 Panel Composition

3.2.2 Selection Tests

3.2.3 Interview Questions

3.3. Advertising

3.3.1 Advertising the vacancy

Recruiting a Candidate Pool:

Running a Recruitment Campaign

3.4. Applications

3.5. Short listing

3.6. Interview

Structured Interviews

Unstructured Interviews

3.6.1. Arrangements for interviews

Making the decision

3.7. Selection

3.7.1 Decision to Appoint

3.8. Offers

3.9 Other Requirements

3.9 Monitoring Recruitment and Selection

Role of Recruiter

A Recruiter͛s Perspective

Chapter # 3

The Significance of the Study:

Theoretical Framework
Chapter # 4

Research Questions

Key Terms of the Study Defined

The Methodology


Data Analysis and Interpretation

Missing values

Descriptive Analysis

Hypothesis # 1

Hypothesis # 2

Hypothesis # 3


Scattered Diagram



Phi and Cramer Values



Impact of Recruitment Sources, Interview, Recruiter on Recruitment and Selection




The study examines the relationship between the dependent variable which is ͞Recruitment
and Selection Process͟ and independent variables which are ͞Recruitment Sources͟,
͞Interview͟ and ͞Recruiter͟ by analyzing the data. The study examines hypothesis that are used
to explain the impact of Recruitment Sources, Interview and Recruiter on Recruitment and
Selection Process Regression hasproven the relationship between the these variables. For these
study hundred samples has been used for the confirmation of results. I have use questionnaire
for the data collection. I have use longitudinal research design

Multi-level Staffing: Linking ndividual Staffing to rganizational Effectiveness:

e reviews of recruitment and selection practices bot identified a need for researc
sowingbusiness unit value/organizational impact. is is interesting given te most basic
staffingassumption, one described in nearly every textbook written on te subject, is tat
recruiting andiring better employees contributes to organizational effectiveness. f it does
not, ten wy invest instaffing? However, tere is actually little direct, empirical evidence
testing tis assumption (e.g. ploy art, 2004; Saks, 2005; aylor & ollins, 2000). tility
analysis may be elpful to estimatetese effects, but tey are only estimates tat are limited
to monetary outcomes and are frequently discounted by managers (Scneider, Smit, &Snipe,
2000). Practitioners and H managers oftenave to go well beyond validity (and even
utility/monetary estimates) to make a case tat staffingads strategic value to te firm.

Likewise, from a teoretical perspective, it is discouraging tere is not more direct, empirical
evidence linking individual differences to organizational effectiveness. ere is considerable
staffing researc at te micro (individual) level and some staffing researc at te macro
(organizational) level, but eac discipline rarely considers processes, constructs, and
influences outside its respective level. at is, micro- and macro-level researc are bot pry-
merrily single-level disciplines because teir independent and dependent variables are
contained witin te same level of analysis (ploy art, 2004). Micro (individual)-level researc
examines ow individual differences (knowledge, skills, abilities, and oter caracteristics;
KSAs) contribute to individual performance but assumes (or only estimates ow) individual
differences contribute to organizational value. Micro researc is usually conducted from te
perspective of industrial/organizational (/) psycology. Macro (organizational or business
unit)-level researc examines ow H practices (e.g., staffing) contribute to organizational
performance but assumes tat tese practices ave an effect because of teir influence on
employee KSAs. ote tat in macro researc, tese unit-level KSAs are referred toes
uman capital and rarely measured. For example, researc suggests tat organizations using
well-developed staffing practices ave better performance (Hustled, 1995), but te focus is
on te practice itself and not te specific uman capital affected by te practice. Macro
researc is usually conducted from te perspective of strategy or strategic H management
(SHM). f bot micro and macro disciplines limited teir implications to teir respective
levels, tere would be no cause for concern. But bot disciplines make inferences and
assumptions tat extend beyond teir respective levels. is is known as a cross-level fallacy
in multi-level researc and occurs wen researcersinappropriately generalize teir witin-
level findings to iger or lower levels of analysis (ousseau,1985).

Multi-level eory:

Organizations are inherently nested and hierarchical, for example, individuals are nested within
business units such as departments or stores, which are in turn nested within the firm. Multi-
level theory argues that ignoring such hierarchical structures can cause misleading
interpretations and generalizations of within-level research findings (with cross-level fallacies
being just one example).One important implication is that observations (e.g., employees) within
a unit (e.g., store, organization) are likely to share similarities on particular KSAOs. This is known
as no independence in statistical terms, and ignoring it can influence estimation of effect sizes
and significance testing (Blasé, 2000).

To connect levels, multi-level theory describes theoretical processes for both contextual effects
and emergent effects. Contextual effects are ͞top-down͟ effects from higher to lower levels
(e.g., changing an organization͛s HR practices changes the behavior of individual employees).
Emergent effects are ͞bottom-up͟ effects from lower to higher levels. Kozlowski and Klein
noted, ͞Phenomenon is emergent when it originates in the cognition, affect, ploy hart / Staffing
Review 885behaviors, or other characteristics of individuals, is amplified by their interactions,
and manifests as a higher-level, collective phenomenon͟ (2000: 55). For example, a department
that hires applicants on the basis of their conscientiousness should become composed primarily
of highly conscientious people. Note that it takes time for bottom-up effects to occur; hence
time must usually be fundamental element in multi-level research (Kozlowski & Klein, 2000).

The bottom-up process of emergence is the critical theoretical mechanism that unites micro
and macro staffing research because it helps understand how individual differences in KSAOs
contribute to unit-level differences. Kozlowski and Klein (2000) and Blasé (2000) described two
different types of emergence that represent ends on a continuum. On one hand, composition
models of emergence theorize that there is such high similarity (homogeneity) among lower
level observations (employees) that the within-unit scores create a distinct aggregate-level
construct. An example of composition model is when employees share such highly similar
perceptions about their organization͛s climate that a company-level climate variable is formed
from the aggregation (mean) of employee climate perceptions

Multi-Level Staffing Models:

Multi-level staffing models are based on the integration of traditional micro-level staffing
research with macro-level strategy and SHRM research. Multi-level theory is used to fuse these
disciplines and explicate how individual differences contribute to the formation of unit
differences. Schneider teal. (2000) described the basics for such a model, and subsequent work
by ploy hart and Schneider examined the practical (ploy hart & Schneider, 2002), theoretical
(ploy hart, 2004), and methodological (ploy hart & Schneider, 2005) concepts necessary to build
a multi-level staffing model linking micro and macro perspectives. Together, this research
articulates how individual differences create organizational differences, how staffing practices
might influence this process, and ultimately how practitioners can show the organizational
value of staffing. This review summarizes the common arguments across these publications.

Figure 1 illustrates the basic constructs and processes in multi-level staffing. Notice that there
are two levels in Figure 1, the micro (individual) level and the macro (organizational) level
(these levels are only illustrative, and multiple intermediate levels are possible). All of the
arrows in Figure 1 are considered in multi-level staffing models, but as a point of comparison,
the dashed arrows denote the relationships examined in traditional staffing research. As noted
earlier, Figure 1 illustrates that these dashed arrows are each within a single level (micro or
macro). The solid arrows in Figure 1 thus highlight the unique aspects of multi-level modeling.

First, because time is a fundamental part of multi-level modeling, Figure 1 is drawn so that the
starting time begins with the implementation of a staffing practice. The staffing practice
represents contextual (top-down) effect on the firm͛s individual KSAOs because all potential
employees within relevant job will be recruited and assessed using the same staffing system.

Second, through use of a particular selection system, individual KSAOs will become similar
within the job/organization over time and contribute to the emergence of macro-level human
capital (recall that in strategy and SHRM research, human capital is the term used to describe
the competencies of the firm͛s or business unit͛s workforce). This is based on the attraction-
selection-attrition (ASA) model (Schneider, 1987), which suggests organizations will develop
homogeneity in KSAOs that are similar to, selected by, and retained within the organization.
However, multi-level theory can help better articulate homogeneity and connect it to the
literature on macro staffing/SHRM. Specifically, multi-level staffing models argue that what the
ASA model calls homogeneity actually human capital is as described in the macro literature, and
the process through which homogeneity occurs is human capital emergence. Thus, human
capital emergence represents the multi-level processesthrough which individual-level KSAOs
become organizational or business unit level human capital.

Third, organizational-level human capital contributes to the organization͛s performance, such

that firms with higher quality human capital will outperform those with lesser quality human
capital. This is known as human capital advantage in the macro literature (e.g., Box all, 1996).
Of course, there is another means through which individual-level KSAOs may contribute to
macro-level performance, and this is through better individual performance that collectively
improves the effectiveness of the firm. Thus, through the processes of human capital
emergence and human capital advantage, hiring more competent employees through the use
of valid selection systems should contribute to better organizational performance. These points
represent some important areas of departure between multi-level staffing models and
traditional staffing models. First, multilevel staffing models allow researchers to hypothesize
and test the assumptions in both micro and macro staffing disciplines. Micro research assumes
better individual-level selection results in better organizational-level performance; macro
research assumes HR practices influence organizational performance because the practices
influence human capital. By developing theories of emergence, researchers can more carefully
articulate the structure and function of specific types of human capital (e.g., composition or
compilation models). Finally, multilevel staffing models take a different approach to
demonstrating the economic utility of staffing than traditional forms of utility analysis.
Specifically, multi-level staffing predicts that human capital is a key determinant of
organizational performance (i.e., human capital advantage), whereas many utility models would
estimate this relationship via the aggregate sum of individual͛s performance contributions
(rightmost vertical arrow in Figure 1
Practical ecommendations and mplications for rganizational Effectiveness:

Multi-level staffing models do not negate the importance of single-level recruitment and
selection research. Rather, they seek to extend this work by articulating the linkages between
individual differences and organizational/business unit differences. This is essentially the ͞value
challenge ͞facing staffing managers and practitioners. In this sense, the model offers a way to
demonstrate the value of staffing by examining the relationships between individual
differences/human capitals with individual outcomes/unit-level outcomes. This is nearly the
same methodology used in job attitude/customer satisfaction linkage research. Although at the
unit level there is likely a need for control variables (e.g., size), and there is an obvious need for
multiple units, most large organizations (and consultants) have ready access to these data (see
ploy hart & Schneider, 2005). ploy hart and Schneider (2002, 2005) offered some tools for
conducting and interpreting such a study, and Schmitt(2002) posed several practical questions
to be considered (e.g., How does job analysis change?).Staffing practices should help an
organization achieve its strategic goals and vision (nearly always expressed in unit-level terms),
and the model offers a way to demonstrate that effect. Multi-level staffing also offers the
opportunity to advance staffing theory

Also the best human capital predictors of business unit performance? Or, are certain
manifestations of individual differences only predictive at higher levels (e.g., agreeableness
does not show much validity at the individual level in technical jobs but in the aggregate may be
predictive of business unit level processes such as communication and social capital). Given that
modern work continues to shift toward team-based and knowledge-based structures, these
collective processes become important determinants of performance.

Similarly, consider that meta-analyses indicate cognitive ability tests are one of the most
predictive selection methods available for most jobsͶ do business units or entire firms staffed
with more cognitively able people outperform those who do not? The study by Torstar and
Rowell (1993) is often cited to support such a claim, but their study only asked HR managers if
they used ability testing and only asked them to self-report firm performance. How much of a
validity difference must be found at the individual level to translate into business unit
differences? Framing the debate around personality testing from this perspective might be a
more compelling way to show the importance of personality.
eory elevant to Structured nterviews:

Another conclusion is that theory has not played an important role in this area. Past research
was much applied; it was conducted to solve practical problems rather than to test theory. This
paper relied mainly on psychometric theory to explain the operation of structured interviews.
However, other more content- (as opposed to measurement-) oriented theories may offer
additional insight. For example, cognitive theory (Lord & Maher, 1991) might be used to
consider underlying mechanisms. Structure may reduce information processing requirements
and potential for overload, thus allowing interviewers to attend more fully to candidate
responses (Armey, 1995). Structure may also clarify the cognitive schemata used to interpret
responses (Green, 1995), thus allowing responses to be classified and judged more
systematically and accurately.

Finally, Webster (1982) describes several interviewer decision making Models conflict model
explains how conflict and stress influence decision making, an information processing model
explains decision making in terms of mathematical models, and an affect model explains the
role of feelings and preferences in decision making. Structure might define the decision making
task such that the influence of these processes may be lessened. The State of the Literature
Reviews of the literature often notes the lack of detail in most articles. This review is no
exception. Most studies did not contain enough information to judge the level of structure on
all components... Much of it is old, clinical in orientation, conducted in ambiguous settings, or
confounded in many ways. Studies tend to have small samples, simple criteria, restriction of
range, and measures with modest reliability and unknown construct validity. These problems
are troubling for Meta analyses. Such techniques can correct for statistical limitations (e.g.,
sample, range, and reliability), but they cannot make precise comparisons between
components of structure when information is lacking, components are confounded, or
sufficient primary studies not conducted. An equally difficult issue is the unknown construct
validity of many interviews. Interviews are measurement techniques that are not linked to
particular constructs. If the content of interviews is unclear, meta-analytic results must be
correspondingly ambiguous. To illustrate, meta-analyses have included clinical interviews. They
differ from selection interviews in focus (i.e., maladjustment and psychopathology versus job
performance) and time orientation (i.e., current identification versus future prediction). They
also rely on complex clinical judgment that may not easily translate into practice for managers.
Such studies should not be used in meta-analyses, or they should be analyzed separately
(McDaniel et al., 1994). More attention should be given to what constructs are measured by
interviews as well as how they are measured.

Structured interviews are clearly superior psychometrically. Yet, administrative innovations,

such as structured interviews, are rarely based on technical merit (Johns, 1993). Instead,
researchers might have to emphasize environmental threats (e.g., low candidate quality),
government regulations (e.g., EEO laws), or simple imitative or competitive processes to
convince organizations to adopt them (Johns, 1993). In conclusion, the selection interview can
be enhanced by using some of the many possible components of structure, and the
improvement of this popular selection procedure should be high priority for future research
and practice. Theory, research, and practice (pp. 61-73). Newbury Park, CA: Sage. Campion, M.
A. (1988). Interdisciplinary approaches to job design: Eder, R. W.

(1989). ͞Contextual effects on interview decisions͟. In R. W. Eder & G. R. Ferris (Eds.), the
employment interview: Theory, research, and practice (pp. 113-126). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
Field, H. S., & Gate wood, R. D. (1989).

Development of a selection interview͟: A job content strategy. In R. W. Eder & G. R. Ferris

(Eds.), the employment interview: Theory, research, and practice (pp. 145-157). Newbury Park,

CA: Sage.

Kelley, H. H. (1967). ͞Attribution theory in social psychology͟. In D. Levine (Ed.), Nebraska

Symposium on Motivation: Vol. 15 (pp. 192-238). Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press.

Lord, R. G., & Maher, K. J. (1991).

Cognitive theory in industrial and organizational psychology. In M. D. Dinette & L.

Hough (Eds.), Handbook of industrial and organizational psychology: Vol. 2 (2nd ed., pp. 1-62).

Palo Alto, CA: Consulting Psychologists Press.

Mumford, M. D., & Stokes, G. S. (1992).

Developmental determinants of individual action: Theory and practice in applying

Background measures. In M. D. Dinette & L. M. Hough (Eds.), Handbook of industrial and

Organizational psychology: Vol. 3 (2nd ed., pp. 61-138). Palo Alto, CA: Consulting

Psychologists Press.

Schneider, D. J. (1973). Implicit personality theory: A review. Psychological Bulletin.

Literature eview
ecruitment and Selection


Most definitions of recruitment emphasize the organization͛s collective efforts to identify, a

track tan influence the job choices of competent applicants. Organizational leaders are painfully
aware that recruiting talent is one of their most pressing problems. Tight labor markets give
applicants considerable choice between employers.

Professional, information/knowledge-based, technical, and service occupations. Some reports

indicate that nearly half of all employees are at least passively looking for jobs, and a sizable
minority is continually actively searching (Towers Perrin, 2006). This is such a problem that
many organizations actually face a greater recruiting challenge than a selection challenge.
Selection will only be effective and financially defensible if a sufficient quantity of applicants
apply to the organization. Compounding this challenge is that many organizations struggle with
how to attract adverse workforce. Thus, there is growing recognition that recruitingͶby itself
and irrespective of selectionͶis critical not only for sustained competitive advantage but basic
organizational survival (Taylor & Collins, 2000). Reflecting this importance, there have been
several excellent reviews on recruitment (Baugh & Starke, 2000; High house & Hoffman, 2001;
Ryes & Cable, 2003; Saks, 2005; Taylor & Collins, 2000). This review obviously does not provide
the depth or detail of those reviews. Rather, this review selects the more recent developments
with the greatest implications for organizational effectiveness.

An excellent place to start the review is with the recruitment meta-analysis conducted by
Chapman, Uggerslev, Carroll, Piasentin, and Jones (2005). They summarized 71 studies
toestimate the effect sizes and path relationships between recruiting predictors
(job/organizational attributes, recruiter characteristics, perceptions of recruitment process,
perceived fit, perceived alternatives, hiring expectancies) and applicant attraction outcomes
(job pursuit intentions, job/organization attraction, acceptance intentions, job choice). This
meta-analysis helps organize and clarify a rather diverse literature, and there are many specific
findings, with the key ones listed below:

ͻPerceptions of person-organization fit (PO fit) and job/organizational attributes were the

Strongest predictors of the various recruiting outcomes. The next strongest set of predictors
Tended to be perceptions of the recruitment process (e.g., fairness), followed by recruiter
competencies and hiring expectancies. Interestingly, recruiter demographics or functional
occupation showed almost no relationship to the recruitment outcomes.

Gender and study context (lab-field) were the only two moderators found to be important
(although others may exist that could not be tested). Interestingly, job/organizational attributes
and justice perceptions were weighed more heavily by real applicants, suggesting lab studies
may be primarily useful for studying early stages of recruitment.

ͻThere was support for mediated recruitment models, such that recruitment predictors

Job attitudes and job acceptance intentions, which in turn influence job choice. Although

Acceptance intentions are the best proxy for actual job choice, they are an imperfect proxy.

Discouragingly, actual job choice was studied infrequently and was poorly predicted. On the
other hand, given the nominal nature of job choice measures, one must wonder how large this
effect should be.

Overall, there is good support linking many recruitment predictors to intention and perceptual
criteria. The attributes of the job/organization and fit with the job/organization will influence
intentions and (modestly) behavior. Hard criteria are infrequently studied, and when they are,
the relationships are much smaller. We need to know how large these relationships could be, or
can be, for the top predictors. Finally, demographics of both the applicant and recruiter seem
to play amino role, although individual differences may be more important. (Staffing in the 21st
Century: New Challenges and Strategic Opportunities Journal of Management 2006; 32; 868,
Robert E.Ployhart).


Personnel Selection Best Practices:

Personnel selection practices (e.g., interviews, ability and personality tests) continue to capture
the most attention from staffing scholars. There are several comprehensive reviews of selection
practices (e.g., Evers, Anderson, & Voskuijl, 2005; Schmitt, Cortina, In Gerick, &
Wiechmann2003), as well as discussions of research and practical applications (Guano & High
house, 2006Ployhart, Schneider, & Schmitt, 2006; Ryan & Tipping, 2004). Rather than review all
this research, the present review summarizes the major new developments. Procedures and
arrangements forselection and appointment of the members of the Scientific Committee of the
European UnionAgency for Fundamental Rights (FRA).

Article 1: Pre-selection:

1. The selection of candidates for membership of the Scientific Committee of FRA shall be
advertised through a call for expressions of interest in accordance with the present
procedures.Thecall for expressions of interest shall be published in the EU Official Journal (OJ),
in relevant leading academic publications as well as the Agency͛s website. The closing deadline
for submission of candidates͛ expressions of interest shall be fixed six weeks after the
abovementioned publication.

2. The Director of the Agency shall prepare and organize the work for the pre-selection of the
members of the Scientific Committee. He or she shall chair a pre-selection panel, composed of
the Heads of Unit of the Agency and a person appointed for the purpose by the Council of
Europe. Two members of the FRA Management Board may attend the pre-selection panel as

3. The pre-selection panel shall verify the eligibility of the candidates, in accordance with the
eligibility requirements. Failure to comply with one of these requirements will result in the
exclusion of the concerned candidate from the next steps of the selection process.

4. The pre-selection panel shall then assess each eligible candidate according to the
requirements for selection. It will draw up an ͚Individual Assessment Form͛ for each candidate
which will include a short comment, highlighting the specific values/shortcomings of the

5. The Director shall present the results of the pre-selection process to the FRA Executive
Board, including information on the candidates deemed ineligible.

Article 2: Selection

1. The Executive Board shall assess all the candidates on the basis of the established
2. In this assessment the Executive Board shall take into account:
ͻ the work of the pre-selection panel;
ͻ The need that the specialist fields of the members of the Scientific Committee shall cover the
most relevant scientific fields linked to fundamental rights, in accordance with the mission and
objectives of FRA;

ͻ The need to ensure even geographical and gender balance.

3. The Executive Board shall submit to the Management Board a list of most eligible candidates.
This list should include more than eleven and fewer than twenty-two names. This list will also
include merit points and a conclusion concerning the suitability as a member of the Scientific
Committee for each candidate.

4. The Chair of the Executive Board shall present the results of the selection process to the
Management Board, including a record of the candidates not included in the lists mentioned
above as well as on candidates deemed ineligible.

5. The Agency services shall provide technical and logistic support for the selection process

Article 3: Appointment

1. On the basis of the list submitted by the Executive Board, the Agency͛s Management Board
shall appoint the members of the Scientific Committee, after having consulted the competent
committee of the European Parliament. The candidates not appointed shall be put on a reserve
list.2. Members will be appointed for a five-year term, which shall not be renewable.

3. The reserve list shall be valid for the duration of the term of the appointed Scientific
Committee. In case of a vacancy, the Management Board shall appoint a new member from the
reserve list. The filling in of a vacancy shall be for the rest of the duration of the term of the
Scientific Committee. However, in accordance with Article 14, paragraph 1 of the Regulation,
the Management Board shall follow a process of appointment identical to the one followed for
the appointment of the original member including consultation of the competent committee of
the European Parliament.
ecruitment and Selection Process

1.0 Scope
1.1 Purpose of the Procedure
2.0 Recruitment and Selection Framework
2.1 Overview of the process
3.0 Recruitment and Selection Provisions
3.1 Review the job and the need for it
3.2 Design Selection Process
3.2.1 Panel Composition
3.2.2 Selection Tests
3.2.3 Interview Questions
3.3 Advertising
3.3.1 Advertising of vacancies
3.4. Applications
3.5. Short-listing
3.6 Interviewing
3.6.1. Arrangements for interviews
3.7. Selection
3.7.1 Decision to Appoint
3.8 Offers
3.8.1 Offer of employment
3.9 Other Requirements
3.9.1 Post interview feedback & notification to applicants
(IPCC Politically Restricted Posts, 2008)
1.0 Scope

1.1 Purpose of the Procedure:

Recruiting and selecting the right people is paramount to the success of the IPCC and its ability
to retain a workforce of the highest quality. This Recruitment and Selection Procedure sets out
how to ensure as far as possible, that the best people are recruited on merit and that the
recruitment process is free from bias and discrimination.

1.1 Job Analysis

1.2 Form
1.3 Request to Fill
1.4 Job descriptions
1.5 Person Specification

2.0 ecruitment and Selection Framework

2.1 verview of Process

ͻ Assess the need for the job and ensure there is adequate funding for it.
ͻ Review the job description to ensure that it meets the present and future requirements.
ͻ Review the person specification to ensure it meets the requirements of the job description.
ͻ Design the selection process.
ͻ Draft the advertisement and select the advertising media.
ͻ Short list using the person specification only.
ͻ Interview and test short-listed candidates.
ͻ Validate references, qualifications and security clearances.
ͻ Make appointment.

Managers hold the responsibility for ensuring this framework is followed. HR is available for

Advice and will assist in general administration of the recruitment process

3.0 ecruitment and Selection Provisions

3.1 eview te Job and te eed for t

Managers need to consider the following issues:

ͻ is the job still necessary?
What value does it add to the team and to the delivery of service?
ͻ How will the post be funded?
Positions outside of existing establishment require the Director͛s and Chief Executive͛s
ͻ Does the job description need updating?
If so, the grade for the job and the person specification may need to be re-evaluated. The HR
Teams available to provide advice on constructing both job descriptions and person
specifications andadvising on grading issues.

ͻ Is this jobbing a politically restricted post or will the incumbent have unsupervised access to
childrenor vulnerable adults?
ͻ What type of employment could be offered?
Full-time, part-time?
Is job-sharing an option?
Permanent or fixed term contract, secondment or agency?

Use of fixed term contracts is most appropriate for covering a particular task/project/item of
worker an interim appointment. They should not normally be used to fill permanent posts.
Agencystaff may be used to cover short term peaks in work or projects or interim vacancies, i.e.
whilst permanent position is being advertised. Should total employment under any of these
arrangements extend beyond 12 months, the individual may have an entitlement to permanent
employment rights, including redundancy. Employment through an agency may count towards
this 12 month period. Use of secondments must be in accordance with the IPCC Secondment
policy. If it is proposed to proceed to recruit to the post, it is the responsibility of the Manager
to ensure that the Authority to recruitforms completed and sent to HR as soon as possible.

3.2 esign Selection Process

Managers need to design the selection process they will use, giving consideration to the

3.2.1 Panel omposition:

All interviews for permanent posts must be conducted by a panel. The Manager is responsible
forselecting interview panel members ʹ being mindful of:

ͻ The requirement that the panel consists of at least two people, and if possible, is mixed in
terms of race and gender

ͻ The requirement that at least one panel member has received training on recruitment and
equalopportunities, normally limited to that provided by the IPCC. If not IPCC trained, the
mattershould be referred to Human Resources.
ͻ The requirement that each panel member be familiar with anti-discrimination legislation
ͻ the willingness and ability of potential panel members to attend all interviews for the
duration of the recruitment process, to maintain consistency and to ensure fair treatment of all
candidates. Panel members must be satisfied that their relationship with any candidate:
ͻ Will not improperly influence their decision
ͻ Will not give rise to suspicion about their motives

3.2.2 Selection ests:

Where selection tests are a valid method of assessing a candidate (i.e. effectively measures the
job criteria, is relevant, reliable, fair and unbiased ʹ also considering the predictive capacities of
tests), they are an extremely useful tool and are recommended for use. Managers should seek
advice from on the use of such tests .All psychometric tests used in selection must be
developed, administered and interpreted by accredited people

3.2.3 nterview Questions

Human Resources hold the IPCC Interview Guides that contain competency based interview
questions. Managers need to ensure they contact Human Resources prior to interview to obtain
copies of these guides

3.3. Advertising

Reaching any target market can be extremely difficult. Through niche websites like RD, you can
guarantee that the people using the service have an interest in your field. As more and more
people turn to online means for their information and service needs, an active web presence is
vital for any organization, large or small. Utilizing all the benefits of online advertising and
adding the clout already held by Australia's leading industry news provider, Specialist News, ads
placed withered are a great way to generate interest in new products and services, or to
improve awareness of your brand

3.3.1 Advertising te vacancy:

All vacancies at all levels must be advertised - there will be no ͞word of mouth͟ recruitment as

This can lead to indirect discrimination.No vacancy can be advertised until the request to fill
procedure has been completed, and up-to-date job description, person specification and KSF
outline have been sent electronically to the Recruitment Office. These will ensure that: We do
not break our own operational policies;
ͻCandidates receive the best possible information;

ͻWe are properly prepared to respond to candidates͛ enquiries;

ͻWe are properly prepared to carry out the best interviews; possible and thus

ͻMake the correct decisions;

NHS jobs are the medium for externally advertised vacancies in the first instance. Internal
vacancies will be advertised in the Vacancy Bulletin produced by the Recruitment Office.
External vacancies will be advertised in the Vacancy Bulletin and NHS Jobs.

The recruiting manager should indicate the preferred advertising medium on the Request to Fill
Form in the event that no appointment has been made from advertising in the Vacancy bulletin
and jobs... If the recruiting manager wishes to advertise in more than 1 journal, he/she will
agree to fund 50% of the costs from the Directorate budget.

The HR department routinely monitors the cost and response rate of advertisements and, as a
result, will give advice on the choice of publications to ensure more cost-effective advertising.
Foursome posts it is not necessary to pay for expensive advertising space, when Job Centre
plusor internal bulletin can provide suitable candidates at no cost. Care will be taken to ensure
that both the wording and placement of advertisements encourage a wide cross-section of the
population to apply. All vacancies will be listed in the weekly Vacancy Bulletin produced by the
Recruitment Team and circulated throughout the Trust and to specific organizations. The aim of the
advertisement is to attract suitable candidates only, at the least cost. The information it should contain
is taken largely from the job description and the person specification, as set out below:

ͻJob title

ͻGrade and/or salary as appropriate

ͻBrief description of the post

ͻEssential requirements, such as shift work or travel

ͻAny positive features such as training prospects

ͻA contact person/telephone number for further information about the job

ͻEncourage informal visits, where applicable

ecruiting a andidate Pool:

A. Looking Inside:

ͻConsider possible internal candidates with an interest in the post.

ͻDetermine if the position level requires an external search.

B. External Search:

ͻAdvertising -

ͻBrief position description

ͻMinimum qualifications

ͻ Include information needed from candidate

I.A resume
ii.A letter from the candidate
iii.A concise work sample or essay (if applicable)
IV.Names & phone #s of 3 references

ͻState length of response time

ͻAd placement (local, national, journals, etc.)

ͻEmails or faxes accepted?

ͻFocused Contacts - person-to-person networking

The object is to reach good candidates who are happily and productively employed elsewhere,
but who may be open for a change. The recommended position announcement for all positions
must include a non-discrimination statement and be approved by divisional vice president and
executive director of human resources. A line ad may be placed with:

A) Chronicle of Higher Education

B) Area newspapers
C) Selected professional journals

And will be posted internally in accordance with established College policy to include our web
links... Efforts should be made to target advertising to women and minorities. (Maximum
Cost$700)Letters of application and vitae will be received by the search committee through the
Department of Human Resources. A log of all applicants must be maintained and placed on file
at the end of the search in the Human Resources office. An EEO Data Form will be mailed to
each applicant to acknowledge receipt of their application as well as to collect specific data for
diversity analysis. When completed, this form remains separate from the candidate͛s
application and is not available to the hiring manager or others involved in the search.

unning a ecruitment ampaign:

Once you have established realistic volunteer recruitment goals, completed the position
descriptions for your volunteer jobs, and thought through the reasons why people are
motivated to volunteer, you are ready to launch a formal volunteer recruitment campaign. Here
are the

Goals you need to concentrate on:

ͻ Target the types of individuals best suited for your job descriptions. As

Much as possible focus on those who reside in close proximity to the projected volunteer work

ͻ Convince people to volunteer to work with you instead of with another

organization. Convincing and eye-catching informational materials are a must in recruitment.
Some tools to consider using include:

Press Releases:-for the print media (a short and a long version)

Public Service Announcements, TV, and Radio Announcements: - Public

Service Announcements (PSAs) and advertisements, for a few seconds or a few

Lines (see appendices in Tools Section).

Posters, billboards, and buttons: Your informational materials must be so clear that readers

Will understand your program͛s volunteer needs, the job requirements, and job benefits. They
must be attractive without appearing extravagant, since you are asking people to work for free.
They must all be designed to make people act.

Recruiting from the Public at Large: To recruit volunteers from the public at large, here are

The experiences of ombudsmen and other recruiters in the field.

Using Print Media: Major local daily newspapers, weekly/monthly publications, and
Newsletters.Running Ads. Before purchasing ads, ask for donated space. One ombudsman

Recruited some of the program's best people through this sample ad: "Our ombudsman
program wants highly professional people comfortable in resolving problems." The ad attracted
a high number of health care professionals not involved previously in long-term care.

Using Media Public Service Opportunities: Prepare Public Service Announcements (PSAs)

Ask the radio or TV stations to give your assistance in preparing your PSA. Here is what one
ombudsman said: Don't let timing stop you from recruiting. We sent out PSAs and recruited
during the middle of the Christmas holidays. The response was tremendous ʹ volunteer forces
were increased by 50 percent. As the saying goes: nothing ventured ... nothing gained.

Requesting Businesses to Advertise on Bags or Wrappers: Request businesses in your

Community to include an ad for your program when they print their bags or wrappers.

Here are some ways to approac businesses.

1. Contact the company's community relations officer: If the officer is supportive, it may

Lead to a steady source of volunteers. Some companies provide other types of agency support

Where their employees volunteer.

2. Recruit through posters: You often can arrange to display your posters in stores,

Restaurants, schools, public libraries, churches, hospitals, and large offices. Ask to speak with
the decision makers. Make a brief statement about your program and ask for permission to
display poster.

3. Ask public libraries to accept free bookmarks to give away: These could have a brief

Program description on one side and explain why you need volunteers on the other side

4. Check out community clearing houses: In some cities there are organizations that put

Volunteers together with community services programs. Often newspapers run a periodic
columnthat lists organizations͛ needs for volunteers.
3.4. Applications:

A file will be set up for each individual vacancy and held in the Recruitment

Office containing the following:

ͻApplication Form

ͻJob Description, person specification, KSF outline

ͻTerms & Conditions of Employment

ͻInformation about the Department in which the vacancy exists should be provided by the

Manager (if available).Any other relevant information, when an enquiry is received from an
applicant without internetaccess, an application pack will be sent within 24 hours.

3.5. Sort listing:

Equal Opportunity Monitoring Forms will be separated from the Application Forms prior to
shortlisting and retained by the Recruitment Office the shortlist must be drawn up by minimum
of two people, one of whom should be the recruiting manager. All panel members participating
in shortlisting must be familiar with the job description, person specification and KSK outline.

Short listing must be based only on the information given in the application, which is assessed
against the criteria contained in the person specification and must be consistently applied to all
candidates. A record of the assessment must be recorded on the Shortlist Record Form or on
NH Jobs. This is especially important in the event of any subsequent allegation of

If there are large numbers of candidates meeting all the criteria for the job, it will be necessary
to examine the degree to which each candidate meets the essential criteria, and by short listing
those candidates who, in their application, demonstrate the greatest ability to meet the criteria
which can be tested at short listing stage. Any potentially suitable candidates who have
disabilities with skills and abilities which broadly match the job description and person
specification should also be shortlisted, whether internal or external candidates. In order to
avoid allegations of favoritism, anyone involved in the selection process, which is connected by close
friendship or is related to a candidate, must inform the appropriate Business Partner. Where there is a
declared interest, following guidance from the HR Business Partner, a representative from HR may be
included in the selection panel.
In situations where there are internal candidates only, it is recommended that a third party not
involved in the immediate area should be involved in the selection process and interview
process. This will help to ensure, and be seen to ensure, that fairness is maintained and that a
person is selected on merit. A late application will be a genuine reason for not short listing a
candidate and only in very exceptional circumstances and in consultation with the HR Business
Partner will a late application be considered. It is recommended that the maximum number of
candidates per shortlists six/eight.

3.6. nterview

͞Any person to person between two or more individuals with a specific purpose in mind is
called Interview͟
There are basically two types of Interviews.

ͻStructured Interviews

ͻUnstructured Interview

Structured nterviews:
In which interviewer asks those questions which are pre- defined.

͞One type that has been widely studied and is considered relatively structured is situational
questions (M. Campion et al., 1988, 1994; Celery et al., 1994; Freeman et al., 1942; Hake, 1971;
Latham & Sari, 1984; Latham et al., 1980; Latham & Skarlicki, 1995; Robertson et al., 1990;
Schmitt & Ostroff, 986; Stohr-Gillmore et al., 1990; Walters et al., 1993; Weekly & Giver, 1987).

nstructured nterviews:

In which interviewer asks those questions which are not pre- defined which ask randomly.

The development of questions from incidents is part of the art or, at least, the unwritten
aspects of structured interviewing. Some authors acknowledge that "literary license" is needed
(Latham &Sari, 1984, p. 569). Incidents are often grouped into dimensions first (Motowidlo et
al., 1992;Robertson et al., 1990), then the incidents that best represent the dimensions are
turned intoquestions (Latham et al., 1980).

͞If necessary, questions can be repeated, or candidates can be given a card containing the
question͞(Green et al., 1993
3.6.1. Arrangements for interviews

nterviewing and selecting:

You may as well toss a coin͛ Professor Essence͛s opinion on the validity of the interview as
selection device is well known. Nevertheless the interview seems likely to remain as the
principle selection device despite its faults. To sharpen the effectiveness of the interview the
panel should ask the candidate to give a presentation. This offers the chance for the candidate
to show what they have achieved, show how they hope to fit in and illustrate their
communication skills. The interviewer needs to possess three different skills

ͻInformation gathering, to elicit the facts

ͻInterpreting and evaluating information, to consider what the facts mean.

ͻDecision making, to act on the facts and the analysis.

Gathering the information, eliciting the facts.

The right physical environment is important. Interviews require a quiet undisturbed room. If the
interview is informal a circle of chairs of equal height and similar spacing may well be
appropriate. If the interview is formal and held round a table. Spacing and lighting are also
important. The candidate should not be asked to walk miles to their seat, nor blink into the
silhouettes of the interview panel against a window. The chairman should make the candidate
welcome introduce the panel by name, and say whom they represent.

The format of the interview should be outlined to the candidate. The interviewer needs to
listeandto develop an interested and attentive interviewing style, with plenty of eye contact.
Verbal reinforcement should be forthcoming from the interviewer. Silence can be used in a
positive way to allow the candidate to develop their answers fully. Questions should be linked
to what the candidate has said to elicit a flow of information.

They should include:

A. Problem questions:

These suggest a situation specific to the job where the candidate must show their capacity to,

Example, priorities tasks under pressure. What was your most challenging situation in the last?

Year and how did you deal with it?

B. pen questions:

͚Tell me about͙.͛

. Probing questions:

͚Why do you want to leave your present job͛ or ͚What was your worst moment there?͛

. losed questions:

These interrupt the information low in order for the interviewer to redirect it to a new topic.

͚When did you͙? Or how many͙?͛

At the end consider if you have gathered the information necessary for a decision. Ask the
candidate back in if a question needs clarification. Allow the candidate, to question the panel,
or offer the information on areas such as salary, study facilities, start date, accommodation or
questions regarding the job description. Interpreting and evaluating the information
Interviewer, know thy self.

Making te decision

e panel sould:

ͻ Consider whether each candidate is appointed able.

Do they fulfill the essential criteria?
Do they match the person specification?
ͻ Each panel member should rank the candidates without conferring with other panel
ͻ Choose the best candidate.
Never choose person of lesser ability out of fear of being overshadowed. This produces a dull
UN progressive unit. On the other hand Einstein might not fit well with the team.
ͻ Use references to back up your choice, to screen for factors which disqualify rather than
qualify.References have greater value as a negative test rather than a positive one to highlight
an abrasivepersonality or poor sickness record.

Screening nterviews:

These are usually shorter interviews used for the purpose of conducting a brief evaluation of a

Candid ate. Successful candidates are asked back for a more in-depth interview.
ne-on-one interviews:

These interviews involve a candidate being questioned by one interviewer ʹ also common in

Early stages of selection.

elepone nterviews:

Occasionally interviews are conducted over the telephone. This can be a disorienting
experience mainly because neither party can see each other. Hence you need to rely on verbal
cues from the interviewer as well as demonstrating a lot of enthusiasm, clarity and positive
tone with your voice. Avoid being caught unawares and unprepared for a telephone interview ʹ
you are entitled to have at least a day͛s notice to prepare. Find a quiet comfortable place where
you can ensure there won͛t be any interruptions.

Panel interviews and on-site/second interviews:

After a first interview you may be asked to a second interview which is often on-site with the
employer. Panels consist usually of 2-3 people, often from different parts of an organization
egg. Graduate recruitment specialist, a technical expert and a person representing the area you
could work in. Ensure you address all panel members equally. These interviews are sometimes
incorporated as part of an assessment center.

ase Study nterviews:

Some organizations, especially consulting firms, use case study questions to evaluate
Candidate͛s analytical skills. These scenarios can often be quite challenging. The Careers Centre
has a range of tips and resources to help prepare for these interviews.

At the Interview: Questions to Expect

Most questions asked at interview can be predicted and usually focus on three issues:

ͻCan you do the job? Do you have the qualifications and/or skills?

ͻWill you do the job? Do you have the enthusiasm/motivation?

ͻWill you fit in? Could they work with you? Do you get on well with people?

Here are some interview common questions:

ͻWhat interests you about this position?

ͻWhy do you think you would be successful in this position?

ompetency-Based nterviews:

Competency or behavior-based interviews operate from the premise that the most accurate
predictor of future performance is past behavior in a similar situation. This type of interview is
now commonly used in selection processes. Questions are probing in nature and the
competencies employers look for include:

ͻTeam work/interpersonal skills

Give me some examples about when you have had to handle difficult people.

ͻAchievement drive

What would be the best example of you giving a project or piece of work your absolute best

And being disappointed by the outcome? What would you do differently a second time?

Tell us about a time when you have had to adapt quickly to substantially changed
circumstances at university or at work.

ͻPersuasiveness and negotiation ability

Describe a time when you have been required to negotiate in difficult circumstances. Why was
it important for you to become involved? What strategies did you use?

ͻAnalytical thinking

Describe a project that you have worked on that has required a high level of analysis and

Contribution of new ideas.

ͻCustomer/Client service

Tell us about a time when you have delivered a high level of customer service. How did you

Know? Be specific in your responses to such questions by using examples from your own
experience to describe:

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