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Part-I Dynamics

Jamil Renno & Neil Ferguson


8 | Core design elements – our logo and brand policy

Faculty of Engineering and the Environment


Our brand is essential to make us stand out in an increasingly competitive and
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global higher education environment. It is vital that we present a coherent
University of Southampton
and clear University identity in our communications. The University logo Our objective is to present the University as a sing
is a key part of our visual identity, making all our communications instantly organisation, consisting of cutting-edge academic
recognisable as a product of the University of Southampton. As such, the University logo is used in isolation.

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Where relevant, the name of the academic unit wil
descriptor, headline or in the body copy. This reinf
University and the academic unit by giving each its
(see page 11 for the approved list of descriptors).

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Faculties will not be individually branded for exter
the exception of centrally maintained faculty ‘land
website that are maintained by Communications
essential business stationery.

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The University of Southampton does not support
have any queries, please email commssupport@so

JR & NSF
c • Lecture 15 – Rigid Body Kinetics 1/20
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Lecture 15: Equations of Motion – Rotation about a


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Fixed Axis
Objective
Analyse the planar kinetics of a rigid body undergoing rotational
motion.

Motivation
Each part of the worm drive – both
the worm and the worm gear – is
rotating about its own fixed axis.
The two axes are at 90◦ to each
other and the worm drive is often
used to reduce the rotational speed
and increase the torque to be
transmitted.
JR & NSF
c • Lecture 15 – Rigid Body Kinetics 2/20
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Equations of Motion
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When a rigid body rotates about a fixed


axis perpendicular to the plane of the
body at O, the body’s centre of mass G
moves in a circular path of radius rOG .

Thus, the acceleration of G can be


represented by a tangential component
(aG )t = rOG α and a normal component
(aG )n = rOG ω 2 .

Since the body experiences an angular acceleration, its inertia


creates a moment of magnitude, IG α, equal to the moment of the
external forces about G. Thus, the scalar equations of motion are:
X X
Fn = m(aG )n = mrG ω 2 , Ft = m(aG )t = mrG α,
X
MG = I G α .
JR & NSF
c • Lecture 15 – Rigid Body Kinetics 3/20
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Equations of Motion (continued)


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P
Note that the MG moment equation may be replaced by a
moment summation about any arbitrary point. Summing the
moment about the centre of rotation O yields
X
MO = IG α + rG m(aG )t = [IG + m(rG )2 ]α .

From the parallel axis theorem, IO = IG + m(rG )2 , therefore the


term in parentheses represents IO .
Consequently, we can write the three
equations of motion for the body as:
X
Fn = m(aG )n = mrG ω 2 ,
X
Ft = m(aG )t = mrG α ,
X
MO = IO α .
JR & NSF
c • Lecture 15 – Rigid Body Kinetics 4/20
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Procedure for Analysis


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Problems involving the kinetics of a rigid body rotating about a


fixed axis can be solved using the following process.

1. Establish an inertial coordinate system and specify the sign


and direction of (aG )n and (aG )t .
2. Draw a free body diagram accounting for all external forces
and moments. Show the resulting inertia forces and moments
(typically on a separate kinetic diagram).
3. Compute the mass moment of inertia IG or IO .
4. Write the three equations of motion and identify the
unknowns. Solve for the unknowns.
5. Use kinematics if there are more than three unknowns (since
the equations of motion allow for only three unknowns).

JR & NSF
c • Lecture 15 – Rigid Body Kinetics 5/20
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Example I
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Given
The uniform slender rod has a
mass of 15 kg and is initially
at rest.

Find
The reactions at the pin O
and the angular acceleration
of the rod just after the cord
is cut.
Plan
Since the mass centre, G, moves in a circle of radius 0.15 m, it’s
acceleration has a normal component toward O and a tangential
component acting downward and perpendicular to rG . Apply the
problem solving procedure.
JR & NSF
c • Lecture 15 – Rigid Body Kinetics 6/20
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Solution I
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mg rG
IG α
Ox
G
Oy mat = mrG α
Equations of motion:
X
+→ Fn = man = mrG ω 2 ⇒ Ox = 0 N ,
since the rod is released from rest. Furthermore,
X
+↑ Ft = −mat = −mrG α ⇒ Oy − 15(9.81) = −150(0.15)α ,
X
MO = IO α ⇒ (0.15)15(9.81) = IO α .

JR & NSF
c • Lecture 15 – Rigid Body Kinetics 7/20
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Solution I (continued)
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mg rG
IG α
Ox
G
Ox mat = mrG α
Using IG = 1/12ml2 and rG = 0.15 m, we can write
2
IO = IG + mrG = [(15 × 0.92 )/12 + 15(0.15)2 ] = 1.35 .
Substituting yields 22.07 = 1.35α ⇒ α = 16.4 rad/s2 . From the
second equation of motion:
−Oy + 15(9.81) = 15(0.15)α ,
which yields Oy = 110 N.
JR & NSF
c • Lecture 15 – Rigid Body Kinetics 8/20
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Equations of Motion – General Plane Motion


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Objective
Analyse the planar kinetics of a rigid body undergoing general
motion.

Motivation
Two tugboats are shown
rotating a large ship. The
mass of the tugboats is
negligible compared to that of
the ship and as they push the
ship, it will rotate and
translate experiencing general
motion.

JR & NSF
c • Lecture 15 – Rigid Body Kinetics 9/20
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Equations of Motion
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When a rigid body is subjected to


external forces and moments, it can
undergo both translational and
rotational motion, i.e., the body
undergoes general plane motion.

Using an x-y inertial coordinate


system, the equations of motions
about the centre of mass, G, may be
written as:
X
Fx = m(aG )x ,
X
Fy = m(aG )y ,
X
MG = I G α .
JR & NSF
c • Lecture 15 – Rigid Body Kinetics 10/20
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Equations of Motion (continued)


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Sometimes, it may be convenient to


write the moment equation about a
point P other than G. Then the
equations of motion are written as
follows:
X
Fx = m(aG )x ,
X
Fy = m(aG )y ,
X
MP = IP α .

where IP is the mass moment of


inertia of the body about point P.
P
JR & NSF
c • Lecture 15 – Rigid Body Kinetics 11/20
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Frictional Rolling Problems


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When analysing the rolling motion of wheels, cylinders, or disks, it


may not be known if the body rolls without slipping or if it slides
as it rolls.

r For example, consider a disk with mass m


P and radius r, subjected to a known force P .
G

The equations of motion will be:


W = mg X
Fx = m(aG )x ⇒ P − Ff = maG ,
X
Fy = m(aG )y ⇒ N − mg = 0 ,
P
G
X
MG = IG α ⇒ −Ff r = IG α .

Ff There are four unknowns (Ff , N , α and


N aG ) in these three equations.
JR & NSF
c • Lecture 15 – Rigid Body Kinetics 12/20
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Frictional Rolling Problem (continued)


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Hence, we have to make an assumption to provide another


equation. Then, we can solve for the unknowns.

The 4th equation can be obtained from the slip or no-slip condition
of the disk.

Case I
Assume no slipping and use aG = rα as the 4th equation and DO
NOT use Ff = µk N . After solving, you will need to verify that the
assumption was correct by checking if |Ff | ≤ µs N .

Case II
Assume slipping and use Ff = µk N as the 4th equation. In this
case, aG 6= rα.
JR & NSF
c • Lecture 15 – Rigid Body Kinetics 13/20
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Procedure for Analysis


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Problems involving the kinetics of a rigid body undergoing general


plane motion can be solved using the following procedure.

1. Establish the x-y inertial coordinate system. Draw both the


free body diagram and kinetic diagram for the body.
2. Specify the direction and sense of the acceleration of the mass
centre, aG , and the angular acceleration α of the body. If
necessary, compute the body’s mass moment of inertia IG .
P
3. If the moment equation MP = IP α is used, then compute
IP = IG + mrG 2.

4. Apply the three equations of motion.

JR & NSF
c • Lecture 15 – Rigid Body Kinetics 14/20
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Procedure for Analysis (continued)


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5. Identify the unknowns: If necessary (i.e., there are four


unknowns), make your slip-no slip assumption (typically no
slipping, or the use of aG = αr, is assumed first).
6. Use kinematic equations as necessary to complete the solution.
7. If a slip-no slip assumption was made, check its validity!!!

Some Key Points


1. Be consistent in using the assumed directions. The direction
of aG must be consistent with α.
2. If Ff = µk N is used, Ff must oppose the motion. As a test,
assume no friction and observe the resulting motion. This
may help visualise the correct direction of Ff .

JR & NSF
c • Lecture 15 – Rigid Body Kinetics 15/20
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Example II
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Given
A 60 kg lawn roller has a
radius of gyration of kG = 0.3
m. It is pushed forward with a
force of 200 N.

Find
Find the angular acceleration
if µs = 0.12 and µk = 0.1.

Plan
Follow the problem solving procedure. First assume rolling without
slipping, and then check your assumption.

JR & NSF
c • Lecture 15 – Rigid Body Kinetics 16/20
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Solution II
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The moment of inertia of the roller about G is

IG = 60(0.3)2 = 5.4 kg m2 .

60(9.81) N Equations of motion:


y 200 N
X
x Fx = m(aG )x
− FA − 200 cos 45◦ = −60aG
aG X
Fy = m(aG )y
NA − 588.6 − 200 sin 45◦ = 0
X
FA MG = IG α
NA − 0.2FA = 5.4α
We have four unknowns: NA , FA , aG and α. Another equation is
needed to allow solving for the unknowns.
JR & NSF
c • Lecture 15 – Rigid Body Kinetics 17/20
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Solution II – Roller not Sliding


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First, assume the wheel is not slipping, i.e., aG = rα = 0.2α.

Now solving the four equations yields NA = 730.02 N,


FA = −97.91 N, α = 3.63 rad/s2 , aG = 0.73 m/s2 .

The no-slip assumption is not satisfied:

|FA | = 97.91 > µs NA = 87.61N .

Thus, the wheel slips.

JR & NSF
c • Lecture 15 – Rigid Body Kinetics 18/20
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Solution II – Roller is Sliding


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Now, we resolve the problem with FA = µk NA . Now, FA acts


against the translation motion.
60(9.81) N
X
y 200 N Fx = m(aG )x
x
FA − 200 cos 45◦ = −60aG
aG X
F = m(a )
y G y

NA − 588.6 − 200 sin 45◦ = 0


X
FA MG = IG α

NA 0.2FA = 5.4α
This yields NA = 730.02 N, FA = 73.00 N, α = 2.70 rad/s2 ,
aG = 1.14 m/s2 . Notice that aG 6= 0.2α.

JR & NSF
c • Lecture 15 – Rigid Body Kinetics 19/20
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Summary
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For rotation about a fixed axis, normal-tangential coordinates are


the most suitable. The equations of motion are
X X
Fn = m(aG )n = mrG ω 2 , Ft = m(aG )t = mrG α ,
X X
MG = IG α or MO = IO α .

where IO = IG + mrG 2 , G is the centre of mass and r is the


G
distance from the axis of rotation to G.

For general plane motion, Cartesian coordinate are more suitable


and the equations of motion are
X X
Fx = m(aG )x , Fy = m(aG )y ,
X X
MG = IG α or MO = IO α .
For rolling problems, check the non-slip condition and resolve if
necessary.
JR & NSF
c • Lecture 15 – Rigid Body Kinetics 20/20