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Luis Córdoba Ramírez

Jesús Díaz Quirino
Jhovanny García Hernández
Mitzy Ortiz De la Torre
5°A ARH T.M.
The following essay shows us the definition of artificial blood, its components, as
well as its use in transfusions in emergency situations, also the advantages and
disadvantages that it offers us.
It is often referred to as oxygen transporters
produced by chemical synthesis or by
modification of natural hemoglobin.

Artificial blood is the result of multiple

experiments that allowed to create a molecule
with a function similar to the hemoglobin
protein. That is to say that there would be no
proteins, leukocytes, or salts, only to supply
energy to the organism.

The direct impact of this fact is that we would

Artificial Blood become more vulnerable to getting an infection
or a disease due to the absence of leukocytes,
Artificial blood, sometimes called blood because of the absence of proteins we would
substitutes, is a medical product that is still have a less viscous blood which would
in a phase of study or experimentation. Its increase and improve the Circulation, and the
goal would be to replace human blood in absence of salts in the first instance would
some people who need blood transfusions make us more prone to dehydration.
before the scarcity of compatible donor.
The main function that is required in this
In case of bleeding, infusions of molecules alternative is to imitate the activity of the
designed to restore a minimal amount of hemoglobin molecules in the blood as an
liquid that keeps accurate blood pressure; oxygen transport molecule.
but these molecules do not allow the
transport of oxygen and the transfusion of
red blood cells is essential to compensate
for this function. Currently, donors provide
blood and must respect the compatibility of
blood groups and the Rh factor to prevent
accidents during transfusions. The
challenge of the artificial blood is not a
synthetic solution that ensures, If not all the
functions of the blood, at least oxygen
transport, without having to resort to blood

The hemoglobin molecule consists of two alpha Modified hemoglobin solutions must undergo
subunits and two betas. Which have an affinity bioengineering processes to overcome the
for O2, so when an O2 molecule binds to one of drawbacks of free hemoglobin:
the subunits, it increases the affinity of the other
a) Conjugation of the dimers and
subunits for the gas, and when one breaks off,
polymerization of the hemoglobin
it facilitates that the O2 is detached from the
molecules, thereby increasing their half-
other subunits. This circulates encapsulated
life in the plasma.
inside the erythrocytes so it is inferred that it has
b) Modification of the affinity for O2 by the
a half-life of 120 days, 60-90 in transfusional
covalent addition of paradoxal
blood. Although this blood is not the true one, to
phosphate, which provides an affinity
call it in a way, it will respect what are the two
curve for O2 similar to that of
indicators that tell us what our blood is like, the
intraerythrocytic hemoglobin.
different blood types (A, B, AB, O) and the Rh
c) Surface modification with dextran or
factor. There are two major families:
other biological polymers that hide the
perfluorocarbons and modified hemoglobin
hemoglobin molecule to the
reticuloendothelial system and thus
Perfluorocarbons are the first synthetic increase its half-life.
compounds that were tested as O2
As for its origin, hemoglobin can be obtained
transporters. The presence of fluorine atoms
from expired human blood, from bovine blood
makes the perfluorocarbon molecule very
or by genetic recombination. Bovine
spongy and the gases dissolve in it more easily
hemoglobin already has an affinity curve for O2
than in water. Thus, O2 is transported dissolved
similar to intraerythrocytic hemoglobin.
in the perfluorocarbon, and not because it has a
particular affinity for these compounds. They “It's a dry powder that looks like paprika,
are small molecules, which diffuse well into the basically," said Doctor. "It can be stored in a
tissues and end up being eliminated through plastic IV bag that a doctor could carry, in the
respiration. ambulance or in a backpack, for a year or
more." When they need to use it, they pour
sterile water into the bag, mix it, and are ready
to inject it. Right now".Dr. Allan Doctor, critical
care specialist at the University Of Washington
School Of Medicine, St. Louis.

The advantages of perfluorocarbons are that The side effects of hemoglobin solutions (Hb)
they are inert, easily storable, cheap and radio are: Vessel activity, nephrotoxicity, interference
opaque compounds. They are insoluble in with the mononuclear phagocytic system,
water, so they have to be administered in the oxidation during storage, antigenicity, poor
form of emulsion, and at high doses they oxygen hauling, Histamine release and iron
produce fever and thrombocytopenia, their deposits. Because of this, it is not possible to
capacity to transport O2 is a linear function of administer hemoglobin in its native form, hence
the pO2, so the patient must be breathing O2 to it is necessary to modify it. The origin of the
95 %. The new red blood cells are designed to artificial cells is related to the oxygen carriers in
emulate the vital functions of the natural ones, the form of poly hemoglobins and conjugated
so if their safe use for humans is confirmed, they hemoglobins.
could represent an alternative to transfusions,
especially valuable in areas and situations
where blood is difficult to obtain or store.

As well, these cells are designed to be

lyophilized, making it easier for physicians and
combat paramedics to keep it on hand for
emergencies; stored at room temperature and
reconstituted simply with water when
necessary. In addition, artificial blood can be
designed without having any antigenic group on
its surface, its sterility can be guaranteed,
eliminating the possibility of transmission of an
infection and avoiding cross-testing of blood
groups, and, may have prolonged storage


Now, however, we already know something more about this synthetic blood. And it's a great
medical breakthrough, because, despite all the medical advances in recent years, many people
die bleeding after some kind of trauma while waiting for a transfusion.

A blood transfusion is the transfer of blood or blood components from one subject to another. A
blood transfusion can save the patient's life, hence the need for health services to seek to
maintain an adequate supply of safe blood and to ensure that it is used accordingly.

Transfusions may be of various types depending on the need for the recipient to suffer from the
disease. The most common donation is the red blood cell concentrate. The diseases that can
make essential the transfusion of erythrocytes concentrates are numerous: severe hemorrhage,
acute leukemia, anemia after treatments of chemotherapy and radiotherapy against the cancer,
medullary aplasia, major surgery, anemia Hemolytic, etc., but all of them have as a common key
the existence of a severe anemia that is not possible to be corrected by other means and which
seriously compromises the cardiovascular and oxygen function of the blood in the organism.

The ErythroMer and POLYHB projects represent a major medical breakthrough. One of the
project's leaders, Dr. Pan, has confirmed that this synthetic blood is capable of transporting
oxygen from one side to another, one of the most complex processes of replicating when artificial
blood is investigated.

Of course, Dr. Pan remembers that he is not

a substitute for "natural" blood, so to speak.
And, the blood of the PolyHb project can give
a margin of between 24 and 48 hours for
people at risk of bleeding. This margin will be
sufficient to find a transplant and for the
affected person not to bleed.

According to sources of NBC, 90% of the

victims of accidents die due to trauma with
hemorrhage, something that can be
alleviated with the temporal use of this
artificial blood. Now we just need to see
when this fluid will be massed and, above all,
in which parts of the world it starts to apply.


The risks associated with blood transfusion have been the main argument that has been
managed to reduce the use of blood and to encourage the application of possible substitutes for
the homologous transfusion, as well as the risk of transmission of diseases Mainly the risks of
transmission of HIV and hepatitis B and C viruses, and the difficulty presented by those who
need an urgent transfusion and yet by the blood type reduces the possibility of getting a donor,
form points in favor of the search for alternatives to the current transfusion.


At the present time of unknown much about the artificial blood as well as the efficacy of its use,
but it is a subject of utmost importance since with constant research and contributions of the
science, this perhaps is a great contribution to the humanity in the not very distant future.


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