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4000 Series

4006-23TAG1A, TAG2A & TAG3A Inline diesel engine

INSTALLATION MANUAL

6 cylinder turbocharged diesel engine for electric power


applications

Publication TPD 1509E, Issue 1


© Proprietary information of Perkins Engines Company Limited, all rights reserved.
The information is correct at the time of print.
Published in Dec 2003 by Technical Publications.
Perkins Engines Company Limited, Tixal Road, Stafford, ST16 3UB, England.

i
Chapters
1 Introduction
2 General information
3 Engine room layout
4 Cooling systems
5 Exhaust system
6 Engine breather
7 Fuel supply systems
8 Lubricating oil systems
9 Sound insulation
10 Air intake
11 Torsional vibrations
12 Derating
13 Starting, stopping and protection systems
14 Governors
15 Control panels for generating sets
The following pages contain a detailed table of contents

ii
4000 Series

Contents

1 Introduction
Safety precautions ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 2

Dangers from used engine oils ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 4

Environmental protection ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 4

Viton seals . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 5

2 General Information
Lifting equipment for engines . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... . 11

Mounting of engine and driven unit ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... . 12

Drive arrangement ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... . 28

3 Engine room layout


Installation . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... . 35

Typical water cooled engine layout ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... . 37

Ventilation - engine room . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... . 38

Typical multiple engine installation ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... . 45

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4000 Series

4 Cooling systems
General observations ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... . 50

Filling the cooling system ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... . 50

Draining the cooling systems .. ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... . 51

Cooling tower - or independent external water supply . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... . 51

Air-to-air charge cooling .. ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... . 51

5 Exhaust System
Back pressure ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... . 53

Installation . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... . 53

Flexible element ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... . 55

Expansion .. ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... . 55

Exhaust outlet position ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... . 56

Multiple exhaust outlets ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... . 56

Condensate drain .. ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... . 56

Lagging .. ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... . 56

Exhaust silencers . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... . 57

Local authority regulations - noise . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... . 57

Back pressure - exhaust system - calculations . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... . 58

How to use the information . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... . 59

Noise attenuation - exhaust . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... . 62

Engine noise level ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... . 63

6 Engine breather
Breather installation . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... . 65

Breathing - points to watch .. ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... . 66

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4000 Series

7 Fuel supply systems


Introduction ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... . 67

Diesel fuel specification ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... . 67

Diesel fuel systems ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... . 67

8 Lubricating oil systems


Lubricating oil recommendations ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... . 73

Standard lubricating oil system .. ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... . 73

Extended running oil system ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... . 73

9 Sound insulation
Noise level . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... . 75

Noise source . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... . 75

Recommendations to contain noise ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... . 75

‘Free’ & ‘semi-reverberant field’ .. ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... . 76

Sound proof canopy over engine ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... . 76

Multiple engine noise level . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... . 77

10 Air intake
Air restriction indicator ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... . 79

Remote mounted air cleaner ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... . 80

11 Torsional vibrations
Critical speed ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... . 81

Critical speeds – corrective methods . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... . 81

Torsional analysis data ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... . 82

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4000 Series

12 Derating
Derating engine . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... . 85

Derating alternator ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... . 85

13 Starting, stopping and protection systems


Starting systems ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... . 87

Batteries . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... . 88

Battery charging alternator .. ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... . 88

Battery charger . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... . 88

Starting aids .. ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... . 89

Starting loads ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... . 89

Stopping ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... . 89

Protection system . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... . 89

Air shut-off valve ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... . 89

14 Digital Electronic Governor


Introduction ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... . 91

Configuration ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... . 94

15 Control panels for generating sets


Control panel with manual start .. ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 111

Protection module ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 112

Automatic start control panel .. ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 112

Automatic mains failure (AMF) control panel ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 112

Parallel operation .. ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 114

Cabling ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 116

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4000 Series

1
Introduction 1
The information contained within this section provides mechanical installation data for the 4000 Series diesel
engine produced by Perkins Engines Company Limited, Stafford, for Electrical Power Generation (EPG)
applications.
It is intended to provide the user with general information for the mechanical installation of an engine/
generating set within an ISO container, canopy or engine room facility.
Because each installation will be different, all factors must be considered and it is therefore recommended that
you consult with an approved engine installation engineer before starting. If unsure, please contact the Perkins
Applications Department who will be able to provide you with guidance for this procedure.
Perkins Engines Company Limited, Stafford, cannot accept any liability whatsoever for any problems resultant
from an incorrect installation specification.
You must read, understand and comply with the ‘Safety precautions’ on page 2, with regard to both machinery
and personal protection.
In addition to the general safety precautions, danger to both operator and engine are highlighted as follows:
Warning! This indicates that there is a possible danger to the person (or the person and engine).
Caution: This indicates that there is a possible danger to the engine.
Note: Is used where the information is important, but there is not a danger.
The information contained within the manual is based on the information that was available at the time of going
to print. In line with Perkins Engines Company Limited policy of continual development, information may
change at any time without notice and the user should therefore ensure that, before commencing any work,
they have the latest information available.
Users are respectfully advised that it is their responsibility to employ competent persons to perform any
installation work in the interests of good practice and safety.
It is essential that the utmost care is taken with the application, installation and operation of any diesel engines
due to their potentially dangerous nature.
Careful reference should also be made to other Perkins Engines Company Limited literature including the
Technical Data Sheet and the User’s Handbook.
Should you require further assistance in installing the engine/generating set, contact the Applications or
Service Department.
Perkins Engines Company Limited Stafford,
Tixall Road,
Stafford,
ST16 3UB,
England.
Telephone No: 01785 223141
Fax No: 01785 215110
Continued

Installation Manual, TPD 1509E, issue 1 1


1 4000 Series
The 4006-23 engines has been developed primarily for use in generating sets. To ensure optimum
performance and trouble-free service, the correct selection of generating sets/engines is of the utmost
importance during the initial stages. The purpose of the guide is to help the reader to:
! Make the correct choice of power selection.
! Design and build installations which will perform reliably.

Safety precautions
General
For safe installation of the engine it is essential that these safety precautions, and those Warnings and
Cautions given throughout this manual, are observed and, where necessary, the special tools indicated are
used.
All safety precautions should be read and understood before installing, operating or servicing the engine.
Improper installation, operation or maintenance procedures are dangerous and could result in accidents, injury
or death.
The operator should check before beginning an operation that all the basic safety precautions have been taken
to avoid accidents.
You must also refer to the local regulations in the country of use.
Note: Some items only apply to specific applications.
Guards
! Ensure that guards are fitted over exposed rotating parts, hot surfaces, air intakes, belts or live electrical
terminals (high and low tension).
Personal protection equipment
! Ensure that appropriate protection equipment is worn at all times.
! Always wear protective gloves when using inhibitors or anti-freeze, removing the pressure cap from the
radiator or heat exchanger filler, changing the lubricating oil/filter or changing the electrolyte in the battery.
! Always wear ear protection when working in an enclosed engine room.
! Always wear goggles when using an air pressure line.
! Always wear protective boots when working on the engine.
! Always wear protective headgear when working on or underneath the engine.
Naked flames
Ensure that no smoking or naked flames are present when checking battery electrolyte, working in the engine
room or when operating or servicing the engine.
Fuel and oil pipes
! Ensure that all pipes are regularly checked for leaks.
! Ensure that all pipes and the surrounding area are regularly checked for spilt oil (and cleaned up where
necessary).
! Always apply suitable barrier cream to hands before starting any work.
Shut-down equipment
! Always test that the protection system is working correctly.
! When stopping the engine in case of overspeed, high water temperature or low oil pressure, indicator lights
to identify the cause of the shutdown should be provided.
! Heat sensors and smoke detectors should be provided (if applicable).
! Always be in a position to stop the engine (even remotely).
Start-up
! When working on the engine, always ensure that the battery has been disconnected and that any other
means of accidental start-up has been disabled.
2 Installation Manual, TPD 1509E, issue 1
4000 Series 1
Electrical equipment
! Always check that the electrical components are earthed to local safety standards.
! Always disconnect the electrical supply to the jacket water heater (if fitted) before working on the engine.
! Take care to avoid any risk of electric shock.
! Never re-adjust the settings of electronic equipment without reference to the Workshop Manual.
Freezing or heating components
! Always use heat resistant gloves and use the correct handling equipment.
Exhaust system
! Check the system for leaks.
! Ensure that the engine room is correctly ventilated.
! Check that all the guards are fitted.
! Check that the pipework allows the exhaust gas to escape upwards.
! Check that the pipework is supported.
Stopping the engine
1 Disengage the engine load.
2 Run the engine on ‘No load‘ for 5 to 7 minutes before stopping.
Note: This will allow the circulating lubricating oil to dissipate heat from the bearings, pistons, etc. It will also
allow the turbocharger, which runs at a very high speed, to slow down while there is still oil flow through the
bearings.
Ensure that the engine is stopped before performing any of the following operations:
! Changing the lubricating oil.
! Filling or topping up the cooling system.
! Beginning any repair work on the engine.
! Adjusting belts (where fitted).
! Adjusting valve clearances.
! Changing air or oil filters.
! Tightening any fixing bolts.
Flammable fluids
! Ensure that these are never stored near the engine.
! Ensure that they are never exposed to a naked flame.
Clothing
! Do not wear loose clothing, ties, jewellery, etc.
! Always wear steel toe cap shoes/boots.
! Always wear appropriate head, eye and ear protection.
! Always wear suitable overalls.
! Always replace a spillage contaminated overall immediately.
Lifting heavy components
! Always use the correct lifting equipment.
! Never work alone.
! Always wear a helmet, if the weight is above head height.
Descaling solution
! Always wear both hand and eye protection when handling.
! Always wear overalls and appropriate footwear.

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1 4000 Series
Waste disposal
! Do not leave oil-covered cloths on or near the engine.
! Do not leave loose items on or near the engine.
! Always provide a fireproof container for oil contaminated cloths.
Note: Most accidents are caused by failure to observe basic safety precautions and can be avoided by
recognising potentially dangerous situations before an accident occurs. There are many potential hazards that
can occur during the operation of the engine which cannot always be anticipated, and therefore a warning
cannot be included to cover every possible circumstance that might involve a potential hazard, but by following
these basic principles the risk can be minimised.

Dangers from used engine oils


Prolonged and repeated contact with mineral oil will result in the removal of natural oils from the skin, leading
to dryness, irritation and dermatitis. The oil also contains potentially harmful contaminants which may result in
skin cancer.
Adequate means of skin protection and washing facilities should be readily available.
The following is a list of 'Health Protection Precautions' suggested to minimise the risk of contamination:
1 Avoid prolonged and repeated contact with used engine oils.
2 Wear protective clothing, including impervious gloves where applicable.
3 Do not put oily rags into pockets.
4 Avoid contaminating clothes, particularly underwear, with oil.
5 Overalls must be cleaned regularly. Discard unwashable clothing and oil impregnated footwear.
6 First aid treatment should be obtained immediately for open cuts and wounds.
7 Apply barrier creams before each period of work to aid the removal of mineral oil from the skin.
8 Wash with soap and hot water, or alternatively use a skin cleanser and a nail brush, to ensure that all oil is
removed from the skin. Preparations containing lanolin will help replace the natural skin oils which have been
removed.
9 Do not use petrol, kerosene, diesel fuel, thinners or solvents for washing the skin.
10 If a skin disorder appears, medical advice must be taken.
11 Degrease components before handling, if practicable.
12 Where there is the possibility of a risk to the eyes, goggles or a face shield should be worn. An eye wash
facility should be readily available.

Environmental protection
There is legislation to protect the environment from the incorrect disposal of used lubricating oil. To ensure that
the environment is protected, consult your Local Authority who can give advice.

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4000 Series 1
Viton seals
Some seals used in engines and in components fitted to engines are made from Viton.
Viton is used by many manufacturers and is a safe material under normal conditions of operation.
Warning! If Viton is burned, a product of this burnt material is an acid which is extremely dangerous. Never
allow this burnt material to come into contact with the skin or with the eyes.
If it is necessary to come into contact with components which have been burnt, ensure that the precautions
which follow are used:
! Ensure that the components have cooled.
! Use Neoprene gloves and a face mask, and discard the gloves safely after use.
! Wash the area with a calcium hydroxide solution and then with clean water.
! Disposal of gloves and components which are contaminated, must be in accordance with local regulations.
If there is contamination of the skin or eyes, wash the affected area with a continuous supply of clean water or
with a calcium hydroxide solution for approxiately 60 minutes. Obtain immediate medical attention.

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4000 Series

2
General Information 2
The 4006-23 TAG1A, TAG2A and TAG3A engines form part of the Perkins 4000 Series. They are six cylinder,
in-line, turbocharged engines incorporating an air-to-air charge cooling system.
They have been designed specifically for producing electrical power in both the 50Hz and 60Hz ratings and
are capable of providing the following net engine power:
Model Rev/min Units Baseload Prime Standby
50 Hz
4006-23TAG1A 1500 kW 471 555 620
4006-23TAG2A 1500 kW 495 620 685
4006-23TAG3A 1500 kW 540 679 760

Model Rev/min Units Baseload Prime Standby


60 Hz
4006-23TAG1A 1800 kW 485 596 650
4006-23TAG2A 1800 kW 510 640 715
4006-23TAG3A 1800 kW 570 715 795

Full engine specifications can be obtained from the relevant Technical Data Sheets.
Definition of ratings
The following information is a brief summary of important points which should be considered:
! The generating set/engine should be properly sized for the installation. Determine the duty cycle: Standby,
Prime and Baseload.
Standby Power
Maximum usage: 500 hours per year, up to 300 hours of which may be continuous running.
The average load factor of 80% of the published standby power rating for 500 operating hours per year.
NO OVERLOAD AVAILABLE.
Prime Power
Unlimited hours usage.
Load factor: 80% of the published Prime power rating over each 24 hour period.
10% overload available for one hour in every 12.
Baseload
Unlimited hours usage.
Load factor: 100% of the published Baseload rating.
No over load available.
Dimensions
Overall dimensions can be obtained from the general arrangement drawing, see illustrations A, B, C, D and E
on the next page.
Weights
Wet and dry weights can be the obtained from the relevant Technical Data Sheet.
Lifting equipment
Caution: Always ensure that the engine is lifted using the correct lifting points and lifting equipment.

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2 4000 Series

Centre of gravity
engine and radiator Exhaust Outlets
(WET) Note: Customer connection
Engine Breather outlet to must be sufficiently supported
suit ø50.8 (2”) inside hose 3027 to ensure that no load is
OVERALL placed on the turbochargers
2106
1650.5
1380.5
Air Flow

Engine protection Timing mark


switch viewing hole
Centre-line
Fan belt Crankshaft
tensioner screw

730 25 220 Engine


Mounting
25
344 Rear Face
Flywheel housing
Front Face 1310.5
Crankcase Rear Face
1493 Crankcase
Note: Belt guard not Additional front option
shown for clarity - Customer option-
LEFT SIDE ELEVATION
A

Centre-line
B crankshaft Air cleaner
Turbochargers restriction indicators
Centre-line
Exh. outlets 645 786 406
Air cleaner
element removal
17.5

Removable
lifting plates

A 16 - M12 x 1.75 x 21 deep


1125 equi-spaced on ø679.45
1035
PC (26.75")
1964
6 - M16 x 2.0 x 30 deep
Overall
equi-spaced on ø542.93
A PC (21.375")
A_3

549
Sump

Sump removal 68 179.5 Crankshaft rotation


359 Sump width
Centre-line
crankshaft REAR ELEVATION
B

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4000 Series 2
Fuel return connection / Non-return valve
(hidden) to suit ø12.7 outside steel tube
Front face maximum return head = 18m
crankcase 921
G3/8 Duct fixing face
Air cleaner Lubricating oil (Fuel inlet)232
connection 4
2-off
(Fuel return) 5
ø 228.6 (9") outside Lubricating oil
Air cleaner inlet filler
24v DC alternator
Fuel inlet
connection
1/8 NPSF Fuel filter /
Lubricating oil Water separator
Pressure connection

24v DC electric 517


starter (Oil drain)
Lubricating oil filter
3-off Fuel lift pump
Starter relay
3/8 NPSF 441.5 Fuel hand
Lubricating oil priming pump G 1/2 drain
temperature connection G1 lubricating
Lubricating oil oil drain (both sides)
level indicator
RIGHT SIDE ELEVATION
C

G 1/2 vent Centre-line


Fuel return 1606 crankshaft
connection Matrix
ø27 Lifting hole
engine only
569 803
Radiator filler cap 165 24v DC stop solenoid
(Energised to run)
Manual stop lever
14 - ø11

200
220
735 220
1600
Matrix
220

220
175
200

343

183 15 838
1676 Centre-line
Fuel inlet connection crankshaft
to suit ø15 outside steel tube CRS 853
if fuel tank outlet is lower than 1706
lift pump inlet a non-return valve OVERALL
must be fitted at fuel tank outlet FRONT ELEVATION
maximum lift = 2.5m RADIATOR AND FAN SHOWN CHAIN-DOTTED
D

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2 4000 Series

767.5 1369 60
Front face
200 crankcase
79
66
Centre-line
crankshaft

780

454

1560 908

45 90
88
50 76
14 Rear face
142
44.5 88 flywheel
400 100
89 housing
917.5 1486 ( 7)

Additional front mount


-customer option-
ENGINE AND RADIATOR MOUNTING DETAIL

10
15.7
1.5 x 45° r 1 ø 279.4
1.5 x 45°
r 0.8 8 - ø 17.46
Equi-spaced

ø 647.95 ø 152.4
647.70 ø 590
ø 571.576
571.500 22.5° ø 234.95
ø 510
6.7 View on B
Section A-A Exhaust outlet flange
SAE '0' housing (BS10 table D)
SAE 518 flywheel Scale 1:5
Scale 1:2

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4000 Series 2
Lifting equipment for engines
When lifting engine or generating sets, special lifting equipment is required. It is recommended that a spreader
lifting beam of the correct lifting load capacity is used and that chains, hooks, shackles and eye bolts etc. are
checked that they are well within their safe working loads. The load should be secure, stable and balanced
when lifting.
The lifting chains etc must be firmly secured to the load by means of hooks etc on to the purpose-designed
lifting points, and that included angle is not exceeded (A).
In order to accommodate the chains for lifting it may be necessary to have to remove engine components such
as air filters etc to prevent damage, but this should be avoided where the chains can be clear by non-
detrimental means.
Warning! Lifting equipment should be used by trained personnel only. Generating sets must be lifted using
the lifting lugs on the baseframe and a spreader lifting beam. The engine lifting brackets and alternator lifting
lugs must not be used.

A D1144

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2 4000 Series
Mounting of engine and driven unit
When mounting an engine and driven unit the utmost consideration must be given to the type of engine
mountings and foundation which must be strong enough to support the weight of the unit and the stresses
produced when the unit is operating.
Engine mountings
The type of mountings depend upon the type of installation in which the engine is to be used and the final drive
arrangement.The engine can be fitted with either rigid or flexible mountings, depending on the type of
foundation or application. Flexible mountings are normally supplied in matched sets and are used to isolate
engine vibrations and noise, see page 13 to page 24. If the engine is flexibly mounted, the exhaust and fuel
pipe connections must also be flexible.
Underbase/engine bearers
The simplest form of mounting is to rigidly bolt the engine and driven unit directly to an underbase or bearers.
It is essential that all mounting pads on the underbase or bearers are flat, square and parallel to each other.
Underbase or bearers should be designed so that the mounting pads will not distort in any way and have
sufficient rigidity to prevent deflection due to the weight of the engine and driven unit, vibrations and various
stresses when the engine is running.
Type of foundations
The engine room floor/foundation where the underbase/bearers are fixed is of great importance as it must:
! Support the static weight of the units and withstand any stresses or vibrations when the engine is running.
! Be sufficiently rigid and stable so that there will be no distortion which would affect the alignment of the
engine and driven unit.
! Absorb vibrations originating from the running units and prevent them being transmitted to the surrounding
floor and walls etc.
The engine should be aligned to the driven unit within the specified recommendations, using shims between
the engine and driven unit mounting feet and the underbase/bearers. The dimensions of the shims (or packing
pieces) should not be less than the mating area of the engine and driven unit mounting feet. At least two fitted
bolts (minimum quality 8.8 steel) must be used both in the engine and driven unit mounting feet. Where it is
not possible to use a fitted bolt, the mounting feet should be dowelled to the underbase/bearers using one
dowel in each foot at diagonal corners.
Subsoil-site
The site subsoil must have a bearing strength capable of supporting the weight of the complete set plus the
concrete foundation on which it will stand.
If the bearing strength of the subsoil is in doubt advice should be taken from a qualified civil engineer to enable
the type and size of concrete foundations to be determined.

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4000 Series 2
Ground Loading
Initial considerations include generator set weight and material supporting this weight.
The wet weight of the total package must be calculated. This includes accessory equipment and weight of all
liquids (coolant, oil and fuel) supported by the foundation.
Weights of liquids
Liquid kg/litre Specific gravity
Water/Glycol 1,02 1,030
Water 1,00 1,000
Lubricating Oil 0,91 0,916
Diesel Fuel 0,85 0,855
Kerosene 0,80 0,800

Material supporting the foundation must carry the total weight. The table below shows the load bearing
capabilities of common materials.
Load bearing capability (Safe bearing load)
Material lb/in2 kPa
Rock hardtop 70 482
Hard clay, gravel, coarse sand 56 386
Loose medium sand and medium clay 28 193
Loose fine sand 14 96,4
Soft clay 0-14 0-96,4

Firm, level spoil, gravel or rock, provide satisfactory support for single bearing generator sets used in stationary
or portable service. Use this support where the weight-bearing capacity of the supporting material exceeds
pressure exerted by the equipment package and where alignment with external machinery is unimportant.
Soil, such as fine clay, loose sand, or sand near the ground water level, is particularly unsuitable under
dynamic loads and requires substantially larger foundations. Information concerning bearing capacity of soils
at the site may be available from local sources and must comply with local building codes.
Continued

Installation Manual, TPD 1509E, issue 1 13


2 4000 Series
Area of load bearing support is adjusted to accommodate surface material. To determine pressure P exerted
by the generator set, divide total weight W by total surface area A of the rails, pads, or vibration mounts (A).
Pressure imposed by the generator set weight must be less than the load carrying capacity of supporting
material.
Where support rails or mounting feet have insufficient bearing area, floatation pads can distribute the weight.
The underside area and stiffness of the pad must be sufficient to support the equipment.
Seasonal and weather changes adversely affect mounting surfaces. Soil changes considerably while freezing
and thawing. To avoid movement from seasonal changes, extend foundations below the frost line.

P=W
A
Where: P = Pressure in kg/m 2 (lb/in 2)
W = Weight in kg (lb)
A = Area in m 2 (in 2 )

A D1005

14 Installation Manual, TPD 1509E, issue 1


4000 Series 2
Concrete base
Several basic foundations are applicable for generator sets. The foundation chosen will depend on factors
previously outlined as well as limitations imposed by the specific location and application.
Massive concrete foundations are unnecessary for modern multi-cylinder, medium speed, generator sets.
Avoid excessively thick, heavy bases to minimize subfloor or soil loading. Bases need to be only thick enough
to prevent deflection and torque reaction, while retaining sufficient surface area for support. None-parallel units
require no foundation anchoring.
If a concrete foundation is required, “minimum” design guidelines include:
! Strength must support wet weight of units plus dynamic loads.
! Outside dimensions exceed that of the generator set by a minimum of 300 mm (1 ft) on all sides.
! Depth sufficient to attain a minimum of weight equal to generator set weight (only if large mass, i.e. inertia
block, is specified for vibration control) (A).

W
FD =
DxBxL
FD = foundation depth, m (ft)
W = total wet weight of generator set, kg (lb)

D = density of concrete, kg/ft3 (lb/ft3)


B = foundation width, m (ft)
L = foundation length, m (ft)
Note: Use 2403 for metric units and 150 for English units.
Suggested concrete mixture by volume is 1:2:3 of cement, sand, aggregate, with maximum 100 mm (4 in)
slump and 28-day compressive strength of 20 MPa (3000 lb/in2).
Reinforce with No 8 gauge steel wire mesh or equivalent, horizontally placed on 150 mm (6 in) centres. An
alternative method places No 6 reinforcing bars on 300 mm (11.810 in) centres horizontally. Bars should clear
foundation surfaces by 75 mm (3 in) minimum.
When effective vibration isolation equipment is used, depth of floor concrete is that needed for structural
support of the static load. Major rotating and reciprocating components of generator sets are individually
balanced and, theoretically, have no imbalance. Practically, manufacturing tolerances and combustion forces
impose some dynamic loading on the foundation. If isolators are not used, dynamic loads transmit to the facility
floor and require the floor to support 125% of the generator set weight.
If generator sets are paralleled, possible out-of-phase paralleling and resulting torque reactions demand
stronger foundations. The foundation must withstand twice the wet weight of the generator set.

76mm 305mm 305mm

Foundation
Depth
A D1006

Installation Manual, TPD 1509E, issue 1 15


2 4000 Series
Fabricated steel base
Frequent relocation, initial installation ease, vibration isolation or isolating from flexing mounting surfaces, such
as trailers, are major uses for fabricated bases. Do not rigidly connect any base to flexing surfaces.
Bases maintain alignment between engine, generator, and other driven equipment such as radiator fans.
Engines with close-coupled single bearing generators maintain alignment by mounting rails or modest bases.
Two-bearing generators, generators driven from either end of the engine, tandem generators, or tandem
engines, require substantial boxed bases (A). Bases must incorporate sufficient strength to:
! Resist outside bending forces imposed on the engine block, couplings and generator frame during
transportation.
! Limit torsional and bending movement caused by torque reactions.
! Prevent resonant vibration in the operating speed range.
Due to thermal expansion, (cast iron 5,5 x 10-6 mm/mm/1.8 °C (5.5 x 10-6 in/in/1.0 °F)) engines may lengthen
by 2,3 mm (0.0905 in) from cold to operating temperature. This growth must not be restrained. On single
bearing generators, close clearance dowels or ground body bolts must not be used to limit thermal growth.
Single bearing generators requiring extremely close alignment, use a ground body bolt at the flywheel end on
one side of the engine. No other restraint is permitted.
Mounting feet of two-bearing generators can be dowelled without harm. Slight expansion within the generator
is absorbed in the generator coupling.

Single bearing
generator

Two-bearing
Light-duty base generator

Structurally rigid base


A D1007

16 Installation Manual, TPD 1509E, issue 1


4000 Series 2
Trenches
When designing the foundation block various other areas should be taken into account. Trenches, particularly
for heavy duty electrical cables need to be considered, bearing in mind provision for drainage to prevent the
trench filling up with water.
On the larger generating sets these cables have a large bending radius. It may be necessary to cut away part
of the concrete block so that a smooth sweep can be made (A).
Concrete raft
This type of foundation distributes the set weight of the concrete raft over a larger floor area than the fixed
concrete block. The unit loading on the subsoil is minimised and a reduced depth of concrete can be used.
With the sub-soil of hard clay or compacted sand and gravel a concrete thickness of between 380/450 mm
(14.960/17.716 in) is typical, but if reinforced by steel bars or steel mesh this would be satisfactory for even
the largest of the 4000 series engines.
Instead of pe-fitted ‘hook bolts’ the concrete may be drilled to take suitably sized RAWLBOLTS ® or a similar
fastening, device.

A D1028

Installation Manual, TPD 1509E, issue 1 17


2 4000 Series
Floating concrete block
The floating block is an effective alternative to the fixed concrete block.The concrete mix, holding down bolt
pockets, surface finish and installation of the set is the same. The block is pre-cast using a wooden mould.
To isolate and float the block a matting of water resistant cork-like material or similar proprietary material is
placed on the surface of the sub-soil at the bottom of the pit and the concrete block lowered on to it. The matting
should be adequate to support the weight of set plus concrete block, see Fixed concrete block.
An air gap of approximately 25 mm (0.984 in) should be maintained along all four sides of the block. The gap
at floor level must be sealed with a-non setting mastic or similar material to keep dirt and water but still allow
flexibility.
This method isolates the machinery and block and substantially reduces the transmission of vibration to the
surrounding floor, walls etc.
All services to the engine, fuel air and water pipes, exhaust system and electric cables must be fitted with a
flexible connection to prevent fractures and possible transmission of harmful vibrations. Transmission of
vibration may culminate as noise at a point remote from the engine.

18 Installation Manual, TPD 1509E, issue 1


4000 Series 2
Vibration
Mechanical systems with mass and elasticity are capable of relative motion. Engines produce vibrations due
to combustion forces, torque reactions, structural mass and stiffness combinations, and manufacturing
tolerances on rotating components. These forces create a range of undesirable conditions ranging from
unwanted noise to high stress levels and ultimate failure of engine or generator components.
Vibrating stresses reach destructive levels at engine speeds where resonance occurs. Resonance occurs
when system natural frequencies coincide with engine excitation. The total engine generator-system must be
analysed for critical linear and torsional vibration.
Linear vibration
Linear vibration is exhibited by noisy or shaking machines, but its exact nature is difficult to define without
instrumentation. Human senses are inadequate to detect relationships between the magnitude of vibration and
period of occurrence. A first order (1 x rev/min) vibration of 0,254 mm (0.010 in) displacement may feel about
the same as third order measurement of 0,051 mm (0.002 in).
Vibration occurs as a mass is deflected and returned along the same plane and can be illustrated as a single
mass spring system (A).
With no external force imposed on the system, the weight remains at rest and there is no vibration, but when
the weight is moved, or displaced and then released, vibration occurs. The weight travels up and down through
its original position until frictional forces cause it to rest. When external forces, such as engine combustion,
continue to affect the system while it vibrates, it is termed ‘forced vibration’.
Time required for the weight to complete one movement is called a period, (B).
Maximum displacement from the mean position is amplitude; interval in which the motion is repeated is called
the cycle.
If the weight needs one second to complete a cycle, the vibration frequency is one cycle per second.
If one minute, hour, day, etc were required, its frequency would be one cycle per minute, hour, day, etc. A
system completing its full motion 20 times in one minute would have a frequency of 20 cycles per minute (cpm).

Mass-Spring System

Position Of Weight (X) Amplitude

W
X
Spring At Rest
(Mean Position)
W Time
1 Cycle
Spring Extended

A D1012

Installation Manual, TPD 1509E, issue 1 19


2 4000 Series

Distance
Period
Peak
Acceleration
Upper Limit

Peak
Velocity
Neutral Position
Peak-To-Peak
Displacement

Lower Limit

TIme

B D1013

Establishing vibration frequency is necessary when analysing a problem. It allows identification of an engine
component or the condition causing the vibration.
Total distance travelled by the weight, from one peak to the opposite peak, is peak-to-peak displacement. This
measurement is usually expressed in mm’s; one mm equals one-thousandth of an inch 0,025 mm (0.001 in).
It is a guide to vibration severity.
Average and root-mean-square (rms) are used to measure vibration (rms = 0,707 times the peak of vibration).
These terms are referred to in theoretical discussions.
Another method to analyse vibration is measuring mass velocity. Note that the example is not only moving but
changing direction. The speed of the weight is also constantly changing. At its limit the speed is “0”. Its speed
or velocity is greatest while passing through the neutral position.
Velocity is extremely important, but because of its changing nature, a single point has been chosen for
measurement. This is peak velocity normally expressed in inches per second.
Velocity is a direct measure of vibration and provides the best overall indicator of machinery condition. It does
not, however, reflect the effect of vibration on brittle material.
Relationship between peak velocity and peak-to-peak displacement is compared by:
V Peak = 52.3 D F x 10-6
Acceleration is another characteristic of vibration. It is the rate of velocity change. In the example, note that
peak acceleration is at the extreme limit of travel where velocity is “0”. As velocity increases, acceleration
decreases until it reaches “0” at the neutral point.
Acceleration is dimensioned in units of “g” (peak) where “g” equals the force of gravity:
980 x 6650 mm/s2 = 386 in/s2 = 32.2 ft/s2.
Acceleration measurements, or “g’s”, are used where relatively large forces are encountered. At very high
frequencies (60,000 cpm), it is perhaps the best indicator of vibration.
Continued

20 Installation Manual, TPD 1509E, issue 1


4000 Series 2
Vibration acceleration can be calculated from peak displacement:
g Peak = 1.42 D F2 x 10-8
Machinery vibration is complex and consists of many frequencies. Displacement, velocity and acceleration are
all used to diagnose particular problems. Displacement measurements are better indicators of dynamic
stresses and are, therefore, commonly used. Note that overall or total peak-to-peak displacement, described
in the illustration C, is approximately the sum of individual vibrations.

C D1113

Installation Manual, TPD 1509E, issue 1 21


2 4000 Series
Isolation
Generator sets need no isolation for protection from self induced vibrations. They easily withstand any
vibrations which they create.
However, isolation is required if engine vibration must be separated from building structures, or if vibrations
from nearby equipment are transmitted to inoperative generator sets with isolation mounts between the
generator set and the base already satisfy these requirements. Running units are rarely affected by exterior
vibrations. Methods of isolation are the same for external or self-generated vibrations.
If no isolation is required, the generator set may rest directly on the mounting surface. Factory-assembled units
are dynamically balanced and, theoretically, there is no dynamic load. Practically, the surface must support
25% more than the static weight of the unit to withstand torque and vibratory loads. Unless the engine is driving
equipment which imposes side loads, no anchor bolting is required. This normally applies to all non parallel
generator set mountings. Thin rubber or composition pads minimize the units tendency to creep or fret
foundation surfaces.
Vibration is reduced by commercially available fabricated isolators or bulk isolators. Both techniques utilize
static deflection, with increased deflection resulting in greater isolation. Although internal damping of various
materials causes performance differences, the vibration chart (A) describes the general effect that deflection
has on isolation. By using engine speed (rev/min) as the nominal vibration frequency, magnitude of
compression on isolating materials can be estimated.
The unit can be separated from supporting surfaces by these ‘soft’ commercial devices, i.e. those which deflect
under the static weight. Mounting rails or fabricated bases withstand torque reactions without uniform support
from isolators.
Piping connected to generator sets requires isolation, particularly when generator sets are mounted on spring
isolators. Fuel and water lines, exhaust pipes and conduit could otherwise transmit vibrations long distances.
Isolator pipe hangers, if used, should have springs to attenuate low frequencies and rubber or cork to minimise
high transmissions. To prevent build-up of resonant pipe vibrations, support long piping runs at unequal
distances (B).

Basic Vibration Chart


10.0
8.0
6.0

4.0

2.0
60 81 90 95 99
Isolation
1.0 70 85 93 97 Efficiency %
.8
.6
Resonance
.4 Natural
Frequency

.2

.10
.08
.06

.04

.02

.01
100 200 400 600 800 1000 2000 4000
Vibration Frequency (cpm)
A D1014

22 Installation Manual, TPD 1509E, issue 1


4000 Series 2

A A A A Poor

A B C B Good

A ° B ° C ° D . . .etc.
B D1015

Anti-vibration mountings (AVMs)


The most effective isolators are of steel spring design. They isolate over 96% of all vibrations, provide overall
economy, and permit mounting of the generator set on a surface capable of supporting only the static load. No
allowance for torque or vibratory loads is required. As with direct mountings, no anchor bolting is usually
required.
However, when operating in parallel, vertical restraints are recommended and the isolator firmly fastened to
the foundation. Spring isolators are available with snubbers for use when engines are side loaded or located
on moving surfaces.
Adding rubber plates, beneath the spring isolators, blocks high frequency vibrations transmitted through the
spring. These vibrations are not harmful but cause annoying noise.
Rubber isolators are adequate for applications where vibration is not severe. By careful selection, isolation of
90% is possible. They isolate noise created by transmission of vibratory forces. Avoid using rubber isolators
with natural frequencies near engine excitation frequencies.
Fibreglass, felt composition and flat rubber, do little to isolate major vibration forces. The fabric materials tend
to compress with age and become ineffective. Because deflection of these types of isolators is small, their
natural frequency is relatively high compared with the engines. Attempting to stack these isolators or apply
them indiscriminately could force the system into resonance.

2 LAYERS OF RUBBER SANDWICHED


BETWEEN AND BONDED TO THREE
STEEL PLATES
FORMING A RETANGULAR
SECTION 2 PER MOUNTING

A D1033

Installation Manual, TPD 1509E, issue 1 23


2 4000 Series

LOAD NOT YET APPLIED TO MOUNTING


STEEL AND RUBBER BONDED MOUNTING IN FREE STATE WITH NO
SANDWICH SIMILAR DEFLECTION OF SPRING OR RUBBER
TO ILLUSTRATION 'P'

STEEL AND RUBBER BONDED


SANDWICH SIMILAR
TO ILLUSTRATION 'P'

RESILIENT PADS ACTING AS


SNUBBERS TO CONTROL
OVERLOAD CONDITIONS
B D1034

ADJUSTING SCREW

LOCK NUT
STEEL SPRINGS

CONTROL PADS

BRIDGE PIECE

SEATING PAD

C D1035

The concrete floor surface must be level and reasonably smooth. It must be capable of supporting the
generating set. The dynamic loads are relatively small and will have little or no effect on the foundation.
Mountings, with or without adjustment, can readily be selected to absorb up to 90% of the forces and reduce
the amplitude of the vibrations transmitted by the running set. No harmful vibrations will be transmitted to the
building structure or other equipment, if the correct mounting and foundation are used. The total weight of the
set should be equally distributed on each mounting so that a common mounting can be used. The requirement
will be 4, 6 or 8 mountings depending on the size of the set and the grade of mounting selected.
The adjustable mounting has the advantage that if the floor level and/or the loading is uneven, adjustment can
be made to each mounting so that the loading and deflection can be corrected at each mounting position. It is
also a safeguard against distortion of the underbase. Their are many reputable suppliers of Anti-Vibration
mountings and to obtain the most economical and effective mounting for a particular installation quotations
should be obtained from more than one supplier. If necessary they will supply installation drawings and in the
case of adjustable mounts, the method and degree of adjustment. It is recommended that the anti-vibration
mountings are bolted to the floor.
If other running machinery is sited nearby then vibrations from these units could be picked up by the stationary
generating set. These vibrations could have a harmful effect on the engine bearings and particularly on the
alternator shaft with its ball or roller bearings. The above mentioned anti-vibration mountings now work in
reverse and protect the stationary engine from external vibrations.
Anti-vibration mounts - mobile units
If the set is a mobile unit that will be towed by a vehicle special attention must be paid to the A.V. mounting
selection.
When towed over rough ground the set will bounce up and down. With ordinary mountings the rubber that is
normally in compression will be subjected to repeated extension and compression and the elements will fail.
To prevent this the mounting should incorporate steel rebound washers which will limit deflection to safe limits.
The suppliers will advise the correct type to use.

24 Installation Manual, TPD 1509E, issue 1


4000 Series 2
Mounting Method
The engine/alternator assembly may either be flexibly or rigidly mounted to the baseframe.
Solid mounting

W x L = (W1 x L1) + (W2 x L2)

Therefore: L = (W1 x L1) + (W2 x L2)

Total Weight W

(SEE ILLUSTRATION D)

SOLID MOUNTINGS
(AV MOUNTS UNDER BASEFRAME)
L2
L
L1

W x L = (W1 + L1) + (W2 + L2)


L = (W1 + L1) + (W2 + L2)
Total Weight W

D = =
D1011

Installation Manual, TPD 1509E, issue 1 25


2 4000 Series
Flexible mountings
It is important to use a specific type of flexible mounting, to ensure that the mountings are correctly loaded and
are suitable for restricting movement, torsional vibration and engine torque.
On engine/flywheel housing mounted alternator sets it is acceptable to use either a 4-point mounting system
or 6-point mounting system (A and B).
When fitting rear flexible mountings they should be positioned under the alternator mounting pads in a position
forward of the centre line of the alternator. The position should be calculated to ensure that the bending
moment at the joint face between the crankcase and the flywheel housing does not exceed
1356 Nm (1000.133 lbf ft) 138,2735 kgf m.

WL = (W1 X L1) + (W2 X L2) + (W3 X L3)

WL = W X L1 + W X L2 + W X L3
3 3 3

WL = W (L1 + L2 L3)
3

THEREFORE: 3L - (L1 + L2) = L3

(SEE ILLUSTRATION C)

FLEXIBLE MOUNTINGS - 4 POINT FIX


(AV MOUNTS BETWEEN ENGINE / ALTERNATOR & BASEFRAME)

4006 ENGINE

ALTERNATOR

BASEFRAME

FLEXIBLE MOUNTINGS

A D1008

26 Installation Manual, TPD 1509E, issue 1


4000 Series 2

FLEXIBLE MOUNTINGS - 6 POINT FIX


(AV MOUNTS BETWEEN ENGINE / ALTERNATOR & BASEFRAME)

4006 ENGINE

ALTERNATOR

BASEFRAME

FLEXIBLE MOUNTINGS

B D1009

FLEXIBLE MOUNTINGS
(AV MOUNTS BETWEEN ENGINE / ALTERNATOR & BASEFRAME)
W TOTAL WEIGHT
WL = (W1 x L1) + (W2 x L2) + (W3 x L3) L
WL = W x L1 + W x L2 + W x L3
COMBINED UNIT CENTER OF GRAVITY

3 3 3
WL = W (L1 + L2 + L3)
3
3L - (L1 + L2) = L3

DATUM POINT

W1 L1
W2 L2
W3 L3
C D1010

Installation Manual, TPD 1509E, issue 1 27


2 4000 Series
Drive arrangement
Flywheel and flywheel housing
Flywheels fitted to generating set engines are machined to an SAE standard. The relationship between the
flywheel and housing can be seen on each installation drawing contained in the Technical Data Sheet. The
following figures relate to the 4006-23 engine series:
Flywheel SAE 518 to suit 18" coupling
Housing size SAE 0
Dimension from housing face to flywheel spigot 15,7 mm (0.618 in)

The housing incorporates a facility for a twin starting option if required.


Correct torque figures - coupling to flywheel fixings
Care should be exercised to correctly tighten any fixings used for coupling the engine to the flywheel. The
following figures are recommended for the 4006 engine series:
SAE number Nominal Maximum Minimum
0 98 Nm (72.28 lbf ft) 98 Nm (72.28 lbf ft) 98 Nm (72.28 lbf ft)

28 Installation Manual, TPD 1509E, issue 1


4000 Series 2
Crankshaft end float
Warning! Failure to ensure that there is sufficient crankshaft end-float will result in serious damage to the
engine within a very short period of time.
It is important to ensure that crankshaft end-float is checked on the engine after the alternator has been fitted.
Failure to do so may cause damage to the thrust bearings and crankshaft in a very short time. This check is
equally important for single or twin bearing alternators.
The end-float must be within the following range of limits and must not be restricted by an end loading from the
driven system.
Engine Units End-float when new End-float with used bear-
ings
0,13 to 0,48(0.005 to
4006 mm (in) 0,53 (0.020)
0.019)

A dial test indicator (DTI) should be used to check the end-float. With the use of a suitable levering bar the
crankshaft can be moved backwards and forwards to record the total indicator reading which should be within
the above limits.
Out of Balance
During manufacture all rotating engine components are carefully checked for out of balance.
Warning! It is the responsibility of the set builder to ensure that the out of balance of any additional rotating
equipment is kept to a minimum.
Radiator Mounting
Radiators are supplied loose together with all the necessary pipes and fan guards required.
To protect the radiator from damaging vibrations, the recommended method is to rigidly mount the radiator to
the baseframe and to flexibly mount the engine.
Correct positioning of the radiator relative to the engine is important to ensure that the hoses used for air and
water pipes have adequate clipping area, that the fan to cowl relationship is maintained for correct airflow and
to avoid fan to cowl contact.
Engines fitted with close coupled alternators
It is essential that the flywheel counterbore (dia ‘A’) is concentric to the flywheel housing counterbore (dia ‘B’)
to a maximum eccentricity of 0,13 mm (0,005 in), to comply with S.A.E. standard S.A.E. J162a and S.A.E.
J1033, (see illustration A)
The engine should be offered up to baseframe and located by bolts through the engine feet and baseframe
mounting holes. These bolts should not be tightened up at this stage.
Next the distance (depth) between the rearmost machined face of the flywheel housing and face F of the
flywheel (dimension ‘X’) should be measured by means of a straight edge and rule, see illustration (A).
Two bearing alternators should now have the flexible coupling, and single bearing alternators the drive plate
fitted to the driven shaft. These should be fitted sufficiently just far enough so that dimension X, see illustration
(B) = dimension X, see illustration (A).
The alternator should now be offered up to the engine so that both drive disc and housing spigot engage at
the same time.
Firstly the bolts retaining alternator to flywheel housing should be started and tightened up straight away. Then
the drive disc to the flywheel bolts started and tightened to the correct torque. Finally, check with feeler gauges
the gap between engine and driven unit feet and baseframe mounting pads, insert shims where necessary,
and tighten the securing bolts to the correct torque.

Installation Manual, TPD 1509E, issue 1 29


2 4000 Series

FLYWHEEL HOUSING

CHECK THAT ALL FACES 'E' AND 'F', ARE

FLYWHEEL
PARALLEL AND CONCENTRIC WITH ONE
ANOTHER TO WITHIN A MAXIMUM RUNOUT
OF 0.005" (0,13MM).

B
FACE E

FACE F
A D1036

FLYWHEEL

DRIVE FLANGE

ALTERNATOR FRAME

± .0196
FACE G

(0.5mm)

CORNER OF DRIVE
D

FLANGE CHAMFERED
TO ENSURE GOOD FIT
INTO FLYWHEEL
RECESS

0.1564 4.05MM
0.1555 3.95MM
TOTAL END FLOAT

FLEXIBLE DRIVE PLATES (SINGLE BEARING)


FLEXIBLE COUPLING (TWO BEARINGS)
B D1037

30 Installation Manual, TPD 1509E, issue 1


4000 Series 2
Engines fitted with open coupled driven units
It is essential that the flywheel counterbore (dia ‘A’) is concentric with the flywheel housing counterbore
(dia ‘B’) to a maximum eccentricity of 0,13 mm) (0,005 in), to comply with S.A.E. J162a and S.A.E. J1033,
see illustration (A).
Firstly the engine and then the driven unit should be offered up to the baseframe, and located by bolts through
the mounting feet and baseframe mounting holes. These bolts should not be tightened up at this stage.The
driven shaft and flywheel should be checked for alignment by fitting dial test indicators as shown, see
illustration (C). In practice most people would prefer to check with one dial test indicator at a time, starting, with
indicator 2.
Alignment should be checked by rotating the driven shaft and observing the readings on the d.t.i.
Corrections to misalignment should be made as follows:
Radial misalignment as indicated by indicator 2
The object here is to get the flywheel and driven flange flat and parallel to each other. Radial misalignment has
two components, horizontal and vertical. The horizontal component will be shown by the d.t.i. readings at three
o’clock and nine o’clock, and is corrected by moving the tail of the driven unit towards the negative (widest
gap). The vertical component will be shown by the d.t.i. readings at 12 o’clock and 6 o’clock. If there is a
negative reading at 12 o’clock, then the tail of the driven unit is low, and should be shimmed until the reading
is correct. If there is a negative reading at 6 o’clock, then the then the tail of the driven unit is high, and shims
should be inserted at the front mounting point until a correct reading is observed.
Axial misalignment as indicated by indicator 1
This is to ensure that the flywheel and driven shaft are on the same axis (or centre line). Once again, this has
two components, horizontal and vertical. The horizontal components will be shown by the d.t.i. readings at
three o'clock and nine o'clock. This is corrected by moving the complete machine towards the negative
reading. The vertical component will be shown by the d.t.i. readings at 12 o'clock and 6 o'clock. If there is a
negative reading at 12 o'clock, then the driven unit is too low, and should be packed up with shims equally at
both front and near. If there is a negative reading at 6 o'clock, then the engine is too low, and should be packed
up with shims at both front and rear.
Finally, both radial and axial alignment should be checked again and adjusted if necessary. This should be
repeated until the alignment is observed to be correct, i.e. do not make an adjustment and presume that the
alignment has been corrected, always make a final check.
The installation alignment should always be as accurate as possible, to allow for foundation movement.
Note: Conical misalignment is a function of radial and axial misalignment and is not directly checked.
Holset RB coupling size Allowable installation misalignment
Axial (mm) Radial (mm) Conical (mm) Limit on
distortion W
0,45 0,3
0,1mm
2,15 mm mm 2.15 = 369 W
(0.0039 in)
(0.0177 in) (0.0118 in)
0,3 0,1
0,6mm
3,86-55 mm mm 3.86 - 5.5 = 369/465 W
(0.0236 in)
(0.0118 in) (0.0039 in)

Installation Manual, TPD 1509E, issue 1 31


2 4000 Series

FLYWHEEL

INDICATOR 1

INDICATOR 2

DRIVEN SHAFT

FACE E

FACE H

C D1038

32 Installation Manual, TPD 1509E, issue 1


4000 Series 2
Overhung weight of single bearing alternator
A single bearing alternator is bolted to the engine flywheel housing, and the rotor is supported at the rear by a
single bearing housed in the alternator frame. The front of the rotor is bolted to the engine flywheel and is
supported on the engine crankshaft rear bearing.
It is essential that consideration be given not only to the weight of the rotor to be supported by the engine
crankshaft, but also that the weight of the alternator be carried on the alternator feet.
Under no circumstances must the weight of the alternator be overhung from the flywheel housing.
There is a limit on the amount of weight that can be supported by specific engines, therefore it is important that
the type of single bearing alternator to be fitted to a particular engine is submitted to Perkins Engines Company
Limited, for approval.
A torsional vibration analysis will also be required to assure compatibility between the engine and alternator.
Engine Maximum Weight of all rotating
components (kg)
4006-23 1000

Torsional vibration, see “Torsional vibrations” on page 81.


Torsional vibration occurs as an engine crankshaft is twisted during the firing stroke of the engine and returns
to its correct position.
Note: To ensure the compatibility of the engine with the driven equipment including couplings, a theoretical
analysis is required. Failure to carry out this analysis can result in extensive damage to both engine and drive
train. The engine warranty may be invalidated if a satisfactory analysis is not carried out.
It is the responsibility of the engine installer to obtain the theoretical torsional vibration analysis.
Perkins Engines Limited will perform a torsional analysis for a fee.
Torque settings
Warning! It is essential that the correct length of screw or bolt is used. Insufficient thread may result in the
thread being stripped, whereas too long a thread may result in bottoming in a blind hole, or catching on
adjacent components.
Description Thread Torque
475Nm (350 Ibf
Engine feet to baseframe bolt M20
ft)
98Nm
Alternator to flywheel housing bolts M12 or ½” UNC
(72 Ibf ft)
64
Nm
Drive disc to flywheel bolts
M12 or ½” UNC (47 Ibf ft)
(coupling size 2,15)
M16 or 5/8” UNC 155
(coupling size 3,86)
Nm
(114 Ibf ft)

Installation Manual, TPD 1509E, issue 1 33


This page is intentionally blank
4000 Series

3
Engine room layout 3

Installation
Warning! Use correct lifting equipment. Do not work alone. Personal protective equipment must be worn.
When installing the engine and components in the restricted confines of an engine room care must be taken
that easy access is provided for carrying out routine servicing.
Installation and removal of various components:
! Cylinder heads
! Coolant pumps
! Timing case
! Starter and alternator
! Flexible mounting
Maintenance, inspection and replacement of parts:
! Lubricating oil filter
! Air cleaner
! Fuel filter
! Crankcase breather
! Dipstick
! Radiator filler cap and access for filling
Installation guidelines
1 Avoid plastic and other unsuitable materials for fuel piping and connections including galvanised pipes and
fittings.
2 Keep fuel lines away from hot exhaust pipes.
3 Insulate ‘dry’ exhaust systems, from outlet elbow onwards using heat shields, lagging and muffs over
flexible sections, and keep piping well away from woodwork.
Note: Dry engine exhaust manifolds and turbochargers must not be lagged.
4 Install a fire extinguishing system in the engine room.
5 Locate batteries in a separate vented compartment or box, with access for routine maintenance, keeping
length of starter cables as short as possible.
6 Make provision for draining the oil sump and fit a drip tray underneath.
7 Check that the entrance into the engine room is large enough to allow for the engine/alternator set to enter
and be removed.
8 Provide adequate lighting and power points.
9 Provide a lifting beam in the roof for maintenance.
10 Make provision for draining the engine cooling system.
11 Ensure that all rotating shafts are adequately guarded for safety purposes.

Installation Manual, TPD 1509E, issue 1 35


3 4000 Series
Initial considerations
When initially deciding on the size of the engine room the following aspects should be considered:
! Sufficient space is available to accommodate the power unit, the load bearing capacity of the floor is
suitable for the weight of the power unit, and that the ventilation facilities in the building are adequate to
cater for supplying air for engine cooling and aspiration.
! Access to the fuel supply and the water system.
! The exhaust emissions from the engine can be dispersed to the atmostphere without exceeding the
maximum back pressure.
! That suitable air intake filters and exhaust system can be accommodated within the engine room without
effecting the engine performance otherwise the engine may need to be derated or the filters and silencer
repositioned outside the room.
! If an existing building is to be used, that openings in the wall for intake and outlet louvre panels can be made
without affecting the structural strength of the building.
! Mechanical noises from the engine, together with exhaust outlet noise can be insulated by fitting
attenuating panels etc. especially when operating in a residential area.
Colour coding
Designation Colour
Water Grass green
Oils and diesel Brown
Gases Yellow ochre
Electrical services Orange
Waste water drainage Black
Condensate Grass green
Primary cooling Grass green
Hot water supply Grass green

36 Installation Manual, TPD 1509E, issue 1


4000 Series 3
Typical water cooled engine layout
A typical water cooled engine room layout (A), using a single generating set installation as an example.
It is essential that the hot air from the radiator is ducted outside the engine room and not allowed to re circulate
in order to keep the engine room temperature as low as possible for the engine to give the required
performance, see “Ventilation - engine room” on page 38.
Since the generating set is mounted on anti-vibration mountings it is essential that the exhaust silencer should
be supported from the roof, and that flexible bellows be fitted to isolate the engine from the exhaust.
The same comments apply for the hot air outlet ducting and any other engine/alternator connections, must be
of the flexible type, i.e. fuel pipes and electrical connections.The daily fuel tank is supplied with fuel from a bulk
tank house remote from the engine room.
Note: The fuel return from the engine must be piped back to the bulk tank and not the day tank to avoid
overheating, see “Bulk storage tank - daily service” on page 69.
The starter batteries are to be kept fully charged during idle periods by a mains powered charger, which may
be incorporated in the control panel.

LOUVRED PANEL
SILENCER & EXHAUST PIPE
MUST BE SUPPORTED BY ROOF

SILENCER & EXHAUST


PIPE LAGGED FLEXIBLE DUCTING

WALL
MOUNTED HOT AIR
CONTROL OUTLET
PANEL DUCTING

FLEXIBLE
BELLOWS
FUEL
FROM
BULK
TANK

BATTERIES ANTI-VIBRATION FUEL PUMP


MOUNTING
LOUVRED PANEL

A D1039

Installation Manual, TPD 1509E, issue 1 37


3 4000 Series
Ventilation - engine room
When a generator set with an integrally mounted radiator is installed in an engine room, the basic principal is
to extract hot air from the room and induce air at the ambient temperature outside the engine room with
minimum re-circulation, (B) for the most suitable position of the engine in relation to the walls of the building.
The object is to get cool air in at the lowest possible point, push it through the radiator matrix and then out of
the building. It unsatisfactory to position the set so that the radiator is adjacent to the opening in the wall.
When in operation some hot air will re circulate back into the radiator fan via the gap between the radiator and
the wall. This will lead to inefficient cooling and could result in over heating problems. The outlet opening in the
wall should have a ‘Free flow area’ about 25% larger than the frontal area of the radiator matrix and be of the
same rectangular shape.
A sheet metal or plastic duct is fixed to the opening frame using a flexible connection to the radiator duct flange.
The flexible section is particularly necessary when the set is mounted on a floating concrete block or anti-
vibration mountings.
The inlet air opening should also have a ‘Free flow area’ at least 25% larger than the radiator matrix.
With the design of inlet and outlet openings it must be remembered that the radiator fan has a limited total
allowable external resistance i.e. ‘inlet fan plus outlet from radiator’, this must not be exceeded or cooling air
flow be reduced.
The inlet and outlet openings will usually be fitted with a mesh grille louvres, noise attenuating panels or inside
and outside ducting. Whatever is fitted will promote resistance to air flow and it may be necessary to further
increase the opening area.

A D1040

Continued

38 Installation Manual, TPD 1509E, issue 1


4000 Series 3
Example
For a radiator matrix frontal area of 1,44 m2 the air outlet/inlet opening in the wall should have an area of 1,80
m2, if a grille is fitted then the opening should be increased to give 2,25 m2 (B).

1,2m ~1,34m

Approx

~1,34m
2
1,44m 1,44m + 25%
1,2m

2
=1,80m

RADIATOR MATRIX
FRONTAL AREA RADIATOR OUTLET OR INLET

GRILL AREA 80%


FREE AREA

1,8

1,5m
2
=2,25m
0,8

1,5m

AIR OUTLET OR INLET SIZE


TO ALLOW FOR GRILLE

1,5m
EFFECTIVE HEIGHT

AIR OUTLET OR INLET SIZE


TO ALLOW LOUVERED PANEL

B D1041

Continued

Installation Manual, TPD 1509E, issue 1 39


3 4000 Series
The large quantity of air moved by the radiator fan is usually sufficient to adequately ventilate the engine room.
Cool incoming air is drawn over the alternator which takes its own cooling air from this flow then across the
engine and air intake filter, (A). Air is pushed though the radiator matrix to the outside via the radiator fan where
there must be no obstruction to air flow immediately in front of the radiator outlet and to the deflectors, etc. This
is the best possible ventilation system although, in practice, the best is not always possible.
Illustration (C) shows the air inlet position high in the wall. This is acceptable if ducting directs the air to the end
of the alternator and has the advantage of preventing heated air from collecting near to the ceiling.
Illustration (D) shows the air inlet position in the high wall and at right angles to the fan air flow. This is wrong
and should not be considered. With this arrangement the cooling air will bypass the alternator and the engine
air intake filter with a resulting increase in operating temperatures unless load is reduced.
Where a high engine room temperature cannot be avoided the temperature of the induction air filters must be
checked and the load reduced, or the generating set derated, see “Derating” on page 85. Alternatively the
engine air filter(s) could be moved to an area of cool air and connected to the engine air intake manifold(s) with
pipe(s) of suitable diameter. The pressure drop through the pipe(s) and new air filter element(s) should not
exceed 18 mm Hg. Deration of power output may then be avoided.
If problems are experienced with radiator performance then Perkins Engines Company Limited, Applications
Department should be contacted, since modification of the installation may result in an economical solution.

RIGHT

C D1058

WRONG

D D1059

40 Installation Manual, TPD 1509E, issue 1


4000 Series 3
Ducting against prevailing wind
When positioning the air outlet opening attention must be paid to the direction of the prevailing wind.
All radiators supplied by Perkins Engines Company Limited, Stafford. have ‘pusher’ fans which force air
through the radiator matrix and out through the opening in the wall.
If the prevailing wind is blowing into the opening additional resistance will be put on the fan with a resulting
reduction in cooling air flow. Therefore, if possible the opening should be in a wall not affected by the prevailing
wind. If the above condition is not possible other methods may be considered, as follows:
(i) Outside ducting with the outlet being at 90° to the cooling air flow.
(ii) A deflector panel.
See illustrations (A and B).
Note: The width of the deflector panel will be between 30% to 40% wider than the opening ‘W’ as shown.

WIDTH OF 150 mm
RADIATOR

OUTLET LOUVRES

W LOUVRES
NOT
PREVAILING FITTED HERE
WINDS

DUCTING AGAINST
PREVAILING WINDS
A D1060

DEFLECTOR PANEL
AGAINST WIND

150 mm
W

2H 2

45°

PREVAILING
WIND 150 mm

H
B D1061

Installation Manual, TPD 1509E, issue 1 41


3 4000 Series
Ventilation - tropical conditions
To cater for tropical conditions it is quite common practice for the engine room to have open sides, or consisting
only of a roof with supporting columns (A).
This type of cover is not suitable for protection against driven rain, dust or sand.
Where multiple engines are installed in an open sided building it is imperative that partitions are fitted to
prevent the prevailing wind blowing the radiated heat from one engine into the next and so on. Allow access
for engine maintenance (B) or only enclose the side facing the prevailing wind.

A D1063

B D1057

42 Installation Manual, TPD 1509E, issue 1


4000 Series 3
Forced ventilation - engine room
Remote mounted radiator
When a remote mounted radiator is fitted, the ventilation of the engine room must be considered, as follows:
1 The exhaust system in the engine room must be efficiently lagged so that the radiated heat is minimal.
2 The best forced ventilation system is to use two electric motor driven fans one mounted in the wall next to
the generator end of the set, one pushing the air into the room. The other fan mounted in the wall next to
and above the engine is an extractor fan, taking hot air out of the engine room (A).
3 On the inlet air side ducting is necessary if the cooling air is not reaching the alternator and engine. The
duct directs the air to the alternator and across the engine to the extractor fan.
4 If a duct is not fitted when the inlet fan is at the high level the incoming cooling air will by-pass the generating
set and be extracted by the extractor fan without cooling the set.
5 If a large air intake opening can be accommodated and correctly positioned then the fan pushing air into
the room can be deleted.
6 The extractor fan will require adequate suction to overcome the resistance to air flow through the inlet and
outlet louvres and ducts (if fitted). It is recommended that the general temperature in the engine room is
maintained at a maximum of 38 °C (100.4 °F). Where the ambient temperature exceeds this figure then a
temperature rise of no more than 8 °C (46.4 °F) should be maintained above the temperature of the
incoming air.
7 Where the outside temperature is cold, say 10 °C (50 °F) the temperature rise in the engine room could be
as much as 28 °C (82.4 °F).
The quantity of the air required can be calculated from the following:
The temperature rise in the engine room is the most useful factor in calculating the required air flow. The
volume of air required to give a predetermined temperature rise is based on the following:

A D1064

Installation Manual, TPD 1509E, issue 1 43


3 4000 Series
Air flow required

TOTAL RADIATED HEAT


FOR COOLING =
W X CONSTANT X TEMPERATURE RISE

3
KW (TH)
M /MIN =
W X 0.0167 X RT OC

RT - RISE IN TEMPERATURE (OC)


kW (th) - TOTAL RADIATED HEAT
W - DENSITY OF AIR AT THE FAN INLET (Kg/M3)

Density of air at various temperatures


Temperature Kg/m3

o°C
1,30
(32°F)
5 °C
1,27
(41°F)
10°C
1,25
(50°F)
15°C
1,23
(59°F)
20°C
1,20
(6°F)
25°C
1,18
(77°F)
30°C
1,16
(86°F)
35°C
1,15
(95°F)
40°C
1,13
(104°F)
45°C
1,11
(113°F)
50°C
1,09
(122°F)
55°C
1,08
(131°F)
The total heat to be dissipated is the heat radiated from the engine, generator and any other source of heat in
the engine room. The radiated heat can be found in tabular form below.
Values for combustion air can be found in the relevant Technical data sheet.
Air flow for ventilation will be the total air flow for cooling plus the air flow for combustion.
Engine and (typical) alternator radiant heat to the engine room (kWt)
One hour rating and 25 °C ambient temperature
Alternator speed rev/min. Engine speed rev/min.
Engine 1500 1800 1500 1800
4006TAG1 36.2 31.4 43 46
4006TAG2 33.8 36.2 52 52
4006TAG3 39.8 37 56 59

44 Installation Manual, TPD 1509E, issue 1


4000 Series 3
Warning! None of the above figures should be used for heat recovery purposes.

Typical multiple engine installation


Generally multiple engine installations follow on the same lines as a single unit installation, each unit having
its own independent foundation and exhaust system, see “” on page 46.
Warning! The exhaust gas from a multiple engine installation must not be combined into a common exhaust
system as this can be very dangerous and could cause engine damage.
The exhaust silencer must be supported from the roof and the support brackets should allow for expansion of
the piping. A length of flexible pipe or bellows should be fitted between the engine exhaust outlet and the rigid
pipe work, especially if the generating set is mounted on anti-vibration mountings. The exhaust system must
be as short as possible and the number of bends kept to a minimum so as to exceed the appropriate engine
back pressure recommendations. Where conditions would cause the back pressure to be in excess of the
above recommendation then the size of the exhaust should be increased to suit.
Note: The exhaust should never go into a disused chimney unless the chimney has been checked for gas
leaks.
Ducting should be fitted between the radiator and the opening in the engine room wall to direct the air flow from
the engine room.The length of the ducting should be kept to a minimum to prevent back pressure exceeding
Perkins Engines Company Limited Stafford, recommendations, see Product Information Manual.
The daily fuel tank should be positioned as near to the engine as possible, and the bottom of the tank should
be at least level with the fuel inlet on the engine.
It is imperative that the fuel overflow return pipe is connected to the bulk tank to prevent overheating occurring
in the daily fuel tank, , see “Bulk storage tank - daily service” on page 69.

Installation Manual, TPD 1509E, issue 1 45


3 4000 Series

AD1065

D1065

46 Installation Manual, TPD 1509E, issue 1


4000 Series 3
Typical multiple engine installation (with remote radiator)
Installations vary so much depending on the building and the size of the engine room, it may be more
convenient to have a common single remote mounted radiator. In this case allowance must be made for any
loss in the water flow to the engine. By compensating for the loss by increasing the size of the piping to give
the required flow to each engine. The radiator being sized to suit, the water flows and heat dissipation from the
number of sets involved.
The engine room will need to be ventilated by fitting an electric motor driven wall mounted intake and extractor
fans to dissipate the radiated heat from the engine and alternator, page 44 illustration (A) and see table , see
“Typical multiple engine installation (with remote radiator)” on page 47. Should a common daily fuel tank be
used the capacity will need to be sufficient for the number of sets involved, and to avoid overheating of the tank
by the fuel returning from the engines injector overflow which should not exceed 58 °C (136.4°F), see “Fuel
supply systems” on page 67.
Starter batteries should be positioned as near to the starter motor as possible otherwise the size of the cable
may need to be increased. It is essential that the common fuel and cooling systems can be isolated to allow
the removal of one unit whilst the remaining units are still operating.

Installation Manual, TPD 1509E, issue 1 47


This page is intentionally blank
4000 Series

4
Cooling systems 4

Warnings!
! All exposed rotating parts and belt drives must be fitted with guards
! Hand protection must be worn when handling antifreeze
! Never top up coolant with engine running and allow to cool.

Coolant
Coolant mixture
Caution: The use of an inhibitor in soft water is not recommended owing to chemical reactions which will
result in corrosion within the cooling system.
The coolant approved for use in 4000 Series engines is a mixture of 50% heavy duty, commercially available,
ethylene glycol antifreeze and 50% clean soft water. The antifreeze must meet ASTM D5345 or ASTM D4985
specifications.
A 50/50 ethylene glycol antifreeze mixture gives protection against freezing down to -35 °C. A 60% glycol mix
gives protection down to -40 °C and should be used for Arctic conditions.
Propylene glycol antifreeze is an acceptable alternative to ethylene glycol but only in 50/50 mixture strength,
at which it will protect against freezing down to -29 °C.
Caution: Mixtures containing methanol are not approved.
If anti-freeze is not available, and the ambient temperature is not expected to fall below 10 °C, then clean soft
water, with 1% of Perkins corrosion inhibitor (part number 21825 735 - 1 litre), may be used. This ratio is
equivalent to 0,5 litres of corrosion inhibitor to 50 litres (11 UK gallons) of water. The use of this product should
be controlled in accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions.
Water quality
Soft water means de-ionised water, distilled water, rain water or water from a mains supply which has the
following requirements:
! Chlorides - 40 mg/l max, sulphates - 100 mg/l max, total hardness 170 mg/l max, total solids 340 mg/l max
and pH of 5.5 to 9.0.
! If in doubt consult the local water treatment and supply company.
! If soft water is not used, the coolant system may be affected by the formation of hard deposits which can
cause the engine to overheat. This is especially important for engines which have coolant added frequently.
Caution: The use of products which are not approved for the coolant system may cause serious problems.
Coolant mixtures with insufficient corrosion inhibitor can cause erosion and/or corrosion of coolant system
components.

Cooling airflow and ventilation


Complete cooling data, including minimum airflow etc., is available in the engine Technical Data Sheet.For
guidance on achieving the optimum cooling airflow and ventilation refer to, see “Engine room layout” on page
35.
Continued

Installation Manual, TPD 1509E, issue 1 49


4 4000 Series
General observations
For the satisfactory running of a diesel engine it is essential that the cooling system is efficient and of the
correct type for the installation being considered.
The most common system is the utilisation of an engine driven coolant pump to force coolant through the
engine oil cooler, engine coolant jackets, cylinder heads and the thermostat control unit.
The hot water from the engine then enters the header tank of a radiator, passes through the radiator tubes and
out to the suction side of the pump. A pressure of 0,5 to 0,7 bar is maintained in the system. Coolant passing
through the radiator is cooled by pushing air through the matrix by an engine driven fan.
To obtain extra power, the engine is fitted with turbochargers, the hot charge air delivered from the
turbocharger(s) is cooled before entering the engine cylinders.
! When the charge air is cooled by air an additional radiator is fitted between the normal water cooling
radiator and the fan. A common radiator fan pushes the air through each matrix in series. Large diameter
air pipes direct the hot charge air to the additional radiator, where the air is cooled and directed through
large bore pipes to the engine air intake manifolds. The cooling air goes through the charge air section first.
The 4006-23 engine are supplied either as electropaks or fan to flywheel. Work is currently going on to develop
an electric unit with a remote radiator.
Customers who obtain their own radiators must ensure that all radiated heat in the engine room is taken into
account.

Fan Performance
The fan performance must take into account the fact that, in an engine room installation, there will be
resistance in the air flow to the fan and in addition to that through the radiator matrix.
Extra resistance will be at the air intake in the engine room wall and air outlet after the radiator.
Radiators and fans supplied by Perkins Engines Company Limited, require air flows to cool engines on 110%
load or stand-by, whichever is the greatest, is more than adequate against the radiator matrix resistance only.
Further resistance can be applied until the air flow is reduced to the safe minimum to cool the engine. This
extra resistance can be determined and is known as ’The total allowable external resistance on the fan’, i.e.,
to the fan plus outlet from the radiator. Refer to the Technical Data sheets.

Filling the cooling system


Warning! The cooling system is pressurised. Do not remove the filler cap. Personal protective equipment
must be worn.
Note: The cooling system must be filled in accordance with the User’s Handbook.
The tank filler tube is extended into the tank for sufficient length to allow for the air space. On filling the system
add coolant until the level stabilizes at the bottom of the tube. A small hole 3mm dia: must be drilled in the filler
tube below the top so that pressures will be balanced when expansion occurs.
Remote Radiators
The height limit to which the radiator can be mounted above the engine is limited by the pressure to which the
coolant pump seal can stay on its seat against the static head when the engine is stationary.
The radiator top header should be no more than 7 meters above the engine coolant pump with the pressurised
make-up tank no more than 0,5 meters higher.
In all systems with remote radiators, with and without break tanks, heat exchangers, etc., the coolant pipe
diameters should at least equal the diameter of the fittings at the engine coolant pump inlet and top water outlet
pipe. Depending on the length of the pipe run to and from the engine and radiator number of bends, valves,
and pipe fittings, etc., the pipe size should be increased so that additional resistance to the flow is no more
than 20 kPa.

50 Installation Manual, TPD 1509E, issue 1


4000 Series 4
Draining the cooling systems
When draining the engine cooling system it is recommended that the external pipework fitted between the
engine and radiator must be isolated by fitting gate valves so as not to drain the whole system and lose the
antifreeze.

Cooling tower - or independent external water supply


When heat exchanger cooled engines are to be installed the heat exchanger supplied is suitable for secondary
water pressure up to 3.5 kg/cm2 or up to 8.75 kg/cm2 depending on the size of the engine and, in most
installations, a break tank will not be required (A).
With charge cooled engines the secondary cooling water goes through the charge air cooler first and then
through the heat exchanger (A). The pressure limitation is now the charge cooler. The maximum pressure
through the charge cooler is 1.8 kg/cm2 therefore the height of the cooling tower above the engine could be
no more than 15 metres. If the height and pressure is in excess of above figures refer to Applications
Department, Stafford, see (A) for:
Warning! The gate valve must always be open when the engine is running.
The power to drive the electric motor of the water pump can be taken from a mains supply, or from the output
of the main engine driven generator.

DIAGRAM SHOWS CHARGE


AIR SECTION AT THE SIDE
BUT COULD BE BETWEEN
THE ENGINE RADIATOR
AIR FLOW
AND FAN
COOLING MAY BE
FAN ASSISTED

COOLING TOWER
CHARGE COOLERS
ENGINE MOUNTED
HEADER AND
AERATION TANK

ENGINE PUMP
FRESH WATER
GATE
VALVE

HEAT EXCHANGER EXTERNAL


A B WATER
SUPPLY
ELECTRIC MOTOR
ENGINE MOUNTED
DRIVEN PUMP
A D1067

Air-to-air charge cooling


With air-to-air charged cooled engines the cooling of the charge air is done by a radiator section that is fitted
between the conventional engine water cooling radiator and the fan.
A single engine driven radiator fan pushes air through each section in series. The cooling air goes through the
charge air section first. The radiator is generally considered to be an integral part of the engine. Large diameter
air pipes are used between the engine and the radiator.
Installation Manual, TPD 1509E, issue 1 51
4 4000 Series
However, in conjunction with Perkins Engines Company Limited, Stafford. consideration can be given to a
limited remote mounting of the radiator.
On the standard engine the hot air from the turbine driven compressor (turbocharger) is piped to the radiator
section. The air passes through the radiator and is cooled to near ambient temperature by the fan air-flow
through the matrix. The cooled air is then piped to the engine air inlet manifolds.
Remote mounting will necessitate additional lengths of pipe and bends in the air cooling system.
The total pipe length must not exceed 5 metres.
New pipe lengths and bends should have flange connections to ensure permanently secure joints.
Where hoses are used then these should be double clipped and reinforced with steel sheathing. Metal straps
should be fitted across the hose and fixed to each pipe on either side of the hose.
Make sure all connections are air tight. Air leaks will reduce boost pressure and air flow and thus affect engine
performance.
A large amount of condensate collects in the air pipes and drain pockets must be incorporated at the lowest
point in each pipe run to and from the radiator. From the drain pockets pipe a permanent drain to waste. All
charge air radiators must be fitted with permanent condensate blow-off holes.
The water pipe and the pressurised make-up/vent system will be installed, see illustration (A), see page 45.
The radiator top header should not be more than 7 metres above the engine water pump.

52 Installation Manual, TPD 1509E, issue 1


4000 Series

5
Exhaust System 5
Warning! All exposed hot surfaces should be fitted with guards or, with the exception of exhaust manifolds
and turbochargers, lagged.
The primary function of the exhaust system is to pipe the exhaust gases from the engine manifold and
discharge them, at a controlled noise level, outside the engine room, at a height sufficient to ensure proper
dispersal.

Back pressure
Engines give optimum performance when the resistance to exhaust gas flow is below a certain limit. Starting
at the engine exhaust outlet flange the total exhaust system should not impose back pressure on the engine
greater than that recommended.
Excessive back pressure will cause a lack of complete combustion and deterioration in the scavenging of the
cylinders. The result will be loss in power output, high exhaust temperature and the formation of soot. The soot,
if oily, could also affect the turbine of a turbocharger. The oily soot would build up on the turbine blades, harden
and, as pieces of carbon break off, the turbine wheel would become unbalanced and cause damage to the
engine.
Maximum back pressure
The maximum exhaust back pressure figures can be found in the appropriate Technical data sheet.
For back pressure calculations, "Back pressure - exhaust system - calculations" on page 58.
Back Pressure is measured after and as close as possible to the turbo charger in a straight length of pipe.

Installation
The exhaust system should be planned at the outset of the installation. The main objectives must be to:
1 Ensure that the back pressure of the complete system is below the maximum limit.
2 Keep weight off the engine exhaust outlet elbows and turbocharger(s) by supporting the system.
3 Allow for thermal expansion and contraction.
4 Provide flexibility.
5 Reduce exhaust noise.
If the engine is on Anti-Vibration mountings or similar, there will be lateral movement of the engine exhaust
outlet flange when the engine starts and stops. A flexible pipe should therefore be fitted as near to the outlet
flange as is practically possible, A typical installation is shown in (A).
If relative movement is expected between the engine and the exhaust system it is important to incorporate
flexibility into the system as near to the engine as possible. Due to thermal expansion there will also be
movement in the exhaust pipe. The fitting of stainless steel bellows is one method used to alleviate this
problem.
As bellows only accept deformation parallel due to their longitudinal axis, the preferred method would be to
have an arrangement of two short bellows separated by a length of straight pipe 250-400 mm (9.842/15.747
in) long. The movement is then a small angular displacement in each of the bellows.

Installation Manual, TPD 1509E, issue 1 53


5 4000 Series

Hanger Brackets With


Clearance In Hoops To
Allow Longitudinal
Movement
Insulation Primary Silencer
Packing

Pipe Support

Flexible Pipe Exhaust Outlet


Closing
Plates

Condensate
Drain
A D1020

Flanges
The size of the exhaust outlet flange can be found in the General Arrangement drawing from the Applications
Department at Perkins Engines Company Limited.

54 Installation Manual, TPD 1509E, issue 1


4000 Series 5
Flexible element
Flexible pipe
The flexible pipe is constructed by winding and interlocking formed metal strip, including packing in the
process.
It is intended to be used with a slight deviation from straight as the flexibility is by relative movement at the
ends of the pipe at right angles to the longitudinal axis. It should never be used to form bends as it will lock
rigidly with no flexibility or freedom for expansion.
Flexible bellows
The flexible bellows have some degree of lateral flexibility and a fair amount of axial movement to take up
expansion and contraction (A).
When installing make sure the bellows are not extended on ‘free length’. It is better to install as per
manufacturers instructions.
If the exhaust system is long then it should be divided into lengths with one end of each Length fixed and the
other end having a bellows unit.

THE EXHAUST OUTLET CAN BE REACHED IN


ANY POSITION THROUGH 360

A-SUPPORT BRACKET, PIPE


SHOULD BE FREE TO MOVE
THROUGH CLAMP.

B-SUPPORT BRACKET, THIS


SECONDARY
SILENCER

CARRIES THE WEIGHT OF THE


UPPER HALF OF THE SYSTEM. THE.
BRACKET, IS NOT FASTENED TO IT.
B C-FLEXIBLE BELLOWS.

THE WATER DRAIN IN THE


SILENCER SHOULD BE AT THE BOTTOM.
DRAIN

PRIMARY
SILENCER

A D1070

Expansion
The expansion of one metre of pipe per rise in temperature of 100 °C (212 °F) is 1.17 mm (0.0461 in).
5 metres (236.22 in) of pipe having a temperature rise from 27 °C (80.6 °F) to 600 °C (1112 °F) will expand
(5.73 x 1.17 x 5) = 33.5mm (1.3189 in).
This expansion figure shows, by its size, how important it is to correctly plan the exhaust run if long life is
required.

Installation Manual, TPD 1509E, issue 1 55


5 4000 Series
Exhaust outlet position
The exhaust outlet outside the engine room must be in such a position that there is no possibility of hot gas
entering the cooled air inlet opening. If possible the outlet should be in the same wall as the hot air outlet from
the radiator, see "Installation" on page 53.
If the exhaust outlet terminates vertically a rain shield must be fitted. Usually the outlet pipe goes horizontally
through the wall with the underside of the pipe cut away at an angle. If directing the exhaust straight out causes
a directional noise problem then a horizontally fitted right angled bend would probably be a simple solution.

Multiple exhaust outlets


If more than one engine is being installed the exhaust from the engines must not be taken into the same flue.
Note: Each engine must have its own separate system and individual outlet.
The reason is that if one engine is stationary when others are running, exhaust gases with condensate and
carbon will be forced into the exhaust system of the stationary engine and then into the engine cylinders.
Obviously this would cause problems.
It may be considered that a flap valve in each exhaust line near to the flue could be the solution, however
exhaust carries carbon and soot deposits which will cause the flap valve to leak. The leak will not be detected
until the engine is in trouble. The best policy is to provide separate outlets.
Do not terminate the exhaust outlet into an existing chimney or flue that is used for another purpose. The
pulsations in the exhaust could upset the up-draught and create problems with other equipment that relies on
the up-draught.
Warning! There is also the risk of explosion due to unburnt gases.

Condensate drain
In all exhaust systems there is condensate due to gases cooling and differential temperature between the
gases and metal pipes, etc.
If this is ignored condensate could run into the engine, depending on manifold configuration, and bring
associated problems.
The exhaust system usually runs vertically from the engine outlet and it is advisable to fit a drain pocket at the
bottom bend. A small hole giving a permanent drain would clear the condensate but would allow a small
amount of exhaust gases to be blown into the engine room when the engine is running. If this is not acceptable
then a permanent open drain pipe should be taken to the outside of the engine room, see "Flexible bellows"
on page 55.

Lagging
The amount of heat radiated from the exhaust system can create problems with the radiator cooling and
ventilation and may lead to a larger radiator, pusher fan and extractor fan. These are costly items and the
cheapest and most practical solution is to lag the exhaust system that is inside the engine room. Heat
insulating wrappers which clip around the pipe are suitable, 25 mm (0.984 in) to 50 mm (1.97 in) is the usual
thickness and can be obtained in suitable lengths from specialist suppliers, see page 57.
Where pipe flanges or flexible bellows are to be lagged clip-on muffs can be used. The muffs are easily fitted
and will not prevent flexible units from doing their intended job.
A - clip-on insulation wrapper.
B - clip-on insulation muff.
Warning! Do not lag exhaust manifolds or turbo-chargers, to do so would lead to operating deficiencies and
very quickly cause failure of parts due to thermal stress.

56 Installation Manual, TPD 1509E, issue 1


4000 Series 5
A B

A D1071

Exhaust silencers
Silencers are used, as the name implies, to reduce the noise level emissions at the exhaust pipe outlet. In
general terms the silencer should be installed near the engine exhaust outlet flange or at the end of the system.
If the engine or generating set has acoustic treatment to reduce noise levels it is also necessary to ensure that
the exhaust silencers are capable or reducing exhaust noise to the same (or below) noise level being achieved
by the acoustic treatment, see page 75.
There are various types of silencers available as detailed below from different manufacturers.
! The first type is a re-active type silencer which has a series of baffles and perforated tubes and attenuates
a high degree of noise in the lower frequency bands. To a lesser degree noise in the high frequency bands
is also absorbed. This type of silencer is referred to as a primary silencer.
! The second type is a triple-chamber type. In the first two chambers initial low restriction expansion and
diffusion of the hot gas takes place with some attenuation of low frequency noise.

In the third chamber attenuation of the higher frequencies is achieved by the absorption principle.

This again is referred to as a primary silencer.


! The third type is what is known as a ‘straight through’ silencer and works on the absorption principle. The
silencer consists of an outer case with a perforated centre tube. The annular space between case and tube
is packed with heat resisting fibre glass, or similar material.
The exhaust noise is effectively dissipated by the packing through the perforations.
Resistance to exhaust gas flow is negligible and, in calculations for back pressure can be taken as a piece of
exhaust pipe the same length and bore size as the silencer.
This type of silencer is usually classed as a ‘secondary’ silencer and is normally at the end of the pipe system.
However, it could be used as a primary silencer if noise level standards are not critical.
Low load operation
Where engines are operated at reduced loads the effects of inefficient combustion may become evident as
slobber. To avoid this, and to ensure that the products of combustion are burnt off, operators should strive not
to allow the engine to be run at less than 30% load.

Local authority regulations - noise


Local Authorities can, and do, set down noise limits for the different areas that come within their jurisdiction.
The combinations and type of silencer to be used are best recommended by the silencer manufacturers who
should be brought into design discussions at an early stage.

Installation Manual, TPD 1509E, issue 1 57


5 4000 Series
Back pressure - exhaust system - calculations
The basic engine data required to calculate the back pressure in an exhaust system is shown in the Technical
Data Sheet against each engine type, i.e. The gas flow by volume and by mass at the appropriate temperature
for a given engine speed and power.
Basic engine - exhaust outlet size
On engines where twin exhaust outlets are standard an alternative single outlet adaptor is available on graphic
(A).
Engine Nominal bore (mm) of Alternative
exhaust outlet
Size Twin Single
All 4006 203 250

Transition Unit
For use in the pressure formula for equivalent length 'L'
L = 2D (MINIMUM)
D DIA:

D DIA:

Equivalent length (L) of pipe to 'D' diameter is a


function of diameter ratio D/d; plus the transition 'L'

D/d 1,05 1,10 1,15 1,20 1,25 1,30 1,35


L 1 x D 2 x D 4 x D 6 x D 9 x D 14 x D 21 x D

L
A D1072

58 Installation Manual, TPD 1509E, issue 1


4000 Series 5
How to use the information
Gas flow by volume (m3/min)
With this information the velocity through a certain pipe or silencer bore can be calculated using the following
formula:

VOLUME FLOW (M3/MIN)


GAS VELOCITY =
AREA OF PIPE IN M2 X 60
Having calculated the gas velocity and obtained the gas volume flow from the Technical data sheet for a single
exhaust outlet (where twin outlets are required the volume flow should be divided by 2) then, by referring to
the silencing equipment suppliers data sheets you will be able to determine the resistance to flow through the
silencer in mm Hg.
Gas flow by mass (m3/s)
Using this data the pressure drop through a given length of straight exhaust pipe can be calculated by using
the following formula:

L x S x Q2
P =
77319 x D5
P = BACK PRESSURE (Kpa)
Q = GAS FLOW (M3/S)
L = TOTAL EQUIVALENT LENGTH * STRAIGHT PIPE (M)
D = PIPE DIAMETER (MM)
S = SPECIFIC GRAVITY OF EXHAUST GAS (KG/M3)
Note: When bends are used in the exhaust system then pressure loss is expressed in equivalent straight
length of pipe, "Pipe bore millimetres" on page 60.
Adding the pressure losses through the silencers (or silencer) to the pressure loss through the pipe work will
give the total back pressure incurred by the exhaust system.
Caution: This must not exceed the figure quoted in the Technical Data Sheet against the appropriate engine
and rating.
Note: As a first time guide to the above calculations it is recommended that the pipe sizes shown on page 60
are used. (Not the nominal bore).
If a suitable system cannot be obtained with the diameter of pipe suggested it may be that increasing the
silencer bore one size would be satisfactory. If not, pipe sizes will also have to be increased. Transition units
as shown will be required, see (A) "Pipe bore millimetres" on page 60.
Where a single outlet is preferred to the standard twin outlets, a single outlet adaptor as shown will be required
see (B) "Pipe bore millimetres" on page 60.

Installation Manual, TPD 1509E, issue 1 59


5 4000 Series
Pipe bore millimetres
Engine Single exhaust Twin exhaust
Engine speed - rev/min Engine speed - rev/min
1500 1800 1500 1800
4006TAG1 250 250 200 200
4006TAG2 250 300 200 200
4006TAG3 250 300 200 200

Equivalent lengths of straight pipe


Flexible pipe: 2 x Actual length of flexible pipe.
Exhaust bellows: 2 x Actual length of bellow.

Transition Unit
For use in the pressure formula for equivalent length 'L'
L = 2D (MINIMUM)
D DIA:

D DIA:

Equivalent length (L) of pipe to 'D' diameter is a


function of diameter ratio D/d; plus the transition 'L'

D/d 1,05 1,10 1,15 1,20 1,25 1,30 1,35


L 1 x D 2 x D 4 x D 6 x D 9 x D 14 x D 21 x D

L
A D1072

Single outlet adaptor


For use in the back pressure formula

D = is single outlet diameter mm.


d = is turbocharger outlet diameter.
Q = is total exhaust gas flow (kg/s).
Q = is branch exhaust gas flow (Q/2) (kg/s).
Elbow length of free centre length of L1 and L2.

L1 L2

B D1073

Continued

60 Installation Manual, TPD 1509E, issue 1


4000 Series 5
Transition unit: see (A).
Single outlet adaptor: see (B).
90 Degree bend: 15 x Bore of pipe.
45 Degree bend: 6 x Bore of pipe.
Note: Ensure that if the diameter or length is expressed in millimetres you should divide by 1000 after you
have multiplied by the appropriate factor, as the unit of length in the pressure loss formula is in metres.
Equivalent length L of pipe to D diameter is determined by calculating as follows:
Measure the effective centre line length of one branch pipe from turbo-charger outlet to single outlet i.e. i1 and
i2 as shown, plus the equivalent length of bends in each plane i.e. 6 x d bend on i1 and 15 x d for bend on i2,
giving a total equivalent length L to d diameter.
Equivalent length L of pipe D diameter will be:
L = i x (q/Q)2 (D/d)5,33 = i/4 (D/d)5,33
Example
4008TAG2 (twin turbo-chargers) at 1500 rev/min using the proposed single exhaust system as follows:
(a) 1 x 127 mm flexible bellows.
(b) SE24N single exhaust outlet adaptor (127 mm inlet/254 mm outlet).
(c) 1 metre flexible pipe (254 mm).
(d) 254 mm primary exhaust silencer (Peco-Maxim).
(e) 1 x 45° bend.
(f) 3 m straight through silencer.
(g) 15 m straight pipe.
Gas velocity = 200,9 = 66,04 m/s
0.0507 x 60
Primary silencer pressure loss = 29,9 mm Hg.
Maximum allowable exhaust back pressure - 50 mm Hg. (Product Information Manual).
Exhaust system allowance = 50 - 29,9 = 20.1 mm Hg.
Since the 4008TAG2 is fitted with twin turbo-chargers we consider half of the system as for the single outlet
adaptor.
Check List Equivalent Lengths of Straight Pipes
(a) Bellows 0,102m (2 x 0,102) 0,204 m
(b) Adaptor SE24N effective length 0,200 m
90° bend 1,905 m
45° bend 0,762 m
Total Effective Length at 127 mm (d), i 3,071 m

Equivalent length in 254 mm (D) system


30,88 m
L = i/4 (D/d)5,33
(c) 1 m Flexible pipe 2,00 m
(d) Primary silencer allowance already deducted minus
(e) 1 x 45° Bend (6 x 0,254) 1,52 m
(f) 3 m straight through silencer 3,00 m
(g)10 m straight pipe 10,00 m
Total equivalent length L 47,4 m
From Back Pressure Formulae
Installation Manual, TPD 1509E, issue 1 61
5 4000 Series
Check List Equivalent Lengths of Straight Pipes
P = 47,4 x 1,5292 9
x 1187 x 10 = 20,0 mm Hg
2545,33
Therefore since this pressure is less than exhaust system allowance of 20,1 mm Hg. the proposed system will
be satisfactory.

Noise attenuation - exhaust


Warning! Always wear ear protection when working near a running engine.
The noise carried by the exhaust gas out of the exhaust manifold of a running engine is very loud and
objectionable to personnel. It could prove harmful over a period of time.
The great majority of the harmful noise is in the frequency range or 63 to 8000 Hz. The best choice of silencer
is the design that will attenuate most noise within that range. To assess the value of each type of silencer
described previously, and a combination of primary and secondary silencers, the following schedules show the
noise attenuating capacity of these type silencers when in the exhaust pipe line of a running engine.
Example
Add together dB values for the separate octave band frequencies take the first pair of figures e.g. at 63 and
125 Hz. The resulting figure has been adjusted in the following manner.
! If the dB values differ by 0 or 1 dB - add 3 dB to higher values.
! If the dB values differ by 2 or 3 dB - add 2 dB to higher values.
! If the dB values differ by 4 to 9 dB - add 1 dB to higher values.
When resulting value is obtained then this is paired with the third value at 250 Hz.

e.g. Hz 63 125 250


dB 79 74 79

Difference 5 dB
add 1 dB to 79 dB

80 And so on
Difference 1 dB
add 3 dB to 80

83

A D1074

The exhaust noise of a turbocharged engine running at 1500 rev/min was taken in a semi-reverberant field and
the octave band centre frequency analysis from 63 to 8000 Hz in decibels - dB - was as follows:

62 Installation Manual, TPD 1509E, issue 1


4000 Series 5
Engine noise level

Sound pressure level 63 125 250 500 1K 2K 4K 8K


113 109 113 109 106 100 95 104
Octave band centre freq. Hz
-23 -16 -9 -3 0 +1 +1 -1
Open exhaust dB
(A) Weighting 90 93 104 106 106 101 96 103
dB (A)
95
105
109
111
Overall level - 112 dB (A)
1 Metre from engine exhaust outlet flange 111
111
112
B D1075

Case 1. Consider typical reactive type silencer (C)


Case 2. Consider typical chamber silencer (D)
Case 3. Consider typical straight through silencer (E)

Sound pressure level


Octave band centre freq. Hz 63 125 250 500 1K 2K 4K 8K
113 109 113 109 106 100 95 104
Open exhaust dB 31 31 29 26 23 21 20 19
82 78 84 83 83 79 75 85
(A) Weighting -23 -16 -9 -3 0 +1 +1 -1
59 62 75 80 83 80 76 84
dB (A)
64
75
81
Overall level - 88 dB (A) 85
1 Metre from silencer outlet
86
Sliencer attenuation = 112 - 88 = 24 dB (A) 86
C 88 D1114

Sound pressure level


Octave band centre freq. Hz 63 125 250 500 1K 2K 4K 8K
113 109 113 109 106 100 95 104
Open exhaust dB 22 28 31 32 32 30 27 23
Silencer dB 91 81 82 77 74 70 68 81
(A) Weighting -23 -16 -9 -3 0 +1 +1 -1
68 65 73 74 74 71 69 80
dB (A)
70
75
78
Overall level - 83 dB (A) 79
1 Metre from silencer outlet
80
Sliencer attenuation = 112 - 88 = 24dB (A) 80
D 83 D1115

Installation Manual, TPD 1509E, issue 1 63


5 4000 Series
Sound pressure level
Octave band centre freq. Hz 63 125 250 500 1K 2K 4K 8K
113 109 113 109 106 100 95 104
Open exhaust dB 8 11 15 23 33 36 32 25
Silencer dB 105 98 98 86 73 64 63 79
(A) Weighting -23 -16 -9 -3 0 +1 +1 -1
82 82 89 83 73 65 64 78
dB (A)
85
90
91
Overall level - 83 dB (A) 91
1 Metre from silencer outlet
91
Sliencer attenuation = 112 - 88 = 24dB (A) 91
E 91 D1116

When including a primary and secondary silencer in the exhaust system a good approximation of the combined
noise attenuation is arrived at as follows:
At each centre band frequency, from the open exhaust noise level deduct the noise attenuation of the primary
silencer, then deduct the noise attenuation of the secondary silencer in the following ratio:
! 1/3 of listed dB up to 1 kHz frequency inclusive.
! 1/2 of listed dB above 1 - 8 kHz frequency inclusive.
Case 4. Consider typical reactive and straight through silencer (F).
Case 5. Consider triple chamber and straight through silencer (G).

Sound pressure level


Octave band centre freq. Hz 63 125 250 500 1K 2K 4K 8K
113 109 113 109 106 100 95 104
Open exhaust dB 31 31 29 26 23 21 20 19
82 78 84 83 83 79 75 85
Silencer dB (reactive)
3 4 5 8 11 18 16 12
Silencer dB (straight through) 79 74 79 75 72 61 59 73
(A) Weighting -23 -16 -9 -3 0 +1 +1 -1
dB (A) 56 58 70 72 72 62 60 72

60
70
74
Overall level - 77 dB (A)
76
1 Metre from silencer outlet
76
Sliencer attenuation = 112 - 77 = 35 dB (A) 76
F 77 D1117

Sound pressure level


Octave band centre freq. Hz 63 125 250 500 1K 2K 4K 8K
113 109 113 109 106 100 95 104
Open exhaust dB 31 31 29 26 23 21 20 19
82 78 84 83 83 79 75 85
Silencer dB (tripple chamber)
3 4 5 8 11 18 16 12
Silencer 6” bore dB (straight through) 79 74 79 75 72 61 59 73
(A) Weighting -23 -16 -9 -3 0 +1 +1 -1
dB (A) 56 58 70 72 72 62 60 72

60
70
74
Overall level - 73 dB (A)
76
1 Metre from silencer outlet
Overall level - 112 dB (A) 76
Sliencer attenuation = 112 - 77 = 35 dB (A) 76
G 77 D1118

64 Installation Manual, TPD 1509E, issue 1


4000 Series

6
Engine breather 6
Warning! Personal protective equipment must be worn when handling or cleaning the engine breather/
element.
All engines are fitted with a breathing system that prevents a build up of pressure in the crankcase. The build
up in pressure is caused by blow-by from the pistons. The fumes in the crankcase are vented to atmosphere.
The fumes contain contaminants from the combustion process and minute globules of lubricating oil. The
fumes will pollute the atmosphere in the engine room particularly if the radiator and fan are remote mounted.

Breather installation
Warning! Under no circumstances must the fumes be directed onto the fan intake. This could eventually
cause blockage of the matrix, resulting in poor engine performance and overheating. It is also a potential fire
hazard.
It is far better to pipe the fumes to outside the building (A).
Key
A) Breather assembly.
B) Separating tank, with drain tap C, can be positioned inside or outside the engine room.
C) Drain.
D) Breather fitted to end of pipe.
E) Flexible connection

Installation Manual, TPD 1509E, issue 1 65


6 4000 Series

E
Breather Installation

A. Engine Breather Outlet Connection


B. Downward Sloping Pipe, Less Than
5 Meters Long, with Minimum Diameter
of 50.8mm
C. Seperating Tank, Positioned Inside
or Outside Engine Room
B D. Drain Tap
E. Breather Fitted to End of Pipe

A D C
D1021

The pipe diameter should be equal or larger than the stem of the breather on the crankcase, depending on the
length of run.
With the engine running on full load the crankcase pressure should be no more than 25 kPa.

Breathing - points to watch


The breather fumes should never be piped directly to be digested by the engine air filters. Harmful
contaminants, including acids, would be circulated around the engine with long term harmful effects. In some
instances the fumes would have a detrimental effect on the air filter element.
However, should the engine be fitted with a crankcase emission absorber, in which case the contaminants will
have been removed, then the fumes from the absorber outlet can be piped into the engine air inlet.
In multi-engine installations, as with the exhaust system the breather pipe from each engine must have its own
individual run. If terminating in the same tank the fumes from a running engine could leak back into the
stationary engine.
The outlet of the breather pipe should not be sited in a position where fumes could be drawn into the cooling
air inlet stream.
If the engine is on anti-vibration mountings a flexible section should be fitted in the breather pipe near the
engine.

66 Installation Manual, TPD 1509E, issue 1


4000 Series

7
Fuel supply systems 7

Introduction
Engines operating on either diesel oil or spark ignited gaseous fuels can be supplied and in both cases it is
important that fuels to the correct specification are used.

Diesel fuel specification


Fuel should be a wholly hydrocarbon oil derived from petroleum with which small quantities of additives may
be incorporated for the improvement of ignition or other characteristics and should conform to BS EN 590 or
BS 2869:1998 class A2. If fuels are considered which do not conform to these specifications, the operator must
consult the Applications Department at Perkins Engines Company Limited, and ensure that the appropriate
grade of approved lubricating oil is used.

Diesel fuel systems


Warning! Personal protective equipment must be worn when filling the fuel tanks.
There are two basic systems for the installations of the fuel supply. The system chosen will depend on the
amount of fuel required per day and if the labour is available to carry out simple daily routine jobs.
Fuel tank - daily service
The tank is usually sized so that the usable fuel content will be 1000 litres. With a generating set having a full
load electrical output of 70 kW such an amount would last for 35/40 hours with a reserve of 10 hours
(approximately 25%). To avoid overheating of the fuel, a fuel cooler must be fitted.
In the case of the 4006-23 Series engine the minimum size of fuel tanks, without a fuel cooler being fitted
should be sized to avoid overheating of the fuel in the tank by the fuel returning from the engine as follows:
Engine series Fuel tank size
4006-23 7000 Litres

It is preferred that the fuel tank be installed adjacent to the engine on a stand or bulkhead. It is recommended
that the tank be so positioned that the maximum level of fuel be higher than the engine injector rail in order to
create a positive head and gravity feed to the engine.
Warning! Should the maximum fuel level in the tank be higher than 1,5m above the level of the injectors then
an isolating solenoid valve must be fitted in the fuel feed and so arranged to open on cranking with delayed
closure on shut down to prevent fuel starvation.
If the low level line of the tank is below the fuel inlet then it will be necessary to ensure that a fuel Iift pump is
fitted to the engine.
A fuel lift pump is fitted as standard. It is recommended that the lift pump is retained in the circuit. If in doubt
on this point contact the Applications department Perkins Engines Company Limited. Fuel tanks must have
connections for the following purposes:
! Tank filling
! Fuel feed
! Automatic feed (if required)
! Fuel return level gauge
! Float switches
! Sludge drain
! Air vent

Installation Manual, TPD 1509E, issue 1 67


7 4000 Series
! Dump valve
The tank is to be fitted with a vent pipe in the tank top, to equalise pressure, provide a filling point and to enable
a contents gauge or sight glass to be fitted.
The fuel supply must be taken from a position approximately 50 mm (1.9685 in) above the bottom of the tank.
This prevents settled sludge being drawn into the fuel supply.
A drain tap is fitted to drain the sludge.
At the fuel outlet from the tank a hand operated valve is fitted so that the tank can be isolated in an emergency
or for maintenance, etc.
In the pipework between the tank and the engine, a pre-filter/water separator should be fitted in case the
engine is not supplied with one.
Even if there is no water in the fuel as supplied when the fuel stands in a tank moisture collects from
condensation. Water in the fuel system - fuel pump, etc. causes rust, sticking elements and ultimate failure.
Warning! When auxiliary or day tanks are used there is a serious danger of aerating the fuel due to running
out or running low on fuel. The diesel system will then pick up aerated fuel from either the fuel return from
engine or incoming make-up fuel from the bulk tank.
For example a 4006TAG3 series engine fuel circulates at approximately 15 L/min through the engine from the
lift pump, consequently the day tank must incorporate chambers or weirs to ensure the fuel to the engine is not
of entrained air.
Note: If a fuel tank is required to be in the baseframe, a check valve must be fitted to the fuel line between the
fuel tank and the fuel lift pump. The installation of this valve is especially important when the engine is used as
a reserved installation to avoid the possibility of fuel drained back to the fuel tank when the engine idle (A).

Fuel Auxilary / Day Tank Position Engine Return


Connection

Fuel Lift Pump


Engine Inlet
Connection

Fuel Return
Line

Fuel Supply Line

Non return Valve


(Required if Fuel
Tank is Located
Below Fuel Lift
Pump)
A Weir in Fuel Tank
D1022

The consequences of aerated fuel are, poor starting, low power, high exhaust temperatures and cavitation
erosion within the unit injector (B).
The supply pipe is then connected to the engine. Fuel in excess of engine requirement is returned to the top
of the tank from the injector fuel return line (relief valve pressure is set at 275 kPa) (C).

68 Installation Manual, TPD 1509E, issue 1


4000 Series 7
The simplest method of filling the fuel tank is to fit a manually operated fuel transfer pump of the semi-rotary
type.
A flexible suction hose could be put into a barrel or barrels of fuel. A rigid supply pipe or flexible tube would
carry the fuel to the top of the tank (C).
Bulk storage tank - daily service
Large engines or multi-engine installations require a large amount of fuel per hour and to contain the fuel a
bulk storage tank is sited near to the engine room.
Inside the engine room a day tank is fitted similar to that described (C).

Vent cap - Locate away from flame or sparks


- fitted with 2 micron filter

Engine to tank (return line) - if fuel cannot


be returned to bulk tank

Baffle
Baffle

Auxiliary tank to
bulk tank line
(overflow line)

High fuel level Pump control float switch

Cleaning access
Sight glass

Auxiliary fuel pump

50 mm sediment
and water trap

Shut-off valve Drain valve

Bulk tank to auxiliary


tank to engine (supply line)
B tank (fill line) D1083

VALVE

WATER SEPARATOR

HAND PUMP

CONTENTS
BARREL OF FUEL GAUGE FUEL SUPPLY TO
DRAIN
TAP ENGINE
C D1084

It could be arranged for the day tank to be manually filled by operating valves and using gravity to transfer the
fuel from the bulk tank. However, to ensure that the day tank is regularly being filled, even through a night run,
it is usual to have the transfer of fuel done automatically (D).

Installation Manual, TPD 1509E, issue 1 69


7 4000 Series
The bulk tank fuel outlet is fitted with a hand-operated, preferably lockable, fuel valve. This is followed by a
water separator. The size of the separator can be determined from the amount of fuel that will be flowing
through. From the separator a suitably sized pipe - taking into account bends, fittings and length of pipe - is
taken to the engine room and connected to a fuel transfer pump driven by an electric motor. The delivery pipe
from the pump is taken to the top of the day tank. The overflow pipe from the day tank returns to the top of the
bulk tank.
The bulk tank is fitted with a manhole for cleaning purposes, a dial contents gauge, filler, dip-rod (in case the
contents gauge fails), drain valve and an overflow to be collected into, for example, a fuel barrel.
The bulk tank is mounted on plinths which are constructed to give the tank a downward slope away from the
supply end (D). When used with a bulk tank the day tank differs from that described in (D). Two float switches
are required. One will operate and signal the ‘Low Level’ of fuel in the tank and the other to operate and signal
the ‘High Level’ of the fuel in the tank.
With the total system care must be taken with the vent on each tank. Make sure that, in case of a fault in the
system which allows the electric motor driven pump to run on, fuel cannot come out of the vents. Ensure the
height of the vents are adequate.
Note: For the 4006-23 engines the return fuel from the engine must be directed back to the bulk tank not the
day tank to avoid overheating the fuel if the capacity of the day tank is less than the minimum
recommendations, see page 67.
When the system is complete and piped up make sure that all joints and connections are tight. It is possible
for air to get into engine supply lines through a faulty connection without a fuel leak being visible.
Fuel is drawn from the bulk tank and pumped into the day tank via the electric motor driven fuel transfer pump.
When the level of the fuel in the day tank picks up the ‘High Level’ float the switch operates and the electric
motor is stopped.
The engine uses fuel and when the Iow level is reached the ‘Low Level’ float falls, the switch is operated and
the electric motor starts and pumping begins again.
With automatic systems it is prudent to have a stand-by circuit in case of malfunction. In this case a ‘stop/start’
push button could be incorporated - against level switch failure - and, in case of motor failure, a by-pass
manually controlled gravity feed from the bulk tank. The degree of stand-by systems will depend on the
importance of the availability of output.

OVERFLOW MANHOLE OVERFLOW


VENT VENT FLOAT SWITCH
PIPE COVER PIPE
FILLER DIP-ROD

BUND HIGH LOW


LEVEL LEVEL

ELECTRIC
BARREL FUEL
DRAIN SUPPLY WATER MOTOR DRAIN
FOR SUPPLY TO
VALVE VALVE SEPERATION DRIVEN FUEL TAP
OVERFLOW ENGINE
D TRANSFER D1085

Fuel lift pump


The 4006-23 engine uses a rotary fuel lift pump which has a maximum suction lift of 2.5 metres, and details of
the size and position of the connections are shown on the general arrangements drawings.The limit of the
external pressure head is 69 kPa.
If the fuel tank is below the lift pump i.e. baseframe mounted tank, then a non return valve should be fitted in
the supply line to ensure fuel cannot drain back to the tank and cause starting difficulties.

70 Installation Manual, TPD 1509E, issue 1


4000 Series 7
Local authority regulations - fire hazard, etc.
The local authority, which has jurisdiction over the area where the bulk tank and engine room will be sited, must
be contacted about pollution and fire prevention requirements.
Local regulations may require self-closing valves on the bulk and day tank supply lines. These valves may be
triggered by a fusible link or plug melting with the heat generated by a fire.
Smoke detectors may also be required. The area under the bulk tank may require a bund built round the tank
of sufficient area and height to safely contain the total contents of the bulk tank in case of accident or damage.
From the access point of view, as well as meeting Health and Safety at Work requirements, the tank should
have a fixed ladder, platform and catwalk along the length of the tank, all with handrails.
Fuel tank - material
Fuel tanks are normally constructed from steel sheet. Stainless steel or aluminium (for day tanks) could be
considered but galvanised steel should not be used. Flaking of the galvanising coat can take place with the
particles clogging filters. Also there is a chemical reaction with sulphur in the fuel that creates a sludge-like
substance.
Piping
Use piping suitable for the transfer of diesel fuel and of a size corresponding with the connections on the
various components of the fuel system. Install the pipework necessary for the integration of the components
as a complete system. The size and position of the connections on the engine are shown on the engine
arrangement drawing. To minimize the damage due to vibration, flexible piping should be used when
connecting rigid connections on the engine with other rigid connections.

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4000 Series

8
Lubricating oil systems 8
Warning! Personal protective equipment must be worn when filling the sump with lubricating oil.
The lubricating oil used on the engine test is drained from the sump before the engine is dispatched.
It is important that, when filling the sump, that lubricating oil of the correct specification is used, and that it is
not contaminated.

Lubricating oil recommendations


The quantity, grade and type of oil to be used are stated in the appropriate engine User’s Handbook or refer
to the relevant Technical Data Sheet.

Standard lubricating oil system


The oil in the standard sump must be changed at regular intervals, refer to the relevant User’s Handbook,
therefore access to the dipstick, drain plug and oil filler must be allowed for routine servicing to be performed.
Access will also be required if the sump is to be removed.

Extended running oil system


To extend the servicing interval on unattended engines to coincide with the normal oil change interval (refer to
the relevant User’s Handbook) the sump oil capacity can be increased by fitting a make-up tank. The make-
up tank should be positioned on a stand along side the set and the outlet connection on the tank must be at
least 0.3 metres above the inlet connection on the ‘REN’ valve. The standard oil level in the sump is maintained
by supplying oil from the make-up tank, the oil flow from the tank being controlled by a ‘REN’ valve. Refer to
the relevant Workshop Manual.
It is important to prevent losing the oil in the make-up tank, when changing the sump oil that an isolating tap is
fitted between the tank, outlet connection and the ‘REN’ valve. The make-up tank oil level should be checked
and topped up at the same time as the sump oil is changed.
A typical extended running oil system (A).

VENT
ISOLATING
FILLER
FLEXIBLE TAP
PIPES

MAKE-UP
TANK

'REN VALVE'
ANTI-
VIBRATION
A MOUNTING D1086

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4000 Series

9
Sound insulation 9
Warning! Personal protective equipment must be worn when working in an engine room.

Noise level
Noise levels are measured in decibels (dB) through a frequency range of 31.5 to 16,000 Hz and at each octave
band centre frequency i.e. 31.5, 63, 125, 250 Hz etc. The human ear is responsive to noise levels in the
frequency range of 63 to 800 Hz. The noise level in dB can be weighted A, B, C and D to suit different
requirements. The accepted norm is the ‘A’ weighting as such an overall noise level closely reproduces the
response of the human ear. The most commonly accepted readings are ‘Sound Pressure Level’.

Noise source
A running engine produces mechanical noise: valve gear, fuel pump etc, combustion noise, noise from
vibration, noise from air induction and from the radiator fan, if fitted.
Noise level readings of the engine are available. Refer to the relevant Technical Data Sheet.
Should additional noise reduction be required this can be achieved by acoustic treatment. If the acoustic
treatment reduces the mechanical noise levels as quoted in the above noise level readings then the fan and
induction noise need not be considered.
Providing a canopy around the engine is relatively economical and gives good results. From a position 1 metre
from the canopy an overall reduction of 10 dB(A) can be achieved. Sound attenuating canopies need to be
expertly designed to be effective, and would advise that companies with acoustic treatment experience be
consulted.

Recommendations to contain noise


In an engine room installation where outside noise levels have to be controlled the following factors must be
considered:
Building Construction
! Outside walls - should be double brick-with cavity.
! Windows - double glazed with an approximate gap of 200 mm (7.8739 in) between panes.
! Doors - double door air-lock or single door with a wall built outside the door as a noise
barrier to absorb and reflect noise when the door is opened.
Ventilation
! The air inlet for engine combustion, air cooling air and the air outlet from the radiator
fan or extractor fan should be fitted with noise attenuating splitters.
! These are proprietary items and should be discussed with the manufacturer. Ensure that
the splitters do not restrict airflow thus putting excess resistance on the fans.
! With the amount of cooling air required on the larger engines the splitters are of generous
proportions and the building should be adapted so that they fit correctly.
Anti-Vibration Mountings
! The engine should be mounted on anti-vibration mountings to prevent vibrations being
transmitted to the walls, other pieces of equipment, etc. These vibrations often generate
noise, see Anti-Vibration Mountings.

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9 4000 Series
Exhaust silencing (See Exhaust section)
! Attention to the foregoing could lead to a noise attenuation of 30/35 dB(A) from inside to
1 metre outside the building, provided that top quality inlet and outlet attenuators and
exhaust silencers are used.

‘Free’ & ‘semi-reverberant field’


If the noise “escaping” from the engine room emerges into a ‘Free field’ area then, a good approximation of the
decaying noise level is that doubling the distance reduces the noise level by 6 dB(A).
For example: at 1 metre - 70 dB(A).
Distance (metre) Noise level (dB(A))
1 70
2 64
4 58
8 52

However, the area around the engine room may include other buildings or reflective surfaces to make it into a
‘Semi-reverberant field’.
In a ‘Semi-reverberant field’ the decay is more likely to be approximately 3 dB(A) per doubling of distance.
Once clear of the semi-reverberant field the figure of 6 dB(A) can be used in the ‘Free field’. For example:.
Distance (metre) Field Noise level (dB(A))
1 semi-reverberant 70
2 “ 67
4 “ 64
8 free field 58

With these simple approximations the noise paths can be assessed at, for example, a residential area 100
metres from the noise source.

Sound proof canopy over engine


So far the object has been to contain the noise in the engine room. If the room is unmanned, or only
occasionally worked in for short periods, this could be acceptable.
If the room is manned and perhaps used for other purposes then it would be economic to enclose the engine
set in a canopy with inlet cooling air being directed into the end of the canopy and the radiator fan pushing air
through the set mounted radiator, ducting and the outlet splitter.
Lining the canopy with glass-fibre or mineral rock wool and faced with perforated board would absorb some
mechanical noise. This is the same principle as used in a straight-through exhaust silencer.
Such a canopy would control the noise level so that working in the engine room would not cause discomfort to
the operators. An added advantage would be that the area outside the engine room would be much quieter (A).
if a canopy is used, the breathing system of the engine should be modified to take the fumes outside the
canopy and, if necessary, outside the building. This will prevent the radiator matrix from becoming clogged.
When in an area where the noise level is important, remember it is possible that another noise source may
give a background noise greater than the engine noise. If there is a problem ensure that readings are not being
influenced by other noise sources. The engine installation may not be at fault. Check with the local authority.

76 Installation Manual, TPD 1509E, issue 1


4000 Series 9
BAFFLE
TO
SEAL CANOPY LINED WITH
END SOUND ABSORBING

ATTENUATING SPLITTER
MATERIAL
AIR INTAKE NOISE
AIR OUTLET NOISE ATTENUATING
SPLITTERS

ENGINE AIR
FILTER INTAKE

A D1087

Multiple engine noise level


In a multiple engine installation using the same type of engine the maximum noise level will increase above
that for a single engine installation as shown in the Technical Data for the respective engine in the Product
Information Manual.
Using a single engine as the datum point the maximum noise level can be taken from the Technical data sheet.
Add the additional noise level (A), depending on the total number of engines to the single engine noise level.
Continued

Installation Manual, TPD 1509E, issue 1 77


9 4000 Series
Example
The maximum noise level for a single 4006TAG3 engine running at 1500 rev/min is shown as 111 dB(A) at
position 5. When the total number of engines is 3, the maximum noise level will be 111 + 4.8 = 115,8 dB(A),
(A and B).
Note: If the precise position for each engine in a multiple engine system is known, a more accurate evaluation
of the maximum noise level can be made. Generally, this will slightly lower than the maximum value obtained
above.

dBA

10•

ADDITIONAL
8•
NOISE LEVEL

6•

4•

2•

0•
2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
NUMBERS OF ENGINES

A D1088

ENGINE No 1 ENGINE No 2 ENGINE No 3


B D1089

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4000 Series

10
Air intake 10
Warning! All exposed air intakes to engine must be fitted with guards.
The air into the engine for combustion must be clean filtered air at the lowest temperature. Under normal site
conditions the standard duty type air cleaner will filter out approximately 99% of the fine dust content down to
15 microns. When the engine is operating in dusty/desert conditions a heavy duty type air cleaner is required
to give the same filtration of the air into the engine.
This is achieved by adding a further stage of filtration to the standard duty air cleaner in the form of a pre-
cleaner. The pre-cleaner by cyclonic action takes out the heavier dust particles leaving the fine dust to pass
on to the next stage of filtration (A).
Dry air cleaners are fitted, oil bath air filters are not recommended as it is difficult to control oil pull-over on
turbocharged engines. Oil bath cleaners still permit adequate air flow to reach the engine when oil is used up
and replaced with dirt.

A D1090

Air restriction indicator


When the air cleaner filter elements are clean the resistance to air flow is approximately 200/250 mm H 2 0.
As the restriction increases in service the restriction indicator will signal by showing red that the element must
be changed for a new one, refer to the relevant Workshop Manual.

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10 4000 Series
Should the temperature of the air intake in the engine room be higher than the outside ambient temperature,
then the air cleaner must be arranged via intake ducting/piping to draw the air from outside the engine room.
Where noise level is also to be taken into consideration the ducting/piping from the standard air cleaners
mounted on the engine, should be connected to an intake splitter mounted in the wall of the engine room.

Remote mounted air cleaner


The additional noise splitter and ducting / pipework will increase the resistance to air flow. The additional
resistance to air flow plus the initial restriction of the engine mounted air cleaner should be kept at 250/300 mm
H2O by increasing the size of the air filters and piping, so as not to reduce the servicing interval, see
Maintenance Schedule.
Should the engine mounted air cleaner be replaced by a remote mounted combined air cleaner/intake splitter,
then the total resistance to air flow should be sized to give the same as the engine mounted cleaner i.e. 200/
250 mm H2O.
The weight of the ducting and piping between the remote mounted air cleaner and the turbocharger intake
should be independently supported, since this weight must not be carried on the turbocharger, see illustration
(A). A flexible length of piping should be included in the pipework to isolate the engine vibrations (A).

AIR CLEANER

FLEXIBLE LENGTH

INTAKE SPLITTER
SUPPORTS

DUCTING/PIPING

A D1091

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4000 Series

11
Torsional vibrations 11
Warning! Under no circumstances must the engine be run when excessive vibration of the power unit is being
experienced. The engine must be stopped immediately and the cause investigated.
The information below explains the importance of a T.V. analysis being done long before the time comes for
putting the engine and driven unit together. Following the introduction of BS5514 the onus of ensuring torsional
compatibility has switched to the generating set manufacturer.

Critical speed
When fitting driven equipment to an engine, particularly single and twin-bearing alternators, it is very important
to investigate the Torsional Vibration system of the complete unit. Torsional vibrations occur in any rotating
shaft system.
At certain speeds in the engine running range these vibrations may be of sufficient magnitude and frequency
to fracture the engine crankshaft and flywheel bolts, strip teeth off gear wheels, damage flexible couplings and
driven equipment. The point in the speed range where any of the above hazards can occur is called the ‘critical
speed’.
The object of the torsional analysis is to locate the critical speed points from the magnitude and frequency of
the disturbing forces and ensure that damaging critical speeds are outside the operating range of the engine
and that all is clear within +10% to -5% of the synchronous speed.
There may be some critical speeds in the speed range from starting speed to 95% of synchronous speed but
these could be judged as “safe” because the critical speed is passed through in a second or so.
However, if by application the requirement is an ‘All Speed’ range then all critical speeds have to be controlled
within safe limits.

Critical speeds – corrective methods


If there is a problem with critical speeds the position of the critical speed can be moved and its magnitude
reduced in various ways. The first area to consider modifying would be the stiffness of the flexible coupling. If
it has rubber elements a different stiffness of rubber could be selected.
If a spring plate drive or spring type flexible coupling was used it may be necessary to change to a different
type.
Other solutions could be to change the inertia of the engine flywheel, fit a torsional vibration damper or, if one
is fitted as standard, remove it or fit a damper of different inertia and different damping capabilities.
Occasionally, usually with a single bearing machine application, a tuning disc is required at the free end of the
crankshaft.
It can be seen that if there is a problem many avenues can be explored to arrive at a satisfactory solution. It is
very rare that the alternator shaft has to be modified.
To wait and ‘see what happens’ could prove a very expensive exercise. Even if there was no immediate
breakdown there could be costly site modifications and an inevitable delay in commissioning.

Installation Manual, TPD 1509E, issue 1 81


11 4000 Series
Torsional analysis data
Following the introduction of BS 5514, the onus for ensuring that the torsional vibrations of the engine
generator mass elastic system are satisfactory has switched from the engine builder to the generator set
manufacturer. This service can be supplied by Perkins Engines Company Limited, upon request.
For a torsional vibration analysis to be performed, the following essential information should be made
available:
1 Engine rated power and speed, operating range and overspeed.
2 Speed/torque characteristics of driven equipment.
3 Equivalent dynamic system of all driven parts. If this is unavailable the following data will enable this to be
calculated:
! Drawings of all rotating parts.
! Inertias and dynamic flexibilities of flexible couplings.
! The inertias of generator fans, rotors and excitors cannot be extracted from drawings, and inertia figures
are therefore important for these parts. The position of each inertia component, its attachment point, and
method of attachment to the shaft should be indicated.
! For single bearing alternators, number and thickness of the drive plates, together with details of the fixings
attaching them to the shaft hub. For two bearing alternators, define the position of the flexible coupling on
the alternator shaft.
! Two bearing alternators rarely present problems, provided that the coupling is the recommended type. The
design of shafts for single bearing alternators varies considerably. Torsional vibration analysis is therefore
essential to determine whether the alternator is compatible with the engine at the required engine speed.
Note: Perkins Engines Company Limited, have made torsional analysis for numerous engine/alternator
combinations and will advise whether a particular combination has been approved, on request.
For the genset manufacturers who wish to conduct their own T.V.A (Torsional Vibration Analysis) the mass/
elastic system information can be seen on the following page.
Continued

82 Installation Manual, TPD 1509E, issue 1


4000 Series 11
Perkins 4006-23 diesel and gas engine mass/elastic system
Configuration -in-line 6
Location Inertia Stiffness Shaft Diameter
(from non-driving kgm2 MNm/Radian min O/D max I/D
end)
Adaptor 0.353 4.624
Cyl. row 1 0.508 6.000 118.07 0.0
Cyl. row 2 0.297 6.000 118.07 0.0
Cyl. row 3 0.508 6.000 118.07 0.0
Cyl. row 4 0.508 6.000 118.07 0.0
Cyl. row 5 0.297 6.000 118.07 0.0
Cyl. row 6 0.594 9.011 118.07 0.0

Flywheel 4006-23 all builds - inertia added after rear most cylinder inertia in table above.
Part No Inertia Output flange
6SE250L/1 6.022 kgm2 18” SAE

T.V. (Torsional Vibration) damper standard fitments, inertias added to Adaptor inertia in table above - other
alternatives may be used subject to T.V. analysis.
4006-23 TAG1A TAG2A TAG3A
Part No 921/43
Inertia 1.5857 kgm2
Type 457072single 18
Siesmic inertia 1.5510 kgm2
Effective inertia 1.5857 kgm2
Damper surface area 0.3332 m2

Additional engine information Units


Cylinder bore 160.0 mm
Crankpin Radius (1/2 stroke) 95.0 mm
Connecting rid length 336 mm
Engine Capacity 22,921 litres
Number of cylinders 6
Reciprocating mass/cylinder 10.14 kg

Firing Order 1 5 3 6 2 4
Firing angle after T.D.C (Top Dead
0o 120o 240o 360o 480o 600o
Centre)

Crankshaft rotation is clockwise viewed from the non-driving end.


Note: inertia valves are for GR2

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4000 Series

12
Derating 12

Derating engine
Derating means reducing of the power output of an engine from its maximum rating at normal temperature and
pressure conditions to allow for adverse effects of site conditions e.g. altitude and ambient temperature.
The engine is factory set to meet ISO 3046 standard conditions:
Ambient temperature 25 °C (at the air inlet) 77°F
Barometric pressure 100 kPa
Conversion figure 100Kpa 1 bar
Atmosphere 110 metres

Should the site conditions exceed the above conditions then the engine must be derated in accordance with
the respective engine derating procedure.
Note: The maximum ambient temperature is the temperature that can occur during any day of the year
according to records.
Should the actual site conditions be known before despatch then the engine will be derated at the factory, and
a label attached to the engine to that effect.
Derating Procedure
The derating procedure is as described in the respective engine operation manual, together with the derating
charts.
Note: The power stated on the test certificate is the maximum power to be derated by the percentage derate
figure obtained from the respective derate chart.

Derating alternator
The derated power from the engine is the figure to be used when comparing the derated output from the
alternator. The output from a generating set needs to be derated when the site conditions exceed the
temperature and pressure conditions as those stated above for the engine.
Typical derating factors to be applied to the maximum alternator rating are as follows:
Ambient temperature (°C) Typical derate (%)
Up to 40 0
45 4
50 8.5
52 11
55 13.5

Altitude (metres) Typical derate (%)


Up to 1000 0
1500 4
2000 7.5
2500 11
3000 16

Total derating factor for the alternator is obtained by adding together the derate percentage for both
temperature and altitude conditions.

Installation Manual, TPD 1509E, issue 1 85


12 4000 Series
After derating the alternator, check that the derated alternator capacity (check with supplier) is still equal to or
in excess of the derated engine power.

86 Installation Manual, TPD 1509E, issue 1


4000 Series

13
Starting, stopping and protection systems 13
Warning! Always fit an emergency stop button to ensure the engine can be stopped in the event of a
malfunction.

Starting systems
There are several ways of starting an engine, the most common forms being by an electric or air motor(s)
rotating the crankshaft via a gear drive.
The startability of the engine depends on the speed the crankshaft rotates before sufficient compression heat
is generated to ignite the fuel.
Under cold starting conditions the cranking speed can be reduced drastically by the change in the viscosity of
the lubricating oil. Hence the reason that the correct grade of lubricating oil must be used, to suit the site
ambient temperature conditions, see Lubricating Oil Recommendation in the appropriate Engine Operation
Manual. To keep the cranking speed high and the cranking time low it is essential that the batteries or air
receiver(s) are kept fully charged.
Electric starting
The electric starter motor(s) is operated either manually or automatically from a 24 Volt (DC) battery supply.
The battery capacity being determined by the ambient temperature in which the engine is to operate. Inrush
and cranking current is specified on the relevant Technical data sheet.
Starter cables
The size of the starting cables (battery/starter and starter/battery) based on a 6 m length and stranded copper
wire are:
Engine type Cable length (mm2)
4006-23 70

Air starting
The air starter motor is operated either manually or automatically from a compressed air supply. The working
pressure at the starter motor is 30 bar. The receiver should be sized to give up to 6 starts under normal starting
conditions down to a minimum pressure of 17 bar.
The size of the receiver is estimated as follows:

Ar X NS
= RC
dP
Rc = Receiver capacity
Ns = Number of starts
dP = Differential pressure
Ar = Free air requirement per start

NOTE: (Ar) For the 4006 = 450 litres


Based on the GALI type A25.
The air receiver should meet BS specification and be fitted with a safety valve, pressure gauge and manual
drain valve.

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13 4000 Series
Batteries
Warning! Personal protective equipment must be worn when topping up or changing electrolyte in the
battery, and never near a naked flame.
The batteries should be mounted as near to the starter motor(s) as possible, to keep the cable length short
and minimize the voltage drop.
The chosen position should allow for easy access for inspection and maintenance, and isolation from fire
hazard and vibrations.
Before installation ensure that the manufacturers instructions regarding the initial commissioning of batteries
are strictly adhered to.
Battery Installation
Polarity check
Make sure that the positive of the battery is connected to the positive connection of the system and the
negative of the battery to the negative connection.
Caution: When coupling the batteries in series to give a higher voltage make sure that the positive of one is
connected to the negative of the next battery.
Clean Connections
Clean the connecting terminals well before fitting on to the battery. Dirty or corroded terminals will cause bad
contact to the battery and may result in affecting the starting current.
If the terminals are corroded, wipe over the affected parts with a solution of sodium carbonate or ammonia, dry
off and finally smear over a film of petroleum jelly to prevent further corrosion. Make sure that the sodium
carbonate solution or ammonia does not enter the cells.
Fitting into Battery Housing
When fitting the battery, ensure that it is secure without undue strain. The cables to the battery must have
sufficient length and be flexible to prevent pulling and strain on the battery terminals. In clamping down, ensure
that the clamps and bolts are not over tightened, otherwise the battery container may be damaged. Bolt the
terminal connections tightly to the battery posts.
Inspection
The battery should be so installed that inspection and topping up is facilitated. The top of the battery and the
surrounding parts should be kept clean and dry and free from oil and dirt. The maximum possible ventilation
should be given, this is particularly important when the battery is in close proximity to the engine, leading to
high battery temperature.

Battery charging alternator


Warning! Do not run engine with batteries disconnected as damage to the alternator may result.
The battery charging alternator and its regulator operate as a system to maintain the battery in a charged
condition when the set is running. Operation is such that a flat battery will be charged in a minimum time and
a healthy battery will be held in that condition by a trickle charge.
Note: For details of engine charging circuits refer to the engine operation manual.

Battery charger
The battery is normally charged by an engine driven alternator, which as long as the engine is running will give
sufficient charge to fully maintain the battery capacity to cater for standard starting conditions. Under extremely
cold starting conditions it may be necessary to increase the capacity of the battery.
An engine may be fitted with a static charger to replenish the battery when the engine is not running. This
charger should be of the automatic float charge type fed from mains voltage.

88 Installation Manual, TPD 1509E, issue 1


4000 Series 13
Where an engine is fitted with both an engine driven alternator and a static charger a relay must be fitted to
disconnect the static charger when the engine is running.

Starting aids
Jacket Water Heater(s)
In extreme cold ambient temperature conditions, besides changing to the correct grade lubricating oil, the
engine may be fitted with a mains supply jacket water immersion heater(s), see Technical Data Sheet or the
appropriate Engine Operation Manual for recommended size of heater(s)). Fitting a jacket water heater(s)
caters for easier starting by keeping the engine water temperature between 25 - 50 °C (77 - 122oF).

Starting loads
When starting the engine it is recommended that the drive equipment be unloaded to make for easier starting
of the engine only, and allow the engine to accelerate up to full speed and develop the rated power, before
applying the load.
The above conditions are not always possible on driven equipment such as water pumps, compressors, stone
crushers which could be on load from start-up. This type of driven equipment should be fitted with either a
centrifugal clutch which can take-up the drive when the engine is developing sufficient power to coincide with
the power required.
Load acceptance
In the case of a generating set the load that can be applied to the engine in one step at rated speed is limited.
The load acceptance is stated in the individual engine technical data sheet as percentage of the full rated load.
To achieve the above load it is essential that the engine is kept at its normal working temperatures by fitting
heaters, and that the correct grade of lubricating oil is being used, see appropriate engine Operation Manual.

Stopping
The engine should be run for 3 minutes at normal speed on no load before stopping, to allow the engine to
cool down adequately.

Protection system
To protect the engine from damage that could be caused by the following:
High water temperature
Low lubricating oil pressure
Overspeed,
The engine is fitted with suitable switches which, when a pre-determined setting is reached, operate the stop
solenoid which will switch off the engine.

Air shut-off valve


Air shut-off valves may be fitted to provide positive shut-down protection against engine and alternator damage
in the unlikely event of engine overspeed, due to governor malfunction, or any other cause such as
combustible vapours being present in the intake air. Under such conditions the engine may overspeed in the
vapour and air mixture even if the fuel is shut off.

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4000 Series

14
Digital Electronic Governor 14

Introduction
The 4006-23 engine is fitted with a Heinzmann Pandaros digital speed governor for improved performance and
functionality. This document gives an overview of the governor system and details of customer interface
requirements.
The control system consists of the control unit, the actuator, the set point adjusters, the sensors and the
connection cables. The actuator is connected to the engine injector linkage to control the amount of fuel
injected.

The control unit is engine mounted within an IP55 enclosure.


Outline of System

G O VER NO R STAT US
R U N ST AT U S
CAN CO M M U N ICA TIO N
D C-
C - D ESK D ISP LA Y S
G O V ER N O R ER R O R S

A CCE SS O R IES
• Stop / run
• Sy nchro nising
• Load s ha ring
• V olta g e m atching
• R e active load s hare
• Spe ed ram p
• Load ra m p
L ap top co m pu ter • Soft load tra nsfer
• Isochronous ram p
• Pow er fa ctor set
• M ains p a ra llel

Actuator • Island p a ra llel


• Group sy nchronising
• D ig ita l p ow er control

A D1119

Installation Manual, TPD 1509E, issue 1 91


14 4000 Series
Description of System
The electronic control unit is the heart of the system. At the core of the control unit is a powerful 16 bit
microprocessor. The actual controller programme on which the processor operates is permanently stored in a
FLASH-EPROM. The control unit compares the actual engine speed as measured by a magnetic pick-up on
the flywheel with the desired speed and drives the actuator and hence the fuel input to the engine so that the
actual engine speed matches the desired engine speed.
Engine boost pressure is measured and used to control fuelling for optimum performance and minimum
smoke.
Additional inputs are available for engine temperature measurement, to give fuelling control against engine
temperature and for connection of additional automatic load sharing and synchronising equipment.
A PC programme with special interface cable is used for initial setting of the governor parameters and system
optimisation and fault finding.
A CAN bus is available for connection to digital load sharing and synchronising equipment and future
monitoring of the system.
If a sensor or the actuator is at fault, an alarm is issued and there will be an engine shutdown. Internal errors
get detected also and they will be stored as all other failures. All failures can be read out with an external PC
or laptop computer.
To optimize the dynamics for every operating point, the PID parameters are corrected in dependence of speed,
temperature and load by means of stability maps. Proportional, Integral and Derivative gain values can be
modified from the service tool.
An overspeed point is programmed into the governor. If this point is exceeded, the governor will issue an alarm
and the actuator will fully pull to the stop position.
Note: An external overspeed protection device must always be used in addition to the internal overspeed.

92 Installation Manual, TPD 1509E, issue 1


4000 Series 14
Specification of Governor system
Supply voltage 24 V DC
Min. voltage 9 V DC
Max. voltage 33 V DC
Max. ripple voltage max. 10% @ 100 Hz
Current consumption max. 11 A for max. 60 Seconds
Permissible voltage dip at maximum current consumption max. 10% at control unit
Fuse protection of governor 15 A
Current consumption of whole governor:
Iin steady state condition approx. 1 A
On change of load approx. 3 - 4 A
Max. current approx. 4.5 A
In current limitation approx. 2.5 A
EMC Directives
89/33/EWG, 95/54/EWG
ISO 11452-2: Frequency band F2, 60 V/m
Functional status B
ISO 7637-2: Frequency band F2, 60 V/m
Functional status B
ISO 7637-3: Frequency band F2, 60 V/m
Functional status B
VDE 0879-3: Severity Level 4
CE: EN 50081-2, EN 50082-2
All inputs and outputs are protected against reverse-voltage and short circuit to battery plus and minus.
Analogue inputs may be set to 0-5volts, 4-20mA or +/- 3volts in software
Digital input engine stop U0 < 2 V, U1 > 6.0 V,
Digital output failure lamp Isink < 0.3 A

Installation Manual, TPD 1509E, issue 1 93


14 4000 Series
Configuration
As dispatched from the factory, the engine will be configured in accordance with the Customers requirements
determined from the Sales Order Process. The factory configurations are:
Speed
1500 Rev/Min, 1800 Rev/Min or switchable 1500/1800 Rev/Min
Droop/Isochronous
The default configuration will be isochronous operation. If the engine has been requested to run in droop, the
desired percentage droop will also have been set.
External Speed Control Input
Single generator fixed speed
The default configuration is for an engine to operate in single generator mode i.e. not paralleled with
any other generator. This mode has no provision for external speed control, speed will be fixed at 1500
or 1800.
Single generator variable speed
This mode allows the loadshare input to be used with an external 5K potentiometer for manual
speed setting control. Note in this configuration, an external speed setting control MUST be connected
to enable the engine to run.
Parallel generator, Heinzmann LSU/Sync
This provides for connection to standard Heinzmann analogue load sharing and synchronizing units
and the connections for this are designated A3, B3 and E3 as detailed below.
A3 Common connection
B3 Synchroniser input
E3 Load sharer input
In this configuration, the necessary load sharing/synchronizing inputs MUST be
connected to allow the engine to run.
Parallel generator other LSU/Sync
This configuration will be determined from discussion with the genset builder and is available to special
order only if agreed by Perkins. The inputs may be +/- 3 volt, 0 to 5 Volt, 0 to 10 volt or 4-20mA for
speed/load control. In general, it will be the OEM responsibility to set the necessary parameters for
this mode, with the service tool.
Note: Any other configuration changes require the use of the Service Tool and special communications cable.
Refer to the details below and Service Tool manual for information on other configurable parameters.

94 Installation Manual, TPD 1509E, issue 1


4000 Series 14
Changing the governor configuration
In order to change the engine governor configuration, it is necessary to use the Perkins 4000 Series Service
Tool and special communications cable. The communications connector is accessible inside the governor box.
A security ‘Dongle’ is also supplied which must be plugged into the PC parallel port before the software will
work.
The various parameter settings for the above engine modes are detailed below.
Note: After changing some parameters, it is necessary to ‘Store parameters in governor’ and then power the
governor down and power up again before the changes take effect.
Speed
The service tool configuration screen is shown below.

A D1163

Single generator fixed speed


If the Generator Mode option button ‘Single generator fixed speed’is selected, the engine will run in
isochronous mode at a fixed speed of 1500 or 1800 rev/min or be switchable between these speeds.
For single speed 1500 rev/min operation, parameter number SpeedFix1 is used to set the engine speed
For single speed 1800 rev/min operation, parameter number SpeedFix2 is used to set the engine speed
For switchable 1500/1800 rev/min operation, parameter SpeedFix1 is used to set 1500 rev/min and parameter
SpeedFix2 is used to set 1800 rev/min.
Note: There may be hardware changes between 1500 rev/min and 1800 rev/min engines so these parameters
must not be changed without reference to the factory. Any unauthorised changes will result in the engine
warranty being void.
If the box LockedSwitchOn is ticked, the engine will be single speed, the speed being selected by the
SpeedFix1Locked or SpeedFix2Locked option buttons.

Installation Manual, TPD 1509E, issue 1 95


14 4000 Series
If the box LockedSwitchOn is not ticked, the engine is switchable speed from an external switch. When the
engine speed of 1500 or 1800 is selected, various parameters such as overspeed settings are automatically
adjusted to suit the selected engine running speed. The current overspeed setting is displayed on the screen
but cannot be changed.
Single generator variable speed
Droop
For manual parallel operation, droop mode is required with engine speed capable of being varied for
synchronising and load sharing. This mode is selected by setting the Generator Mode to ‘Parallel generator
variable speed with droop'.
When operating in droop mode, the following parameters must be set:
Droop Set to required percentage droop - there are separate droop settings for 1500 and 1800 rev/min, the
1800 rev/min settings being labelled Droop2.
DroopRefLoTo set this parameter, with the governor powered up and the engine running at no load, read
parameter ActPos from the Speed Governor - Adjustment tab as shown below and enter this value into
parameter DroopRefLo.
DroopRefHi To set this parameter, with the governor powered up and the engine running at full load, read
parameter ActPos and enter this value into parameter DroopRefHi.
Setting DroopRefLo and DroopRefHi in this way ensures that the percentage droop set is accurate.
DroopSpeedRef Set this parameter to the nominal running speed of the engine i.e. 1500 or 1800 rev/min.
The analogue input which will be used for the external speed control must now be set up. To do this, select the
Configuration - Load Control tab. The following screen will be displayed.

A D1164

ADC1 This parameter enables selection of the type of analogue input required. The setting are:
1 For 0-5 volt input
2 For 0 to 22.7 mA input
96 Installation Manual, TPD 1509E, issue 1
4000 Series 14
3 For 0 to 10 volt input
For external speed control from a 5K potentiometer, select 0 to 5 volt.
AnalogIn1_RefLo
This sets the lowest value the analogue input will accept as a valid input. For an external potentiometer speed
control, this should be set to 0.
Analogln1_RefHi
This sets the highest value the analogue input will accept as a valid input. For an external potentiometer speed
control, this should be set to 5.
Analogln1_ErrorLow
This sets the low input level at which an error will be generated.
Analogln1_ErrorHigh
This sets the high input level at which an error will be generated.
Analogln1_Filter
This sets the filter level, it is not normally necessary to change this value.
The remainder of the settings on this screen determine what happens in the event of an error on the speed
input i.e. store last valid value or use a substitute value.
Continued

Installation Manual, TPD 1509E, issue 1 97


14 4000 Series
Parallel generator, Heinzmann LSU/Sync
If the Generator Mode - ‘Parallel generator’ is selected, the screen changes as follows to allow selection of
‘Heinzmann LMG/Syg’ or ‘Other’.

A D1165

If Heinzmann LMG/Syg is selected, the Load Control and Synchroniser inputs are automatically set to the
correct values and no other adjustments are required.
Parallel generator other LSU/Sync
There are many possible variations of load sharing and synchroniser unit input requirements, some may only
require one input whereas others may require two inputs. This section therefore simply details the inputs
available and the possible settings.
For this mode, the Generator Mode must be set to ‘Parallel Operation’ and the LSU/Sync mode set to
‘Other’. The ‘Load Control’ and ‘Synchroniser’ tabs allow the two analogue inputs to be set as described
for the variable speed option above.
The ‘Load Control’ tab allows setting of the Analogue 1 input parameters and the ‘Synchroniser’ tab allows
setting of the Analogue 2 input parameters as detailed below.
Note: The range of the external speed control may be limited by parameters SpeedMin and SpeedMax.
These can be changed if required.
The remainder of the settings on this screen determine what happens in the event of an error on the speed
input i.e. store last valid value or use a substitute value.
For use with digital load sharing/synchronizing units, refer to the factory.

98 Installation Manual, TPD 1509E, issue 1


4000 Series 14
Load Control Settings

A D1168

ADC1_Type
This parameter enables selection of the type of input required to analogue input 2. The settings are:
1 0 to 5 volt input
2 0 to 10 volt input
3 4 to 20mA input
Analogln1_RefLow
This sets the lowest value the analogue input 1 will accept as a valid input.
Analogln1_RefHigh
This sets the highest value the analogue input 1 will accept as a valid input.
Analogln1_ErrorLow
This sets the low value at which the analogue 1 input signal will give an error, e.g. if AnalogueIn1_RefLo was
set at 0.5 volt, AnalogIn1_ErrorLo could be set at 0.3 volt. This enables detection of an open circuit or faulty
input signal.
Analogln1_ErrorHigh
This sets the high value at which the analogue 1 input signal will give an error, e.g. if AnalogueIn1_RefHi was
set at 4.5 volt, AnalogIn1_ErrorHi could be set at 4.7 volt. This enables detection of a faulty input signal.
LoadControlFactor LoadControlReference
If using analogue input 1, these two parameters set the range of the external speed control and the reference
% for nominal speed i.e. if 1500 rev/min is the nominal running speed and speed variation of +/- 5% speed
variation is required, set LoadControlFactor at 10% and LoadControlReference at 50%

Installation Manual, TPD 1509E, issue 1 99


14 4000 Series
Synchroniser Settings

A D1166

ADC 2_Type
This parameter enables selection of the type of input required to analogue input 2. The settings are:
1 0 to 5 volt input
2 0 to 10volt input
3 4 to 20mA input
AnalogIn2_RefLow
This sets the lowest value the analogue input 2 will accept as a valid input.
AnalogIn2_RefHigh
This sets the highest value the analogue input will accept as a valid input.
AnalogIn2_ErrorLow
This sets the low value at which the analogue 2 input signal will give an error, e.g. if AnalogueIn2_RefLow was
set at 0.5 volt, AnalogIn2_ErrorLow could be set at 0.3 volt. This enables detection of an open circuit or faulty
input signal.
AnalogIn2_ErrorHigh
This sets the high value at which the analogue 2 input signal will give an error, e.g. if AnalogueIn2_RefHigh
was set at 4.5 volt, AnalogIn1_ErrorHigh could be set at 4.7 volt. This enables detection of a faulty input signal.
SynchronFactor SynchronReference
If using analogue input 2, these two parameters set the range of the external speed control and the reference
% for nominal speed i.e. if 1500 rev/min is the nominal running speed and speed variation of +/- 5% speed
variation is required, SynchronFactor at 10% and SynchronReference at 50%.

100 Installation Manual, TPD 1509E, issue 1


4000 Series 14
Additional Programmable Parameters
This section details other parameters available and gives an explanation of the parameter function and, where
applicable, setting procedure.
These parameters are available on the Configuration - Engine tab.
Engine Configuration
SpeedMin1 & SpeedMin2
These set the minimum speed which the engine can be run at.
SpeedMax1 & SpeedMax2
These set the maximum speed the engine can run at.
Engine Stop
Switch or Impulse
If this is set to switch, engine stop is active only as long as the stop command is coming in else if this is set to
Impulse, engine stop is active by a single switchingpulse until the engine stops.
Close or Open
If this is set to Open then opening the stop switch will stop the engine. If this is set to Close then closing the
stop switch will stop the engine.

Installation Manual, TPD 1509E, issue 1 101


14 4000 Series
Adjustment of PID parameters
The engine is supplied with default governor PID (Proportional, Integral and Derivative) gain parameters which
will give stable operation with the majority of engine-alternator combinations. If any instability occurs with a
particular engine-alternator combination, it will be necessary to change the governor PID values as described
below
The PID parameters are available on the Adjustment - Speed Governor tab.

A D1167

To set these parameters, the engine is started and run up to the working point for which the adjustment is to
be made. As a rule, this working point will be at rated speed and off-load. For optimization of the PID
parameters, proceed by the following steps:
! Increase the P-factor Gain until the engine tends to become unstable. Then, decrease the P-factor again
until the speed oscillations disappear or are reduced to a moderate level.
! Increase the I-factor Stability until the engine passes over to long-waved speed oscillations.
! Increase the D-factor Derivative until the speed oscillations disappear. If the oscillations cannot be
eliminated by the D-factor, the I-factor will have to be reduced.
With these values set, disturb engine speed for a short moment (e.g., by shortly operating the engine stop
switch) and observe the transient response. Continue to modify the PID parameters until the transient
response is satisfactory.
Continued

102 Installation Manual, TPD 1509E, issue 1


4000 Series 14
PID Maps
Since the PID values which give optimum performance are different for various load values (In general, gains
may be greater with increasing load), The governor gains are mapped, gain vs load. These maps are created
during the engine development process but can be changed using the service tool.
There are two sets of PID maps, one for speed determined by parameter SpeedFix1 and one for speed
determined by parameter SpeedFix2.
To adjust the maps if required, on the Adjustment - Speed governor screen, click the PID Map ‘Open’ button
and then click the ‘Edit’ button on the map screen. For fixed speed engines, only the first column is used. If
necessary, change the gain entry against the actuator position(Y axis) where the instability is occurring. The
values are percentages, i.e. 100 represents 100% and does not change the basic PID values.

A
Continued

Installation Manual, TPD 1509E, issue 1 103


14 4000 Series
Speed Ramps
Speed ramps are not normally used in generating set applications but for pump sets, for example, it may be
desired to have a slow ramp in speed from idle to full speed.
To achieve this, the control provides ramps to retard acceleration. The delay rate of increasing or decreasing
the set value can be adjusted separately in either direction. Furthermore, it is possible to decide on the type of
speed ramp by means of the parameter
FixedRamp Fixed speed ramp
Sectional Ramp Sectional speed ramp

The ramp functions are activated by ticking the SpeedRampOn box on the Configuration - Engine tab.
Fixed Speed Ramp
To use the fixed speed ramp, select the Fixed Ramp option button. With the fixed speed ramp, the rate by
which the setpoint is delayed will be the same across the entire speed range. The ramp rates for ramping
upward and downward can be separately set by means of the parameters under SpeedRamp1.
SpeedRampUp Ramp rate for upward ramp
SpeedRampDown Ramp rate for downward ramp.
The unit of these parameters is speed increase resp. speed decrease per second (revolutions per minute per
second = rpmps). If ramping is desired in one direction only, the maximum value (4000 rpmps) is to be entered
for the other direction.
The speed set point as delayed by the ramp can be viewed by the parameter SpeedSetpRamp. The
parameter SpeedSetpSelect represents the speed set point that the ramp is supposed to arrive at.
Programming Example:
Speed is supposed to rise from 1,000 rpm to 1,500 rpm in the course of 20 seconds. This is equivalent to an
increase of speed of 500 rpm within 20 seconds or of 25 rpm per second. Deceleration is to work without ramp.
Parameter Value Unit
SpeedRampUp 25 rpmps
SpeedRampDown 4000 rpmps

Activation:
SpeedRampOn ticked
Fixed Ramp selected
Note: When setting speed ramps, parameters SpeedMin1 and SpeedMin2 should be set to the same value
and SpeedMax1 and SpeedMax2 should be set to the same value.
Continued

104 Installation Manual, TPD 1509E, issue 1


4000 Series 14
Sectional Speed Ramp
For certain applications, it is desirable that the ramping rate be not the same for the entire speed range. To
achieve this, the control offers the option to split the whole speed range up into 3 sections and to set the
ramping rate for each respective section separately. This also means that the ramping rate will depend on the
current set point value 2031 SpeedSetp.

SPEED
[rpm]

Maximum speed
<12> Range 3 for
ramp rates
<234>,<235>
Switch point 2
<237>
Range 2 for
ramp rates
<232>,<233>

Switch point 1
<236>
Range 1 for
ramp rates
<230>,<231>

Mimimum speed
<10>

TIME [s]

A D1121

Speed Profile of Sectional Speed Ramp


The kink points where the ramping rate is to change are determined by these parameters:
SpeedRamp2 - SpeedSwitchToRamp Change of rate from section 1 to section 2
SpeedRamp3 - SpeedSwitchToRamp Change of rate from section 2 to section 3
The different ramping rates by which the set point is to be delayed within the respective sections are set by
means of the following parameters:
SpeedRamp1 - SpeedRampUpRamp rate for ramping upward in section 1
SpeedRamp1 - SpeedRampDownRamp rate for ramping downward in section 1
SpeedRamp2 - SpeedRampUpRamp rate for ramping upward in section 2
SpeedRamp2 - SpeedRampDownRamp rate for ramping downward in section 2
SpeedRamp3 - SpeedRampUpRamp rate for ramping upward in section 3
SpeedRamp3 - SpeedRampDownRamp rate for ramping downward in section 3
The unit of these parameters is again given by speed increase or speed decrease per second. The ramps are
enabled by ticking the SpeedRampOn box, selection of the sectional speed ramp is made by selecting
SectionalRamp option button.
When only two ramp sections are to be provided the switch point 2 represented by parameter SpeedRamp3
must be set to maximum speed value.
Continued

Installation Manual, TPD 1509E, issue 1 105


14 4000 Series
The speed set point as delayed by the ramp can be viewed by the parameter SpeedSetpRamp. The
parameter SpeedSetpSelect represents the speed set point that the ramp is supposed to arrive at.
Programming Example:
The upward ramping rate between minimum speed and 800 rpm is supposed to be 100 rpmps, and speed
reduction is to be performed as fast as possible. The upward ramping rate between 800 rpm and 1200 rpm is
to be 50 rpmps, the downward ramping rate 40 rpmps. Between 1200 rpm and maximum speed both the
upward and downward rates shall be 20 rpmps.
Parameter Value Unit
SpeedRamp1 - SpeedRampUp 100 rpmps
SpeedRamp1 - SpeedRampDown 4000 rpmps
SpeedRamp2 - SpeedRampUp 50 rpmps
SpeedRamp2 - SpeedRampDown 40 rpmps
SpeedRamp3 - SpeedRampUp 20 rpmps
SpeedRamp3 - SpeedRampDown 20 rpmps
SpeedRamp2 - SpeedSwitchToRamp 2800 rpm
SpeedRamp3 - SpeedSwitchToRamp 1200 rpm
Activation:
SpeedRampOn ticked
SectionalRamp selected

106 Installation Manual, TPD 1509E, issue 1


4000 Series 14
System Wiring
The cables between the control box, actuator, boost pressure sensor and speed pick-up are provided and fitted
by Perkins.
A 4 metre long cable with connector at the control box end is available as an optional extra for external
connections to the unit. This cable may also be supplied by the OEM.

G o ve rn o r
A c tu a to r
Boost
P re s s u re
Sensor

D ig ita l G o v e rn o r 2 P in
C o n tro l B o x

4 M e tre le n g th

O p tio n a l c a b le h a rn e s s fo r c u s to m e r
c o n n e c tio n s
CAN H
1500/1800
Alarm

SCN
CAN L
B+

Run/Stop

+5V
E3
B3
A3
0V
SCR
B-

M a g n e tic P ic ku p

A D1122

Installation Manual, TPD 1509E, issue 1 107


14 4000 Series
External Connections – Perkins supplied cable

A3
Run/Stop

1500/1800
+5V
SCR

CAN +
Alarm
B-
B+

0V
E3

B3

CAN -

SCN
A D1123

B+ 24 volt battery positive supply to governor. A 15 amp fuse or circuit breaker must be fitted in this circuit for
over current/short circuit protection.
B- 24 volt battery negative supply to the governor.
Run/Stop - A switch connected from this wire to + 24V will enable the engine to run when closed and will stop
the engine when open. This is the preferred method of normal stop. If this is not required, link the Run/Stop
wire to + 24V
A3 - Common for synchronizer/load sharer input
B3 - Synchroniser input. This may be used for speed control signal from an analogue synchronizer or other
external speed control depending on the configuration as described above. For fixed speed engines, no
connection is required.
E3 - Load sharer input. This is for connection to a Heinzmann analogue load sharing unit. For fixed speed
engines, no connection is required.
0V & 5V - This is a 5 volt supply for an external speed setting potentiometer for single generator variable speed
configuration. For fixed speed engines, no connection is required.
1500/1800 - A switch connected from this wire to + 24V will enable the engine to be switched between 1500
Rev/Min and 1800 Rev/Min speeds when switchable 1500/1800 Rev/Min running is configured. For single
speed engines, no connection is required. Switchable 1500/1800 Rev/Min engines will default to 1500 Rev/
Min if no connection is made.
Alarm - This is a digital output to indicate a fault on the governor system. Connect a lamp or relay between
this connection and + 24V for indication of fault condition. It is necessary to use the service tool to establish
the reason for the fault indication.
SCR - This is the cable screen which is connected to the metalwork of the connector at the control box end for
EMC requirements.
CAN+, CAN - CAN bus connections for digital load sharing/synchronizing (Where fitted).

108 Installation Manual, TPD 1509E, issue 1


4000 Series 14
External connections – Control box connector
For description of external connections, see above.

14 Pin OEM Connector


N F E L J HGCD PMK A B

1500/1800
+5V
Run/Stop

SCN
CAN H
B-
B+

E3
B3
A3

0V

Alarm

CAN L
B D1124

Connection Details

14 Pin OEM Connector

N F E L J H G C D P M K A B

Alarm lamp
(Link if not fitted)
Run/Stop switch

1500/1800 switch
15A fuse

A3

CAN H
+5V

CAN L
B+

0V
E3

B3

SCN
B-

External analogue speed CAN connections for


controls (If required) digital load sharing/
See below for connection synchronising if required
options
C D1125

Cable Sizes
Battery supply cables must be 1.5 mm2 minimum up to a maximum length of 7 metres. All other cables 0.5
mm2 minimum.

Installation Manual, TPD 1509E, issue 1 109


14 4000 Series
Alternative Connections for Speed Setting Inputs
Single Generator Variable Speed
Connect 0V and 5V to the potentiometer and the slider of the potentiometer to E3.

SCN 0V E3 5V

5k 10 turn
potentiometer
A D1126

Parallel generator, Heinzmann LSU/Sync


Connect A3, B3 and E3 wires as shown.

SCN A3 B3 E3

16A 17 15 16 14

Synchroniser Load Measuring Unit


SYG02 LMG 03-S2
B D1127

For equivalent connections on the analogue Theseus unit see Heinzmann literature.
Parallel generator other LSU/Sync

A3 B3

- +
To external
speed setting
voltage/current

C D1128

110 Installation Manual, TPD 1509E, issue 1


4000 Series

15
Control panels for generating sets 15
The control panel can vary in design depending upon the set specification, it will normally include the engine
starting/stopping circuit and the alternator instrumentation. In the case of floor or wall mounted control panels,
the cabling between the generating set and the control panel will need to be supplied and installed by others,
see page 116. Start and stop procedure is identical to that for generating set mounted panels.
Warning! Wiring between the generating set and control panel, and mains supply must be performed by a
competent electrical engineer.

Control panel with manual start


The manual start panel normally incorporates a key switch for starting and stopping the engine via the normal
electric starting and stopping solenoid circuits.The panel also incorporates an ammeter, voltmeter and an
alternator circuit breaker.
Engine instruments are normally mounted on a separate engine mounted panel although some sets may
incorporate some engine instruments in the alternator panel. The control panel will also incorporate lamps (or
other indication) associated with the automatic protection equipment for low oil pressure and high engine
temperature.
Generator mounted panels will normally have all electrical wiring connections made to the engine and
alternator. The only cabling to be done will be the output cabling from the circuit breaker in the panel to the
load. The panel is mounted either on the generating set or on the wall or floor, depending on the overall size.
A typical set mounted control panel (A). On larger sets the control panel will be floor or wall mounted.

1 - CIRCUIT BREAKER
2 - FREQUENCY METER
3 - AMMETER
4 - VOLTMETER
5 - KET START MODULE (FAULT LAMPS BUILT IN)
6 - AMMETER - VOLTMETER SELECTOR SWITCH
7 - CHARGE AMMETER
8 - HOURS RUN
9 - OIL PRESSURE GAUGE
10 - WATER TEMPERATURE GAUGE

7
4 3 2
8

9 1
6 5
10

A D1095

Installation Manual, TPD 1509E, issue 1 111


15 4000 Series
Protection module
Since generating sets can be Ieft unattended for long periods it is essential that the set is fitted with automatic
protection which on receiving a signal from the protection switches will stop the engine.
Automatic protection circuitry is incorporated in all control panels as standard and may be in the form of a
protection module.

Automatic start control panel


An automatic start control panel is normally supplied to be used in conjunction with the alternator circuit
breaker, alternator instrumentation and change over contactors supplied by others.
The automatic start control equipment will start and stop the engine (or generating set) upon receiving a signal
from a remote position. Upon receiving the signal the engine will automatically start and run up to speed and
continue running until the remote signal is cancelled.
Protection for the alternator output or contactors are normally supplied by others although the alternator circuit
breaker may sometimes be incorporated in the automatic start control panel, depending on the cabling route.
A three attempt start circuit is included in some automatic start control panels.
The engine instruments are usually incorporated on a panel mounted on the engine although may sometimes
be incorporated into the automatic start control panel.
Note: The engine should be run for 5 minutes at normal speed on ’No Load’ before stopping to allow the
engine to cool down adequately.
A suitable timer should be included in the circuitry to cater for the above requirement.
A typical automatic start system (A).

ALTERNATOR OUTPUT CABLING AND CIRCUIT


ENGINE BREAKER OR CONTACTOR,
ALTERNATOR SUPPLIED BY OTHERS

ENGINE
BATTERY AUTOMATIC
CHARGER START
EQUIPMENT
START
SIGNAL
BATTERY PROVIDED BY OTHERS
CHARGER
SUPPLY
A D1096

Automatic mains failure (AMF) control panel


This type of control panel is designed to start the set automatically on failure of the main supply.
The (AMF) control panel incorporates automatic starting and automatic protection circuits and usually also
includes the automatic change over contactors (automatic circuit breakers on larger sets).
It may sometimes include engine instrumentation in addition to the circuitry associated with the particular set
application i.e. stand-by operation.
This type of generating set is used where continuous power supply is essential such as in hospitals, hotels,
public buildings, protecting valuable information in computers, avoiding disruptions in telephone and radio
communications, continuous processes in the manufacturing industries or any application where an alternative
power supply is needed. When operating change over contactors or circuit breakers within the panel in
automatic mode either the mains supply or the generator output must be connected to load.
The panel also has provision for manually starting and stopping the generating set for test purposes.
112 Installation Manual, TPD 1509E, issue 1
4000 Series 15
When the generating set is started under manual control the change over contactors will ‘Not’ operate and the
set will run on no load.
Note: The engine should be run for 5 minutes at normal speed on ‘No Load’ before stopping to allow the
engine to cool down adequately.
A suitable timer should be included in the circuit to cater for this requirement.
A typical automatic mains failure system (A).
A typical automatic start/main failure control panel (B).
The automatic start/main failure control panels are normally wall/floor mounted and are usually designed to
allow access from the front of the control equipment. Also there is provision for the entry and exit of power and
control cables in the base.

LOAD
METERING
ALTERNATOR MAINS
CONTACTOR CONTACTOR
MAINS
ENGINE SUPPLY
ALTERNATOR

ALTERNATOR MAINS
OR VOLTAGE MONITORING
ENGINE
DETECTOR UNIT
BATTERY AUTOMATIC
CHARGER START
EQUIPMENT

A D1097

LOML BCOL LOAL

1. CABLE ENTRY CAN BE ARRANGED TO SUIT V A1 A2 A3 CA


SPECIAL REQUIREMENTS
2. PANEL DIMENSIONS MAY VARY WITH
OUTPUT RATING VSS ECS FM C1
A. - LOAD AMMETERS
BCOL. - BATTERY CHARGER ON LAMP
CA. - BATTERY CHARGER AMMETER ERL FTSL LOPL HWTL OSL OLL
CI. - BATTERY CHARGER ISOLATOR
ECS. - ENGINE CONTROL SWITCH
ERL. - ENGINE RUNNING LAMP
FM. - FREQUENCY METER PB1 PB2 PB3
FTSL. - FAIL TO START LAMP
HOA. - HAND-OFF-AUTO SWITCH
HWTL. - HIGH WATER TEMPERATURE LAMP PB4
LOAL. - LOAD ON ALTERNATOR LAMP
LOML. - LOAD ON MAINS LAMP
LOPL. - LOW OIL PRESSURE LAMP HOA
OLL. - OVERLOAD LAMP
OSL. - OVERSPEED LAMP
PB1. - START PUSHBUTTON
PB2. - STOP PUSHBUTTON
PB3. - RESET BUTTON
PB4. - EMERGENCY STOP PUSHBUTTON
V. - VOLTMETER
VSS. - VOLTMETER SELECTOR SWITCH

B D1098

Installation Manual, TPD 1509E, issue 1 113


15 4000 Series
Parallel operation
General
The paralleling of generating sets is necessary when loads greater than the output available from one set have
to be met, or to make use of a stand-by set without interrupting the normal supply.
Before a generating set can be connected in parallel with another generating set or with the mains supply the
following conditions must be checked:
Phase sequence
Phase coincidence
Equality of voltages
(Equality of frequency
Typical paralleling system (A)
Phase sequence
The Phase sequence of each power supply to be paralleled must rotate in the same order, i.e. Red, yellow and
blue the rotation must be checked with a phase-rotation meter. Most generating sets are 3 phase 4 wire output
and the outgoing terminals are colour coded standard red, yellow, and blue or marked ‘U’,’V’ and ‘W’. The
connections to the bus bars must be identical for each set, this must be checked using a phase rotation meter
before any steps to effect paralleling are taken.

BUSBARS

FAST
SYNCHRONISE
MAIN WHEN TOP
SWITCH SLOW
LAMP IS DARK
AND OTHERS
ARE BRIGHT
PLUGS & SOCKETS SYNC.
LAMPS
No.1 No.2
ON LOAD INCOMING MACHINE
A D1098

Phase coincidence
Each phase must be ‘in-phase’ with any other supply to which it is being paralleled. This is obtained by running
the incoming set up to speed and checking the phase coincidence by synchroscope or paralleling lamps. A
simple arrangement of lamps for 3 phase alternator (B).
Three sets of lamps suitable for line voltage are connected across the main switch of the incoming machine.
Two sets are cross connected while a third is directly across the switch. When the lncoming switch has a
frequency slightly different from that of the running machine, the three lamps slowly brighten and darken in
cyclic succession in a direction which depends on whether the incoming machine is running fast or slow.
Adjustments of the speed regulator of the incoming generating set should be made until the lamp connected
directly across the switch is dark while the other two are at maximum brightness indicating that the sets are
synchronised.
Equality of voltages
The voltage of each supply must be identical. The generating set control panel should have a voltage trimmer
to ensure the voltages are identical to each other. This is to be checked and corrected by the voltage trimmer
on the control panel before switching the set to parallel.

114 Installation Manual, TPD 1509E, issue 1


4000 Series 15
Equality of frequency
The frequency of each supply must be identical. The generating set control panel should have a speed/
frequency trimmer to ensure the frequencies are identical to each other.
Generating sets for parallel operation must have the same governor characteristics regarding speed droop
with load depending upon the rating of the sets.
The speed droop will affect the load sharing of the generating set.
Note: When the above conditions are met the generating sets will be suitable for synchronising (paralleling)
together provided that the load applied to each supply is within the capacity of each supply and is a constant
load. When the load changes, each set must share the load in proportion and also maintain the four conditions
referred above.
Automatic synchronising and load sharing
For unattended operation, generating sets may be supplied with automatic synchronising and load sharing
equipment to parallel sets with each other or the mains.
Since these systems are individually designed for each application refer to the specific information supplied
with the generating set where this equipment is incorporated.
A typical scheme of 2 sets automatically synchronising (B).

LOAD LOAD LOAD LOAD


CONTROLLERS MAINS CONTACTOR MAIN

ALTERNATOR
CONTACTOR
MAINS
AUTOMATIC ALTERNATOR No.1 ALTERNATOR No.2 MONITORING
CIRCUIT BREAKER
AUTOMATIC CIRCUIT BREAKER UNIT
SYNCHRONISER SYCHRONISER
ALTERNATOR ENGINE ALTERNATOR
VOLTAGE CONTROL VOLTAGE
DETECTOR CHASSIS DETECTOR

LOAD LOAD ENGINE


SENSOR SENSOR CONTROL
CHASSIS

BATTERY SPEED EQUALISING LINK SPEED BATTERY


SENSOR SENSOR
CHARGER CHARGER

ALTERNATOR
EQUALISING LINK ALTERNATOR
No.1 No.2
ENGINE No.1

ENGINE No.2
BATTERIES

BATTERIES

B D1129

Installation Manual, TPD 1509E, issue 1 115


15 4000 Series
Cabling
Warning! Fitting of cables must be carried out by a competent electrician.
Main power cables
The main power cables for the generating set must be of adequate size to suit the output of the generating set
(including the 10% overload capacity). When calculating the cable size, allowance must be made for the type
of cable being used, voltage drop, ambient temperature, installation method and insulation material. The cable
manufacturers tables should then be consulted to establish the size of cable required.
If single core cables are used the rating of these cables will be reduced if they are bunched together.
Attention is drawn to the fact that the generating set is on resilient mountings and therefore no solid conduit or
pipe connections should be made but some flexible system should be used. For main power cables between
the generator and control panel we recommend the use of EPS/CPS sheathed single core flexible cable of the
appropriate size. Soloidal, lead sheathed or steel wired armoured (PVC, SWA PVC) cables must not be used.
For larger sizes of generating sets it will be necessary to use several cables per phase. Suitable gland plates
are provided on the alternator and control panel, and these are normally supplied undrilled. If single core
cables are used, the gland plate should either be of non-ferrous material or slots should be cut between the
cable entry holes. When the 3 phase loads are well balanced across the phases, it is normally permissible to
use a neutral conductor that is smaller than the phase conductors but the size of the neutral conductor should
not normally be less than half the size of the phase conductors.
The ends of power cables must be fitted with suitable lugs which should be crimped with the correct crimping
tool. To ensure a good connection onto the alternator and control panel terminals the correct size of bolts with
flat and spring washers should be used.
Power cables must be adequately supported throughout their length but at the alternator end provision must
be made to allow for the movement of the generating set which occurs when starting and stopping.
The generating set must be adequately earthed, "Earthing" on page 116.
Where cables enter the alternator and control panel smooth bore bushes or the correct cable glands must be
fitted to prevent damage to the cables at this point.
Earthing
Electric generating sets and their associated control and switch gear panels must be earthed before being put
into service.
The following is a guide to general earthing requirements, but reference should be made to I.E.E. regulations
in countries where these apply, or to the local wiring regulations where they do not. The local supply authority
may also have regulations that have to be complied with.
An earthing system is made up of an earth electrode, earth lead, earth terminal and an earth continuity
conductor. The earth electrode is usually one or more copper clad steel rods driven into the ground. (Neither
water nor gas mains used separately or bonded together are acceptable as an earth electrode).
The earth lead is a copper conductor of sufficient cross-section area, connecting the earth terminal to the earth
electrode. The size of the conductor may be obtained from the I.E.E. Regulations.
The point of connection of the earthing lead to the earth rod(s) should be protected from accidental damage,
but also be accessible for inspection. A label indelibly marked with the words ‘Safety Electrical Earth - Do Not
Remove’ in legible type not less than 4,75 mm high shall be permanently fixed at the point of this connection.
The earth terminal is a terminal situated adjacent to the generator main circuit breaker to which all the earth
continuity conductors are terminated.
The earth continuity conductor is a conductor that bonds all non current carrying metalwork in the installation
to the earth terminal. Again the size of the conductor may be obtained from the I.E.E. Regulations.
All metalwork within the consumer’s premises, except current carrying parts, must be connected to the earth
continuity conductor (E.C.C.). The E.C.C. shall be connected to the consumer’s earth terminal and the earth
terminal shall be effectively earthed to an earth electrode. In premises where a mains supply exists in addition
to the generator and if the consumer is the sole user of the supply authority’s transformer or is on a Protective
Multiple Earthing (PME) system it is usual for the supply authority to give consent for the consumer’s earth
terminal to be connected to the supply authority’s earth electrode.
116 Installation Manual, TPD 1509E, issue 1
4000 Series 15
Where a consumer shares a transformer with other customers, and if for any other reason, the supply authority
refuses to consent to the connection of the generator earth to the supply authority’s earth electrode, where
four-pole change over contactors are fitted, or where the generator is the sole source of supply, it will be
necessary to install a separate earth electrode. Any water or gas supply mains should be bonded to the E.C.C.
at a point as close as practicable to the point of entry to the consumer’s premises, providing that where there
is an insulation section fitted the connection shall be made to the metalwork on the consumer’s side of the
insulating section.
The number of rods that are required to form a satisfactory earth electrode is dependent upon the ground
resistance. The earth loop resistance (of which the earth electrode resistance may part), must be low enough
that in the event of an earth fault occurring, sufficient current will flow to operate the protection devices. (Fuses
or circuit breakers). The fault path value may be found by using the formula set out in the I.E.E. regulations.
Any installation which is supplied by a mobile type of generator, for example, transportable or tractor-mounted,
shall have independent earth electrodes connected to the earth continuity conductor and the neutral.
Additionally, a detachable cable connection from the generator to the installation, with either bolted
connections for phase, neutral and earth conductors or an appropriate rated shrouded plug and socket, is
required. The flexible cable connections preferred are vulcanised rubber with PCP or TR sheath, vulcanised
rubber insulated, with PCP sheath, or butyl rubber insulated with heat, oil resisting and flame retardant (HOFR)
sheath. The plugs, sockets and cables shall comply with British Standards. The cables should be kept as short
as possible and used uncoiled to avoid overheating.
It may be necessary to obtain official permission to connect the earth point of the generating set (and control
panel) to an existing earth point.

Installation Manual, TPD 1509E, issue 1 117


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