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A Bioregional Materia Medica for the Pacific Northwest

Exploring Chinese and Western herbs that can be cultivated or wild-harvested

in the Pacific Northwest:
A movement towards sustainability of Chinese Medicine in the western world

Stacey Kett

Oregon College of Oriental Medicine

September 2, 2011

I was taught that most of the plants that we need for medicine are growing right outside our
door. I was also taught that we only really need about 10 herbs to treat most conditions. The Chinese
materia medica that was available through my Acupuncture and Oriental medicine education includes
about 350 herbs, all of which are imported from overseas. In my study of western herbalism I have
become familiar with another 200- 300 western herbs. As practitioners, we have an amazing number of
plants available for us to use in our practices. So how does one with 600 herbs at their fingertips decide
which ones to use? Many of us will only use a portion of the materia medica that we were taught in
school in our practices. In my practice, I would like to use the herbs that grow nearest to me and my
patients. These are the plants to which we are most connected to, even if we are unaware of their
The goal of this research project is to create a list of herbs (both western and Chinese) that can
be utilized when developing an herbal pharmacy for an acupuncture and herbal medicine practice. This
list is specific to the Pacific Northwest bioregion and includes herbs that can be locally cultivated or
wild-harvested. I discuss how this list was developed and why it is important. I also address the basic
concept of how we might begin to use these ideas in our clinical practices by looking at how we can
substitute bioregional herbs for the herbs that can only be imported. An additional aim of this project is
to discuss ideas of sustainability and quality; particularly the challenges posed with reliance on imported
herbs from China and other countries.

Integration of Western herbs into Chinese Medicine

In approaching the end of my formal education in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM), I find
myself contemplating the integration of my prior western herbal knowledge with the new Chinese
medicine energetic framework. In Chinese Medicine the herbs are discussed in relationship to their
nature (hot, warm, neutral, cool, and cold), flavor and channels affected. Western herbalism is taught in
a different way. It is more common to see a western herbal materia medica listing the pharmacological
actions to describe the way that the herbs work. If western herbs and the Chinese herbs are to be used in
the same clinic, an integrated language is needed. Four authors have focused efforts on the analysis and
classification of western herbs in the context TCM theory, Michael Tierra wrote Planetary Herbology,
Peter Holmes wrote The Energetics of Western Herbs, Thomas Avery Garran wrote Western Herbs
According to Traditional Chinese Medicine and Jeremy Ross wrote Combining Western Herbs and
Chinese Medicine. (Tierra 1988, Garran 2008, Holmes 1993, Ross 2003). The integration of the western
model in the Chinese medicine community is also occurring. John Chen, in Chinese Medical Herbology
and Herbal Formulas books, has added western pharmacological actions and summaries of modern
research to the herbs and formulas. (Chen 2004, 2009). It is with the help of these herbalists that I began
to see how the integration of these constructs can work together.

The Process of Developing a Bioregional Materia Medica

To build the bioregional materia medica, I started with a spreadsheet of the Chinese materia
medica arranged by category, Pinyin and Latin name of the plant, including the genus and species. To
this, I added the western herbs discussed in the four primary western herbal medicine texts and
attempted to combine the western herbs into the existing TCM categories. (Tierra 1988, Garran 2008,
Holmes 1993, Ross 2003). For example, from Tierra (1988) I added Western Angelica, Lovage, Hyssop,
Sage, Oregano, Marjoram, Savory, Basil, Yerba Buena, Costmary, Osha, Hedge Nettle, and Sassafras to
the Warm Acrid, Release the Exterior Category. Available in Appendix 4.
A challenge faced in this process is the variance between authors regarding the organization of
herb categories. The Chinese Materia medica lists 28 traditional categories, Michael Tierra lists 16,
Peter Holmes lists 24 and Thomas Avery Garran lists 14 categories. I have attempted to merge the work
that has been done by three of these authors; Ross chose to not use this model. These categories are
available in Appendix 1 and 2. (Tierra 1998, Garran 2008, Holmes 1993, Ross 2003).
Peter Holmes renamed the categories in a more descriptive way and also included the western
pharmacological actions. Many of the categories that he presents are straight forward as to how they fit
into the TCM model. Whereas other classes are difficult to determine how it would fit into the TCM
model. For example, the herbs that are in the Circulate the Qi, Loosen constraint and Stop Spasms were
further broken up into Circulate Lung Qi, Circulate Heat Qi, Circulate Intestines Qi, Circulate Urinary
Qi, and Circulate Uterus Qi, were difficult to categorize into the TCM model. In Holmes’ model the
herbs fit perfectly and represent a more integrated approach to looking at the western herbs. (Holmes
I then evaluated each herb based on its ability to grow or existing presence in the Pacific
Northwest. I consulted many seed companies, herb farms and plant books to help with this process: e.g.,
High Falls Garden, Chinese Medicinal Herb Farm, Horizon Herbs, Pacific Botanicals, One
Garden/Elixir Botanical Garden, and The Jepson Manual. Appendices 4-31 show both the locally
available herbs and the herbs that were removed. Herbs that were not able to be grown in the Pacific
Northwest as well as some of the herbs that are just not commonly used in Western Herbalism were
removed from the final list. Both Jeremy Ross and Peter Holmes are British and use many herbs that are
not commonly taught or available in the US herbal markets. I have also indicated which herbs are
available organically, such as ginger and cinnamon; despite not being able to grow locally. I think that
most people would realistically be interested in finding good sources of these herbs and still want to use
them in their practices.

Why is Local Important?

In Chapter 12 of the Neijing Suwen (Methods of Treatment), Huang Di asks Qi Bo "When

doctors treat conditions, even though they may be illnesses of the same nature they use different
methods and techniques. But they all succeed. Why is this?" Qi Bo replied, “This is because of
differences or variables in geography, weather, lifestyle and diet. For example, the east is the direction
of the birth of heaven and earth. The weather there is mild, and it is close to the water. Many varieties of
fish and salts can be found, so the local people eat many kinds of fish and like the salty flavor. But
because they eat so much fish, which is considered a hot food, heat accumulates and stagnates in the
body. They also eat too much salt, which dries, exhausts and drains the blood. This is why people of the
east often have dark skin. The commonly suffered illnesses are boils and carbuncles. The treatment of
this disease often utilizes needles made of stone, which are thicker, and bleeding, which releases the
heat. Thus, the method of stone needles comes from the east.” (Ni 1995, p 48). This chapter goes on to
describe the different regions where each therapy in Chinese medicine originated and the geographic
area to which specific treatment is best suited. This can also include herbal medicine. It is seen in the
Chinese herbal market that many herbs are known to come from specific parts of China. These herbs
become known for their regions because that is where they are best suited to grow. Before we had
modern transportation, we were all (including the Chinese) mostly using the plants that grew in our local
area, around our homes and gardens, or at least within range of our own continent.
Blue Poppy, a prominent supplier of herbs, has a post from Eric Brand, owner of Legendary
Herbs and writer for the Blue Poppy Blog: “In regards to the concept of ‘local plants suited to local
diseases,’ as far as I know the idea is purely a Western herbal concept.” (Brand 2010). Then he goes on
to say, “Does China have an indigenous concept of ‘local plants to treat local diseases?’ I don't really
know the answer, but I will point out that each region does have its own specialties, including many
local herbs that do not enter the wider national herb trade. In many cases, the local herbs are generally
heat-clearing and slightly bitter grasses/weeds/herbs, and the consumption of local herbs in cooling teas
is endemic in hot southern regions such as Guangzhou, Hong Kong, and Taiwan. In places like Sichuan,
the local climate is damp and the people eat a lot of chili and Sichuan peppercorn (Hua Jiao is native to
the region) within their diet. So in a sense, we could say that there are some examples where people do
tend to use local items to treat local afflictions” (Brand 2010).
I think that the plants that grow natively in an area are what can be used to treat the illnesses that
commonly occur. For example, in the Pacific Northwest, we tend towards having damp and phlegm
conditions that often occur in the lungs. There are several native herbs in the Pacific Northwest that help
to move phlegm from the lungs. Several of these herbs are found in the Warm, Acrid Release the
Exterior list above and include Angelica, Aralia, Osha and Asarum/Xi Xin.
In my garden, here in Portland, Oregon, there are about 40 different cultivated medicinal herbs,
including the weeds; dandelion, yellow dock, blackberry, chickweed, cleavers, watercress and the
occasional purslane. I have been growing medicinal herbs since 1999, for personal and commercial use.
Since I moved to Oregon I have been experimenting with growing more Chinese herbs and have had
some great successes. Eric Brand stated “In the West, many people are starting to become interested in
cultivating Chinese herbs. There are a variety of reasons why locally produced Chinese herbs have
appeal. Many of us would like to support local organic agriculture, reduce the carbon footprint of the
herbal supply chain, and generally strengthen our connection to live, growing plants. Seeing an herb
growing in nature feels different than seeing the product dried on a pharmacy shelf, and America’s
comparatively advanced state of organic certification has the potential to expand the range of products
that are available in a certified organic form. Furthermore, in the West we also have the idea that the
herbs that grow in a local ecosystem are suited to treating diseases in that ecosystem, and raising the
plant oneself allows the product to be fresh as well as in tune with the qi of the local environment. There
is some inherent satisfaction in getting ‘back to the land,’ and many hobby gardeners use Chinese herbs
try to grow some specimens to increase their connection to the live plants. Seeing the live plant can
deepen our understanding of an herb, and growing the plant allows us to form an intimate connection
with an organism that we love and respect. The difference in flavor between a commercial tomato and a
homegrown tomato says it all.” (Brand 2010).
We also run into the issue of whether the herbs that are grown in a different area will still have
the same medicinal effects as the herbs that are grown in the traditional areas in China. Eric Brand said
“There are two different views in the herbal world on the fundamental issue of terrain. One school of
thought suggests that plants do not discriminate on the basis of political geography, and anywhere that
has the right soil conditions, weather conditions, and care can produce plants that will function as good
medicines. The other school of thought suggests that duplicating Mother Nature is a nearly impossible
task, and humankind’s manipulation of the environment can never match nature’s inherent perfection.
Personally, I think that neither extreme is true all of the time, and there are abundant examples of both
plants that adapt well to new environments as well as plants that adapt poorly.” (Brand 2010). In my
experience I have found that this is true, Ginger doesn’t grow well in a climate that has winter frosts and
providing a greenhouse condition in the Pacific Northwest may produce ginger, but it may not be
enough heat to really create a high quality ginger root. Plants like Angelica are fairly adaptable to most
climates as long as it is watered throughout the summer months and doesn’t have a hard frost where the
ground freezes. In most instances, though, Angelica is harvested in the first year, as it dies after it
flowers in the second year. I have grown Angelica in many different gardens in Northern California and
in Portland, Oregon and have found that the roots are vibrant and taste very acrid and strong from each
A recent research study compared American Ginseng, Panax quniquifolium, grown in Wisconsin
and China, found that the ginsenosides varied between the 2 samples. (Chen, P. 2010) The
Ginsensosides in American Ginseng are considered the ‘active’ constituents that provide a host of
benefits. (Chen, C. 2009). It is known in the herbal industry that American ginseng grown in Wisconsin
is superior to the Chinese. (Brand 2011). American Ginseng is native to these northern regions of the US
and Canada. I would also argue that there may be chemical variances between two different plantings of
the same plant, if they were planted in two different soil types in the same general bioregion. Upon
appearance and taste, the plants could seem to be from the same land. It is also interesting to think about
two different plants that are grown side by side in the same soil, and become their own plants, with their
own unique chemical composition.
Many of the herbs deemed ‘Western’ are originally from Europe, Mexico and many other
places around the globe. These herbs have their preferred bioregions in which they grow best, but there
is little resistance against growing these plants out of their native environments in the western herbal
community. Rather the opposite, the western herbalists are making good use of these herbal medicines
with good success; suggesting that herbs do not have to be grown in their native habitat to yield good
medicine. It is common to see herbs in the western herbal markets such as Chamomile coming from
Egypt or Bulgaria, Cayenne from India, Basil from Egypt and Dandelion root from Hungary. (Mountain
Rose Herbs 2011, Pacific Botanicals 2011). These herbs grow very well just about anywhere in gardens
and farms around the world. I believe that these herbs and many others are imported from other
countries for economic reasons, not because of potency or the highest quality.
Considering these implications from a more scientific analytic basis, herbs can be assessed with
tests such as High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC,), which tests the quantities of the
chemical constituents of plants. There is also Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC), which assess for plant
identity; commonly employed in China, (and probably elsewhere) to ensure the correct plants are
identified. (Brand 2011) Evaluating an herb using these methods is very costly and difficult. From a
pharmaceutical approach, we are able to isolate some of the ‘active’ ingredients, but these are often
controversial and changing as more research is performed. The plant matrix is much more complex than
what is economically feasible to perform for the herbal medicine industry. As of 2004, the complete
characterization of an herb’s chemical constituent layout has yet to be achieved. It is thought that herbs
are effective because of the wide array of constituents, not just from a couple specific chemicals. (Hassel
Organoleptic testing, otherwise known as descriptive sensory analysis, is an additional technique
that is used to test the quality of an herb and comes from the food and wine industry. (Brand 2010) This
is where trained individuals are able to taste certain flavors in the plant in comparison to other high
quality plant material. This type of testing is affordable and is congruent with the way that Chinese
Medicine is thought to have developed. At the University of Minnesota, graduate students were trained
at the Department of Food Science and Nutrition and were able to discern the qualitative differences
between a cross section of specific herb samples. These findings were compared to the assessment of the
local Chinese Medicine Practitioners opinion of high quality herbs. (Hassel 2004).
In 1998, a group of Minnesota practitioners and medicinal herb growers formed the Medicinal
Herb Network. Their goal was to develop locally grown, high quality medicinal herbs and markets for
those herbs. The local Chinese medicine practitioners that were involved in the Medicinal herb Network
were very supportive of using the locally grown Chinese herbs, even if the price was higher, because
they believe that the effects from the herbs would be greater. (Hassel 2002).
I think that there is also a cultural element to western notion of locality. Most of us westerners,
who live in the United States have ancestry or are emigrated from another continent. Therefore we tend
to think that since we can thrive in different environments, the plants must also be able to do this and
still provide quality medicine. I find myself thinking about vegetables, each with variances for preferred
environments, sandy soils for some, heavier soils for others, coastal climates, versus warmer inland
climates. Yet, people on the coast still want to grow their own tomatoes, and love eating them even
though they know that they are mealy and not as sweet as the ones grown inland. The tomatoes that were
grown in their back yard are probably more nourishing than those transported to the store, having lost
flavor and vitality while waiting on a shelf or in the refrigeration unit.
Quality of Chinese Herbs

Due to my background in organic agriculture and western herbalism, it is important for me to

know where my food and medicine are coming from. I am also interested in knowing the issues around
sustainability and quality. In Chinese medicine we are importing all of the herbs that we use in our
practices through Chinese based and US based distributors. Many of the imported herbs are not organic
and as such may pose risks; several of these are discussed in an article by Subhuti Dharmananda (2002),
titled “How Clean and Pure Are Chinese Herbs”. Subhuti Dharmananda is the Director of ITM, which
supplies the Seven Forest brand of herbal supplements.
Are fumigants used on herbs? It seems to be a controversial topic, but the USDA and Subhuti
report that fumigants are not used on herbs when they enter the US. (Dharmananda 2002). There is more
of a concern of fumigation when herbs are stored for longer periods of time. The longer a plant sits
around, the more susceptible it becomes to being infested by insects or rodents.
Sulfur is used as a preservative, especially on herbs that contain more moisture, such as dried
fruits. Some of the herbs that are treated with sulfur include: Mai Men Dong, Gou Qi Zi, Bai Zhu,
Ginseng, Dang Gui, Shan Yao and Dang Shen. Subhuti reported that “the sulfur compounds resulting
from this method of preserving the herb quality are not known to cause reactions in sulfite-sensitive
individuals.” (Dharmananda 2002). Herbs are available that have not been treated with sulfur and is
common to see both options offered through suppliers.
Irradiation is done to sterilize seeds and animal products and is applied after the herbs have been
imported; this is common for instance on deer antlers. This process is overseen by the USDA to prevent
the spread of disease. (Dharmananda 2002). In the article Subhuti stated that “Some manufacturers of
finished products (e.g., extract powders or granules) may utilize gamma irradiation as a means of
reducing bacteria counts on the finished products; this procedure does not result in any radioactive
contamination.” (Dharmananda 2002). In 1963 the USDA claimed that irradiation of foods, a process of
exposure to energy from electromagnetic waves or radiant energy, including gamma rays, electron
beams, and x-rays, to be safe (USDA 2005). Sterilizing gases are sometimes applied after herbs have
been powdered and before they are inserted into capsules. Ethylene oxide is one of the gasses used to
control bacteria. A small amount of residue can be found because the gas interacts with the plant and
causes a reaction and then leaves a residue. Subhuti stated that most Chinese herbal companies are not
using this method. (Dharmananda 2002).
Heavy metal toxicity is a major concern. In the 1990’s it was being discovered that there were
Chinese herbal products that contained heavy metals. In 1998, the Food and Drug branch of the
California Department of Health Services published the Compendium of Asian Patent Medicines which
gave the report of their testing of 260 patent remedies. (Fratkin 2010). It was determined that up to 30%
of patent medicines may have some heavy metal contamination if they are made in factory in China that
does not follow Good Manufacturing Practices. (Fratkin 2010). Some Chinese manufactured patent
formulas add Cinnabar and Realgar intentionally because it is thought that those compounds add to the
medicinal effects of those formulas. Western manufacturing companies do not add these substances and
therefore do not contain heavy metals other than what may be naturally occurring. (Dharmananda 2002).
An additional concern is adulteration with pharmaceuticals; there is evidence of western drugs
being added to patent herbal medicines and not always added to the label. (Dharmananda 2002). In
2002, there was an herbal formula called PC-SPES that was removed from the market that was used for
prostate cancer treatment that also contained Diethylstilbestrol (DES), an artificial estrogen. (American
Cancer Society 2008). Other drugs that are typically found in patent formulas are antipyretics,
antihistamines and antibiotics. (Dharmananda 2002). In 1997, Mayway, a Chinese Herbal supplier
performed testing on some of their patent herbal medicine and detected adulteration in common
formulas for colds, flus, sinusitis and other acute conditions. (Dharmananda 2002). They have since
changed suppliers and are working with a well- controlled factory in Lanzhou and also with their own
factory. There are other companies that are testing as well.
Incorrect substitution of herbs has been identified by some as a common mistake in the field
and may occur due to misidentification or ‘unauthorized’ substation. (Dharmananda 2002). It is
important that the buyer is familiar with the appearance of the herbs that they are buying. I have seen
bulk herbs that were contaminated with another herb. An example that I witnessed was that a pound of
Yarrow, Achillea millefolium, was actually a combination of Yarrow and Queen Anne’s Lace, Daucus
carota. They have a similar appearance, but not to a trained eye. I believe that the people who harvested
it were either untrained or they were trying to bulk up their harvest.


In my opinion, the sustainability of importing herbs from the other side of the world should be
questioned. How much fossil fuel does it take to transport Chinese herbs here? The carbon footprint is
an important consideration and growing Chinese herbs in the US is one solution, if we have the right
growing conditions for the right plant. The issue of potency and effectiveness of a particular herb being
grown in a different region should also be questioned. We can also put energy into learning what herbs
are growing around us, in the woods, in the lawns and in our gardens. Plants that we commonly call
weeds, such as dandelion, plantain, and blackberries are very useful medicinal herbs in the Pacific
Northwest. Using local herbs is convenient and we have more of a connection with the plants because
they are part of our immediate environment. If we want to use fresh herbs, they are not always available
from China. Many herbs lose their potency after just a few months of storage. Many leafy herbs such as
Zi Su Ye/ Shiso fall in this category. If we are able to grow some of these herbs on our own, then we
will have the best available medicines for our patients.
In addition to the carbon footprint, the agricultural practices of many farms are questioned. China
does not have an EPA to regulate the chemicals that are used in agriculture, so one may find chemicals
being used in China that are not allowed in the US. However, many of the farmers are too poor to buy
these chemicals and have also learned that many buyers are not interested in plant material that has been
sprayed. The unsprayed material may also get a higher price. Many companies are testing for pesticide
residue, such as Spring Wind and Mayway. (Dharmananda 2002).
Herbs that are wild harvested in China are not subject to pesticides, but the location of harvest is
still important. Some plants grow happily in ditches, on the roadsides and in areas that receive runoff
from farms and factories. We should also question the environmental impact that wild-crafters have.
When I was learning about wild harvesting plants, I was taught to not take more than 25% of a stand of
plants. It is important to leave enough behind so that the plants can have enough to reproduce and to
preserve the genetic diversity that is necessary in order to sustain a healthy life. There is an organization
called United Plant Savers. Their website states that “United Plant Savers is a group of plant enthusiasts
committed to raising public awareness of the plight of our wild medicinal plants and to protecting these
plants through organic cultivation, sustainable agricultural practices, and the replanting of native
medicinal species back into their natural habitats.” They maintain lists of herbs that are “At Risk” and
“To Watch.” These lists have been provided in Appendix 3. Examples of commonly used herbs that
have been impacted by overharvesting are American Ginseng, Goldenseal, Slippery Elm, Echinacea and
Black Cohosh.
The book, “Mending the Web of Life” by Elisabeth Call, looks at the conservation agreements
that are used internationally and the plants that are used in Chinese medicine that are endangered or are
at risk of becoming such. The Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Flora
and Fauna, CITES (, provides a resource in which to find more information. It includes
28,000 plants and 5,000 animals. The herbs that she addresses in herb book are: Agarwood- Chen Xiang,
Aloe- Lu Hui, American Ginseng- Xi Yang Shen, Chain Fern- Gou Ji, Ze Qi, Gan Sui , Da Ji, Tian Ma-
Gastrodia, Shi Hu- Dendrobium, Shen Ci Gu- Cremastrae, and Bai Ji- Bletillae.
How to use the Charts

There are 29 pages of charts in Appendix 4.1 – 4.23. I have used some coding to make them
more compressed. As an example of these charts, Table 1 outlines the bioregional list of warm acrid
herbs that release the exterior. The first column (left side) indicates the availability of the herb. ‘Y’
indicates the seeds or plant material that is available through the listed sources in the bibliography and is
able to be cultivated in the Pacific Northwest. ‘W’ indicates it can be wild harvested in the Pacific
Northwest. ‘S’ indicates that there is a different species that grows here and may or may not be
comparable to the Chinese species that is normally used. ‘OG’ is organically available, but not a local
herb. The third column lists author’s initials next to the common name of the herb, indicating that they
analyzed the herb. ‘TG’ is Thomas Avery Garran, ‘PH’ is Peter Holmes, ‘MT’ is Michael Tierra, and
‘JR’ is Jeremy Ross. The table contains the Chinese Pin Yin name, the English common name and the
Latin names of some of the plants.

Table 1: Warm, Acrid, and Release the Exterior Bioregional List

Availability Pinyin Name Common Name Latin Name, includes Genus, Species and additional
species that are used
Y Bai Zhi Angelica root (JR, MT) Angelica dahurica, anomala, archangelica
W Cang Er Zi Cocklebur fruits Xanthium dibiricim
Y Cong Bai Green Onion (MT) Allium fistulosum
Y Fang Feng Siler Ligusticum brachylobum, Siler divaricatum, Saposhikovia
Y Jing Jie Chinese catnip herb Schizonepeta tenuifolia
W, S Xi Xin Wild Ginger plant (TG) Asarum heterotropoides, sieboldi, caudatum, canadense
Y Xin Yi Hua Magnolia Flower (MT) Magnolia liliflora
Y Zi Su Ye Shiso Leaf Perilla frutescens
Y Basil (MT) Ocimum basilicum
W California Spikenard (TG) Aralia californica
W Coltsfoot/ Butterbur (PH) Petasites spp. Tussilago spp.
W Hedge Nettle (MT) Stachys palustris
Y Hyssop (MT) Hyssopus officinalis
Y Lovage (MT) Levisticum officinale
Y Marjoram (MT) Origanum marjorana
Y Oregano (MT) Origanum vulgare
W Osha (TG, MT, PH) Ligisticum porter
Y Peppermint (PH) Mentha piperita
Y Sage (JR, MT) Salvia officinalis
W Sassafras (MT) Sassafras albidum
Y Savory (MT) Satureja hortensis
Y Yerba Buena (MT) Satureja douglasi

Herbs that were removed from Bioregional List

Gao Ben Chinese lovage root Ligusticum sinensis, jeholense
OG Gui Zhi Cinnamon stems Cinnamomum cassia
Ma Huang Ephedra stems (TG, MT) Ephedra sinica, equisetina, intermedia
Qiang Huo Notopterigium Root Notopterigium incisium, forbesii
OG Sheng Jiang Fresh Ginger root (PH, MT) Zingiber officinale
Xiang Ru Aromatic madder herb Elsholzia splendens, cristata, Mosla chinensis
Substitution of Herbs

I attempted to analyze how to substitute these herbs for the Chinese herbs that are not able to
be grown in the Pacific Northwest and discovered it to be a challenging task. Each herb is different and
has its own, nature, flavor, actions, indications and chemical constituents. In deciding what herbs to use,
we have to learn about each of them, as we did in our herbal classes. But when we are trying to find a
good substitution, in any type of situation, we are going to try to match as many of these qualities as we
Many Chinese herbs are also western herbs and we see them used in a similar way. For example
Shan Zha, known as Hawthorne and includes several species of Crataegus, including the western species
C. laevigata, C. monogyna, C. oxyacantha, and the Chinese species: C. cuneata and C. pinnatifida. All
are used as a cardio tonic, antihypertensive and is used to move the blood and relieve stagnation in the
blood and in the stomach. There are also many examples of western herbs that are closely related to a
Chinese herb species that do not share the same actions at all. Vitex agnus-castus and Vitex rotundifolia,
also known as Man Jing Zi, are very similar in growth, habitat and yet have different actions. Man Jing
Zi is a release the exterior herb that expels wind heat, brightens the eyes and helps with Bi syndrome.
The western Vitex agnus-castus is used for PMS and menstrual irregularities.


Exploring Chinese and Western herbs that can be cultivated or wild-harvested in the Pacific
Northwest is a large topic, and what I present is a work in progress. The culmination of my work is
distilled into the following appendices that I hope is interesting to both the Western Herbalist as well as
the Chinese Medicine Practitioner. The focus of this project is to integrate the Eastern & Western herbal
worlds together in a bioregional way.
After reviewing the issues surrounding the quality and sustainability of herbal medicines I find
myself feeling renewed in spirit and dedicated to ‘A movement towards sustainability of Chinese
Medicine in the western world’. My concerns about the contaminants such as fumigants, sulfur,
irradiation, heavy metals, pharmaceuticals and the practice of substituting herbs without documentation
are very real and supported by my research. The issue of sustainability and the footprint that we make
with importing herbs can be avoided simply by using what we have available locally. I am intrigued by
the ideas of organoleptic testing to compare herbs and I feel that this is a reliable way to discern quality
Although there are challenges to integrate local herbs into the Chinese Medicine framework,
there are an abundance of resources to begin to be more bio-regional in their use of herbs. What I
provide is an additional resource to evaluate where western herbs can fit into the Chinese medicine
model. These tables can be used to expose TCM practitioner to common western herbs and introduce
new herbs that they can apply clinically.
I don’t believe that every person needs to grow their own medicines, but I do hope that if you
call yourself an herbalist, you will find a way to have a closer relationship to the plants you utilize. I
would strongly encourage you to find an herbalist to study with, one who knows the plants that are
growing in your backyard. There are many ‘folk’ herbalists around the United States. Many do distance
learning programs including: Matthew Wood (, Thomas Garran
(, and Michael Tierra ( Herbalists that I studied
with in Northern California and have herbal schools in their area include Christa Sinadinos
(, and Jane Bothwell ( Local Portland and Eugene
herbalists include Howie Brounstein (, , Erico Schleicher
( and Scott Kloos ( There are also
conferences to meet other herbalists and attend lectures such as Breitenbush Herbal Conference in
Oregon, the Northern California Women’s Herbal Symposium (
and the Northwest Herbal Fair in Washington State ( Also, United Plant Savers
( usually has a few annual herbal conferences all over the country, and there
is usually one at Herb Pharm in Southern Oregon. I would suggest that you start where you are, in your
backyard, with the local herbalists and journey into the plants.
Green Blessings!

American Cancer Society. (2008). PC-SPES, PC-HOPE, and PC-CARE,

HerbsVitaminsandMinerals/pc-spes-pc-hope-and-pc-care> Visited June 18, 2011.

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Appendices Table of Contents

Appendix 1: Categories according to Chinese Medicine, Michael Tierra and Thomas Garran
Appendix 2: Categories according to Peter Holmes
Appendix 3: United Plant Savers List
Appendix 4: Herb Charts
4.1 Acrid Cool Release the Exterior
4.2 Acrid Warm Release Exterior
4.3 Astringent
4.4 Clear Deficiency Heat/ Summer Heat
4.5 Clear Heat and Clean Toxins
4.6 Clear Heat and Cool Blood
4.7 Clear Heat and Dry Damp
4.8 Clear Heat and Reduce Fire
4.9 Drain Damp
4.10 Drain Downward
4.11 Kill Parasites
4.12 Move Blood
4.13 Nourish Blood
4.14 Nourish Yin
4.15 Open Orifice
4.16 Regulate Qi
4.17 Relieve Food Stagnation
4.18 Stop Bleeding
4.19 Calm Shen
4.20 Subdue LV Yang & Ext. LV Wind, Sedatives and Nervines
4.21 Tonify Qi
4.22 Tonify Yang
4.23 Topical Use
4.24 Transform Dampness
4.25 Transform Phlegm
4.26 Stop Cough and Relieve Wheezing
4.27 Warm the Interior
4.28 Wind- Damp
Appendix 1 Michael Tierra’s 16 main categories
28 Categories in Chinese Medicine Surface relieving herbs
Acrid Warm to Release the Exterior Warming diaphoretics
Acrid Cool to Release the Exterior Cooling diaphoretics
Clear Heat and Reduce Fire Heat clearing
Clear Heat and Dry Damp Clear heat and purge fire
Clear Heat and Cool Blood Demulcent febrifuges
Clear Deficiency Heat Clear hear and counter toxins
Clear Heat and Toxins Clear heat and dispel dampness
Drain Downward Clear summer heat
Purgatives Laxatives
Moist Laxatives Purgatives
Harsh Expellants Demulcent laxatives
Drain Water and Excrete Dampness Cathartic laxatives
Drain Water and Reduce Edema Diuretics
Promote urination for Lin Syndrome Antirheumatics
Drain Damp and Relieve Jaundice Stimulants
Expel Wind and Dampness Aromatic stomachics
Expel W- D and Disperse Cold Aromatic herbs the resolve dampness
Expel W- D & Strengthen Tendon & Bone Carminatives
Opens Channels and Collaterals Digestants
Stop Cough and Relieve Wheezing Hemostatics
Transform Phlegm Emmenagogues
Cold Phlegm Tonics
Phlegm Heat Herbal tonics and the immune system
Aromatic Herbs to Transform Dampness Qi tonics
Open Orifices and Promote Resuscitation Adrenal yang tonics
Topical Use Tonifying/nutritive herbs
Kill Parasites Yin tonics
Relieve Food Stagnation Astringents
Regulate Qi Sedatives and nerviness
Warm the Interior Strong sedatives
Stop Bleeding Nervines
Stop Bleeding and Cool Blood Calmatives
Stop Bleeding by Astringing Regulating the heart
Stop Bleeding by Removing blood Stasis Aromatic consciousness- reviving herbs
Stop Bleeding by warming the Channels Antispasmodics
Invigorate Blood and Remove Blood Stasis Expectorant and antitussive herbs
Move Blood to Stop Pain Cooling expectorants
Move Blood to treat Menses Warming expectorants
Move Blood for Trauma Antitussives
Move Blood to Break Masses Substances for topical application
Nourish Blood Parasiticides
Calm Shen
Subdue Liver Yang and Extinguish Liver Wind Thomas Avery Garran List 14 categories
Tonify Qi Resolve the Exterior
Tonify Yang Clear heat
Nourish Yin Precipitate (Purge the Bowels)
Astringent Herbs Drain Dampness
Stop Excessive Sweating Dispel Wind and Damp
Astringe Lung and Large Intestine Transform Phlegm and Stop Cough
Stabilize Kidney and Bladder Aromatically Transform Dampness
Rectify Qi
Regulate blood
Warm the Interior and Expel Cold
Stabilize and bind
Calm the Spirit
Extinguish Wind
Appendix 2: Peter Holmes 24 Categories

Herbs for Eliminating

Promote Sweating, dispel wind/cold/heat and reduce fever- diaphoretics
Promote urination, drain fluid congestion and relieve edema- diuretics
Promote bowel movement, remove accumulation and relieve constipation- laxatives
Promote expectoration, resolve phlegm and relieve cough- expectorants
Promote menstruation, clear stagnation and relieve amenorrhea- emmenagogues
Cause vomiting- emetics

Herbs for Restoring

Increase the Qi, replenish deficiency and generate strength- restoratives
Tonify yang, dispel cold and generate warmth- stimulants
Nourish blood, replenish deficiency and generate growth- nutritives
Enrich Yin, moisten dryness and generate fluids- demulcents
Promote astriction, dry damp and stop discharge and bleeding- astringents

Herbs for Draining

Circulate the Qi, loosen constraint and stop spasms- relaxants
Clear heat and reduce fever and inflammation- refrigerants
Vitalize blood, remove congestion, and moderate menstruation- decongestants

Herbs for Altering and Regulating

Promote detoxification, resolve toxicosis and clear eczema and tumors- detoxicants
Regulate autonomic nervous function- CNS regulators
Regulate hormones- hormonal regulators

Herbs for Symptom treatment

Enhance pregnancy and childbirth- pregnancy enhancers
Calm the spirit and relieve anxiety- nervous sedatives
Lift the spirit and relieve depression- nervous stimulants
Relieve pain- analgesics
Promote tissue repair, and relieve pain and swelling- vulneraries
Stimulate immunity; reduce infection and clear toxins- anti- infectives (antibiotics?)
Clear parasites- antiparasitic
Appendix 3: United Plant Savers List of At Risk and To Watch Herbs

“At-Risk” List
American Ginseng - Panax quinquefolius
Black Cohosh - Actaea racemosa (Cimicifuga)
Bloodroot - Sanguinaria canadensis
Blue Cohosh - Caulophyllum thalictroides
Echinacea - Echinacea spp.
Eyebright - Euphrasia spp.
False Unicorn Root - Chamaelirium luteum
Goldenseal - Hydrastis canadensis
Lady’s Slipper Orchid - Cypripedium spp.
Lomatium - Lomatium dissectum
Osha - Ligusticum porteri, L. spp.
Peyote - Lophophora williamsii
Slippery Elm - Ulmus rubra
Sundew - Drosera spp.
Trillium, Beth Root -Trillium spp.
True Unicorn - Aletris farinosa
Venus’ Fly Trap - Dionaea muscipula
Virginina Snakeroot - Aristolochia serpentaria
Wild Yam - Dioscorea villosa, D. spp.

“To-Watch” List
Arnica - Arnica spp.
Butterfly Weed - Asclepias tuberosa
Cascara Sagrada - Frangula purshiana (Rhamnus)
Chaparro - Casatela emoryi
Elephant Tree - Bursera microphylla
Gentian - Gentiana spp.
Goldthread - Coptis spp.
Kava Kava - Piper methysticum (Hawaii only)
Lobelia - Lobelia spp.
Maidenhair Fern - Adiantum pendatum
Mayapple - Podophyllum peltatum
Oregon Grape - Mahonia spp.
Partridge Berry - Mitchella repens
Pink Root - Spigelia marilandica
Pipsissewa - Chimaphila umbellata
Spikenard - Aralia racemosa, A. californica
Stone Root - Collinsonia canadensis
Stream Orchid - Epipactis gigantea
Turkey Corn - Dicentra canadensis
White Sage - Salvia apiana
Wild Indigo - Baptisia tinctoria
Yerba Mansa - Anemopsis californica
Appendix 4:

Abbreviation Key
Availability Sources
MT= Michael Tierra, Planetary
OG= available organically Herbology
Y= seed/ plants available from listed sources PH = Peter Holmes
W= wildcraft locally JR= Jeremy Ross
H= grown here TG= Thomas Avery Garran
S= alternate species available in seed from listed
sources SK= Stacey Kett

Appendix 4.1:
Acrid Cool Release Exterior

Availability Pin Yin Common Name Latin Name

Y Bo He Field Mint Leaf Mentha haplocalyx
Y Chai Hu Bupleurum Root (MT) Bupleurum chinense, scorzoneraefolium
W Ge Gen Kudzu root (MT) Pueraria lobata
Y Ju Hua Chrysanthemum Flower (MT) Chrysanthemum morifolium
Y, S Man Jing Zi Chinese Chaste Tree Seed Vitex rotundifolia, trifolia
Y Niu Bang Zi Burdock Seed (MT) Arctium lappa
Y Sang Ye Mulberry Leaf (MT) Morus alba
Y, S Sheng Ma Chinese Black Cohosh Root Cimicifuga foetida, dahurica, heracleifolia
Y Blue vervain (MT)
Y Boneset (PH) Eupatorium
Y Catnip (MT, PH)
W Elder flower and fruit (TG, MT, PH, JR)
Y Feverfew (MT)
W Horsetail (MT)
Y Lemon balm (MT)
Y Linden Leaf and Flower (PH)
Y Peppermint (MT)
Y Pleurisy root (JR, MT)
Y Sage (JR, TG)
Y Spearmint (PH)
Y Thyme (JR, TG)
Y Yarrow (JR, TG, MT)
Removed herbs
Dan Dou Chi Fermented Soybean Glycine max
Fu Ping Duckweed plant (MT) Spirodela polyrrhiza, Lammn minor
Horsemint (MT) Monarda

Appendix 4.2:
Acrid Warm Release Exterior
Availability Pin Yin Common Name Latin Name
Y Bai Zhi Angelica root (JR, MT) Angelica dahurica, anomala, archangelica
H Cong Bai Green Onion (MT) Alium fistulosum
Y Fang Feng Siler divaricatum, Saposhikovia Ligusticum brachylobum
Y Jing Jie Chinese catnip herb Schizonepeta tenuifolia
W Xi Xin Wild Ginger plant (TG) Asarum heterotropoides, sieboldi
H Xin Yi Hua Magnolia Flower (MT) Magnolia liliflora
Y Zi Su Ye Shiso Leaf Perilla frutescens
Y Basil (MT) Ocimum basilicum
W California Spikenard (TG) Aralia californica
W Coltsfoot (PH) Petasites
W Hedge Nettle (MT) Stachys palustris
Y Hyssop (MT) Hyssopus officinalis
Y Lovage (MT) Levisticum officinale
Y Marjoram (MT) Origanum marjorana
Y Oregano (MT) Origanum vulgare
W Osha (TG, MT, PH) Ligisticum porter
Y Peppermint (PH) Mentha piperita
Y Sage (JR, MT) Salvia officinalis
W Sassafras (MT) Sassafras albidum
Y Savory (MT) Satureja hortensis
Y Yerba Buena (MT) Satureja douglasi
Removed herbs
Cang Er Zi Cocklebur fruits Xanthium dibiricim
Gao Ben Chinese lovage root Ligusticum sinensis, jeholense
OG Gui Zhi Cinnamon stems Cinnamomum cassia
Ma Huang Ephedra stems (TG, MT) Ephedra sinica, equisetina, intermedia
Qiang Huo Notopterigium Root Notopterigium incisium, forbesii
OG Sheng Jiang Fresh Ginger root (PH, MT) Zingiber officinale
Xiang Ru Aromatic madder herb Elsholzia splendens, cristata, Mosla chinensis

Appendix 4.3:

Availability Pin Yin Common Name Latin Name

Y Fu Pen Zi Raspberry Leaf (PH) Rubus chingii
Y Jin Ying Zi Rosehips (MT) Rosa laevigata
H Shan Zhu Yu Cornus fruit Cornus officinalis
Y Ying Su Ke Opium Seed Capsule Papaver somniferum
Y Agrimony (PH)
Y Arborvitae, Thuja (JR, PH)
W Bayberry (JR,TG) Myrica cerifera
W Blackberry (MT, PH)
W Red Root (MT) Ceanothus
Y Cranberry (TG)
W Huckleberry (MT)
Y Lady's Mantle (MT)
Y Nettle (MT)
Y Oak Bark (MT, PH)
Y Sage (JR, PH)
Y Tormentill Rhizome(JR, PH) Potentilla spp.
W White Pond Lily (MT) Nymphea odorata, Nymphaceae
W Witch Hazel (JR, MT)
W Yellow Pond Lily (MT) Nuphar lutea
W, Y Yerba Mansa (MT)
Removed herbs
Chi Shi Zhi Halloysite, kaolin Halloysite, sheet silicate mineral
Fu Xiao Mai Immature Wheat Triticum aestivum
He Zi Chebula fruit Terminalia chebula
Ma Huang Gen Ephedra root (MT) Ephedra sinica, intermedia
Qian Shi Euryales Euryales
OG Rou Dou Kou Nutmeg seed (MT) Myristica fragrans
Shi Liu Pi Pomegranite Rind (MT) Punica granatum
Wu Bei Zi Gallnut of Chinese Sumac Rhus chinensis, potaninii, punjabensis,
Wu Mei Mume fruit Prunus mume
OG Wu Wei Zi Schisandra fruit (MT) Schisandra chinensis, sphenanthera
Alum root, Heuchera, Saxifrag (MT)
Amaranth leafs (MT)
Birthroot Rhizome (PH) Trillium
Bistort (MT, PH) Polygonum bistorta
Canada Fleabane herb (PH) Erigeron
Cranesbill Root (MT, PH)
Eyebright (JR, MT, PH)
Ginkgo nut (MT)
Glutinous Rice Roots (MT)
Horse Chestnut (MT)
Jambul seed (MT)
OG Kava Kava (PH)
Knotgrass herb ((PH) Polygonum
Loosestrife (MT)
OG? Lotus Seed (MT)
Lungwort (PH)
Myrrh (JR, PH)
Pine/ Turpentine Ess oil (PH)
Sumac (PH, MT) Rhus glabra
Wheat Chaff (MT)
White Pond Lily (MT)
OG Witch Hazel (JR, MT)

Appendix 4.4
Clear Deficiency Heat/ Summer Heat

Availability Pin Yin Common Name Latin Name

Y Qing Hao Sweet annie (MT) Artemisia annua
S Yin Chai Hu Stellaria root Stellaria dichotoma
Y Borage (MT)
Y Cucumber (MT)
W Hounds Tongue (MT)
Y Mung Bean (MT)
Y Watermelon (MT)
Removed herbs
Bai Wei Swallowwort root Cynanchum atratum
Di Gu Pi Lycium bark Lycium chinense
Hu Huang Lian Picrorhizae rhizome Picrorhizae scrophulariiflora
Hibiscus (MT)
Impatiens (MT)
Lotus Leaf (MT)

Appendix 4.5
Clear Heat and Clean Toxins

Availability Pin Yin Common Name Latin Name

W Bai Tou Weng Anemone, wind flower rt (MT) Pulsatilla chinensis
Y Ban Zhi Lian Skullcap herb Scutellariae barbata
Y Chuan Xin Lian Andrographis herb Andrographis paniculata
H Jin Yin Hua Honeysuckle flower (MT) Lonicera japonica, hypoglauca, confusa,
H Lian Qiao Forsythia fruit (MT) Forsythia suspensa
A Lu Dou Mung Bean Phaseolus radiatus
W Pu Gong Ying Dandelion herb (JR, MT) Taraxacum sinicum, mongolicum
Y She Gan Blackberry lily rhizome Belamcanda chinensis
W Tu Fu Ling Sarsaparilla (TG, MT, JR) Smilax glabra
W Zi Hua Di Ding Violet herb Viola yedoensis
Y Burdock Root (JR, MT)
Y Calendula/ marigold (JR, PH)
Y Echinacea (JR, PH, TG)
Y Gotu Kola (MT)
Y Plantain Leaf (PH)
Y Purslane (MT, PH)
Y Red Clover (TG, MT,)
Y St. John's Wort (MT)
W Usnea (TG, MT, PH)
Y Yellow Dock root (MT)
Removed herbs
Bai Hua She Oldenlandia herb Hedyotis diffusa
She Cao
Bai Jiang Cao Thlapsi herba Thlapsi arvense
Bai Lian Ampelopsis root Ampelopsis japonica
Ban Lan Gen Isatis root, woad Isatis indigotica
Da Qing Ye Isatis Leaf, woad Isatis indigotica
Hong Teng Sargentodoxa vine Sargentodoxa cuneata
Ma Bo Puffball fruiting body Lasiosphaera fenzlii
Qing Dai Indigo (PH, MT) Baphicacanthus cusia, Polygonum tinctorium,
Isatis tinctorium, Indigofera tinctoria, Babtisia
Shan Ci Gu Cremastra bulb Cremastra appendiculata
Shan Dou Gen Menispermi rhizome Menispermi dauricum
Ya Dan Zi Brucea fruits Brucea javanica
Yu Xing Cao Houttuynia herb Houttuyniae cordata
OG Blue Flag (MT) Iris spp.
Chaparral (MT)
OG Lemon Rind (PH)
Pulsatilla (MT)
Tea Tree (PH)

Appendix 4.6
Clear Heat and Cool Blood

Availability Pin Yin Common Name Latin Name

Y Chi Shao Yao Red Peony root (MT) Peaonia lactiflora, veitchii
Y Mu Dan Pi Moutan root bark (MT) Peaonia suffruticosa
P Sheng Di Rehmannia root, unprepared Rehmannia glutinosa
Huang (MT)
S Xuan Shen Figwort root (TG, MT) Scrophularia ningpoensis
Y Zi Cao Gromwell Root, Borage family Lithospermum erythrorhizon, Arnebia
(MT) euchroma, guttata
Y Burdock Root (JR, TG)
Y Marshmallow root (JR, MT)
Removed herbs
Stillingia root (MT)

Appendix 4.7
Clear Heat and Dry Damp

Availability Pin Yin Common Name Latin Name

Y Huang Lian Coptis rhizome Coptis chinensis, deltoidea, teeta
Y Huang Qin Baical Skullcap root Scutellaria baicalensis
W Long Dan Cao Gentian root (TG, MT, JR) Gentiana manshurica, scabra, triflora, rigescens
Y Artichoke leaf (TG)
W Bearberry/ Uva ursi (JR, PH) Arctostaphylos uva ursi **
W Bilberry Leaf and Fruit (PH) Vaccinium
Y Cornsilk (PH)
Y Dandelion plant (JR, TG, PH)
Y Figwort Root and Herb ((PH)
W Horsetail (PH)
W Oregon Grape (JR, TG, MT) Berberis/ Mahonia
Y Poke Root (JR, PH)
Y Poplar (MT)
Y Walnut Leaf & Hull (PH)
Y Willow (MT, PH)
Y Yellow dock (TG, PH)
W Bayberry/ Wax Myrtle (MT) Myrica/ Morella
Removed herbs
Bai Xian Pi Chinese dittany root bark Dictamnus dasycarpus
Huang Bai Phellodendron bark Phellodendron chinense, amurense
Ku Shen Sophora root Sophora flavescens
Qin Pi Korean Ash bark Fraxinus spp.
Bitterroot (MT) Lewisia
Boldo (MT)
Cascara Amarga, Picramnia spp. ( MT)
Celandine (MT)
Centaury (MT)
Chaparral Leaf (PH)
Cinchona Bark (JR, MT)
Culver's Root (MT)
Fringetree (MT)
Fumitory (MT)
OG Goldenseal (JR, TG, MT, PH)
Loosestrife herb (PH) Lythrum
Ocotillo (TG)
Pau d'Arco Bark (PH)
Queen's Root (PH) Stillingia
Sandalwood (PH)
Wahoo (MT)

Appendix 4.8
Clear Heat and Reduce Fire

Availability Pin Yin Common Name Latin Name

Y Lian Zi Xin Lotus seed (MT) Nelumbo nucifera
W Lu Gen Reed rhizome (MT) Phragmites communis
H Mi Meng Hua Butterfly bush flower Buddleia officinalis
Y Qing Xiang Zi Celosia seeds (MT) Celosia argentea
Y Tian Hua Fen Trichosanthes root Trichosanthes kirilowii, rosthornii
Y Xia Ku Cao Self heal flowers (MT) Prunella vulgaris
Y Zhi Mu Anemarrhena rhizome Anemarrhena aspheloides
Y Zhi Zi Gardenia fruits (MT) Gardenia jasminoides
Y Bittersweet leaves (MT)
W Bogbean herb (PH)
Y Chicory Root (PH)
Y Feverfew (TG)
Y Gentian Root (JR, PH)
Y Meadowsweet (TG, PH) Filipendula ulmaria
Y Viola spp (MT)
Removed herbs
Dan Zhu Ye Lophatherum herb Lophatherum gracile
Shi Gao Gypsum
Bamboo stem and leaves (MT)
Calcitum (MT)

Appendix 4.9
Drain Damp

Availability Pin Yin Common Name Latin Name

Y Bian Xu Knotweed herb (MT) Polygonum avicularis
Y Che Qian Zi Plantain seeds (TG, MT) Plantago asiatica, depressa
H Chi Xiao Dou Aduki Bean (MT) Phaseolus calcaratus, angularis
Y Deng Xin Cao Juncus
Y Dong Kui Zi Albutilon, mallow fruit Malva verticillata, crispa
W Hu Zhang Bushy Knotweed Polygonum cuspidatum
Y Qu Mai Chinese pink herb Dianthus superbus, chinensis
Y Yi Yi Ren Job's tears seed Coix lacryma-jobi
Y Yin Chen Hao Virgate wormwood Artemisia capillaris, scoparia
Y Yu Mi Xu Corn Silk (MT) Zea mays
Y Ze Xie Water plantain rhizome Alisma orientalis
W Black Currant leaf (PH)
Y Burdock (JR, PH)
Y Celery Seed (PH)
W Cleavers (TG, MT, PH)
Y Coriander (MT)
Y Couchgrass (MT, PH)
Y Dandelion leaf (JR, MT, PH)
Y Fennel Seed (PH)
Y Goldenrod (PH)
Y Gravel Root (PH)
Y Heartsease, Viola (PH)
Y Hydrangea Rhizome (MT, PH)
Y Lovage root (PH)
Y Nettle leaf (TG)
Y Parsley (MT, PH)
Y Red Clover (PH)
Y St John's Wort (PH)
W Uva Ursi (JR, MT)
Y Watercress (MT)
Y Watermelon Seeds (MT)
Removed herbs
Bei Xie Tokoro root Dioscorea hypoglauca
Di Fu Zi broom cypress fruit Kochia scoparia
Dong Gua Ren, Winter melon Beninceca
Pi, Zi
Fu Ling Poria (MT) Poria cocos
Hai Jin Sha Lygodium spores Lygodium japonicum
Jin Qian Cao Lysimachia herb Lysimachia christinae
Mu Tong Akebia stem Akebia quinata, trifoliata
Shi Wei Pyrossia leaf Pyrossia sheareri, lingua, petiolosa
Tong Cao Rice paper plant pith Tetrapanax papyferus
Zhi Ling Polyporus Polyporus umbellatus
Buchu Leaf (PH, MT)
Elder Bark (JR, PH)
Pellitory of the Wall (MT) Urticaceae
Pipsissewa, Wintergreen (MT, Pyrola
Poplar Bark (PH)
Sea Holly Root (PH)
Silver Birch Leaf and Bark (PH)
Soapwort Root (PH) Saponaria, Caryophyllaceae
Speedwell (PH)
Squills Bulb (PH)
Wild Carrot, Daucus (MT)

Appendix 4.10
Drain Downward

Availability Pin Yin Common Name Latin Name

Y Da Huang Rhubarb root (JR, MT, PH) Rhaum palmatum, tanguticun
S Da Ji Euphorbia root Euphorbia pekinesis
Y Huo Ma Ren Cannabis sativa seed (MT) Cannabis sativa
H Lu Hui Dried Aloe juice concentrate Aloe barbadensis, ferox
(PH, MT)
Y Ma Zi Ren Cannabis sativa seed Cannabis sativa
Y Buckthorn Bark (MT, TG, PH) Rhamnus spp.
W Cascara Bark (MT, PH)
W Castor oil (MT)
Y Elder Bark (JR, PH)
Epsom salts (MT)
Y Flax seed (MT)
Y Milk Thistle (PH)
Y Olive oil (MT)
Y Poke root (JR, MT)
Y Psyllium (MT)
Y Scotch Broom (JR, MT)
Y Sesame oil (MT)
Y Walnut bark (MT)
Y Wormwood (PH)
Removed herbs
Ba Dou Croton seed (MT) Croton tiglium
Fan Xie Ye Senna leaf (MT, PH) Cassia angustifolia, acutifolia
Gan Sui Kan-sui root Euphorbia Kansui
Qian Niu Zi Morning glory seeds (MT) Pharabitis nil, purpurea
Yu Li Ren Bush cherry pit Prunus humilis, japonica, pedunculata
Yuan Hua Genkwa flower Daphne genkwa
Balmony (PH)
Blue Flag (PH)
Celandine (PH)
Culvers Root (PH)
Fringe tree Root bark (PH)
Fumitory herb, Papaveraceae (PH)
Gamboge (MT)
Mandrake root (MT, PH)
Tamarind Pulp (PH)

Appendix 4.11
Kill Parasites

Availability Pin Yin Common Name Latin Name

H Da Suan Garlic (MT) Allium sativum
H Nan Gua Zi Pumpkin Seed (MT) Curcubita moschata
Y Male Fern (MT) Aspidium and Dryopteris, Polypodiaceae
Y Pink Root (MT) Spigelia merilandica
Y Wormseed (MT) Artemisia spp.
Removed herbs
Bing Lang Areca Seed, betel nut (MT) Areca catechu
Guan Zhong Aspidium/ Shieldfern root Dyopterus crassirhizoma
Ku Lian Gen Pi Melia or China Tree Root Bark Melia toosendan, azedarach
Shi Jun Zi Rangoon creeper fruit with seeds Quisqualis indica
Brucea seeds (MT)
Pomegranite peel, bark and root bark (MT)

Appendix 4.12
Move Blood

Availability Pin Yin Common Name Latin Name

Y Dan Shen Red Sage Salvia miltiorrhiza
Y Hong Hua Safflower (MT) Carthamus tinctorius
Y Huai Niu Xi Achyranthes root Achyranthes bidentate
H Liu Ji Nu Artemisia Artemisia anomalous
Y San Leng Scirpus, burr reed rhizome Sparganium stoloniferum
H Tao Ren Persica, Peach Kernel (MT) Prunus persica, davidiana
Y Wang Bu Liu Vaccaria seeds Vaccaria segetalis
W, Xue Jie Dragon's Blood Daemonorops draco
W Yan Hu Suo Corydalis rhizome (MT) Corydalis yanhusuo
S Yi Mu Cao Chinese Motherwort (JR, PH, Leonurus hertophyllus, cardiaca
H Ze Lan Bugleweed (MT) Lycopus lucidus
Y Angelica (JR, MT)
W Arnica (TG, PH)
Y Black Cohosh (JR, PH)
Y Black Haw Root Bark (JR, PH)
Y Blue Cohosh (MT, PH)
Y Calendula (JR, MT)
Y Cramp Bark (PH, TG)
Y Cypress Tips (PH)
Y Feverfew (PH)
Y Grapevine Leaf (PH)
Y Lovage (MT)
Y Marjoram (PH)
Y Oregano (PH)
Y Pennyroal (MT, PH)
Y Red Root (PH)
Y Rose (MT)
Y Rue (JR, PH, MT, JR)
Y Saffron (MT)
Y Shepard's Purse (JR, PH)
Y Stoneroot (MT, PH) Collinsonia
Y Tansy (JR, MT, PH)
OG Turmeric (MT)
Y Vervain (MT)
Y Vitex (PH, MT)
W Wild ginger (MT, PH)
Y Yarrow (JR, PH)
Removed herbs
Chuan Niu Xi Cyanthula root Cyanthula officinalis
Chuan Xiong Cnidium, Szechuan Lovage Root Ligusticum chuanxiong
E Zhu Zedoria, rhizome Curcuma spp.
Ji Xue Tang Millettia vine Spatholobus suberectus
Jiang Huang Turmeric Rhizome (MT) Curcuma longa
Jiang Xiang Dalbergia Heartwood, scented Dalbergia odorifera
Mo Yao Myrrh (MT) Commiphora myrrha, Balsamodendron
Ru Xiang Frankincense (MT) Boswellia carterii
Xue Jie Dragon's Blood Daemonorops draco
OG Yu Jin Curcuma tuber Curcuma spp.
Butcher's Broom (PH)
Collinsonia root (MT)
Hazelwort rhiz./Euro snakeroot Asarum europaeum
Horse Chestnut (PH)
Lady's Slipper Rhiz. Orchid
Pasque Flower, Root and Herb (PH)
Squaw Vine (PH) Mitchella repens
OG Witch Hazel (JR, PH)

Appendix 4.13
Nourish Blood

Availability Pin Yin Common Name Latin Name

Y Bai Shao Yao White Peony (MT) Paeonia lacitflora
Y Dang Gui Angelica (JR, MT) Angelica sinensis
Y He Shou Wu Fleece flower vine root Polygonum multiflorum
Y Shu Di Huang Rehmannia root, prepared (MT) Rehmannia glutinosa
Y Alfalfa (PH)
Y Artichoke Leaf (PH)
Y Black currant (MT)
Y Blackberry and raspberry fruit (MT)
W Bladderwrack (PH)
Y Flower Pollen (PH)
H Gelatin (MT)
Y Grapes (MT)
W Huckleberry (MT)
Iron (MT)
W Kelp (PH)
OG Lycii Berries (MT)
W Microalgae (PH)
Y Molasses (MT)
Y Mulberry Fruit (MT)
Y Nettle (PH)
Y Oatstraw and seed (PH)
Y Watercress (PH)
Y Wheatgrass (PH)
Y Yellow Dock (MT)
Removed herbs
Long Yan Rou Longan Fruit (MT) Dimocarous longan= Euphoria longana
Amla- ayurvedic (MT)

Appendix 4.14
Nourish Yin

Availability Pin Yin Common Name Latin Name

Y Gou Qi Zi Lycium Fruit, chinese wolfberry Lycium barbarum
Y Han Lian Cao Eclipta herb (MT) Eclipta prostrata
H Hei Zhi Ma Black Sesame Seed (MT) Sesamum indicum
S Huang Jing Siberian Solomon's Seal (MT, Polygonatum spp.
H Mai Men Dong Ophiopogon tuber (MT) Ophiopogon japonicus
H Nu Zhen Zi Privet Fruit (MT) Ligustrum lucidium
H Sang Shen Mulberry Fruit Morus alba
Y Sha Shen Glehnia root Glehnia littoralis
Y Tian Men Dong Asparagus Tuber (MT, PH) Asparagus cochinchinensis
S Yu Zhu Scented Solomon's Seal Polygonatum odorati
OG Aloe Gel (PH)
Y Borage leaf (PH)
Y Chickweed (PH)
Y Comfrey Root (PH, MT)
Y Mallow Flower (PH)
Y Marshmallow root (JR, TG, MT, PH)
Y Mullein Leaf (PH)
Y Oat seed (TG)
W Poplar Bud (PH)
Removed herbs
Bai He Lily Bulb (MT) Lilium lancifolium, brownii, pumilum
Han Lian Cao Eclipta herb (MT) Eclipta prostrata
Nan Sha Shen Adenophora root Adenophora tetraphylla, stricta
Shi Hu Dendrobium herb Dendrobium spp.
Pyrola (MT) Pyrola rotundifolia and spp. Pyroliaceae
Iceland moss (MT, PH)
Irish Moss (MT, PH)
Slippery Elm (MT, PH)

Appendix 4.15
Open Orfice

Availability Pin Yin Common Name Latin Name

Y Shi Chang Pu Acorus, sweetflag rhizome (MT) Acorus tatarinowii, Acorus calamus
Y Bay Leaf (MT)
Removed herbs
Bing Pian Borneol Blumea balsamifera
Su He Xiang Styrax/ resin (MT) Liquidamberis orientalis
Camphor (MT)

Appendix 4.16
Regulate Qi

Availability Pin Yin Common Name Latin Name

H Mei Gui Hua Rose bud (MT) Rosa rugosa
H Shi Di Persimmon Calyx (MT) Diospyros kaki
W Xiang Fu Cyperus, nut grass rhizome Cyperus rotundus
Y Xie Bai Bakeri, chinese garlic chives Allium macrostemon
Y Black Cohosh (JR, TG)
Y Caraway seed (PH)
Y Chamomile (PH)
Y Chives (MT)
Y Cumin (MT)
Y Vitex (TG)
Y Wild Yam (PH)
Removed herbs
OG Chen Pi Citrus Peel, tangerine (MT) Citrus reticulata
Chen Xiang Aquilaria wood, aloeswood Aquilaria sinensis
Chuan Lian Zi Melia or China Tree Berry Meila toosendan
Da Fu Pi Areca Seed peel, betel nut peel Areca catechu
Fo Shou Finger Citron Citrus medica variety sarcodactylis
Li Zhi He Litchi Kernel Litchi chinensis
OG Qing Pi Green Citrus Peel, unripe (MT) Citrus reticulata
Shi Di Persimmon Calyx (MT) Diospyros kaki
Tan Xiang White Sandalwood (MT) Santalum album
Wu Yao Lindera root Lindera aggregata = strychinifolia
Zhi Ke Bitter Orange (MT, PH) Citrus aurantium
Zhi Shi Immature Bitter Orange Citrus aurantium, sinensis

Appendix 4.17
Relieve Food Stagnation

Availability Pin Yin Common Name Latin Name

Y Gu Ya Rice Sprout (MT) Oryza sativa
H Lai Fu Zi Radish seed (MT) Raphanus sativus
Y Mai Ya Barley Sprout (MT) Hordeum vulgare
W Shan Zha Hawthorn Fruit (MT, JR) Crataegus pinnatifida
Y Angelica root, archangelica (JR, PH)
Y Bayberry Root Bark (PH)
Y Blessed Thistle (PH)
Y Calamus, Acorus PH)
Y Horseradish (PH)
Y Live Yeast (MT)
W Oregon Grape Root (JR, PH)
Removed herbs
Shen Qu Medicated Leaven Contains Xing Ren, Chi Xiao Dou, Qing Hao,
Cang Er Cao
Asafoetida (MT)
OG Black pepper (PH)
OG Cardamom (PH)
Centaury (PH)

Appendix 4.18
Stop Bleeding

Availability Pin Yin Common Name Latin Name

Y Ai Ye Mugwort (MT) Artemisia argyi
Y Da Ji Large Thistle Cirsium japonicum
Y Di Yu Burnet (MT) Sanguisorba officinalis
W Pu Huang Pollen Typhae/ Cattail Bush Typha angustifolia, orientalis
Y Xian He Cao Agrimony (MT) Agrimonia pilosa
Y Xiao Ji Small Thistle Cirsium setosum
Y Blessed thistle (MT)
Y Lady's Mantle (PH)
Y Milkthistle (MT)
Y Red Raspberry (MT)
Y Rose (PH)
Y Shepard's Purse (JR, MT)
Y Thuja (JR, MT)
Y Wood Sorrel (PH)
Removed herbs
Bai Ji Bletilla rhizome Bletilla striata
Bai Mao Gen Wolly Grass Imperata cylindrica
Ce Bai Ye Biota Leaves/ Arborvitae Platycladus orientalis
Fu Long Gan Ignited yellow earth/ earthen Terra flava usta
Huai Hua Sophora Fruit, Pagoda Tree bud Sophora japonica
Ou Jie Lotus Rhizome Node (MT) Nelumbo nucifera
Pao Jiang Blast fired/ dry fried ginger Zingiber officinale
Qian Cao Gen Madder Root (MT) Rubia cordifolia
San Qi Pseudoginseng (MT) Panax notoginseng
Zao Xin Tu Ignited yellow earth/ earthen Terra flava usta
Zhu Ma Gen Ramie Root Boehmeria nivea
Zong Lu Tan Trachycarpus Stiple Fiber Trachycarpus fortunei
Dragon's Blood (MT)
Sanicle (PH)
Trillium (MT)

Appendix 4.19
Calm Shen

Availability Pin Yin Common Name Latin Name

W Bai Zi Ren Biota Seed, arborvitae (MT) Thuja orientalis, Biota orientalis
Y He Huan Hua Albizzia flower Albizzia julibrissin
W Ling Zhi Ganoderma/ Reishi Ganoderma lucidium, sinense = japonicum
H Suan Zao Ren Jujubee Seed (MT) Zizyphus spinosa
Y Ye Jiao Teng Fleece flower vine, Stem of He Polygonium multiflorum
Shou Wu
Y Yuan Zhi Chinese senega, thinkleaf Polygala tenuifolia, sibirica
milkwort root (MT)
W Anemone (JR)
Y Bugleweed Herb (PH)
Y California Poppy (TG, MT, PH)
Y Chamomile (TG, MT)
Y Hops (MT, PH)
OG Kava Kava (TG)
Y Lavender Flower (JR, PH)
Y Lemon balm (PH) Melissa officinalis
W Mistletoe (PH)
Oyster shell (MT)
Y Passion flower (TG, MT, PH)
Y Scullcap (TG, MT, PH)
Y Selfheal (PH)
Y St. John's Wort (TG)
Y Valerian (JR, MT, TG, PH)
Y Wild Lettuce Leaf (PH)
Y Wood betony (MT, PH)
Removed herbs
Hu Po Succinum/ Amber Amber, fossil resin (MT)
Ye Jiao Teng Fleece flower vine Polygonium multiflorum
Bitter Orange Flower, Neroli Ess. Oil (PH)
Cowslip Flower (PH)
Fluorite (MT)
Hematite (MT)
Jamaican Dogwood Root Bark (JR, PH)
OG Kava Kava (TG)
Ladies Slipper (MT)
Melilot herb, Sweet Clover (PH)
Pearl (MT)

Appendix 4.20
Subdue LV Yang & Ext. LV Wind, Sedatives and Nervines

Availability Pin Yin Common Name Latin Name

Mu Li Oyster Shell Ostrea gigas, talienwhanensis, rivularis
Y Lobelia (JR, MT, TG)
Y Wild yam root (MT) Dioscorea villosa
Removed herbs
Bai Ji Li Puncture vine fruit Tribulus terrestris
Ci Ji Li Puncture vine fruit Tribulus terrestris
Gou Teng Uncaria vine Uncaria spp.
Jue Ming Zi Cassia Seed Cassia obtusifolia, tora
Shi Jue Ming Abalone shell (MT) Haliotis spp.
Tian Ma Gastrodia rhizome Gastroidia elata
Belladonna (MT)
Black Haw (JR, MT)
Caltrop, Tribulus (MT)
Datura (MT)
Gambir, Uncaria stem and hooks (MT)
Henbane (MT)

Appendix 4.21
Tonify Qi

Availability Pin Yin Common Name Latin Name

Y Bai Bian Dou Dolichos, lentil? Dolichos lablab
Y Bai Zhu White Atractylodes rhizome Atractylodes macrocephala
Y Ci Wu Jia/ Wu Siberian Ginseng/ Acanthopanax Eleutherococcus senticosus
Jia Shen (MT)
Y Da Zao Jujubee (MT) Zizyphus jujuba
Y Dang Shen Codonopsis root (MT) Codonopsis pilosula, tangshen
W Feng Mi Honey (MT) Honey
Y Gan Cao Licorice (JR, PH, MT) Glycyrrhiza uralensis, inflata, glabra
Y Huang Qi Astragalus root (MT) Astragalus membranaceus
Y Shan Yao Chinese Yam Rhizome (MT) Dioscorea opposita
H Xi Yang Shen American Ginseng (MT) Panax quinquefolium
OG Yi Tang Maltose rice, wheat, corn, and other seeds
Y Zhi Gan Cao Honey Fried Licorice Glycyrrhiza uralensis
OG Barley Malt/ Rice Syrup (MT)
Y Elecampagne root (TG, MT, PH)
Y Hawthorne (TG, JR, PH)
Y Milk Thistle (TG)
Y Parsley Root (PH)
Y Spikenard (MT)
Removed herbs
Ren Shen Ginseng (MT) Panax ginseng
Tai Zi Shen Pseudostellaria root Pseudostellaria heterophylla
Starflower (MT) Trientalis borealis/ Primulaceae
Suma, Amaranthaceae (MT)

Appendix 4.22
Tonify Yang

Availability Pin Yin Common Name Latin Name

H Hu Tao Ren Walnut (MT) Juglans regia
Y Jiu Cai Zi Allium Seed, Chinese leek seeds Allium tuberosum
Y Sha Yaun Zi Astragalus Seed Astragalus complanatus
Y Sha Yuan Ji Li Astragalus Seed Astragalus complanatus
Y Xu Duan Teasel root (MT) Dipsacus asperoides
Y Yin Yang Huo Horny Goat Weed Herb (MT) Epimedium spp.
Y Ashwagandha (MT)
Y Celery seeds (MT)
Y Fenugreek seeds (MT)
Y Garlic (MT)
Y Geranium (PH)
Y Jasmine Flower (PH)
Y Mugwort (JR, PH)
OG Saw Palmetto (PH, MT)
Y White Deadnettle herb and root (PH)
Removed herbs
Ba Ji Tian Morinda root Morinda officinalis
Bu Gu Zhi Psoralea fruit (MT) Psoralea corylifolia
Dong Chong Cordyceps Cordyceps sinensis
Xia Cao
Du Zhong Eucommia bark Eucommia ulmoides
Gou Ji Cibotium rhizome, chain fern Cibotium barometz
Rou Cong Cistanches Cistanches deserticola
Suo Yang Cynamorium Cynomorium
Tu Si Zi Chinese Dodder seeds (MT) Cuscuta chinensis
Xian Mao Curculigo, golden eye-grass Curculigo orchoides
Yang Qi Shi Actinolite Actinolite
Yi Zhi Ren Black Cardamon, bitter-seeded Alpinia oxyphylla
Cotton Root (MT)
Cubeb (MT) Pipir cubeba
Damiana (JR, TG, MT, PH)
False Unicorn Root (PH, MT) Helonias/ Liliaceae
Life Root herb (PH) Senecio aureus
Muira-Puama (MT)
Saw Palmetto (PH, MT)
Yohimbe (MT)

Appendix 4.23
Topical Use

Availability Pin Yin Common Name Latin Name

Che Qian Plantain (SK)
Pu Gong Ying Dandelion (SK)
Xia Ku Cao Self Heal (SK)
Xuan Shen Figwort (SK)
Zi Hua Di Ding Violet (SK)
Comfrey (SK)
Yarrow (SK)
Yellow Dock (SK)
Removed herbs
She Chuang Zi Cnidium Seed Cnidium monnieri
Zhang Nao Camphor (MT) Cinnamomum camphora
Borax (MT)
Buttercup, Rannunculus leaf and flower (MT)
Daffodil (MT)
Delphinium (MT)
Minium (MT)
Tulip bulb (MT)

Appendix 4.24
Transform Dampness

Availability Pin Yin Common Name Latin Name

H Cang Zhu Red Atractylodes rhizome Atractylodes lancea, chinensis
H Hou Po Magnolia Bark (MT) Magnolia officinalis
Y Huo Xiang Agastache, patchouli (MT) Pogostemon cablin
Y Caraway (MT)
Y Dill (MT)
Y Sweet Cicely, Osmorrhiza (TG)
Removed herbs
Bai Dou Kou Cluster Cardamon Amomum krervanh, compactum
Cao Dou Kou Katsumadai galangal seeds Alpinia katsumadai
Cao Guo Tsaoko fruit Amomum tsao-ko
Pei Lan Eupatorium herb Eupatorium fortunei
OG Sha Ren Cardamon, grains of paradise Amomum villosum
fruit (MT)

Appendix 4.25
Transform Phlegm

Availability Pin Yin Common Name Latin Name

H Bai Jie Zi Mustard seed (MT) Brassica juncea, Sinapis alba
H Ban Xia Pinellia rhizome Pinellia ternata
Y Gua Lou Trichosanthes fruit (MT) Trichosanthes kirilowii, rosthornii
Y Gua Lou Gen Trichosanthes root Trichosanthes kirilowii, rosthornii
Y Gua Lou Pi Trichosanthes peel Trichosanthes kirilowii, rosthornii
Y Gua Lou Ren Trichosanthes seed Trichosanthes kirilowii, rosthornii
W Hai Zao Sargassum seaweed Sargassum pallidum
Y Huang Yao Zi Dioscorea tuber Dioscorea bulbifera
Y Jie Geng Balloon flower root (MT) Platycodon grandiflorus
W Kun Bu Kelp (MT) Ecklonia kurome
H Tian Zhu Bamboo Silica Bambusa textilis, Schizostachyum chinense
S Xuan Fu Hua Inula flower Inula japonica, britannica
H Zhu Ru Bamboo Shavings (MT) Bambusa textilis, Sinocalamus beecheyanus,
Phyllostachys nigra
Y Basil (PH)
Y Chickweed (MT)
W Coltsfoot (PH)
Y Comfrey (MT)
Y Elecampagne (MT)
W Eucalyptus leaf (PH, MT)
Y Grindelia (MT)
Y Horehound (PH, MT)
Y Hyssop (PH)
W Pine (PH)
Y Pleurisy (JR, PH) Asclepias tuberosa
Y Thyme (JR, PH, MT)
Y Winter Savory (PH)
Y Yerba Santa (PH, MT)
Removed herbs
Bai Fu Zi Typhonium rhizome Typhonium giganteum
Bai Qian Cynanchum root and rhizome Cynanchum stauntonii, glaucescens
Chuan Bei Mu Tendrilled from Sichuan (MT) Fritillaria cirrhosa, unibracteata, przewalskii,
Dan Nan Xing prepared w/ bile Arisaema erubescens, heterophyllum, amurense
Hai Ge Ke Clam Shell (MT) Meretrix meretrix, Cyclina sinensis
Pang Da Hai Sterculia seed Sterculia lychnophora
Qian Hu Hog fennel root (MT) Peucedanum praeruptorum, decursivum
Tian Nan Xing jack-in-the-pulpit (MT) Arisaema erubescens, heterophyllum, amurense
Wa Leng Zi Ark Shell Arca subcrenata, granosa, inflata
Zhe Bei Mu Thunberg Fritillaria Fritillaria thunbergii
Zhu Li Dried Bamboo Sap Bambusa textilis, Sinocalamus beecheyanus,
Phyllostachys nigra
Bloodroot (MT, PH)
Immortal Root, Asclepias(PH)
Pumice (MT)
Scabious root and herb (PH)
Sundew, Drosera (MT)

Appendix 4.26
Stop Cough and Relieve Wheezing

Availability Pin Yin Common Name Latin Name

Y Bai Guo Ginkgo Seed Ginkgo biloba
H Kuan Dong Coltsfoot Flower (MT) Tussilago farfara
H Sang Bai Pi Mulberry Root Bark, and Bark Morus alba
Y Su Zi Perilla Seed Perilla frutescens
H Xing Ren Apricot Seed (MT) Prunus spp.
Y Zi Wan Purple Aster Root (MT) Aster tartaricus
Y Grindelia (TG, PH)
Y Lobelia root and herb (JR, PH)
Y Mullein (MT)
Y Pleurisy root (TG,)
Y Wild Cherry Bark (MT, PH)
Y Yerba Santa (TG)
Removed herbs
Bai Bu Stemona root Stemona spp.
Pi Pa Ye Loquat Leaf (MT) Eriobotryae japonica
Ting Li Zi Lepidium seed, tingli seed Lepidium apetalum, Descurainia sophia
Aniseed (PH)
Honey Locust pods (MT)
Lungwort (MT)
Skunk Cabbage Root (PH)
Sticta lichen (MT)
Sundew (PH)

Appendix 4.27
Warm the Interior

Availability Pin Yin Common Name Latin Name

Y Chuan Jiao Sichuan/ Zanthoxylum Zanthoxylum schinifolium, bungeanum
Y Fu Zi Aconite (MT) Aconitum carmichaeli, kusnezoffi
Y Hua Jiao Sichuan pepper Zanthoxylum schinifolium, bungeanum
W Xiao Hui Xiang Fennel seed (MT) Foeniculum vulgare
W Bayberry, Myrica (JR, MT, PH)
Y Cayenne (TG, MT, PH)
Y Horseradish (MT)
Y Rosemary (JR, PH)

Removed herbs
OG Ding Xiang Clove (MT)
OG Gan Jiang Dry Ginger (MT)
OG Gao Liang Galangal root (MT)
OG Rou Gui Cinnamon Peel (PH, MT)
Wu Zhu Yu Evodia
OG Anise Seed (MT)
OG Black Pepper (MT)
Camphor (PH)
Prickly Ash Bark (MT, PH, JR) Xanthoxylum
OG Star Anise (MT)

Appendix 4.28
Wind- Damp

Availability Pin Yin Common Name Latin Name

Y Du Huo Angelica (TG) Angelica pubescens
W Lu Lu Tong Sweet gum fruit Liquidamberis formosana
H Mu Gua Chinese quince fruit (MT) Chaenomelis apeciosa
Y Qin Jiao Gentian root Gentiana macrophylla, straminea, crassicaulis
W,S Sang Ji Sheng Mullberry mistletoe stems Loranthus chinensis = Taxillus chinensis
H Sang Zhi Mulberry twig (MT) Morus alba
W,S Shen Jin Cao Clubmoss Lycopodium japonicum
Y Wei Ling Xian Chinese Clematis Root (MT) Clematis chinensis, manshurica, hexapetala
S Wu Tou- Cao Aconite, wild Aconitum kusnezoffi
S Wu Tou- Sichuan aconite main root Aconitum carmichaeli
Chuan Wu
W Birch (MT) Betula spp.
Y Bittersweet stem (PH)
Y Black Cohosh (JR, MT)
Y Cocklebur (MT)
Y Devil's Claw (JR, MT)
W Vanilla Leaf, Twin leaf(MT) Jeffersonia spp. Berberidaceae
W Juniper Berry (TG, PH)
Y Meadowsweet (JR, PH, MT)
W Pine (MT)
W Wintergreen, (TG, MT) Gaultheria spp.
W, Y Yerba Mansa (TG)
Removed herbs
Hai Feng Teng Kadsura pepper stem Piper kadsura
Hai Tong Pi Coral bean bark Erythrina variegata
Luo Shi Teng Star jasmine stem (MT) Trachelospermum jasminoides
Qian Nian Jian Homalomena rhizome Homalomena occulta
Qing Feng teng Orient vine Sinemenuium acutum
Wu Jia Pi Acanthopanax/ Eleuthero root Eleutherococcus gracilistylus = Acanthopanax
bark (MT) g.
Xi Xian Cao Siegesbekia herb Siegesbekia orientalis, pubescens
Cowslip Root (PH) Primulaceae
Guiacum (MT)
Jamacia Sarsaparilla rt (JR, PH)
Jeffersonia (MT)
Kava Kava (MT)
Poison Oak/ Ivy (MT)
Polypody fern (MT)
Sassafras Bark Root (TG, PH)
Virginia Snakeroot (PH)
White Bryony (MT)