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Media (communication) - Wikipedia https://en.wikipedia.


information revolution is based on modern advancements. During the 19th century, the information "boom"
rapidly advanced because of postal systems, increase in newspaper accessibility, as well as schools "modernizing".
These advancements were made due to the increase of people becoming literate and educated. The methodology of
communication although has changed and dispersed in numerous directions based on the source of its
sociocultural impact. Biases in the media that affects religious or ethnic minorities takes the form of racism in the
media and religious bias in the media.

Games as a medium for communication

Games are a medium used to transfer messages. Apart from the usual graphic, auditory and narrative elements in
video games, the game mechanics make it unique in the media field. Following Marshal McLuhan's quote "the
medium is the message", Earnest Adams and Joris Dormans make a point in their book Game Mechanics:
Advanced Game Design that:[13]

“To use a game to communicate, you don’t just produce a clever signal to convey your message.
Instead, you construct a machine—the game’s mechanics—that produces the signal for you.”

— Marshal Mcluhan

The players interact with the game and infer the message by observing the game's output. The game mechanics can
discriminate against particular actions while encouraging others, thus leading the players to conclude that a
certain behavior is more likely to produce the desired outcomes. Although this is commonly and successfully used
for entertainment purposes it can also be used as a tool for public relations – for example as advergaming.}

Gamification has been used to communicate in other areas as well. The game design video lessons show Extra
Credits has criticized China's Sesame Credit for gamifying the act of "being an obedient citizen".[14] Using tools that
are commonly used in games can incentivize a specific behavior to increase one's credit.

The role of regulatory authorities (license broadcaster institutions, content providers, platforms) and the
resistance to political and commercial interference in the autonomy of the media sector are both considered as
significant components of media independence. In order to ensure media independence, regulatory authorities
should be placed outside of governments' directives. this can be measured through legislation, agency statutes and

Government regulations

The process of issuing licenses in many regions still lacks transparency and is considered to follow procedures that
are obscure and concealing. In many countries, regulatory authorities stand accused of political bias in favor of the
government and ruling party, whereby some prospective broadcasters have been denied licenses or threatened
with the withdrawal of licenses. In many countries, diversity of content and views have diminished as monopolies,
fostered directly or indirectly by States.[15] This not only impacts on competition but leads to a concentration of
power with potentially excessive influence on public opinion.[16] Buckley et al. cite failure to renew or retain
licenses for editorially critical media; folding the regulator into government ministries or reducing its competences
and mandates for action; and lack of due process in the adoption of regulatory decisions, among others, as
examples in which these regulators are formally compliant with sets of legal requirements on independence, but

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