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Solutions Manual to Accompany

Heating and Cooling of Buildings


Design for Efficiency

(Second Edition, © 2002 by Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl)

Solutions prepared by
Wendy Hawthorne and Michael Johnston
Heating and Cooling of Buildings
Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

Contents

To the Instructor .................................................................................................... ii


Nomenclature....................................................................................................... iii
Conversion factors ............................................................................................... vi
Chapter 1 ............................................................................................................. 1
Chapter 2 ............................................................................................................. 9
Chapter 3 ........................................................................................................... 38
Chapter 4 ........................................................................................................... 59
Chapter 5 ......................................................................................................... 113
Chapter 6 ......................................................................................................... 140
Chapter 7 ......................................................................................................... 165
Chapter 8 ......................................................................................................... 195
Chapter 9 ......................................................................................................... 210
Chapter 10 ....................................................................................................... 239
Chapter 11 ....................................................................................................... 269
Chapter 12 ....................................................................................................... 294
Chapter 13 ....................................................................................................... 312
Chapter 14 ....................................................................................................... 315

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Heating and Cooling of Buildings
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To the Instructor

If you discover any errors in these solutions or any errors in the textbook itself,
the authors want to learn of them. Please contact

Dr. Jan F. Kreider


Kreider & Associates, LLC
1455 Oak Circle
Boulder, CO 80304-1226 USA
(jfk@well.com or kreider@bechtel.colorado.edu)

Thank you.

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Nomenclature
A Annual payment
A Area
Alife Levelized annual cost
Am Annual cost for maintenance, first-year $
AFUE Annual fuel utilization efficiency, %
Ccap Capital cost, first-year $
Cd Draft coefficient for resistance to airflow between floors
Ceff Effective heat capacity of building, Btu/°F [J/°C]
Clife Life cycle cost
Csalv Salvage value, first-year $
Cyr Normalized annual consumption
CLFt Cooling load factor at time t
CLTDt Cooling load temperature difference at time t, °F [°C]
COP Coefficient of performance
CPI Consumer price index
c Cost
c Heat capacity, Btu/°F [kJ/°C]
cp Specific heat, Btu/lbm·°F [kJ/(kg·K)]
d Distance, miles [km]
d Diameter, feet [meters]
CDD(Tbal) Cooling degree-days for base Tbal, °F-days [°C-days]
HDD(Tbal) Heating degree-days for base Tbal, °F-days [°C-days]
E Radiation emissive power, Btu/ft2 [W/m2]
Eb Blackbody emissive power, Btu/ft2 [W/m2]
g Acceleration due to gravity = 32.2 ft/s2 [9.81 m/s2]
Ho Extraterrestrial daily irradiation, [MMBtu/ft2] [MJ/m2]
Hglo, hor Daily global irradiation at earth's surface, [MMBtu/ft2] [MJ/m2]
Hglo, vert Daily global irradiation on vertical surface, [MMBtu/ft2] [MJ/m2]
h Enthalpy, Btu/lbm [kJ/kg]
h Height, feet [meters]
h Hydraulic head referring to pressure, feet [meters]
hcon Convection heat transfer coefficient, Btu/hr-ft2-°F [W/(m2-C)]
hi Indoor surface heat transfer coefficient, Btu/hr-ft2-°F [W/(m2-C)]
ho Outdoor surface heat transfer coefficient, Btu/hr-ft2-°F [W/(m2-C)]
Io Extraterrestrial irradiance, Btu/ft2 [W/m2]
Idif Diffuse irradiance on horizontal surface, Btu/ft2 [W/m2]
Idir Beam (direct) irradiance at normal incidence, Btu/ft2 [W/m2]
Iglo,hor Global horizontal irradiance, Btu/ft2 [W/m2]
Iglo,p Global irradiance on tilted plane, Btu/ft2 [W/m2]
J Joules
Kcond Conductive heat transmission coefficient, Btu/hr-°F [W/°C]
KT Daily solar clearness index
KT Monthly average solar clearness index
Ktot Total heat transmission coefficient of building, Btu/hr-°F [W/°C]

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k Thermal conductivity, Btu/hr-ft-°F [W/m-°C]


kT Instantaneous or hourly clearness index
L Load, Btu [kW]
Lat Latitude, deg
Long Longitude, deg
M Mass, lb [kg]

M Mass flow rate, lb/sec [kg/sec]
N System life, yr
Nbin Number of hours per bin of bin method
Ndep Depreciation period, yr
p Pressure, psi [Pa]
(P/F, r, N) Present worth factor
Pmax Peak demand, kW
pdem Demand charge, $/kW/month
PLR Part load ratio
pe Price of energy, $/Btu [$/GJ]
pe Levelized energy price, $/Btu [$/GJ]
pins Price of insulation, $/ft2 [$/m2]
Q Energy consumption, Btu [Joules]
Q Heat flow, Btu/hr [W]
Qannual Annual energy, MMBtu [kWh]
SC Shading coefficient
SEER Seasonal energy efficiency ratio
SHGF Solar heat gain factor, Btu/ft2 [W/m2]
SPF Seasonal performance factor
s Seconds
s Entropy, Btu/lbm-°F [kJ/(kg -°C)]
T Temperature, °F [°C]
Tdb Dry-bulb air temperature, °F [°C]
Tbal Balance-point temperature of building, °F [°C]
Ti Indoor air temperature, °F [°C]
Ttstat Thermostat setpoint temperature, °F [°C]
To Outdoor air temperature, °F [°C]
To, ave Average outdoor temperature on design day, °F [°C]
To, max Design outdoor temperature, °F [°C]
TOS Sol-air temperature, °F [°C]
TOS,t Sol-air temperature of outside surface at time t, °F [°C]
To,t Average outdoor temperature for any hour t of month, °F [°C]
To, yr Annual average temperature, °F [°C]
tsol Solar time, h
tss Sunset time, h
U Overall heat transfer coefficient, Btu/hr-ft2-°F [W/m2-C]
u Wind speed, ft/s [m/s]
V Flow rate, ft3/s or GPM [m3/s or liters/s]
v Volume, ft3 [liters]
v Velocity, ft/s or ft/min [m/s]

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W Work, Btu [kJ]


w Thickness of wall, ft [m]
x Distance, ft [m]
Y Annual yield

Greek

α Absorptivity for solar radiation


β grid penetration, fraction
βs Altitude angle of sun (= 90°- θs)
∆p pressure differential
∆T Indoor/Outdoor temperature difference, Ti - To, °F [°C]
∆t Time step h
∆x Thickness of layer, ft [meters]
δ Solar declination, degrees
η efficiency
θi Incidence angle of sun on plane, degrees
θp Zenith angle of plane (tilt from horizontal, up > 0), degrees
θs Zenith angle of sun, degrees
λ Latitude
ρ Density, lbm/ft3 [kg/m3]
ρg Reflectivity of ground
φp Azimuth angle of plane, degrees
φs Azimuth angle of sun, degrees

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Conversion factors

1 meter = 3.2808 ft = 39.37 inches


1 km = 0.621 miles
1 m² = 10.76 ft2
1 cm² = 0.155 in2
1 gal ≡ 0.13368 ft3 = 3.785 liters
1 kg = 2.2046 lbm
1 lbf = 4.448 N
1 Btu = 252 cal = 1055 joules
1 Atm ≡ 14.696 lbf/in2 = 101325 Pa
1 mm Hg = 0.01934 lbf/in2
1 kW = 3412 Btu/hr
1 bar ≡ 105 N/m2 = 14.504 lbf/in2
1 Pa ≡ 1 N/m2 = 0.00014504 lbf/in2
1 in Hg ≡ 3376.8 Pa
1 in water ≡ 248.8 Pa
1 W/m2 = 0.3170 Btu/ft2·hr
1 W/m·°C = 0.5778 Btu/hr·ft·°F
1 kJ/kg = 0.4299 Btu/lbm
1 kJ/kg·°C = 0.23884 Btu/lbm·°F
1 watt = 1 joule/second
1 HP ≡ 550 ft·lbf/s = 746 watts
1 Quad = 1015 Btu
°F = °C·1.8 + 32
0°C = 32°F, 273.16 K and 491.69R

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Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 1
Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

Chapter 1

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Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 1
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1.2)

GIVEN: Furnace output = 50,000 Btu/hr

FIND: output expressed in SI units and number of 100 W light bulbs with the
same output.

SOLUTION:

Btu 1055 J 1hr J


50,000 ⋅ ⋅ = 14,653 = 14,650 W
hr Btu 3600 s s

14,650 W
= 146.5 bulbs
100 W / bulb

Comment: In commercial buildings, lights are often the largest heat source in
the building, often creating a need for air conditioning all year.

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Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 1
Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

1.4)

GIVEN: Heating value of gasoline = 3.4 x 107 J/L

FIND: Energy transfer during fill-up. Compare to a typical 1 kW residence.

ASSUMPTIONS: Consider a car holds 40 L of gas. A fill up takes 5 minutes at


the pump.

SOLUTION:

J
3.4 ⋅ 10 7 ⋅ (40 L)
L J
= 4.5 ⋅ 10 6 = 4500 kW
5 min⋅ (60s / min) s

The heat transfer rate is 4500 times the average all electric house.

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Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 1
Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

1.6)

GIVEN: Q = 50 to 100 GJ; Tstore = 70ºC, Tuse = 30ºC

FIND: Size of storage tank needed.

ASSUMPTIONS: There are no losses from the tank.

LOOKUP VALUES: cp,water = 4186 J/kgºC; ρw = 978 kg/m3 at 70ºC

SOLUTION:

Q = mc p ∆T
J
75GJ = m(4186 
)(70  C − 30  C )
kg C
m = 4.5 ⋅ 10 5 kg of water
m 4.5 ⋅ 10 5 kg
v= = = 460 m3 or a storage volume 15 m x 15 m x 2.3 m
ρ 978kg / m 3

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Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 1
Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

1.7)

GIVEN: House with a 1-ton air conditioner, running 500 hrs/yr

FIND: a. Annual thermal energy delivered to the house


b. Electricity consumption if COP = 2.0
c. Storage volume if ice, with ρ = 0.9 t/m3
d. Value of 1 ton of ice; assume $0.10/kWh

ASSUMPTIONS: There are no losses from the tank.

SOLUTION:

a. 1ton = 12,000 Btu/hr


Btu
Q = 12,000 (500hr ) = 6 ⋅ 10 6 Btu = 6.33 GJ
hr

Qac 6.33GJ
b. COP = 2 = =
Qelec Qelec
Qelec = 3.17 GJ

c. Latent heat of melting = 0.33 GJ/ton


6.33GJ
= 19.2 tons of ice
0.33GJ / ton
19.2 tons
= 21.3 m of ice
3
3
0.9 tons / m

1hr kJ $0.10
d. 3.17GJ ( )(1 ⋅ 10 6 )( ) / 19.2 tons = $4.59 / ton
3600 s GJ kWh

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Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 1
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1.10)

GIVEN: Average solar flux in U.S. = 180 W/m2 = q


Total U.S. demand = 80 x 1018 J/yr = Q
U.S. land area = 9.16 x 106 km2

FIND: Land required to supply demand by photovoltaics (η = 0.1) and by


biomass (η = 0.01).

SOLUTION:

Photovoltaics: at η = 0.1 the rate of supply is:


W W
nq = 0.1(180 2 ) = 18 2
m m
Over the year this will supply
W s J
18 2 (3.15 ⋅ 10 7 ) = 5.7 ⋅ 10 8
m yr yr ⋅ m 2
80 ⋅ 1018 J / yr
= 1.4 x 1011 m2
5.7 ⋅ 10 J / yr / m
8 2

= 140,000 km2 = 1.5% of U.S. land area

Biomass: at η = 0.01 the rate of supply is:


W W
nq = 0.01(180 2 ) = 1.8 2
m m
Over the year this will supply
W s J
1.8 2 (3.15 ⋅ 10 7 ) = 5.7 ⋅ 10 7
m yr yr ⋅ m 2
80 ⋅ 1018 J / yr
= 1.4 x 1012 m2
5.7 ⋅ 10 J / yr / m
7 2

= 1,400,000 km2 = 15.3% of U.S. land area

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Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 1
Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

1.12)

GIVEN: Investment = $1200


Annual savings = $200/yr

FIND: Payback time

SOLUTION:

payback time = investment / annual savings (eq. 1.1)

payback time = $1200 / $200/yr

payback time = 6 years

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Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

1.14)

GIVEN: Payback time = 10 years


Annual savings = ½ ($1000/yr) = $500/yr

FIND: Available investment

SOLUTION:

payback time = investment / annual savings (eq. 1.1)

investment = (payback time)(annual savings) = 10yrs($500/yr)

investment = $5000

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Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 2
Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

Chapter 2

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Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 2
Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

2.2)

GIVEN: R-value studs, headers, floor plates: Rstud = 6.88 hr-ft2-ºF/Btu; R-value of
insulation: Rins = 19 hr-ft2-ºF/Btu

FIGURE: P2.2

FIND: Overall thermal resistance of the wall, RTH

ASSUMPTIONS: Steady state, one-dimensional conduction is the only heat


transfer mode. Siding is 0.5” medium density.

LOOKUP VALUES: drywall; kdw = 1.11 Btu-in/hr-ft2-ºF


hardboard siding; ks = 1.49 Btu-in/hr-ft2-ºF (Properties of
Materials Table on CD)

SOLUTION:
Area of wood framing:
Aw = 3”x16” + 1.5x16” + 1.5”x(8’x12”/ft-4.5”) + 1.5”(16”-1.5”) = 231 in2 = 1.6 ft2
Area of insulated wall:
Ains = 8’x12”/ft x 16” – 231 in2 = 1305 in2 = 9.1 ft2

∆x dw 0.5in hr ⋅ ft 2 F
Drywall: Rdw = = 
= 0.45 (eq. 2.5)
k dw 1.11Btu ⋅ in /(hr ⋅ ft 2 F ) Btu

∆x s 0.5in hr ⋅ ft 2 F
Siding: Rs = = 
= 0.34
ks 1.49 Btu ⋅ in /(hr ⋅ ft 2 F ) Btu
Insulated wall equivalent circuit:
Rdw Rins Rs

Riw = Rdw + Rins + Rs = 0.45 + 19 + 0.34 = 19.79 hr-ft2-ºF/Btu

Stud section equivalent circuit:


Rdw Rstud Rs

Rsw = Rdw + Rstud + Rs = 0.45 + 6.88 + 0.34 = 7.67 hr-ft2-ºF/Btu

Total wall equivalent circuit: Riw, Ains

Rsw, Aw
1 A A 9.1 ft 2 1.6 ft 2
= ins + w = +
RTH Riw Rsw 19.79hr ⋅ ft 2 ⋅ F / Btu 7.67hr ⋅ ft 2 ⋅ F / Btu

RTH = 1.50 hr-ºF/Btu

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Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 2
Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

2.3)

GIVEN: R-value outer layer: Ro = 3 hr-ft2-ºF/Btu; center layer has 6” fiber glass
insulation; To = 0ºF; Ti = 68ºF

FIGURE: 2.2b

FIND: Location in wall where T = 32ºF and best location for vapor barrier

ASSUMPTIONS: Steady state, one-dimensional conduction is the only heat


transfer mode.

LOOKUP VALUES: drywall; kdw = 1.11 Btu-in/hr-ft2-ºF


insulation; kins = 0.25 Btu-in/hr-ft2-ºF (Properties of Materials
Table on CD)

SOLUTION:

∆x 0.5in hr ⋅ ft 2 F
Drywall: Rdw = dw = 
= 0 . 45 (eq. 2.5)
k dw 1.11Btu ⋅ in /(hr ⋅ ft 2 F ) Btu

∆x 6in hr ⋅ ft 2 F
Siding: Rs = s = 
= 24 . 0
ks 0.25 Btu ⋅ in /(hr ⋅ ft 2 F ) Btu
Rtotal = Rdw + Rins + Ro = (0.45 + 24.0 + 3.0) = 27.45 hr-ft2-ºF/Btu
∆T 68  F − 0  F Btu
q = = = 2.48 (eq. 2.3 and 2.4)
Rtotal 27.45hr ⋅ ft ⋅ F / Btu
2 
hr ⋅ ft 2
Since q is constant through the entire assembly, one can find the
temperatures at the junction of each layer, T2 and T3, Fig 2.2b.

Btu Ti − T2 Btu hr ⋅ ft 2 ⋅ F
q = 2.48 = ; T = 68 
F − 2.48 ⋅ 0.45 = 66.9  F
hr ⋅ ft hr ⋅ ft
2 2 2
Rdw Btu
Btu T − T3
q = 2.48 = i ; T3 = 68  F − 2.48(0.45 + 24.0) = 7.4  F
hr ⋅ ft 2
Rdw + Rins
From this, it is clear that T = 32ºF occurs between T2 and T3, or in the
insulation layer.
Btu 68  F − 32  F ∆x 36  F
q = 2.48 = ; = − Rdw
hr ⋅ ft 2 ∆x k ins 2.48Btu / hr ⋅ ft 2
Rdw +
k ins
36  F hr ⋅ ft 2 ⋅ F Btu ⋅ in
∆x = ( − 0.45 )(0.25 ) ; ∆x = 3.5 in
2.48Btu / hr ⋅ ft 2
Btu hr ⋅ ft 2 ⋅ F
32ºF occurs 3.5 in into the insulation layer from the warm side. The
vapor barrier should go on the warm side of the insulation to prevent
warm, moist air from entering the insulation layer and freezing.

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Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 2
Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

2.5)

GIVEN: U-values and temperatures in table; 8 ft ceiling

FIGURE: P2.5 room dimensions in figure.

FIND: Temperature in unheated room, Tr

ASSUMPTIONS: Ignore slab losses. Steady state, one-dimensional conduction


is the only heat transfer mode.

SOLUTION:

Area of roof: Ar = 10’x12’ = 120 ft2


Area of exterior walls: Awe = 10’x8’ = 80 ft2
Area of interior walls: Awi = (12’+12’+10’)x8’ = 272 ft2

Equivalent circuit diagram:


ceiling
Int. walls

To
Th Tr

Ext. walls

Tr is the temperature of the unheated room.

The heat balance equation for this circuit is the following:

(U int walls ) Awi (TH − Tr ) = (U ext .walls Awe + U roof Ar (Tr − To )

(The heat flow into node Tr equals the heat flow out of node Tr)

Btu
(0.06 )(272 ft 2 )(72  F − Tr ) =
hr ⋅ ft 2 ⋅  F
ª Btu Btu º
«(0.2 )(80 ft 2 ) + (0.07 )(120 ft 2 )» (Tr − (−5  F ))
¬ hr ⋅ ft ⋅ F
2 
hr ⋅ ft ⋅ F
2 
¼

Btu Btu Btu Btu


1175 − 16.3 (Tr ) = 24.4 (Tr ) + 122
hr hr ⋅ F

hr ⋅ F

hr

Tr = 25.9  F = −3.4  F

Comment: In reality, it is important to include slab losses.

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Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 2
Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

2.8)

GIVEN: To = 10ºF; Ti = 65ºF


Exterior wall is 4” face brick
Interior wall is 4” common brick
2” air gap between walls.

FIGURE: P2.8

FIND: Heat flux through wall and percentage heat flow reduction when gap is
filled with 2” of polyisocyanurate.

ASSUMPTIONS: Steady state, one-dimensional conduction only.

LOOKUP VALUES: kins = 0.14 Btu-in/hr-ft2-ºF (polyisocyanurate)


kcb = 5.0 Btu-in/hr-ft2-ºF (common brick)
kfb = 9.0 Btu-in/hr-ft2-ºF (face brick) (Properties of Materials
Table on CD)
εbrick = 0.93 (Table 2.11)

SOLUTION:

∆x fb 4in hr ⋅ ft 2 ⋅ F
Face brick; R fb = = = 0 . 44 (eq. 2.5)
k fb 9.0 Btu ⋅ in /(hr ⋅ ft 2 ⋅ F ) Btu
∆xcb 4in hr ⋅ ft 2 ⋅ F
Common brick; Rcb = = = 0.8
k cb 5.0 Btu ⋅ in /(hr ⋅ ft 2 ⋅ F ) Btu
Rtotal = Rfb + Ras + Rcb where Ras = R-value of air space

Ti − To 65  F − 10  F
q = = (eq. 2.3 and 2.4)
RT (1.24 + Ras )

Ras can be found from Table on CD, Thermal Resistances of Plane Airspaces,
but one needs to know the effective emittance of two brick surfaces, the mean
temperature of the air space, and the temperature difference between the two
interior brick surfaces.

1 1 1 1 1
= + −1 = + − 1 ; E = 0.87 (Table A2-4)
E ε1 ε 2 0.93 0.93
For simplicity, assume that it is adequate to use E = 0.82 in Table.

Since the interior brick offers more resistance than the exterior brick, one can
assume that the mean temperature in the air gap is less than the mean
temperature of the interior and exterior: Tmean < (65ºF+10ºF)/2 < 37.5ºF

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Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 2
Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

2.8 continued)

As a first estimate: Tmean = 25ºF, ∆T = 20ºF

From Table for horizontal heat flow and a 1.5” air gap (this should be close
enough since at E = 0.82 there is little variation in Ras from 1.5” to 3” air
gaps):

Interpolating between (Tmean = 50ºF and ∆T = 30ºF) and (Tmean = 50ºF and ∆T
= 10ºF), Ras at (Tmean = 50ºF and ∆T = 20ºF) = 0.96 hr-ft2-ºF/Btu

Interpolating between (Tmean = 0ºF and ∆T = 20ºF) and (Tmean = 50ºF and ∆T
= 20ºF), Ras at (Tmean = 25ºF and ∆T = 20ºF) = 1.04 hr-ft2-ºF/Btu

Now, the original estimates have to be checked.

65  F − 10  F Btu
q = = 24.12 = heat flow through whole wall
1.24 + 1.04 hr ⋅ ft 2

Heat flow through the interior common brick:


Btu 65  F − T2
q = 24.12 = ;T2 = 45.7ºF=air gap common brick temp
hr ⋅ ft 2 0.8hr ⋅ ft 2 ⋅ F / Btu
Heat flow through the face brick:
Btu 65  F − T2
q = 24.12 = ; T2 = 20.6ºF = air gap face brick temp
hr ⋅ ft 2 0.44hr ⋅ ft 2 ⋅ F / Btu
Therefore, Tmean = (45.7+20.6)/2 = 33.2ºF
∆T = 45.7-20.6 = 25.1ºF
The first estimates were not correct so another iteration is required, using
Tmean = 33ºF and ∆T = 25ºF

From Table, interpolation results in Ras at (Tmean = 33ºF and ∆T = 25ºF) = 0.97
hr-ft2-ºF/Btu

65  F − 10  F Btu
q = = 24.9
1.24 + 0.97 hr ⋅ ft 2
Heat flow through the interior common brick:
Btu 65  F − T2
q = 24.9 = ;T2 = 45.1ºF=air gap common brick temp
hr ⋅ ft 2 0.8hr ⋅ ft 2 ⋅ F / Btu
Heat flow through the face brick:
Btu 65  F − T2
q = 24.9 = ; T2 = 20.1ºF = air gap face brick temp
hr ⋅ ft 2 0.44hr ⋅ ft 2 ⋅ F / Btu

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Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 2
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2.8 continued)

Therefore, Tmean = (45.1+20.1)/2 = 32.6ºF


∆T = 45.1-20.1 = 25ºF
Since this is very close to our first iteration, Ras = 0.97 hr-ft2-ºF/Btu

65  F − 10  F Btu
q = = 24.9
1.24 + 0.97 hr ⋅ ft 2
with polyisocyanurate:
65  F − 10  F ∆x 2" hr ⋅ ft 2 ⋅ F
q = ; Rins = ins = = 14.3
1.24 + Rins k ins 0.14 Btu
55 F Btu
q = = 3.5
15.5hr ⋅ ft ⋅ F / Btu
2 
hr ⋅ ft 2
With polyisocyanurate, there is an 86% reduction in heat flow.

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Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 2
Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

2.10)

GIVEN: Buried pipe, Dp = 20” diameter, Lp = 5280 ft, Tw = 45ºF; Tg = 100ºF

FIND: Heat gained by the pipe fluid.

ASSUMPTIONS: Steady, two-dimensional condition only; thermal resistance


between the pipe and earth is negligible. The pipe surface
temperature remains constant over the mile of pipe
considered. The soil in Northway silt loam, k = 1.73 W/m-K

SOLUTION:

rp = 20”/2 = 10” radius of pipe


D = 2’ = depth below ground
L = 5280’ = length of pipe

From Table 2.1, since L>>rp but D >/ 3r,


2πL
S=
cosh −1 ( D / r )
2π (5280 ft )
S= −1
= 21,796 ft
cosh (2 ft /(10 / 12 ft ))

k = 1.73 W/m-K = 1.0 Btu-ft/hr-ft2-ºF

Q = kS∆T (eq. 2.8)


Btu ⋅ ft
Q = 1.0 (21,796 ft )(100  F − 45  F )
hr ⋅ ft ⋅ F
2 

kBtu
Q = 1199
hr

For a typical pipe velocity of 6 ft/s, the temperature rise in the water would be:
Q 1,998,780 Btu / hr
∆T = =
m c p 20 s Btu lb
(π / 4) ⋅ (6 ft / s ) ⋅ ( ) 2 ft 2 ⋅ 3600 ⋅ 1.0  ⋅ 62.4 2
12 h lb F ft
∆T = 0.4 F

Therefore, the temperature drop is quite small. However, 1 MBtu of cooling is


worth $8/hr of $20,000 for a cooling season. Therefore, insulation would be
well justified economically for a life cycle point of view.

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Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 2
Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

2.11)

GIVEN: Uninsulated slab-on-grade (100ft x 1000ft) located in Denver, CO. Use


Bahnfleth-Pedersen approach

FIND: Heat loss, Q g , from the slab in December and April

ASSUMPTIONS: Interior temperature, Ti = 60ºF; d = 0.85 and φ = 50 days in


equation 2.11

LOOKUP VALUES: ∆Tg = 22ºF (Fig. 2.6)


Tearth,avg = To,avg = 50.2ºF (Table on CD)
Nday for Dec. 15 = 349
Nday for Apr. 15 = 105

SOLUTION:

Area of slab, Asi = 100’ x 1000’ = 100,000 ft2


Perimeter of slab, Psi = 2(100’) + 2(1000’) = 2200 ft
c = 0.18

P ª 360 º
Q g = c( ) d A(Ti − Tearth,av ) + 0.13P∆Tg sin «( N day + φ ) (eq. 2.11)
A ¬ 365 »¼
Dec.:
2200
Q g = 0.18( 2
) 0.85 (100,000 ft 2 )(60  F − 50.2  F ) +
100,000 ft
ª 360 º
0.13(2200 ft )(22  F ) sin «(349 + 50)
¬ 365 »¼
Btu
Q g = 10,360
hr

Apr.:
2200
Q g = 0.18( 2
) 0.85 (100,000 ft 2 )(60  F − 50.2  F ) +
100,000 ft
ª 360 º
0.13(2200 ft )(22  F ) sin «(105 + 50)
¬ 365 »¼
Btu
Q g = 9,750
hr

Comment: The assumption that φ = 50 days was determined for Medford,


OR. It may not be correct for Denver, CO.

17
Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 2
Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

2.12)

GIVEN: Basement dimensions 32’ x 100’ x 7’; L = 32’ x 2 + 100’ x 2 = 264 ft


Ti = 72ºF; Tavg,winter = 32ºF, Denver (from software).

FIND: Heat needed to keep basement at 72ºF on peak day if uninsulated or


insulated to R8.34.

ASSUMPTIONS: ASHRAE steady, two-dimensional analysis is adequate.


Ksoil = 0.8 Btu/hr-ft2-ºF

LOOKUP VALUES: ∆Tg = 22ºF (Fig. 2.6); Tg,design = 32ºF - 22ºF = 10ºF

SOLUTION:
Walls: uninsulated,
Q
¦ L∆T = 0.41 + 0.222 + 0.155 + 0.119 + 0.096 + 0.079 + 0.069
= 1.15 Btu/hr-ft-ºF
§ Q ·
Q g = ¨¨ ¦ ¸¸( L)(Ti − Tg ,des ) (eq. 2.9)
© L ∆T ¹
Btu
Q g = 1.15 (264 ft )(72  F − 10  F )
hr ⋅ ft ⋅ F 

Btu
Q g = 18,823
hr
insulated to R8.34,
Q
¦ L∆T = 0.093 + 0.079 + 0.068 + 0.060 + 0.053 + 0.048 + 0.044
= 0.45 Btu/hr-ft-ºF
§ Q ·
Q g = ¨¨ ¦ ¸¸( L)(Ti − Tg ,des ) (eq. 2.9)
© L ∆ T ¹
Btu
Q g = 0.45 (264 ft )(72  F − 10  F )
hr ⋅ ft ⋅ F

Btu
Q g = 7,366
hr
Floor: U = 0.021 Btu/hr-ft2-ºF (Table 2.5a)
Btu
Q fl = U fl A fl (Ti − Tg ) = 0.021 (32 ft ⋅ 100 ft )(72  F − 10  F )
hr ⋅ ft 2 ⋅  F
Btu
Q fl = 4,166
hr
Uninsulated: Q = Q g + Q fl = 18,823Btu / hr + 4,166 Btu / hr = 22,900 Btu/hr
 
Insulated: Q = Q + Q = 7,366 Btu / hr + 4,166 Btu / hr = 11,500 Btu/hr
g fl

18
Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 2
Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

2.15)

GIVEN: 12” diameter, horizontal pipe, Tr = 65ºF; Ts varies from 80ºF to 150ºF
Ti = 72ºF; Tavg,winter = 32ºF, Denver (from software).

FIND: Variation of hcon (free convection heat transfer coefficient) from the pipe.

SOLUTION:

Check if the flow is laminar or turbulent:


D3∆T = (1 ft)3(80ºF-65ºF) = 15 < 63 Æ laminar
D3∆T = (1 ft)3(150ºF-65ºF) = 85 > 63 Æ turbulent

For the laminar case:


§ ∆T ·
1/ 4

hcon = 0.27¨ ¸ (eq. 2.20)


© D ¹
1/ 4
§ 80  F − 65  F ·
hcon = 0.27¨¨ ¸¸
© 1 ft ¹
Btu
hcon = 0.53
hr ⋅ ft 2 ⋅ F

For the turbulent case:


hcon = 0.18∆T 1 / 3 (eq. 2.21)
(
hcon = 0.18 150  F − 65  F )
1/ 3

Btu
hcon = 0.79
hr ⋅ ft 2 ⋅ F

19
Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 2
Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

2.16)

GIVEN: Horizontal skylight, TSL = 50ºF; ASL = 32 ft2, Tr = 72ºF

FIND: The convective heat loss from the room to the skylight

ASSUMPTIONS: Free convection only. The skylight is square.

SOLUTION:

Check if the flow is laminar or turbulent:


L3∆T = ( 32 ft 2 )3(72ºF-50ºF) > 63 Æ turbulent

For a cold surface convection downward,


hcon = 0.22(∆T )
1/ 3
(eq. 2.23)

hcon = 0.22(72  F − 50  F ) = 0.62


1/ 3 Btu
hr ⋅ ft 2 ⋅ F

Q conv = hcon A∆T (eq. 2.13)

Q conv = 0.62
Btu
(
(32 ft 2 ) 72  F − 50  F )
hr ⋅ ft ⋅ F
2 

Btu
Q conv = 436.5
hr

20
Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 2
Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

2.18)

GIVEN: 8” diameter uninsulated pipe with cool water flowing at Vw = 6 ft/s;


Tw = 45ºF; Tr = 70ºF

FIND: The heat gain from the room to the pipe per 100 ft of pipe.

ASSUMPTIONS: Fully developed turbulent water flow through the pipe. The
water temperature doesn’t change over 100 ft. Ignore the
resistance of the pipe itself.

SOLUTION:

On the inside of the pipe:


1/ 5
§V 4 ·
hcon = 150(1 + 0.011T )¨¨ ¸¸ (eq. 2.28)
© Dh ¹
Dh = D (eq. 2.27)
1/ 5
§ (6 ft / s ) 4 · Btu
hcon = 150(1 + 0.011(45 F )¨¨
¸¸ = 620
© 8in ¹ hr ⋅ ft 2 ⋅ F
On the outside of the pipe:
§ ∆T ·
1/ 4

hcon = 0.27¨ ¸ (eq. 2.20)


© D ¹
1/ 4
§ 70  F − 45  F · Btu
hcon = 0.27¨¨ ¸¸ = 0.67
© 0.67 ft ¹ hr ⋅ ft 2 ⋅ F

The thermal network, ignoring the pipe itself is: RTH,in + RTH,out
1 1 hr ⋅ ft 2 ⋅ F
RTH ,in = = = 0 . 0016
hcon,in 620 Btu /( hr ⋅ ft 2 ⋅ F ) Btu
1 1 hr ⋅ ft 2 ⋅ F
RTH ,out = = = 1 . 49
hcon,out 0.67 Btu /( hr ⋅ ft 2 ⋅ F ) Btu
The outer resistance is far greater than the inner resistance, so the inner
resistance can be ignored.

Q conv = hcon A∆T (eq. 2.13)


A = 2πrL = 2π(0.67 ft/2)(100 ft) = 209.4 ft2
(209.4 ft 2 )(70  F − 45  F )
Btu
Q conv = 0.67
hr ⋅ ft 2 ⋅ F

Btu
Q conv = 3507 per 100 ft
hr

21
Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 2
Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

2.20)

GIVEN: Double pipe, counterflow heat exchanger with water as the working
fluids; Vshell = 200 gal/min, Vtube = 200 gal/min; Tci = 50ºF; Tco = 100ºF;
Thi = 115ºF

FIND: UoAo and ε

ASSUMPTIONS: Jacket losses are negligible.

LOOKUP VALUES: cp,water = 1.0 Btu/lbm-ºF


ρwater = 63.2 lbm/ft3 (Table on CD, Properties of Water at an
average temp. of 75ºF)

SOLUTION:
gal 60 min 1 ft 3 lb lb
m c = 200 ( )( )(63.2 m3 ) = 101377 m
min hr 7.481gal ft hr
m h = m c
Btu lb Btu
C c = 1.0  (101,377 m3 ) = 101,377 
lbm F ft hr F
C = C = C = C
h c min max

Q c = C c (Tci − Tco )
Btu Btu
Q c = 101,377  (50  F − 100  F ) = 5,068,850
hr F hr

Q c = ε (C min )(Thi − Tci ) (eq. 2.32)


Q c
ε=
(C )(T − T )
min hi ci
5,068,850 Btu / hr
ε=
(101,377 Btu / hr  F )(115  F − 50  F )
ε = 0.77

C min
= 1.0
C max
From figure 2.15 with ε = 0.77, NTU – 3.5
U A
NTU = o o = 3.5 (eq. 2.34)
C min
Btu Btu
U o Ao = C min ( NTU ) = 101,377 (3 . 5) = 354,800
hr  F hr  F

22
Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 2
Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

2.22)

GIVEN: Double pipe, counterflow heat exchanger with the cold stream 33%
propylene glycol and the hot stream water; Vc = Vh = 200 gal/min;
Tci = 50ºF; Thi = 115ºF; cp,glycol = 0.95 Btu/lbm-ºF, ρglycol = 64.0 lbm/ft3

FIND: UoAo and ε

ASSUMPTIONS: Jacket losses are negligible.

SOLUTION:
gal 60 min 1 ft 3 lb lb
m c = 200 ( )( )(64.0 m3 ) = 102,674 m
min hr 7.481gal ft hr
Btu
m h = 101,377 (see solution 2.20)
hr
Btu
C h = 101,377  (see solution 2.20)
hr F
lb Btu Btu
C c = m c c p , glycol = 102,674 m ⋅ 0.95  = 97,540 
hr lbm F hr F
C min 97,540
= = 0.96
C max 101,377

From solution 2.20 for two water streams, UoAo = 354,820 Btu/hr-ºF. 90% of
resistance is attributed to convection, equally split between the two water to
tube surfaces (given). The equivalent circuit of UoAo is: Rw + Rpipe + Rw

R = 1/UoAo (eq.’s 2.4, 2.5, 2.6)


R = 2.8 x 10-6 hr-ºF/Btu
Rw = 0.45R = 1.3 x 10-6 hr-ºF/Btu
Rpipe = 0.10R = 0.3 x 10-6 hr-ºF/Btu

Replace one Rw with Rglycol:


hcon,w = 1/Rw = 7.7 x 105 Btu/hr-ºF
hcon,g = Fghcon,w (eq. 2.29)
Fg = 0.5 (Fig. 2.11b at 75ºF and 33%)
hcon,g = 0.5(7.7 x 105 Btu/hr-ºF) = 3.85 x 105 Btu/hr-ºF
Rglycol = 1 / hcon,g = 2.6 x 10-6 hr-ºF/Btu

Calculating the new R: R = Rw + Rpipe + Rglycol


R = (1.3 x 10-6 + 0.3 x 10-6 + 2.6 x 10-6) = 4.2 x 10-6 hr-ºF/Btu
UoAo = 1/ R = 2.4 x 105 Btu/hr-ºF

23
Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 2
Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

2.22 continued)

U o Ao
NTU = (eq. 2.34)
C min
2.4 ⋅ 10 5 Btu / hr  F
NTU = = 2.5
97,540 Btu / hr  F
C
Using Figure 2.15 at min = 0.96 and NTU = 2.5, ε = 0.72
C max

24
Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 2
Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

2.24)

GIVEN: 10,000 ft2 ceiling, 2’ below a roof, Ts,r = 115ºF; Ts,c = 80ºF; εr = εc = 0.8

FIGURE: P2.24

FIND: The shape factor between the roof and ceiling, Frc, and the radiation heat
flux, Q rc

ASSUMPTIONS: The roof is square, 100 ft x 100 ft

SOLUTION:

From Fig. 2.18, X/D = 100 ft/2ft = 50 = Y/D


As X/D and Y/D approach infinite, F12 Æ 1.0
Frc = 1.0 for this case (Fig. 2.18)

A(σT1 − σT2 )
4 4

Q 12 = (eq. 2.43)
1/ ε1 + 1/ ε 2 − 1

10,000 ft 2 (0.1714 ⋅ 10 −8 Btu /(hr ⋅ ft 2 ⋅ F ))(575R 4 − 540 R 4 )


Q 12 = Q rc =
1 / 0.8 + 1 / 0.8 − 1
Btu
Q rc = 2.8 ⋅ 10 5
hr

Comment: In this case of a warm surface facing downward, the radiative portion
of heat transfer is several times the convective portion because a stable
stratification condition exists.

25
Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 2
Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

2.26)

GIVEN: A room heated by a radiant floor with Tfl = 27ºC; all other surfaces T =
20ºC; ε = 0.8 for all surfaces

FIGURE: P2.26

FIND: Q rad from the floor to all walls and ceiling.

ASSUMPTIONS: All surfaces are diffuse.

SOLUTION:

The shape factor from the floor to all other surfaces = F12 = 1.0 since the floor
“sees” only those surfaces.

A1 (σT1 − σT2 )
4 4

Q 12 = (eq. 2.42)
ρ1 / ε 1 + 1 / F12 + ρ 2 A1 / ε 2 A2

α = ε = 0.8 (eq. 2.39)


τ = 0 since the surfaces are opaque
ρ = 1 − τ − α = 0.2 (eq. 2.38)
A1 = Afl = 5mx7m = 35 m2
A2 = Afl = 5mx7m + 2 x 5mx3m + 2 x 7mx3m = 107 m2
T1 = 27°C = 300 K
T1 = 20°C = 293 K

35m 2 (5.67 ⋅ 10 −8 W / m 2 K 4 )(300 K 4 − 293K 4 )


Q 12 =
0.2 / 0.8 + 1 + 0.2(35m 2 ) / 0.8(107m 2 )

Q 12 = 1090 W

26
Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 2
Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

2.27)

GIVEN: Room in Figure P2.26

FIND: Shape factors between the floor and ceiling and between the floor and
each wall.

SOLUTION:

Labeling the floor 1, the ceiling 2, the 7m wide wall 3, and the 5m wide wall 4;

For F12 refer to Figure 2.18


X = 5m
Y = 7m
D = 3m
X/D = 5/3 = 1.67
Y/D = 7/3 = 2.33
F12 = 0.40 (Fig. 2.18)

For F13 and F14 refer to Figure 2.19


F13:
X = 7m
Y = 5m
Z = 3m
Z/X = 3/7 = 0.43
Y/X = 5/7 = 0.71
F13 = 0.17 (Fig. 2.19)

F14:
X = 5m
Y = 7m
Z = 3m
Z/X = 3/5 = 0.6
Y/X = 7/5 = 1.4
F14 = 0.13 (Fig. 2.19)

One can check the results using eq. 2.41


F11 + F12 + F13 +…+ F1j = 1 (eq. 2.41)
F11 = 0 since it is not a concave surface and there are two walls of each the
F13 and F14 values

0.40 + 2x0.17 + 2x0.13 = 1 Therefore, these values are correct.

27
Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 2
Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

2.30)

GIVEN: A1 = 20 ft2, ε = 0.80, Troom = T2 = 70°F

FIGURE: P2.30

FIND: Q 1− 2, rad

ASSUMPTIONS: All surfaces are diffuse. A2 >> A1

SOLUTION:

Estimate the effective body temperature at 80°F = T1

A1 (σT1 − σT2 )
4 4

Q 12 = (eq. 2.42)
ρ1 / ε 1 + 1 / F12 + ρ 2 A1 / ε 2 A2

since A2 >> A1, ρ2A1/ε2A2 approaches 0, so can be dropped out of the


equation.

F12 = 1 since the person “sees” only the room.

ρ = 1 - τ - α = 1 - 0.8 (eq. 2.38 and 2.39)

20 ft 2 (0.1714 ⋅ 10 −8 Btu / hr ⋅ ft 2 ⋅ R 4 )(540 R 4 − 530 R 4 )


Q 12 =
0.2 / 0.8 + 1 + 0

Btu
Q 12 = 168
hr

28
Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 2
Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

2.32)

GIVEN: A lamp with diameter D inside of a sphere with diameter 2D.

FIND: All four shape factors in this system.

ASSUMPTIONS: All surfaces are diffuse.

SOLUTION:

The four shape factors are sphere-to-lamp, lamp to sphere, lamp-to-lamp,


and sphere-to-sphere.

Flamp-sphere = 1 since the lamp “sees” only the sphere

A1F12 = A2F21 (eq. 2.40)

Alamp = 4π(D/2)2 = πD2


Asphere = 4π(2D/2)2 = 4πD2
AlampFlamp-sphere = AsphereFsphere-lamp
πD2 (1) = 4πD2 Fsphere-lamp

Fsphere-lamp = 0.25

From eq. 2.41,


Flamp-lamp + Flamp-sphere = 1

Flamp-lamp = 0

Fsphere-sphere + Fsphere-lamp = 1
Fsphere-sphere = 1 - 0.25

Fsphere-sphere = 0.75

29
Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 2
Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

2.34)

GIVEN: Two gray, orthogonal surfaces of equal size; T1 = 50°F, ε1 = 0.5; T2 =


80°F, ε2 = 0.7; A1 = A2 = 64 ft2 (8 ft x 8 ft square)

FIND: Q 21

SOLUTION:

From Figure 2.19,


Y = 8 ft
X = 8 ft
Z = 8 ft
Z/X = 1.0
Y/X = 1.0
F21 = 0.2 (Fig 2.19)

τ = 0 since the surfaces are opaque


α1 = ε1 = 0.5 (eq. 2.39)
ρ1 = 1 − α1 = 0.5 (eq. 2.38)
α2 = ε2 = 0.7
ρ2 = 1 − α2 = 0.3

A2 (σT2 − σT1 )
4 4

Q 21 = (eq. 2.42)
ρ 2 / ε 2 + 1 / F21 + ρ1 A2 / ε 1 A1

64 ft 2 (0.1714 ⋅ 10 −8 Btu / hr ⋅ ft 2 ⋅ R 4 )(540 R 4 − 510 R 4 )


Q 12 =
0.3 / 0.7 + 1 / 0.2 + 0.5 / 0.5

Btu
Q 12 = 1450
hr

30
Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 2
Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

2.35)

GIVEN: Vertical wall consisting of 2 x 4 in. framing on 16” centers between two
0.5 in. sheets of drywall; uninsulated stud spaces; Ti = 60°F, To = 72°F.

FIND: The resistance of the airspace and the overall U-value of the wall. Find q .

ASSUMPTIONS: Convection coefficients can be read from Table on CD.

LOOKUP VALUES: kgyp = 1.11 Btu-in/hr-ft2-°F


Kwood = 0.80 Btu-in/hr-ft2-°F
εairspace = 0.82

SOLUTION:

The resistance of the airspace can be found from Table on CD. The mean
temperature in the airspace is (60°F+72°F)/2 = 66°F. The temperature
difference between surfaces is approximately 10°F. Reading the Table for
3.5” airspace and 0.82 emittance:

at Tmean = 50°F, ∆T = 10°F R = 1.01 hr-ft2-°F/Btu


at Tmean = 90°F, ∆T = 10°F R = 0.85 hr-ft2-°F/Btu
interpolating for 66°F, R = 0.95 hr-ft2-°F/Btu = Rairspace = Ras

The equivalent circuit for the wall is:


1/hi Rdw Ras Rdw 1/ho

60 F 72 F

1/hi Rdw Rstud Rdw 1/ho

hi = ho = 1.46 Btu/hr-ft2-°F
∆x 0.5in hr ⋅ ft 2 ⋅ F
Rdw = dw = = 0 . 45 (eq. 2.5)
k dw 1.11Btu ⋅ in /(hr ⋅ ft 2 ⋅ F ) Btu
∆x stud 3.5in hr ⋅ ft 2 ⋅ F
Rstud = = = 4 . 38
k wood 0.80 Btu ⋅ in /(hr ⋅ ft 2 ⋅ F ) Btu

The circuit can be reduced by adding the series resistances.


RA = 1/hi + Rdw + Ras + Rdw + 1/ho
RA = (0.68 + 0.45 + 0.95 + 0.45 + 0.68) = 3.21 hr-ft2-°F/Btu

RB = 1/hi + Rdw + Rstud + Rdw + 1/ho


RB = (0.68 + 0.45 + 4.38 + 0.45 + 0.68) = 6.64 hr-ft2-°F/Btu

31
Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 2
Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

2.35 continued)

The new equivalent circuit is:


RA

60 F 72 F

RB

To find the overall effective R-value, one must calculate the percentage of the
wall which is characterized by RA or RB. Since the wall consists of 1.5” of
wood stud in every 16” of wall, the stud section (RB) makes up 1.5”/16” =
9.4% of the wall. Therefore, 90.6% is RA.

1 0.906 0.094
= +
Reff 3.21hr ⋅ ft ⋅ F / Btu 6.64hr ⋅ ft 2 ⋅ F / Btu
2 

hr ⋅ ft 2 ⋅ F
Reff = 3.37
Btu
1
U eff =
Reff
Btu
U eff = 0.296
hr ⋅ ft 2 ⋅ F

∆T
q = (eq. 2.3 and 2.4)
R
(72  F − 60  F )
q =
3.37hr ⋅ ft 2 ⋅ F / Btu
Btu
q = 3.56
hr ⋅ ft 2

Comment: In this case the stud actually provides more resistance to heat
flow that the rest of the wall since it is uninsulated.

32
Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 2
Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

2.37)

GIVEN: A long, unventilated attic above a residence; To = -10°C, Ti = 20°C


Ac =20 m2, Rc = 5.0 m2-K/W, ha,c = 10 W/m2-K, hi = 10 W/m2-K;
Ac =23 m2, Rr = 0.5 m2-K/W, ho = 25 W/m2-K, ha,r = 8 W/m2-K.

FIGURE: P2.37

FIND: The heat transfer through the ceiling and the attic air temperature.

SOLUTION:

The equivalent circuit for this problem is:


1/hi Rc 1/ha,c 1/ha,r Rr 1/ho
Ti
To

However, one must account for the different areas of the ceiling and roof in
calculating an effective R-value.

From Ti to Ta, RTH = 1/hi + Rc + 1/ha,c


RTH = 1/10 + 5 + 1/10 = 5.2 m2-K/W
R
R = TH (eq. 2.5)
A
5 .2 m 2 ⋅ K / W K
R= 2
= 0.26
20 m W
From Ta to To, RTH = 1/ha,r + Rr + 1/ho
RTH = 1/8 + 0.5 + 1/25 = 0.67 m2-K/W
R
R = TH (eq. 2.5)
A
0.67 m 2 ⋅ K / W K
R= 2
= 0.029
23 m W
The new circuit diagram is:
0.26 K/W 0.029 K/W
Ti Ta To

∆T
Q = (eq. 2.3 and 2.4)
R
(20  C − (−10  C ))
Q = Q = 104 W
(0.26 + 0.029) K / W
From TI to Ta,
(20  C − Ta )
Q = 104 W = Ta = −7.0  C
0.26 K / W

33
Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 2
Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

2.39)

GIVEN: Cylindrical tank with radius r = 5ft and height h = 5ft holding steam at Ts
= 250°F in a room at Tr = 80°F. The tank is used 8000 hr/yr and the
steam is valued at $4/Mbtu.

FIND: The steam energy savings if 3 in. of fiberglass insulation is added to the
uninsulated tank.

LOOKUP VALUES: kins = 0.25 Btu-in/hr-ft2-°F (Table on CD)

SOLUTION:
Uninsulated tank:
hcon = 0.19(∆T sin β )1 / 3 with β = 90° (eq. 2.19)
Btu
hcon = 0.19(250 F − 80  F )1 / 3 = 1.05
hr ⋅ ft 2 ⋅ F
Q con = hcon A∆T (eq. 2.13)
A = 2π(5ft)(5ft) + 2 x 2π(5ft)2 = 314 ft2
Btu Btu
Q con = 1.05 (314 ft 2 )(250  F − 80  F ) = 56,050
hr ⋅ ft ⋅ F
2 
hr

A1 (σT1 − σT2 )
4 4

Q rad = (eq. 2.42)


ρ1 / ε 1 + 1 / F12 + ρ 2 A1 / ε 2 A2
Since A2 >> A1, ρ2A1/ε2A2 Æ 0
ρ1 = 1 - ε1 = 1 – 1 = 0
A1 = 314 ft2
F12 = 1 since the tank “sees” only the room.

(314 ft 2 )(0.1714 ⋅ 10 −8 Btu /(hr ⋅ ft 2 ⋅ R 4 ))(710 R 4 − 540 R 4 )


Q rad =
0 +1+ 0
Btu
Q rad = 91,000
hr
Btu
Q total = Q con + Q rad = 56,050 + 91,000 = 147,050
hr
Insulated tank:
Conduction and convection can be combined in the following equivalent
circuit:
Tins
Ts Tr

1 ln(ro / ri ) 1
Ai hi 2πKL Ao ho

34
Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 2
Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

2.39 continued)

Conduction through the insulation must be analyzed in cylindrical coordinates


as in Figure 2.3.

Btu
hi = ho = 1.05 (eq. 2.19)
hr ⋅ ft 2 ⋅ F
1 ln(ro / ri ) 1
R= + +
Ai hi 2πKL Ao ho
Ai = 314 ft , Ao = 2π(5.25ft)(5ft) + 2xπ(5.25)2 = 338 ft2
2

1 ln(5.25 / 5.0)
R= + +
314 ft ⋅ 1.05 Btu /( hr ⋅ ft ⋅ F ) 2π (0.25 Btu ⋅ in /(hr ⋅ ft 2 ⋅ F ))(1 ft / 12in)(5 ft )
2 2 

1
338 ft ⋅ 1.05 Btu /(hr ⋅ ft 2 ⋅ F )
2

hr  F
R = 0.080
Btu
∆T (250  F − 80  F ) Btu
Q cond ⋅conv = = 
= 2125
R 0.080hr F / Btu hr

In order to calculate the radiation heat loss it is necessary to calculate the


insulation outer surface temperature.

Btu (250  F − Tins )


Q cond ⋅conv = 2125 =
hr 1 ln(ro / ri )
+
Ai hi 2πKL
Btu (250  F − Tins )
2125 =
hr (0.078hr  F / Btu )
Tins = 84.3 F

Q rad = Ao (σTins − σTr ) (eq. 2.42 with the same assumptions followed for the
4 4

uninsulated case)

Qrad = (338 ft )(0.1714 ⋅ 10 −8 Btu /(hr ⋅ ft 2 ⋅ R 4 ))(544.3R 4 − 540 R 4 )
2

Btu
Q rad = 1588
hr
Btu
Q total −ins = 2125 + 1588 = 3713
hr
The energy is: 147,050 – 3713 = 143,340 Btu/hr
143,340 Btu/hr * 8000 hr/yr = 1146 MBtu/yr savings
$4/MBtu * 1146 MBtu/yr = $4584 / yr savings

35
Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 2
Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

2.42)

GIVEN: A dark, well-insulated, horizontal roof, α = 0.9. Isol = 280 Btu/hr-ft2


strikes the roof. There is no wind. To = 90°F = Tatm. No conduction
heat transfer.

FIND: Roof temperature, Tr

ASSUMPTIONS: The convection is turbulent free convection. The roof acts as


a gray body.

SOLUTION:

For turbulent free convection of a warm surface facing up,

hcon = 0.22(∆T )1 / 3 (eq. 2.23)


hcon = 0.22(Tr − 550 R) 1/ 3

q con = hcon ∆T = 0.22(Tr − 550 R)1 / 3 (Tr − 550 R)

(σT1 − σT2 )
4 4

q rad = (eq. 2.42)


ρ1 / ε 1 + 1 / F12 + ρ 2 A1 / ε 2 A2
α = ε = 0.9 (eq. 2.39)
ρ = 1 - α = 0.1 (eq. 2.38)

A2 >> A1 so ρ2A1/ε2A2 Æ 0
F12 = 1 since the roof “sees” only the atmosphere

(0.1714 ⋅ 10 −8 Btu /(hr ⋅ ft 2 ⋅ R 4 ))(Tr − 550 R 4 )


4

q rad =
0 .1 / 0 .9 + 1 + 0
Btu
q rad = 1.54 ⋅ 10 −9 (Tr − 550 R 4 )
4

hr ⋅ ft 2

An energy balance on the roof results in:


αI sol = q con + q rad

Btu
) = 0.22(Tr − 550 R)1 / 3 (Tr − 550 R) + 1.54 ⋅ 10 −9 (Tr − 550 R 4 )
4
0.9(280
hr ⋅ ft 2

Tr = 665R = 195  F

36
Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 2
Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

2.44)

GIVEN: Return air plenum above the ceiling in a commercial building with heat
input from lights Q L , and heat loss to the room Q room , and by the flow of
air through the plenum, m r .

FIND: An equation for the plenum temperature which includes Q L , Q room , and
m r . Modify the equation for the top floor of a building.

ASSUMPTIONS: Treturn-air =Troom < Tplenum

SOLUTION:
The equivalent circuit diagram is:
Rc
QL
Tr
Tp

m r c p
The plenum loses heat through conduction through the ceiling and through air
flow, but gains from Q L .
A
Q L = c (T p − TR ) + m r c p (T p − Tr )
Rc
A A
Q L + c TR + m r c p Tr = T p ( c + m r c p )
Rc Rc
Q L
Tp = + TR
Ac
( + m r c p )
Rc
If it is a top floor, the heat gain through the roof must be added.
A A
Q L + r (To − T p ) = c (T p − TR ) + m r c p (T p − TR )
Rr Rc
where Ar = area of roof
Rr = thermal resistance of the roof
To = outdoor temperature
A A A A
Q L + r To + c TR + m r c p TR = ( c + m r c p + r )T p
Rr Rc Rc Rr
A A
Q L + r To + ( c + m r c p )TR
Rr Rc
Tp =
A A
( c + m r c p + r )
Rc Rr

37
Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 3
Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

Chapter 3

38
Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 3
Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

3.3)

GIVEN: V = 20 m3; T1 = 25°C, p1 = 800 kPa; T2 = 20°C; p2 = 600 kPa

FIND: How much air was vented to go from state 1 to state 2.

ASSUMPTIONS: The air behaves as an ideal gas.

SOLUTION:

State 1:
p1υ1 = RT1 (eq. 3.2)
RT
υ1 = 1
p1
287 J / kg ⋅ K (20 + 273) J
υ1 = = 0.11
800,000 Pa kg ⋅ Pa
2
1 J = 1N-m; 1 Pa = 1 N/m (unit conversions)
N ⋅m m 2
m 3
υ1 = 0.11 ( ) = 0.11
kg N kg
V
υ1 =
m1
m3
m1 = 0.11 (20m 3 ) = 181.8 kg
kg

State 2:
RT
υ2 = 2
p2
287 J / kg ⋅ K (20 + 273) J m3
υ2 = = 0.14 = 0.14
600,000 Pa kg ⋅ Pa kg
N ⋅ m m2 m3
υ1 = 0.11 ( ) = 0.11
kg N kg
V
υ2 =
m2
m3
m2 = 0.14 (20m 3 ) = 142.9 kg
kg
m1 = m2 = 181.8 - 142.9 = 38.9 kg air vented

39
Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 3
Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

3.4)

GIVEN: V = 30 m3, pg = 30 psig; T = 65°F, sea level.

FIND: Mass of oxygen in tank.

ASSUMPTIONS: Oxygen acts as an ideal gas at the given pressure.

LOOKUP VALUES: Roxygen = 48.24 ft-lbf/lbm-°R (Table 3.1)

SOLUTION:

RT
υ= (eq. 3.2)
p
pabs = patm + pg = 14.7 psi + 30 psig = 44.7 psia

(48.24 ft ⋅ lb f /(lbm ⋅ R))(65 + 460)  R ft 3


υ= = 3.93
44.7lb f / in 2 (144in 2 / ft 2 ) lbm
V
m=
υ
30 ft 3
m=
3.93 ft 3 / lbm

m = 7.63 lbm

40
Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 3
Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

3.6)

GIVEN: Following table for water:


T (°C) p (kPa) v (m3/kg) Phase
60 (1) 3.25 (2)
(3) 175 (4) Saturated vapor
300 300 (5) (6)
100 500 (7) (8)
(9) (10) 0.001097 Saturated vapor
50 10 (11) (12)

FIND: Complete the table (spaces labeled (1) – (12).)

SOLUTION:

(1) At T = 60.06°C for saturated water, vf = 0.001017 and vg = 7.649 m3/kg


from steam table on CD. The value for v given lies between vf and vg, so
it is a saturated liquid-vapor mixture and p = 20 kPa .

(2) As described in (1), it is saturated liquid-vapor mixture. The quality can


be found from:
v = vf(1-x) + xvg (eq. 3.11).
3.25 m3/kg = 0.001017 m3/kg (1-x) + x (7.649m3/kg)
x = 0.42

(3) Since it is given tht it is saturated vapor, look at the steam table for the
saturation temperature at a saturation pressure of 175 kPa.
T = 116.06°C

(4) Look for vg at saturation pressure 175 kPa.


vg = 1.0036 m3/kg

(5) At a saturation pressure of 300 kPa, the saturation temperature T =


133.55°C. The given temperature of 300°C is greater than the saturation
temperature at the given pressure. Therefore, it is superheated steam.
v = 0.8753 m3/kg

(6) Superheated steam as described in (5).

41
Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 3
Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

3.6 continued)

(7) At a saturation pressure of 500 kPa, the saturation temperature T =


151.86°C. The given temperature of 100°C is less than the saturation
temperature at the given pressure. Therefore, it is subcooled liquid.
Subcooled liquid properties are generally a function of temperature only
and can be read from the water tables at the given temperature. v = vf at
T = 100°C
v = 0.001043 m3/kg

(8) Subcooled liquid as described in (7).

(9) Since it is known to be saturated liquid, find vf = 0.001097 m3/kg on


Table.
T = 155.48°C

(10) P=550 kPa at vf = 0.001097 m3/kg.

(11) The given temperature (50°C) is greater than the saturation temperature
at the given pressure (10kPa), so it is superheated steam.
v = 14.869 m3/kg

(12) Superheated steam as described in (11).

42
Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 3
Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

3.8)

GIVEN: Following table for R-22:


T (°C) p (kPa) v (m3/kg) Phase
(1) (2) 0.65571 Saturated vapor
45 90.754 (3) (4)
10 (5) 0.5 (6)
(7) 83.246 (8) Saturated liquid

FIND: Complete the table (spaces labeled (1) – (8).)

SOLUTION:

(1) Since the phase is saturated vapor, find vg = 0.65571 ft3/lbm from R-22
table on CD. Read T and P.
T = 40°F

(2) p = 83.246 psia (see (1)).

(3) From R-22 table, at T = 45°F, p = 90.754 psia; therefore it is saturated.


However, one has no information to determine the quality. All that can be
said is that:

vf ≤ v ≤ vg
1/(78.443 lbm/ft3) ≤ v ≤ 0.6258 ft3/lbm
0.01275 ft3/lbm ≤ v ≤ 0.6258 ft3/lbm

(4) Saturated vapor of unknown quality . (see (1)).

(5) At 10°F, vg = 1.1253 ft3/lbm and vf = 1/82.516 ft3/lbm = 0.0121 ft3/lbm. The
v falls between vg and vf, so it is saturated and p = 47.530 psia

(6) The R-22 is saturated . The quality can be found from:


v = vf(1-x) + xvg (eq. 3.11).
0.5 ft3/lbm = 0.0121 ft3/lbm (1-x) + x (1.1253 ft3/lbm)
x = 0.44

(7) Since it is known to be saturated liquid, T can be read from the R-22 table
at p = 83.246 psia.
T = 40°F

(8) Since it is saturated liquid v = vf = 1/79.049 ft3/lbm.


v = 0.01265 ft3/lbm

43
Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 3
Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

3.11)

GIVEN: Vtank = 5 m3, mwater = 10 kg saturated liquid vapor at 75°C. Heat added
until all liquid completely evaporated.

FIND: The temperature after evaporation.

ASSUMPTIONS: The tank is closed and no vapor is lost out of the tank.

SOLUTION:

5m 3 m3
υ= = 0.5 = υ g when the liquid is entirely evaporated.
10kg kg

From saturated steam table on CD,


vg = 0.5 when T = 141°F

44
Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 3
Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

3.16)

GIVEN: p = 20 psia, x = 50%, water

FIND: h, v, T

ASSUMPTIONS: The tank is closed and no vapor is lost out of the tank.

SOLUTION:

Read values from sat. steam table on CD.

hf = 196.26 Btu/lbm, hfg = 960.1 Btu/lbm


h = hf + xhfg (eq. 3.12 for h)
h = 196.26 Btu/lbm + 0.5(960.1 Btu/lbm)
h = 676.3 Btu/lbm

vf = 0.01683 ft3/lbm, vg = 20.09 ft3/lbm


v = vf(1-x) + xvg (eq. 3.11)
v = 0.01683 ft3/lbm(0.5) + 0.5(20.09 ft3/lbm)
v = 10.05 ft3/lbm

T = Tsat = 227.96°F

45
Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 3
Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

3.18)

GIVEN: Refrigerant 134a condensed from saturated vapor to saturated liquid at


T = 140°F; m r = 500 lb/hr. Twi = 105°F, m r = 1500 lb/hr.

FIND: Two

ASSUMPTIONS: Water and refrigerant flows are steady.

SOLUTION:

Open system first law of thermodynamics:


2 2
v v
m i ( gz i + i + hi ) + Q = m o ( gz o + o + ho ) + W (eq. 3.19)
2 2
Assuming the height, z, is constant, the flow is steady, and no work is done,
this reduces to:
m i hi + Q = m o ho m i = m o
Q = m (h − h )
o i

On the refrigerant side,


lb
Q = 500 m (ho − hi )
hr
ho = 59.078 Btu/lbm = hf (Table on CD sat. steam at 140°F)
hi = 118.653 Btu/lbm = hg
lb Btu Btu Btu
Q = 500 m (59.078 − 118.653 ) = −29,790
hr lbm lbm hr
(The negative sign signifies heat is removed from the refrigerant.)

On the water side, the heat removed from the refrigerant is gained by the
water.

Q = m w (ho − hi ) = m w c p (To − Ti ) (eq. 3.6)


Btu lb 
29,790 = 1500 m (1.0 Btu / lbm F )(Two − 105  F )
hr hr
Two = 124.9°F

46
Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 3
Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

3.19)

GIVEN: 100 ft deep well, ∆p/L = 5 ft W.G./100 ft pipe. ηpump = 0.69, ηmotor = 0.69

FIND: Electrical power required to pump water from well.

ASSUMPTIONS: Adiabatic, steady flow open system.

SOLUTION:

2 2
v v
m i ( gz i + i + hi ) + Q = m o ( gz o + o + ho ) + W (eq. 3.19)
2 2
With adiabatic, steady flow, this reduces to:
W
hi = gz o + ho + m i = m o
m
W
= (hi − ho ) + gz o
m
∆h = ∆u + W flow = ∆u + ∆pv (by definition of h)
∆u = 0 since adiabatic
∆h = ∆pv v1 = v2 = 0.016 ft3/lbm at standard temperature and pressure.
0.433 psia 144in 2 ft 3 ft ⋅ lb f
∆h = 5 ft W .G.( )( 2
)( 0.016 ) = 5.0
ftW .G. ft lbm lbm
W ft ⋅ lb f 1Btu Btu
= 105 ⋅ = 0.135
m lbm (778.2 ft ⋅ lb f ) lbm
Btu
0.135
W elec W lbm
= =
m m (η pumpη motor ) (0.69 ⋅ 0.88)

W elec Btu ft ⋅ lb f
= 0.222 = 172.8
m lbm lbm

47
Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 3
Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

3.21)

GIVEN: Refrigerant 134a throttled from a saturated liquid at 70°F to 36.1 psia.

FIND: ∆T, x2, and v2

ASSUMPTIONS: Adiabatic process, state 2 is saturated.

SOLUTION:

State 1:
T1 = 70°F, saturated liquid
h1 = hf = 33.888 Btu/lbm from R-134a Table on CD.

State 2:
In the throttling process, h2 = h1
h2 = h1 = 33.888 Btu/lbm
p2 = 36.1 psia; hf2 = 18.989 Btu/lbm, hg2 = 105.177 Btu/lbm
To find the quality, x, solve eq. 3.11,
h = hf(1-x) + xhg
33.888 Btu/lbm = 18.989 Btu/lbm(1-x) + x(105.177 Btu/lbm)
x = 17.3%

v = vf(1-x) + xvg (eq. 3.11)


v = 1/(81.762 lbm/ft3)(1-0.173) + 0.173(1.292 ft3/lbm)
v = 0.234 ft3/lbm

∆T = 70°F - 24°F
∆T = 46°F where 24°F is the temperature of saturated Refrigerant 134a at
36.1 psia pressure.

48
Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 3
Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

3.23)

GIVEN: Air heated by passing over a steam coil.


TAi = 90°F, pai = 14.7 psia, TAo = 140°F;
TAi = 400°F, pai = 30 psia, m s = 30 lbm/min;
TAi = 200°F, pai = 25 psia, m s = 30 lbm/min

FIND: m a

ASSUMPTIONS: There are no potential or kinetic energy effects.

SOLUTION:

The open system first law of thermodynamics,


2 2
vi  vo
m i ( gz i + + hi ) + Q = m o ( gz o + + ho ) + W (eq. 3.19)
2 2
From the assumptions it reduces to
Q = m (ho − hi )

On the steam side:


State 1 is superheated steam:
hsi = 1239.6 Btu/lbm at 30 psia and 400°F (HCB software or thermodynamics
text)
State 2(p = 25 psia, T = 200°F) is subcooled liquid, so hso is a function of
temperature only:
hso = hf = 161.23 Btu/lbm at T = 193.19°F
hso = hf = 180.15 Btu/lbm at T = 211.99°F
interpolating for T = 200°F,
hso = 168.08 Btu/lbm at T = 200°F

lb Btu Btu Btu


Q = 30 m (168.08 − 1239.6 ) = −32,146
min lbm lbm min

On the air side:


The heat lost by the steam coil is gained by the air.
Q = m (ho − hi ) = m c p (To − Ti ) (eq. 3.6)
Btu Btu
Q = 32,146 = m a (0.24  )(140  F − 90  F )
min lbm F
lbm
m a = 2679
min

49
Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 3
Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

3.24)

GIVEN: Va = 350 ft3/min, Tai = 85°F


R22, pri = 69.6 psia, xi = 0.30; m ri = 3.5 lbm/min
R22 leaves as saturated vapor.

FIND: Tao, Q air

ASSUMPTIONS: Steady air and refrigerant flow. ρa = 0.075 lbm/ft3.

SOLUTION:

Q = m (ho − hi ) (from eq. 3.19 with vi = vo, zi = zo, W =0)

On the refrigerant side:


At p = 69.6 psia, hf = 18.693 Btu/lbm, hg = 107.09 Btu/lbm
hi = xhg + (1-x)hf (eq. 3.11)
hi = (0.3)(107.09 Btu/lbm) + (0.7)( 18.693 Btu/lbm) = 45.21 Btu/lbm
ho = hg = 107.09 Btu/lbm
lb Btu Btu Btu
Q = 3.5 m (107.09 − 45.21 ) = 216.6
min lbm lbm min

On the air side:


The heat lost by the steam coil is gained by the air.
Q = m c p (To − Ti ) (eq. 3.6 and 3.19)
Btu ft 3 lb Btu
− 216.6 = 350 (0.075 m3 )(0.24  )(To − 85  F )
min min ft lbm F
( Q is negative because the heat is removed from the air.)

To = 50.6  F

Btu
Q air = −217
min

50
Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 3
Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

3.27)

GIVEN: R134a: T1 = 140°F, p1 = 120 psia, m =800 lbm/hr, p2 = 120 psia sat. liquid
Water: T1 = 85°F, p = 30 psia, T2 = 104°F

FIND: m w

ASSUMPTIONS: Steady water and refrigerant flows.

SOLUTION:

Refrigerant:
State 1: T1 > Tsat at 120 psia, therefore it is superheated.
hi = 126.5 Btu/lbm, (Table on CD for R134a)
ho = hf = 41.0 Btu/lbm

Q = m (ho − hi ) (from eq. 3.19 with vi = vo, zi = zo, W =0)


lb Btu Btu Btu
Q = 800 m (41.0 − 126.5 ) = −68,400
hr lbm lbm hr

On the air side:


The problem states that the water is compressed (or subcooled) in which
case enthalpy is a function of temperature only and can be read from the
Table on the CD at the given temperatures:
h1 = hf at 85°F = 53.08 Btu/lbm
ho = hf at 104°F = 72.03 Btu/lbm

The heat lost by the R134a is gained by the water:


Btu Btu Btu
68,400 = m w (72.03 − 53.08 )
hr lbm lbm
lbm
m w = 3610
hr

51
Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 3
Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

3.29)

GIVEN: ∆p = 15 psia = pressure drop in piping; W elec = 2 hp = pump input


electricity; ηpump = 0.72; water flow.

FIND: m w

ASSUMPTIONS: Steady flow, zi = zo, adiabatic, ρw = 62.4 lbm/ft3

SOLUTION:

2 2
v v
m i ( gz i + i + hi ) + Q = m o ( gz o + o + ho ) + W (eq. 3.19)
2 2
With adiabatic, steady flow, and no elevation change, this reduces to:
W = m i (hi − ho ) m i = m o
ft ⋅ lb f / s ft ⋅ lb f
W m = 2hp ⋅ (550 ) = 1100
hp s
ft ⋅ lb f ft ⋅ lb f
W = W m ⋅η pump = 1100 (0.72) = 792
s s
∆h = ∆u + pv (by definition of h)
∆u = 0 since adiabatic
∆h = ∆pv
1 1 ft 3
v= = = 0.016
ρ w 62.4lbm / ft 3 lbm
lb f ft 3 144in 2 ft ⋅ lb f
∆h = 15 2 (0.016 )( ) = 34.56
in lbm ft 2 lbm
ft ⋅ lb f
 792
W s
m w = =
∆h ft ⋅ lb f
4.56
lbm
lbm
m w = 22.9
s

52
Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 3
Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

3.31)

GIVEN: Vo = 10,000 ft3/min = 0.18 Vs ; Ts = 55°F; Tr = 74°F

FIND: Minimum outdoor temperature at which an economizer can be used


without preheating the air (To,min).

ASSUMPTIONS: The variation in air density at the different temperatures is not


significant.

SOLUTION:

m r Tr + m oTo = m s Ts (eq. 3.22)


ρ rVr Tr + ρ oVoTo = ρ sVs Ts ρ r = ρ o = ρ s by assumption
V T + V T = V T
r r o o s s
3
ft
Vo = 10,000
min
ft 3
10,000 3
Vs = min = 55,556 ft
0.18 min

by conservation of mass:
m r + m o = m s
since we assumed ρ r = ρ o = ρ s ,
V + V = V
r o s

ft 3
Vr = Vs − Vo = 45,556
min
3
ft ft 3 ft 3
45,556 (74  F ) + 10,000 (To ) = 55,556 (55  F )
min min min
To,min = To = −31.6 F 

Comment: In reality the air density varies with temperature. However,


ignoring this variation does not result in large error since the density depends
on absolute temperature which varies only a few percentage points among
the input, return, and output temperatures.

53
Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 3
Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

3.33)

GIVEN: Saturated steam at ps = 130 psia; 20 billion Btu lost in steam leaks;
water cost = $1/1000 gallons; steam cost = $3/1000lbm.

FIND: Value of water lost compared to value of steam lost.

ASSUMPTIONS: Water cost is for water at ρw = 62.4 lbm/ft3

SOLUTION:

At ps = 130 psia saturated steam,


h = hg = 1192.5 Btu/lbm

20 x 109 Btu / 1192 Btu/lbm = 1.68 x 107 lbm steam lost


steam cost = ($3/1000 lbm)(1.68 x 107 lbm) = $50,400 steam cost

1.68 x 107 lbm / 62.4 lbm/ft3 = 2.69 x 105 ft3 water


(2.69 x 105 ft3)(7.481 gal/ft3)( $1/1000 gal) = $2014 water cost

The water cost is only 4% of the steam cost.

54
Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 3
Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

3.35)

GIVEN: Q L = 900 kJ/min; W net = 7 kW

FIGURE: 3.10

FIND: COPcool, Q H

SOLUTION:

Q L
COPcool = (eq. 3.29)
W net
900kJ / min(1 min/ 60 s )
COPcool =
7 kW
COPcool = 2.14

kJ 1 min
Q H = W net + Q L = 7 kW + 900 ( )
min 60 s
Q H = 22 kW

55
Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 3
Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

3.38)

GIVEN: T1 = 41°F; T2 = 73°F; COPhp = 3.0; W net = 17,750 Btu/hr; m = 1300 lbm;
c = 0.5 Btu/lbm°F

FIGURE: 3.9

FIND: Time required to raise temperature from T1 to T2.

SOLUTION:

Q h
COPcool = (eq. 3.30)
W net
Btu Btu
Q h = 17,750 ⋅ 3.0 = 53,250
hr hr
COPcool = 2.14

Q h (t ) = mc(T2 − T1 ) (eq. 3.5, 3.13)


Btu
1300lbm (0.5 
)(73 F − 41 F )
lbm F
t=
Btu
53,250
hr
t = 0.39 hr = 23.4 min

56
Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 3
Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

3.40)

GIVEN: TL = 72°F, TH = 92°F, Q gains = 8000 Btu/min + 2000 Btu/min

FIGURE: 3.10

FIND: W net , power input to keep building at 72°F

ASSUMPTIONS: Reversible carnot cycle. Q gains are all sensible gains.

SOLUTION:

Btu
Q L = Q gains = 10,000
min
Q  TL
COPc = L = (eq. 3.29)
W net TH − TL
(72 + 460)  R
COPc =
(92 − 72)  R
COPc = 26.6

Q L 10,000 Btu / min


W net = =
COPc 26.6
Btu
W net = 375 = 6.6 kW
min

57
Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 3
Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

3.42)

GIVEN: Q h = 30,000 Btu/min; Th,ideal = 72°F, Tl,ideal = 40°F; Real heat pump
requires 10°F temperature difference to transfer heat from the ideal
reservoirs.

FIGURE: 3.9

FIND: COPhp,ideal, COPhp,real

SOLUTION:

TL
COPhp ,ideal = + 1 (eq. 3.29 and 3.30)
T H − TL
(40 + 460)  R
COPhp ,ideal = +1
(72 − 40)  R
COPhp ,ideal = 16.6

In the real case, the heat transfer penalties require that Th =72°F+10°F= 82°F
and TL = 40°F-10°F= 30°F

(30 + 460)  R
COPhp , real = +1
(82 − 30)  R
COPhp , real = 10.4

58
Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 4
Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

Chapter 4

59
Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 4
Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

4.2)

GIVEN: Tr = 68°F, φr = 50%; Vr = 15’x15’x8’ = 1800 ft3; Ts = 45°F; sea level

FIND: Will moister condense on window at temperature Ts? How much water is
contained in the room?

SOLUTION:

From the psychrometric chart (Fig. 4.6) at φ = 50% and Tdb = 68ºF, traveling
left at a constant humidity ratio finds a dew point of 48ºF.
Since Ts < Tdew, moisture will condense on the window.

At φ = 50% and Tdb, reading the right-side scale of humidity ratio,


W = 0.0072 lbm,w/lbm,da
v = 13.45 ft3/lbm,da

V lbm, w § 1800 ft 3 ·
mw = W ⋅ = 0.0072 ¨ ¸
v lbm ,da ¨ 13.45 ft 3 / lb ¸
© m , da ¹
m w = 0.96 lbm, w

60
Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 4
Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

4.5)

GIVEN: Tdb = 90°F, Twb = 55°F; elevation = 5000 ft

FIND: φ, W, Tdew, h

SOLUTION:

From the psychrometric chart for 5000 ft (on CD), at the intersection of Tdb =
90ºF and Twb = 55ºF,

φ = 9%
W = 0.0032 lbm,w/lbm,da
Tdew = 28ºF
h = 25 Btu/lbm,da

61
Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 4
Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

4.7)

GIVEN: Tdb = 75°F, Twb = 55°F; sea level

FIND: Tdew (by equations)

SOLUTION:

Tdb = 75°F = 535ºR


Twb = 55°F = 515ºR

2 3
§ T · § T · § T ·
K = 4.39553 − 3.469¨ ¸ + 3.072¨ ¸ − 0.8833¨ ¸ (eq. 4.14)
© 1000 ¹ © 1000 ¹ © 1000 ¹
K(Tdb) = 3.28333
K(Twb) = 3.30312

p sat (T ) = p c 10 K (1−Tc / T ) (eq. 4.13)


pc = 3226 psia
Tc = 1165.67ºR

p sat (Tdb ) = (3226 psia )10 3.28(1−1165.67 / 535) = 0.4347 psia


p sat (Twb ) = (3226 psia )10 3.30(1−1165.67 / 515) = 0.2165 psia

§ T − Twb ·§ Twb − 492 ·


p m = p¨ db ¸¨1 + ¸ (eq. 4.12)
© 2725 ¹© 1571 ¹
p = 14.7 psia at sea level
§ 535 − 515 ·§ 515 − 492 ·
p m = 14.7 psia ¨ ¸¨1 + ¸ = 0.1095 psia
© 2725 ¹© 1571 ¹
p (T ) − p m
φ = sat wb (eq. 4.11)
p sat (Tdb )
(0.218 psia − 0.1095 psia )
φ= = 0.246 = 24.6%
0.439 psia
pw
φ= (eq. 4.1)
p sat (Tdb )
p w = 0.247(0.439 psia ) = 0.107 psia
Tdew = 100.45 + 33.193α + 2.319α 2 + 0.17074α 3 + 1.2063 p w
0.1984
(eq. 4.15)
α = ln p w = ln(0.108 psia ) = −2.23
Tdew = 36.7  F

62
Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 4
Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

4.9)

GIVEN: Ts = 40°F, Tdb = 68°F; 5000 ft elevation

FIND: The maximum relative humidity that can exist without condensation
occurring on a window at temperature Ts.

SOLUTION:

From the psychrometric chart for 5000 ft (on CD), find the intersection of Tdb =
68ºF and Twb = 40ºF (read horizontally from the saturation temperature scale).
The intersection is at φ = 36%. At an RH greater than 36%, condensation will
occur on the 40ºF window.

φmax = 36%

63
Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 4
Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

4.11)

GIVEN: Tdb = 70°F, W = 0.008 lbm,w/lbm,da

FIND: h, v using tables of moist air properties.

ASSUMPTIONS: Sea level.

SOLUTION:

At 70ºF

Wsat = 0.015832 lbm,w/lbm,da


hda = 16.818 Btu/lbm,da
hd,s = 17.279 Btu/lbm,da
vda = 13.349 ft3/lbm,da
vd,s = 0.339 ft3/lbm,da

§ W ·
h = hda + ¨¨ ¸¸ hd ,s (eq. 4.18a)
© Wsat ¹
Btu § 0.008 · Btu
h = 16.818 +¨ ¸(17.279 )
lbm, da © 0.015832 ¹ lbm,da
Btu
h = 25.55
lbm,da

§ W ·
v = v da + ¨¨ ¸¸v d , s (eq. 4.18b)
© Wsat ¹
ft 3 § 0.008 · ft 3
h = 13.349 +¨ ¸(0.339 )
lbm,da © 0.015832 ¹ lbm ,da
ft 3
h = 13.52
lbm ,da

64
Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 4
Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

4.13)

GIVEN: Tdb = 85°F, Tw = 40°F; 5000 ft elevation

FIND: The minimum relative humidity at which moisture condenses on the glass.

ASSUMPTIONS: The outer surface of the glass is at temperature Tw.

SOLUTION:

From the psychrometric chart for 5000 ft (on CD), find the intersection of Tdb =
85ºF and Tdew = 40ºF, at approximately:

φmin = 20%

Below 20% RH moisture will not condense on the glass.

65
Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 4
Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

4.14)

GIVEN: Moist air properties in table.

FIND: Remaining properties using the psychrometric charts.

SOLUTION:

Line #1: patm = 14.696 psia so use the sea level chart
W = 0.0177 lbm,w/lbm,da, h = 42.6 Btu/lbm,da, Tw = 79ºF, Tdew = 73.2ºF
Line #2: patm = 29.92” Hg so use the sea level chart
W = 0.0063 lbm,w/lbm,da, h = 23.8 Btu/lbm,da, φ = 41%, Tdew = 45ºF
Line #3: patm = 101.325 kPa so use the sea level chart
Td = 36.2ºC, φ = 19%, Twet = 19.2ºC, Tdew = 8.7ºC
Line #4: patm = 101.325 kPa so use the sea level chart
H = 46 kJ/kg, φ = 69%, Twet = 16.2ºC, Tdew = 14ºC
Line #5: patm = 12 psia so use 5000 ft chart
W = 0.0078 lbm,w/lbm,da, h = 23 Btu/lbm,da, φ = 70%, Tw = 49.5ºF
Line #6: patm = 101.325 kPa so use the sea level chart
W = 0.0272 kgw/kgm,da, h = 100 kJ/kgda, φ = 100%, Tdew = 30ºC
Line #7: patm = 101.325 kPa so use the sea level chart

Used Table on CD at T = -10ºC,


psat = 0.25991 kPa
φp sat
W = 0.622 (eq. 4.10)
p − φ p sat
(0.9)(0.25991kPa)
W = 0.622
(101.325kPa − 0.9(0.25991kPa))
kg
W = 0.0014 w
kg da
hda = -10.057 kJ/kgda
hd,s = 3.986 kJ/kgda
Wsat = 0.0016062 kgw/kgda
§ W ·
h = hda + ¨¨ ¸¸ hd ,s
© Wsat ¹
h = -6.58 kJ/kgda

One can assume that Tdew ≈ Twet since Tdb = -10ºC and 90% RH is very close
to saturation. The HCB software will give a more accurate solution (see 4.15
solution).

66
Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 4
Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

4.15)

GIVEN: Moist air properties given for problem 4.14.

FIND: Remaining properties using the HCB software.

SOLUTION:
The HCB “scratch sheet” allows the user to enter any two of Tdb, Twb, φ, or W
and will calculate the other two as well as h, water partial pressure, ρair, and
Tdew. In the case, such as line #3 of the table, when one of the given values
is h, pw, ρair, or Tdew, one must use trial and error variables. Printouts of the
HCB software “scratch sheets” are shown below.

67
Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 4
Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

4.16)

GIVEN: Tdb = 70ºF

FIND: Tdew and h for φ = 10, 30, 50, 70, and 90%

SOLUTION:

pw
φ= (eq. 4.1)
p sat
psat = (0.73966 in. Hg)(0.49115 psia/in. Hg) = 0.3632 psia

Tdew = 100.45 + 33.193α + 2.319α 2 + 0.17074α 3 + 1.2063 p w


0.1984
(eq. 4.15)
α = ln p w

φp sat
W = 0.622 (eq. 4.10)
p − φ p sat
h = 0.240Tdb + W (1061.2 + 0.444Tdb ) (eq. 4.17)

Using the above equations the following values can be calculated and
tabulated.

φ pw (psia) ln(pw) Tdew (F) W (lbw/lbda) h (Btu/lbda)


0.1 0.036 -3.315 10.3 0.00154 18.48
0.3 0.109 -2.217 37.2 0.00464 21.87
0.5 0.182 -1.706 50.6 0.00778 25.30
0.7 0.254 -1.369 59.8 0.01095 28.76
0.9 0.327 -1.118 67.0 0.01415 32.25

68
Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 4
Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

4.18)

GIVEN: Td = 40ºF, 5000 ft elevation, saturation air

FIND: W, h, and v

SOLUTION:

φ = 100% since the air is saturated.


patm = p = 12.2 psia at 5000 ft
psat = (0.24784 in. Hg)(0.49115 psia/in. Hg) = 0.1217 psia (Table on CD)

φp sat
W = 0.622
p − φ p sat
(1.0)(0.1217 psia )
W = 0.622
(12.2 psia − 0.1217 psia )
lbm, w
W = 0.0063
lbm,da

h = 0.240Tdb + W (1061.2 + 0.444Tdb ) (eq. 4.17)


h = 0.240(40) + 0.0063(1061.2 + 0.444(40))
Btu
h = 16.40
lbm,da

Rair Td
v=
p air
R T
v = air d
p − pw
Rair = 53.35 ft-lbf/lbm-ºR
pw = psat = 0.1217 psia (at φ = 100%)
ft ⋅ lb f
53.35 
(40 + 460  R)
lbm R
v=
lb f 144in 2
(12.2 − 0.1217) 2 ( )
in 1 ft 2
ft 3
v = 15.34
lbm,da

69
Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 4
Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

4.20)

GIVEN: Value shown in table.

FIND: Missing values in table using HCB software.

ASSUMPTIONS: Sea level.

SOLUTION:

Use the psychrometric “scratch sheet” in the HCB software. A printout of the
“scratch sheet” is shown below.

70
Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 4
Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

4.21)

GIVEN: Sea level; V =250 ft3/min; T1 = 95ºF, φ1 = 35%; T2 = 45ºF, φ2 = 100%;


COP = 2.2, η = 0.75

FIND: The amount of water that must be drained from the evaporator per hour.
The power extracted from the automobile to operate the air conditioner.

SOLUTION:

State W (lbm,w/lbm,da) h (Btu/lbm,da) v (ft3/lbm,da)


1 0.0123 36.6 14.3
2 0.0064 17.6 12.8

V
m w = (W1 − W2 )
v1
250 ft 3 / min § 60 min lbm,da ·
m w = ¨ ¸
14.3 ft 3 / lbm,da ¨ hr (0.0123 − 0.0064) lb ¸
© m , da ¹
lbm , w
m w = 6.2
hr

Q c = ((h2 − h1 ) − h f 2 (W2 − W1 ) )m da (eq.4.22)


hf2 = 13.09 Btu/lbm,w (Table on CD)

ft 3 60 min
§ Btu Btu lbm, w · 250 min ( hr )
Q c = ¨ (13.09 − 36.6) − 13.09 (0.0064 − 0.0123) ¸
¨ lbm, w lbm, w lbm, da ¸ 14.3 ft 3 / lb
© ¹ m , da

Btu
Q c = −19,850 (negative indicates heat extracted)
hr
Btu
Q 19,850
Q s = c = hr = 9022 Btu
COP 2 .2 hr
Btu
Q 9022
W = s = hr
η 0.75
Btu
W = 12,030 = 4.7 hp
hr

71
Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 4
Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

4.25)

GIVEN: T1 = 100ºF, φ1 = 30%; T2 = 70ºF

FIND: Amount of water that condenses going from T1 to T2

ASSUMPTIONS: Sea level

SOLUTION:

Find the intersection of T1 and φ1. Move horizontally at constant humidity


ratio to the left. It is found that 70ºF is greater than the dew point temperature
of approximately 63ºF. Therefore, no moisture condenses in the process.

72
Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 4
Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

4.27)

GIVEN: Vda =100 ft3/min, Td1 = 55ºF, Tw1 = 39ºF; φ2 = 80%; Ts = 212ºF, saturated
steam; sea level

FIND: m s and Td2

SOLUTION:

m a h1 + m s hs = m a h2 (conservation of energy)
m aW1 + m s = m aW2 (conservation of mass)

Solving both equations for m s and setting them equal to each other,
m (h − h1 )
m a (W2 − W1 ) = a 2
hs
(h − h1 )
hs = 2
(W2 − W1 )
hs = hg = 1150.5 Btu/lbm (Steam Table)
∆h Btu
= 1150.5
∆W lbm
Using the protractor on Fig. 4.6 find the slope of the process by drawing the
line from the center of the protractor to ∆h/∆W = 1150.5 Btu/lbm labeled on the
protractor outer rim. Locate state 1 on the chart (Td = 55ºF, Tw = 39ºF). Move
from state 1 to φ2 = 80% at the slope determined by ∆h/∆W. Td2 can be read
at the point where the slope line and φ2 intersect.
Td2 = 57.5ºF

From conservation of mass,


m s = m a (W2 − W1 )

W1 = 0.0015 lbm,w/lbm,da
V1 = 13 ft3/lbm,da
W2 = 0.0081 lbm,w/lbm,da

V 100 ft 3 / min lbm ,da


m a = = 3
= 7 .7
v1 13 ft / lbm,da min
lbm ,da lbm, w lbm, w
m s = 7.7 (0.0081 − 0.0015 )
min lbm,da lbm, da
lbm, w lbm, w
m s = 0.05 = 3.05
min hr

73
Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 4
Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

4.30)

GIVEN: Td1 = 10ºF, φ1 = 70%; Td2 = 70ºF, φ2 = 60%; patm = 14.696 psia (sea
level)

FIND: moisture that must be added to the air to achieve indoor humidity of 60%

SOLUTION:

pw
φ= (eq. 4.1)
p sat
psat = (0.062901 in. Hg)(0.49115 psia/in. Hg) = 0.031 psia
pw1 = psat(φ1) = (0.031 psia)(0.70) = 0.022 psia

p w1
W = 0.622 (eq. 4.10)
p − p w1
0.022 psia lbm, w
W = 0.622 = 0.000932
(14.696 psia − 0.022 psia ) lbm ,da
lbm, w
W = 0.0094 (Fig. 4.6)
lbm,da
lbm , w lbm, w
∆W = 0.0094 − 0.000932
lbm,da lbm, da
lbm , w
∆W = 0.0085 must be added to the air.
lbm,da

74
Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 4
Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

4.31)

GIVEN: Td1 = 34ºF, Tw1 = 33ºF; Td2 = 68ºF; V = 800 ft3/min; sea level

FIND: The heat rate, Q , and how much of the heat rate is due to the presence
of moisture.

SOLUTION:

h1 = 12 Btu/lbm,da(Fig. 4.6)
v1 = 12.5 ft3/lbm,da
W2 = 0.0038 lbm,w/lbm,da

h2 = 20.5 Btu/lbm,da (at Td2 and W 1)


v2 = 13.4 ft3/lbm,da

Since it is unclear whether 800 ft3/min is the supply air flow to the room or the
intake air flow to the system, use the average specific volume.
v = (13.4+12.5)/2 = 13.0 ft3/ lbm,da
p
φ = w (eq. 4.1)
p sat
psat = (0.062901 in. Hg)(0.49115 psia/in. Hg) = 0.031 psia
pw1 = psat(φ1) = (0.031 psia)(0.70) = 0.022 psia
V 800 ft 3 / min lbm ,da
m a = = = 61 . 5
v1 13.0 ft 3 / lbm,da min
Q = m (h − h ) (eq. 3.16)
a 2 1

lbm,da Btu Btu


Q = 61.5 (20.5 − 12.0 )
min lbm,da lbm,da
Btu Btu
Q = 523 = 31,365
min hr

The portion due to the presence of water,


Q w = m w c p , w ∆T (eq. 3.6 and 3.16)
Q = m W c (T − T ) ; cp,w = 0.446 Btu/lbmºR
w a 1 p,w d2 d1

lbm,da lbm, w Btu


Q w = 61.5 (0.0038 )(0.466  )(68  R − 34  R )
min lbm, da lbm F
Btu Btu
Q w = 3.5 = 213
min hr
Q w is less than 1% of the total Q .

75
Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 4
Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

4.32)

GIVEN: Td1 = 10ºF, φ1 = 70%; Td2 = 70ºF, φ2 = 60%; Td2 = 68ºF; sea level

FIND: The energy required to increase the humidity to the required 60%.

SOLUTION:

From 4.30, W 1 = 0.000932 lbm,w/lbm,da


W
h1 = hda + ( hd , s ) (eq. 4.18a)
Wsat
hda = 2.402 Btu/lbm,da
hd,s = 1.402 Btu/lbm,da
Wsat = 0.0013158 lbm,w/lbm,da
Btu 0.000932 Btu Btu
h1 = 2.402 + (1.402 ) = 3.40
lbm ,da 0.0013158 lbm,da lbm ,da
h2 = 27.2 Btu/lbm,da (Fig. 4.6)

The total energy change


Btu
q T = h2 − h1 = 23.8
lbm,da
The sensible portion of the energy change can be calculated by assuming
that W 2 = W 1 and finding h2’

h2’ = 17.6 Btu/lbm,da (Fig. 4.6 at W = 0.000932 and Td = 70ºF)


Btu
q s = h2 '− h1 = 17.6 − 3.4 = 14.2
lbm,da
The portion due to the humidification of the latent portion:
q l = q r − q s = 23.8 − 14.2

Btu
q l = 9.6
lbm,da

76
Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 4
Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

4.35)

GIVEN: Tdo = 35ºC, Two = 25ºC; Tdr = 25ºC, φr = 50%; m r = 5m o ; m =12 kg/s

FIGURE: P4.35

FIND: hm, φm, Wm, Tdm, Q , m w

ASSUMPTIONS: sea level

SOLUTION:

Conservation of mass:
m oWo + m rWr = m mWm
m o + m r = m m
Conservation of energy:
m o ho + m r hr = m m hm

Wo = 0.016 kgw/kgda
ho = 76.0 kJ/kgda
Wr = 0.010 kgw/kgda
hr = 50.5 kJ/kgda

m o + 5m o = m m ; 6m o = m m

m oWo + 5m oWr = 6m oWm


Wo + 5Wr = 6Wm
kg kg
0.016 w + 5(0.010 w ) = 6Wm
kg da kg da
kg w
Wm = 0.011
kg da

m o ho + m r hr = m m hm
m o ho + 5m o hr = 6m o hm
ho + 5hr = 6hm
kJ kJ
76.0 + 5(50.5 ) = 6 hm
kg da kg da
kJ
hm = 54.8
kg da

77
Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 4
Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

4.35 continued)

Locating the intersection of Wm and hm gives φm and Tdm (Fig. 4.6).

φm = 50%
Tdm = 26.8ºC

The air must be conditioned from Tdm = 26.8ºC, φm = 50% to Tds = 25ºC, φs =
50%.

Q = m s (hm − hs ) (eq. 3.16) (hs = hr)


kg kJ kJ
Q = 12 (54.8 − 50.5 )
s kg da kg da
Q = 51.6 kW

m w = m s (Wm − Ws ) ; Ws = W r
kg kg kg
m w = 12 (0.011 w − 0.010 w )
s kg da kg da
kg w
m w = 0.012
s

78
Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 4
Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

4.38)

GIVEN: Tdi = 100ºF, φi = 25%; V = 10,000 cfm; Elevation = 3000 ft; Evaporative
cooler, ε = 0.85

FIND: Tdo, φo, W o. How much water is evaporated?

SOLUTION:

pw
φi = = 0.25 (eq. 4.1)
p sat
psat = 1.93492 in. Hg (0.49115 psia/in. Hg) = 0.9503 psia
pw = 0.2376 psia
pw
W = 0.622 (eq. 4.9)
p − pw
(0.2376 psia ) lb
W = 0.622 = 0.0114 w
(13.2 psia − 0.2376 psia ) lbda
at sea level with Td = 100ºF and , φ = 25%, Tw = 71.5ºF (from Fig. 4.6). At
5000 ft with Td = 100ºF and , φ = 25%, Tw = 70.5ºF. One can estimate Tw at
3000 ft as between 70.5ºF and 71.5ºF. The estimated value can be checked
using equations 4.11 to 4.14 or with HCB software.
Twi = 71.0ºF

Tdo = Tdi – (Tdi – Twi)(ε)


Tdo = 100ºF – (100ºF – 71.0ºF)(.85)
Tdo = 75.4ºF
Two = Twi = 71.0ºF
Tdo = 75.4ºF = 535.4ºF
Two = 71.0ºF = 531.0ºR

2 3
§ T · § T · § T ·
K = 4.39553 − 3.469¨ ¸ + 3.072¨ ¸ − 0.8833¨ ¸ (eq. 4.14)
© 1000 ¹ © 1000 ¹ © 1000 ¹
K(Tdo) = 3.283
K(Two) = 3.287

p sat (T ) = p c 10 K (1−Tc / T ) (eq. 4.13)


pc = 3226 psia
Tc = 1165.67ºR
p sat (Tdo ) = 0.440 psia
p sat (Two ) = 0.380 psia

79
Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 4
Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

4.38 continued)

§ T − Tw ·§ Tw − 492 ·
p m = p¨ d ¸¨1 + ¸ (eq. 4.12)
© 2725 ¹© 1571 ¹
p = 13.2 psia
§ 535.4 − 531.0 ·§ 531 − 492 ·
p m = 13.2 psia ¨ ¸¨1 + ¸ = 0.0218 psia
© 2725 ¹© 1571 ¹
p (T ) − p m
φ = sat wb (eq. 4.11)
p sat (Tdb )
(0.380 psia − 0.0218 psia )
φo = = 0.814
0.440 psia
φ o = 81.4%
pw
φ= (eq. 4.1)
p sat
p sat ,o = 0.8875in. Hg (0.49115 psia / in. Hg ) = 0.4359 psia
p w,o = 0.814(0.4359 psia ) = 0.3548 psia
pw
W = 0.622 (eq. 4.9)
p − pw
(0.3548 psia ) lb lbw
W = 0.622 = 0.0114 w W = 0.0172
(13.2 psia − 0.3548 psia ) lbda lbda

To find the amount of water evaporated, one must know the mass flow rate of
the air, m da .
V
m da =
v
ft ⋅ lb f
53.35 
(100 + 460)  R
Rair Td lbm R ft 3
v= = = 16.0
( p − pw ) lb f lb f 144in 2 lb m
(13.2 2 − 0.24 2 )( 2
)
in in ft
ft 3
10,000
m da = min = 625 lbm
ft 3 min
16
lbm
lb lb lb
m w = m da (Wo − Wi ) = 625 m (0.0172 w − 0.0114 w )
min lbda lbda
lbw
m w = 3.6
min

80
Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 4
Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

4.41)

GIVEN: Td1 = 80ºF, Tw1 = 75ºF; Td2 = 55ºF, φ2 = 100%; Elevation = 5000 ft

FIND: ∆W, q l , q s , SHR

SOLUTION:

State W (lbw/lbda) h (Btu/lbda)


1 0.0216 43.0
1’ 0.0110 31.5
2 0.0110 25.2
(From psychrometric chart for 5000 ft)

State 1’ is at Td = Td1 and W = W 2

∆W = W1 − W2 = 0.0216 − 0.0110
lbw
∆W = 0.0106
lbda
Btu Btu
q l = h1 '− h1 = 31.5 − 43.0
lbda lbda
Btu
q l = −11.5 (The negative sign indicates heat removed.)
lbda
Btu Btu
q s = h2 − h1 ' = 25.2 − 31.5
lbda lbda
Btu
q s = −6.3
lbda

q s
SHR = (eq. 4.33)
(q s + q l )
− 6.3
SHR =
(−6.3 + (−11.5))
SHR = 0.35

81
Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 4
Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

4.43)

GIVEN: Office with persons producing 200 Btu/hr sensible heat and 0.25 lb/hr
moisture; Tr = 72ºF, φr = 50%; Ts = 60ºF; sea level

FIND: SHR, W s, m s

SOLUTION:

Q s = (30 persons)(200 Btu/hr-person) = 6000 Btu/hr


Q l = m w ⋅ h fg with hg at body temperature
hfg,98.6F = 1037.8 Btu/lb
lb Btu Btu
Q l = 0.25 (30 persons)(1037.8 ) = 7784
hr ⋅ person lb hr
Q s
SHR = (eq. 4.33)
(Q s + Q l )
6000
SHR =
(6000 + 7784)
SHR = 0.44

Use the protractor on Fig. 4.6 to get the slope of the SHR line. Using that
slope, draw a line from Td = 72ºF, φ = 50% to Td = Ts = 60ºF. The point where
the SHR slope line crosses Td = 60ºF is the supply air condition.

Ws = 0.0053 lbw/lbda

Q T = m air (∆hair )
hr = 26.4 Btu/lbda (at 72ºF, 50% RH)
hs = 20.1 Btu/lbda (at 60ºF, W = 0.0053 lbw/lbda)

Btu Btu Btu


Q T = Q l + Q s = 6000 + 7784 = 13,784
hr hr hr
Btu
13,784
m air = hr
Btu
(26.4 − 20.1)
lbda
lbda
m air = 2188
hr

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Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 4
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4.45)

GIVEN: Cooling coil inlet and outlet conditions given in Table. Case 1: Tdi =
80ºF, Twi = 67ºF, Tdo = 50ºF φ2 = 90%; Vi = 10,000 cfm; sea level

FIND: The cooling coil load

SOLUTION:

hi = 31.5 Btu/lbda, vi = 13.8 ft3/lbda (Fig. 4.6)


ho = 19.5 Btu/lbda

Q c = m (ho − hi )
ft 3
V
10,000
Q c = i (ho − hi ) = min (19.5 − 31.5) Btu ( 60 min )
vi ft 3 lbda 1hr
13.8
lbda
Btu
Q c = −521,700 (negative sign indicates heat removed from air.)
hr

Repeat for cases 2 and 3.

83
Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 4
Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

4.47)

GIVEN: Vm = 10,000 cfm, Tm = 56ºF; Tr = 75ºF, φr = 50%; To = 35ºF, φo = 40%;

FIND: m o , Wm

ASSUMPTIONS: sea level

SOLUTION:

Conservation of mass:
m r + m o = m m (eq. 4.26)
m rWr + m oWo = m mWm (eq. 4.27)
(m T + m oTo )
Tm = r r (eq. 4.29)
m m
in order to use these equations one must assume a value for vm. An initial
approximation would be the average of vr and vo.
vr = 13.7 ft3/lbda, vo = 12.5 ft3/lbda (Fig. 4.6)
3
vr ≈ (13.7+12.5)/2 = 13.1 ft /lbda

Vm 10,000 ft 3 / min lb


m m = = 3
= 763.4 da
vm 13.1 ft / lbda min
m r = m m − m o = 763.4 − m o (eq. 4.26)
(T m − Tr m r ) (56(763.4) − (763.4 − m o )75)
m o = m m =
To 35
lbda
m o = 362.6
min

lbda
m r = m m − m o = 763.4 − 362.6 = 400.8
min
(m rWr + m oWo )
Wm = (eq. 4.30)
m m
Wr = 0.0093 lbw/lbda, Wo = 0.0017 lbw/lbda (Fig. 4.6)
(400.8(0.0093) + 362.6(0.0017))
Wm =
763.4
lb
Wm = 0.0057 w
lbda

One can check the assumption that vm = 13.1 ft3/lbda by using the
psychrometric chart at Tm = 56ºF and Wm = 0.0057. At that point, vm = 13.1,
so the assumption was correct.

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Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 4
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4.51)

GIVEN: Adiabatic saturator at sea level; Tdi = 80ºF; Tdo = 65ºF

FIND: WI and φi

SOLUTION:

(1093 − 0.556Tdo )Wo − 0.240(Tdi − Tdo )


Wi = (eq. 4.21)
1093 + 0.444Tdi − Tdo
.W o = 0.0132 lbw/lbda (Fig. 4.6 at Tdo, 100% RH)

(1093 − 0.556(65))0.0132 − 0.240(80 − 65)


Wi =
1093 + 0.444(80) − 65
lbw
Wi = 0.0097
lbda

φi = 45% from Fig. 4.6 at Td = 80ºF, W = 0.0097 lbw/lbda

85
Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 4
Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

4.52)

FIND: What effects are taken into account by


a) the mean radiant temperature
b) the operative temperature
c) the adiabatic equivalent temperature

SOLUTION:

a) The mean radiant temperature takes into account radiative heat transfer.

b) The operative temperature takes into account radiative and convective


heat transfer, or radiation temperature and drybulb air temperature.

c) The adiabatic equivalent temperature takes into account radiative and


convective heat transfer, and evaporation, or radiation temperature,
drybulb air temperature, and humidity.

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Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 4
Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

4.54)

GIVEN: a) summer, Ta = Tr = 23ºC; φ = 60%


b) summer, Ta = 22ºC, Tr = 28ºC, φ = 30%, hc = hr
c) winter, Ta = Tr = 20ºC, φ = 30%

FIND: Whether conditions are expected to be comfortable for light office work.

ASSUMPTIONS: The light office work is less than 1.2 met (Table 4.2). Clothing
is the same as assumed in the ASHRAE comfort chart (Fig.
4.15)

SOLUTION:

hconTa + hrad Tr
a) Top =
hcon + hrad
Ta = Tr = 23ºC
Top = 23ºC
At Top = 23ºC and 60% RH we are in the comfort boundaries for summer
according to to ASHRAE comfort chart. The upper limit is approximately
25ºC and the lower 22.5ºC. Yes.

hconTa + hrad Tr
b) Top =
hcon + hrad
hc = hr
Top = (Ta + Tr )/2 = 25ºC

From the ASHRAE comfort chart at 30% RH, the lower comfort level in
summer is 23ºC and the upper comfort level is 26.7ºCl 25ºC is between
those, so it is expected to be comfortable. Yes.

c) Top = 20ºC since Ta = Tr


At 30% RH the winter lower comfort level is 20.3ºC and the winter upper
comfort level is 24ºC. Top = 20ºC is below the lower boundary, so it is not
expected to be comfortable. No.

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Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 4
Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

4.57)

GIVEN: ∆T = 0.5 K, t = 10 hr, Ask = 1.8 m2, q = 1 met, mcp = 200 kJ/K

FIND: Contribution of thermal storage in body relative to steady state heat loss.

ASSUMPTIONS: Steady state heat loss at rate q .

SOLUTION:

Steady state heat loss,


Q = qAsk (eq. 4.34)
q = 1 met = 58.2 W/m2
W
Q = 58.2 2 (1.82m 2 )
m

Q = 104.8 W

Storage,
dT
Q stor = mc p
dt
kJ § 0.5 K ·
Q stor = 200 ¨ ¸
K © 10hr ¹
kJ
Q stor = 10 = 2 .8 W
hr

Storage is less than 3% of the steady state heat loss. Thus, it is usually
ignored.

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Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 4
Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

4.58)

GIVEN: Td = 5ºC, V = 0.1 l/hr; no change in evaporative transfer from the body.

FIND: The effect of drinking a liquid at Td and rate V on the thermal balance of
the body.

SOLUTION:

Assuming the liquid has characteristics like water,


ρ = 1.0 kg/l
cp = 4186 J/kg-K

Q = m c p ∆T
Q = ρVc ∆T
p

kg l J
Q = 1.0 (0.1 )(4186 )(37  C − 5 C )
l hr kg ⋅ K
where the body temperature equals 37ºC

J
Q = 13,400 = 3.7 W
hr

Drinking the liquid has a cooling effect of 3.7 W.

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Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 4
Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

4.60)

GIVEN: V pol = 100 µg/s of NOx; Co = 50 µg/m3 NOx

FIND: Vo needed to keep the NOx level at 100 µg/m3 as provided in Table for
acceptable long-term contamination.

SOLUTION:

Vpol
Ci = C o + (eq. 4.46)
V o

Vpol
Vo =
(C i − C o )
100 µg / s
Vo =
(100 µg / m 3 − 50 µg / m 3 )

m3 l
Vo = 2 = 2000
s s

90
Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 4
Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

4.62)

GIVEN: Two air streams, both at 5000 cfm, are well mixed inside an air-handling
unit.
Stream 1: Td1 = 80ºF, φ1 = 80%
Stream 2: Td2 = 50ºF, φ2 = 80%

FIND: Resulting mixed air stream temperature (Td3) and relative humidity (φ3)

ASSUMPTIONS: Mixing is adiabatic.


Process occurs at sea level.

SOLUTION:

Inlet specific volumes are very similar, therefore, ratio of volumetric flows can
be assumed to be ratio of mass flows.

Vd 1 m d 1 Vd 2 m d 2
= =
Vd 3 m d 3 Vd 3 m d 3

With conservation of mass,

m d 1 + m d 2 = m d 3

m d 1 = m d 2 = 0.5m d 3

m da1Td 1 + m da 2Td 2
Td 3 = = 0.5*80 + 0.5*50 = 65ºF
m da 3

Since process is adiabatic, process is a line on the psychrometric chart,


connecting states 1 and 2. Intersection of this line with 65ºF dry bulb
temperature line gives relative humidity of 90%.

Td3 = 65ºF
φ3 = 90%

91
Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 4
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4.63)

GIVEN: Two moist air samples:


Sample 1: Td1 = 50ºF, φ1 = 10%
Sample 2: Td2 = 50ºF, φ2 = 90%

FIND: Which sample has the higher density?

ASSUMPTIONS: Samples are at sea level.

SOLUTION:

From psychrometric chart:

ft 3 ft 3
v1 = 12.86 v1 = 12.98
lbmda lbmda

1
ρ=
v

lbmda lbmda
ρ1 = 0.078 ρ 2 = 0.077
ft 3 ft 3

Sample 1 (Td1 = 50ºF, φ1 = 10%) has the higher density.

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Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 4
Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

4.64)

GIVEN: Two moist air samples:


Sample 1: Td1 = 50ºF, φ1 = 50%
Sample 2: Td2 = 80ºF, φ2 = 50%

FIND: Which sample has the higher density?

ASSUMPTIONS: Samples are at sea level.

SOLUTION:

From psychrometric chart:

ft 3 ft 3
v1 = 12.92 v1 = 13.84
lbmda lbmda

1
ρ=
v

lbmda lbmda
ρ1 = 0.077 ρ 2 = 0.072
ft 3 ft 3

Sample 1 (Td1 = 50ºF, φ1 = 50%) has the higher density.

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Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 4
Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

4.65)

GIVEN: Economizer mixes outside air (OA) and building return air (RA) to
minimize amount of energy needed to condition resulting mixed air
stream to match desired supply air (SA) conditions.
OA: TOA = 90ºF, φOA = 40%
RA: TRA = 80ºF, φRA = 70%
SA: TSA = 55ºF, φSA = 80%

FIND: Should economizer control use mostly outside air or mostly return air?

ASSUMPTIONS: Process occurs are at sea level.

SOLUTION:

From psychrometric chart (or HCB software):

hOA = 34.9 Btu/lbm hRA = 36.1 Btu/lbm

The outside air has lower enthalpy than the return air,
so the economizer should use the outside air.

94
Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 4
Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

4.66)

GIVEN: World Trade Center in New York contains approximately 100 x 106 ft3 of
building air (BA) at TBA,d = 70ºF, φBA = 60%.
Ventilation rate is 0.5 air-changes/hr.
Ambient air design: TOA,d = 92ºF, TOA,wet = 76ºF

FIND: How much water is removed each hour from the outdoor air entering the
building?

ASSUMPTIONS: Process occurs are at sea level.

SOLUTION:

VOA = 100 x 106 ft3 * 0.5 air-changes/hr


= 50 x 106 ft3/hr

From psychrometric chart:


υOA = 14.26 ft3/lbmda
WOA = 0.0157 lbmwater/lbmair

VOA
m OA = = 3,506,300 lbmda/hr
vOA

m water , OA = WOA m OA = 55,050 lbm,water/hr

From psychrometric chart:


υBA = 13.55 ft3/lbmda
WBA = 0.0094 lbmwater/lbmair

VOA
m OA = = 3,506,300 lbmda/hr
vOA

m water , BA = WBA m BA = 32,960 lbm,water/hr

m water , removed = m water ,OA − m water , BA = 22,090 lbm,water/hr

95
Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 4
Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

4.67)

GIVEN: Human air is exhaled at 80ºF, 50% relative humidity

FIND: Outdoor air conditions that must be met for human breath to me seen.

ASSUMPTIONS: Process occurs are at sea level.

SOLUTION:

Breath will be seen when condensation occurs. This will happen when the
temperature of the outside air is at the dew point of exhaled air.

From psychrometric chart:


Dew point temperature is found at the intersection of the humidity-ratio line
and the saturation curve.

Tdew = 60ºF

The outside air must be around the dew point of breath (60ºF).

96
Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 4
Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

4.68)

GIVEN: Air leaves a cooling coil at 55ºF and a humidity ratio of 0.008
lbmwater/lbmda. The air then passes through a fan that heats the air
stream up by 2ºF before being supplied to the building

FIND: Is a minimum requirement of 85% relative humidity met before the fan?
After the fan?

ASSUMPTIONS: Process occurs are at sea level.

SOLUTION:

From psychrometric chart:

Before the fan:

φ = 87%

After the fan:

φ = 80%

The requirement is met before the fan, but not after the fan.

97
Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 4
Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

4.69)

GIVEN: Air at 90ºF and 50% relative humidity is cooled to 70ºF.

FIND: How much moisture condenses out of the air?

ASSUMPTIONS: Process occurs are at sea level.

SOLUTION:

From psychrometric chart:

Following horizontal line of humidity ratio (W=0.0151 lbmwater/lbmda), 70ºF is


above saturation (dew point) temperature. Therefore,

No moisture condenses out of the air.

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Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 4
Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

4.70)

GIVEN: Air at 90ºF and 50% relative humidity is cooled to 60ºF.

FIND: How much moisture condenses out of the air?

ASSUMPTIONS: Process occurs are at sea level.

SOLUTION:

From psychrometric chart:

Following horizontal line of humidity ratio (W=0.0151 lbmwater/lbmda), 60ºF is


below saturation (dew point) temperature. Therefore, follow line of saturation
down to 60ºF.
At this point (60ºF, full saturation), W = 0.0110 lbmwater/lbmda

Therefore, condensed moisture = W 1-W 2 = 0.0041 lbmwater/lbmda

99
Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 4
Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

4.71)

GIVEN: Data from a coastal weather station records a daytime high temperature
of 90ºF and a relative humidity of 37%. At night, the temperature drops
to 60ºF and the relative humidity reaches 100%.

FIND: How much has the humidity ratio varied throughout the day?

ASSUMPTIONS: Process occurs are at sea level.

SOLUTION:

From psychrometric chart:

At Td = 90ºF and φ = 37%,


W = 0.0111 lbmwater/lbmda

At Td = 60ºF and φ = 100%,


W = 0.0111 lbmwater/lbmda

Therefore,

The humidity ratio has not changed.

100
Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 4
Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

4.72)

GIVEN: Some buildings use night purge where cool night air is used to cool the
building mass in the evening to reduce cooling energy used the
following day. However, bringing in the cool night air can also cause
the building and its contents to absorb a lot of moisture that can
increase the latent load. The building return air is a constant 78ºF at
70% relative humidity without night purging and 76ºF at 77% relative
humidity with night purging.

FIND: Does night purging make sense? Explain.

ASSUMPTIONS: Process occurs are at sea level.

SOLUTION:

From psychrometric chart:

Without night purge,


h1 = 34.53 Btu/lbm

With night purge,


h2 = 34.51 Btu/lbm

No, it doesn’t make sense because the enthalpies of the two air streams are
almost exactly the same. Energy would be used by running the fans at night
and no appreciable cooling load gains would be obtained.

101
Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 4
Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

4.73)

GIVEN: A small office building has a volume of about 50,000 ft3. The forced
ventilation rate is 0.5 ACH and there are 30 occupants who give off 0.01
ft3 of CO2 per minute.

FIND: How does the CO2 concentration vary throughout the day. Draw a graph
from 8 am to 5 pm showing the concentration.

ASSUMPTIONS: Ambient concentration of 350 ppm of CO2 and an initial


building concentration of the same amount. Ignore any
infiltration effects and assume that the building air is
thoroughly mixed.

SOLUTION:

Co = 350 ppm
VOA = 50,000 ft3 * 0.5 air-changes/hr = 25,000 ft3/hr
Npol-people = 30 persons * 0.01 ft3/min/person * 60 min/hr = 18 ft3/hr
Npol-ambient = 350/1,000,000 * 25,000 ft3/hr = 8.75 ft3/hr
Npol = Npol-people + Npol-ambient = 26.75 ft3/hr

Use a spreadsheet to represent concentration as a function timestep n (in


hours), where:
N pol 1,000,000 parts
C n +1 = C n − C n * 0.5 ACH * n + * *n
Vbuilding 1million
1200

1000
CO2 Concentration (PPM)

800

600

400

200

0
8:00 9:00 10:00 11:00 12:00 13:00 14:00 15:00 16:00 17:00
Time

Note: Answers will vary depending on selected timestep. This figure shows a
timestep of one minute.

102
Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 4
Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

4.74)

GIVEN: A party is held in a house during the winter with all the doors and
windows closed. When the guests all leave at midnight, the
concentration of CO2 in the house is 1400 ppm. The house has a
volume of 25,000 ft3 and an infiltration rate of 0.3 ACH.

FIND: How long before the CO2 concentration in the house goes below 500
ppm.

ASSUMPTIONS: Ambient concentration of 350 ppm of CO2. No one remains in


the house.

SOLUTION:

Co = 1400 ppm
C(n) = 500 ppm
Vo = 25,000 ft3 * 0.3 air-changes/hr =7,500 ft3/hr
Npol-ambient = 350/1,000,000 * 7,500 ft3/hr = 2.625 ft3/hr

Use a spreadsheet to represent concentration as a function timestep n (in


hours), where:
N pol 1,000,000 parts
C n +1 = C n − C n * 1.0 ACH * n + * *n
Vbuilding 1million
1600

1400

1200
CO2 Concentration (PPM)

1000

800

600

400

200

0
0:00 1:00 2:00 3:00 4:00 5:00 6:00 7:00 8:00 9:00
Time

The concentration goes below 500 ppm at approximately 6.5 hours.


Note: Answers will vary depending on selected timestep. The answer shown
represents a timestep of one minute. If a timestep of 1 hr is used this gives
an answer of 6 hrs. ½ hr timestep Æ 6 hrs; 10 minutes Æ 6 hrs, 20 minutes.
For accuracy, the timestep used should be 10 minutes or less.

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Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 4
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4.75)

GIVEN: Problem N.4.13, with the doors and windows opened, increasing the
effective ventilation rate to 1 ACH.

FIND: How long before the CO2 concentration in the house goes below 500
ppm.

ASSUMPTIONS: Ambient concentration of 350 ppm of CO2. No one remains in


the house.

SOLUTION:

Co = 1400 ppm
C(n) = 500 ppm
Vo = 25,000 ft3 * 0.3 air-changes/hr =7,500 ft3/hr
Npol-ambient = 350/1,000,000 * 7,500 ft3/hr = 2.625 ft3/hr

Use a spreadsheet to represent concentration as a function timestep n (in


hours), where:
N pol 1,000,000 parts
C n +1 = C n − C n * 1.0 ACH * n + * *n
Vbuilding 1million
1600

1400

1200
CO2 Concentration (PPM)

1000

800

600

400

200

0
0:00 1:00 2:00 3:00 4:00 5:00 6:00 7:00 8:00 9:00
Time

The concentration goes below 500 ppm in 1 hour, 10 minutes.

Note: Answers will vary depending on selected timestep. The answer shown
represents a timestep of one minute. If a timestep of ½ hr is used this gives
an answer of less than l hour. 10 min timestep Æ 1 hr, 5 min. For accuracy,
the timestep used should be 10 minutes or less.

104
Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 4
Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

4.76)

GIVEN: Most relative humidity sensors have an accuracy of about ±3%RH. An


air stream is measured to have a temperature of 55ºF and a relative
humidity of 90%.

FIND: What is the possible range of air enthalpy for this air stream.

ASSUMPTIONS: Measurements made at sea level.

SOLUTION:

From psychrometric chart,

Td = 55ºF, φ = 87% Æ h = 21.76 Btu/lbm

Td = 55ºF, φ = 93% Æ h = 22.37 Btu/lbm

Possible enthalpy range between 21.76 and 22.37 Btu/lbm.

105
Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 4
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4.77)

GIVEN: A cooling coil at sea level removes 100,000 Btu/hr from an air stream.
The air flows into the coil at 10,000 cfm. Entering air: Td = 80ºF, φ =
50%.

FIND: The leaving air temperature from the coil.

SOLUTION:

From psychrometric chart,

υ = 13.85 ft3/lbmda

V
m da = = 100,00 ft3/min * 60 min/hr / 13.85 ft3/lbmda = 43,320 lbmda/hr
v

Q = m c p (T1 − T2 )
where,
Btu
c p = 0.245  (average specific heat of moist air)
lbm F
Btu
 100,000
Q hr
T2 = T1 − = 80  F − = 70.6  F
m c p lb Btu
43,320 m * 0.245 
hr lbm F

Since this temperature is above the dew point for the entering air (59.4ºF), no
moisture condenses on the coil, and the humidity ratio is the same.

W1 = W 2 = 0.0109 lbmwater/lbmair

From psychrometric chart,

At a temperature of 70.6ºF, this humidity ratio corresponds to 68% RH.

Leaving air temperature is at 71ºF, with a relative humidity of 68%.

106
Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 4
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4.78)

GIVEN: Process in problem N.4.16 occurs in Leadville, Colorado at 10,000 ft


above sea level.

FIND: The leaving air temperature from the coil.

SOLUTION:

From psychrometric “scratch sheet” HCB software,


Td = 80ºF, φ = 50% at 10,000 ft:
υ = 20.41 ft3/lbmda

V
m da = = 10,000 ft3/min * 60 min/hr / 20.41 ft3/lbmda = 29,400 lbmda/hr
v

Q = m c p (T1 − T2 )
where,
Btu
c p = 0.245  (average specific heat of moist air)
lbm F
Btu
100,000
Q hr
T2 = T1 − = 80  F − = 66.1 F

mc p lb Btu
29,400 m * 0.245 
hr lbm F

Since this temperature is above the dew point for the entering air (59.4ºF), no
moisture condenses on the coil, and the humidity ratio is the same.

W1 = W 2 = 0.016 lbmwater/lbmair

From psychrometric “scratch sheet”,

At a temperature of 66.1ºF, this humidity ratio corresponds to 80% RH.

Leaving air temperature is at 66ºF, with a relative humidity of 80%.

107
Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 4
Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

4.79)

GIVEN: The zone ventilation effectiveness ηvent of a conditioned space is used


to quantify the “short-circuiting” of air from the supply diffusers to the
return grill. It is defined such that the true amount of supply air
delivered to the occupied zone is Qsupply*ηvent. A clean room requires a
ventilation of 2.0 ACH and a zone ventilation effectiveness of 0.8.

FIND: The required supply rate, Qsupply.

SOLUTION:

Qactual = Qsup ply ⋅ η vent

Qactual
Qsup ply =
η vent

2 ACH
Qsup ply =
0.8

Qsup ply = 2.5 ACH

108
Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 4
Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

4.80)

GIVEN: A smoker produces approximately 7.5 µg/sec of environmental tobacco


smoke (ETS).

FIND: The minimum required ventilation rate if the goal is to keep the ETS
concentration below 50 µg/m3.

ASSUMPTIONS: Steady-state conditions and air well mixed in zone.

NOTE: The production rate is given here in mass per time and the concentration
is given in mass per volume, by contrast to Eq. 4.46 and Example 4.12
where the production rate is in volume per time (as appropriate for a
gaseous pollutant) and the concentration in ppm.

SOLUTION:

N pol 7.5µg / sec m3 m3


Vo = = = 0.15 = 540
Ci 50µg / m 3 sec hr

3 3
m m
Vo = 0.15 = 540
sec hr

109
Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 4
Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

4.81)

GIVEN: A smoker producing ETS at a rate of 7.5 µg/sec lives in a house of


volume V = 500 m3 with an average outdoor air flow rate corresponding
to an air exchange rate Vo / V = 1.0 ACH.

FIND: The resulting steady-state concentration of ETS if the air is well mixed in
the house. Compare with the EPA standard for exposure to particulate
matter in Table 4.5.

SOLUTION:

Vo = V * ACH = 500 m 3 / hr = 0.1389 m 3 / sec

N pol 7.5µg / sec µg


Ci = = = 54 3
Vo 3
0.1389m / sec m

From Table 4.5, this exceeds the EPA standard for exposure to particulate
matter, 50 µg/m3.

110
Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 4
Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

4.82)

GIVEN: A ventilation system to be designed for a smoking lounge for 10


persons. The outdoor air intake rate ( Vo ) is 30 liters/person/sec as
recommended by ASHRAE standard 62-89. Smokers introduce ETS at
an average rate of 7.5 µg/sec.

FIND: The resulting steady-state indoor air concentration of ETS if there is no


filter and all 10 occupants are smokers. Compare with the EPA standard
for exposure to particulate matter in Table 4.5.

ASSUMPTIONS: No air exchange through building envelope and perfect mixing


in building.

SOLUTION:

L
Vo = 30 ⋅ 10 persons = 300 L / sec = 0.3 m 3 / sec
person ⋅ sec
µg
N pol = 7.5 ⋅ 10 persons = 75 µg / sec
person ⋅ sec

N pol 75µg / sec µg


Ci = = = 250
Vo 0.3m 3 / sec m3

From Table 4.5, this greatly exceeds the EPA standard for exposure to
particulate matter, 50 µg/m3.

111
Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 4
Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

4.83)

GIVEN: Parameters in problem N.4.21.

FIND: The resulting steady-state indoor air concentration of ETS if there is a


filter with a weight arrestance efficiency of 80%.

ASSUMPTIONS: A supply airflow rate ( Vsup ) of four times the outdoor air intake
rate.
Constant volume system (Fr=1)
Concentration of ETS in outdoor air is zero (Co=0)
Ventilation effectiveness, Ev=1
Fraction of return air that is recirculated, R=1

SOLUTION:

L
Vo = 30 ⋅ 10 persons = 300 L / sec = 0.3 m 3 / sec
person ⋅ sec
µg
N pol = 7.5 ⋅ 10 persons = 75 µg / sec
person ⋅ sec
Vsup = 4 ⋅ Vo = 1.2 m 3 / sec
V = V − V = 0.9 m 3 / sec
r sup o

Use equation 4.52b)

N − E v Fr RE f C sVr
Vo =
E v (C s − C o )

Solve for Cs with listed assumptions:


N 75µg / sec µg
Cs = = = 73.5 3
Vo + E f Vr 0.3m / sec+ 0.8 ⋅ 0.9m / sec
3 3
m

From Table 4.5, this exceeds the EPA standard for exposure to particulate
matter, 50 µg/m3.

112
Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 5
Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

Chapter 5

113
Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 5
Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

5.2)

GIVEN: T1 = 50ºF, T2 = 100ºF, T3 = 150ºF; air

FIND: K in the equation µ = kT0.67 for T1, T2, T3. How sensitive is K to T? Does
accuracy improve by using absolute temperatures?

SOLUTION:
For T = 50ºF find µ
T = 44ºF, µ = 0.1176 x 10-4 lbm/ft-s
T = 62ºF, µ = 0.1208 x 10-4 lbm/ft-s
Interpolate for T = 50ºF: µ50 = 0.1208 x 10-4 lbm/ft-s
µ 0.1187 ⋅ 10 −4 lbm / ft ⋅ s −7 lbm
K = 0.67 = = 8 . 63 ⋅ 10 at T = 50  F
T 
(50 F ) 0.67
ft ⋅ s ⋅ F


using absolute temperature, T = 50ºF + 460 = 510ºR,


0.1187 ⋅ 10 −4 lbm / ft ⋅ s −7 lbm
K= = 1.82 ⋅ 10 at T = 510  R

(510 R) 0.67
ft ⋅ s ⋅ 
R

For T = 100ºF = 560ºR


T = 98ºF, µ = 0.1272 x 10-4 lbm/ft-s
T = 116ºF, µ = 0.1303 x 10-4 lbm/ft-s
Interpolate for T = 100ºF: µ100 = 0.1275 x 10-4 lbm/ft-s
µ 0.1275 ⋅ 10 −4 lbm / ft ⋅ s −7 lbm
K = 0.67 = = 5.83 ⋅ 10 at T = 100  F
T 
(100 F ) 0.67
ft ⋅ s ⋅ F


using absolute temperature,


lbm
K = 1.84 ⋅ 10 −7 at T = 560  R
ft ⋅ s ⋅ R


For T = 150ºF = 610ºR


T = 134ºF, µ = 0.1334 x 10-4 lbm/ft-s
T = 152ºF, µ = 0.1364 x 10-4 lbm/ft-s
Interpolate for T = 150ºF: µ150 = 0.1361 x 10-4 lbm/ft-s
µ 0.1361 ⋅ 10 −4 lbm / ft ⋅ s −7 lbm
K = 0.67 = = 4 . 74 ⋅ 10 at T = 150  F
T 
(150 F ) 0.67
ft ⋅ s ⋅ F


using absolute temperature, T = 150ºF + 460 = 610ºR,


lbm
K = 1.85 ⋅ 10 −7 at T = 560  R
ft ⋅ s ⋅ R


K is much more accurate when absolute temperature is used.

114
Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 5
Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

5.4)

GIVEN: V = 200 ft/min; Standard air flow

FIND: pv in inches W.G.

ASSUMPTIONS: There is no fluid friction; the air is incompressible and


isothermal.

SOLUTION:

v2
pv = ρ
2g c
[200 ft / min⋅ (1 min/ 60s )] 2 lb
pv = ⋅ 0.075 m3
2 ⋅ 32.2 ft ⋅ lbm / lb f ⋅ s 2
ft
lb f
p v = 0.0129
ft 2
lb f 1 ft 2 27.7 inW .G.
p v = 0.0129 ⋅ ⋅
ft 2 144 in 2
1 psi
p v = 0.00248 inW .G.

115
Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 5
Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

5.6)

GIVEN: D2 = D1/2 = 2D3/3 = 4”; V1 = 3 ft3/s; V2 = V3 = 1.5 ft3/s; ignore friction
losses; water

FIGURE: P5.6

FIND: (p2 – p1) and (p3 – p1)

ASSUMPTIONS: Incompressible fluid; water is at standard temperature and


pressure, ρw = 62.4 lbm/ft3

SOLUTION:
D2 = 4”; D1 = 2D2 = 8”; D3 = 3/2D1 = 6”
A2 = 12.6 in2; A1 = 50.3 in2; A3 = 28.3 in2
V 3 ft 3 / s ft
V1 = 1 = 2
= 8 .6
A1 1 ft s
50.3in 2 ( 2
)
144in

V2 1.5 ft 3 / s ft
V2 = = 2
= 17.1
A2 1 ft s
12.6in 2 ( 2
)
144in
V 1.5 ft 3 / s ft
V3 = 3 = 2
= 7 .6
A3 1 ft s
28.3in 2 ( 2
)
144in
2 2
V1 p V p
+ 1 = 2 + 2 (eq. 5.11 with z1 = z2)
2g c ρ 2g c ρ
§ ·
¨ ¸
§ V1 V2 ·
( )
2 2
2 ¨ 1 ¸ lbm
p 2 − p1 = ¨¨ − ¸ ρ = (8.6 ft / s ) − (17.1 ft / s )
2
¨ ( 62.4 )
© 2g c 2g c ¹
¸ ft ⋅ lbm ¸ ft 3
¨ 2(32.2 ) ¸
¨ lb f ⋅ s 2 ¸¹
©
lb f
p 2 − p1 = −211.7 2 = −1.47 psia
ft
§ ·
¨ ¸
§ V1 V3 ·
( )
2 2
¨ 1 ¸ lb
p3 − p1 = ¨¨ − ¸ ρ = (8.6 ft / s ) − (7.6 ft / s )
¸
2 2
¨ ¸ (62.4 m3 )
© 2g c 2g c ¹ ft ⋅ lbm ft
¨ 2(32.2 )¸
¨ 2 ¸
lb f ⋅ s ¹
©
lb f
p3 − p1 = 15.7 2 = 0.11 psia
ft

116
Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 5
Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

5.8)

GIVEN: D = 2”; V = 6 ft/s; z1 = 0 ft, z2 = 30 ft; p = 150 psig; L = 500 ft; ignore
friction losses; water

FIND: p2 and the power provided to the fluid, W

ASSUMPTIONS: Incompressible fluid; steady flow; water is at standard


temperature and pressure, ρw = 62.4 lbm/ft3

SOLUTION:

gz1 V1 p gz V p
+ + 1 = 2 + 2 + 2 (eq. 5.11)
g c 2g c ρ g c 2g c ρ
z1 = 0 and V1 = V2 so,
p1 gz 2 p 2
= +
ρ gc ρ
§p gz · § g ·
p 2 = ¨¨ 1 − 2 ¸¸ ρ = p1 − ρz 2 ¨¨ ¸¸
© ρ gc ¹ © gc ¹
lb f in 2 lb § 32.2 ·
p 2 = 150 2 (144 2 ) − 62.4 m2 (30 ft )¨ ¸
in ft ft © 32.2 ¹
lb f
p 2 = 19,728 2 = 137 psig
ft

W = V∆p
V = VA
πD 2
A= = 3.14in 2 = 0.022 ft 2
4
 ft ft 3
V = 6 (0.022 ft ) = 0.132
2

s s

ft 3 lb f 144in 2 ft ⋅ lb f
W = 0.132 (150 − 137) 2 ( 2
) = 247.1
s in ft s
ft ⋅ lb f
W = 247.1 = 0.45 hp
s

117
Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 5
Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

5.9)

GIVEN: V = 10 gal/min; ∆z = 50 ft; friction losses are 6% of the static head, pipe
size is uniform; the fluid is octane.

FIND: W s , shaft work required to pump octane ∆z at V

ASSUMPTIONS: Fluid is incompressible; octane is at standard temperature and


pressure.

SOLUTION:

g
W = m ∆z
gc
m = Vρ
ρoctane = 43.61 lbm/ft3
gal 1 ft 3 lb 1 min lb
m = 10 ⋅ ⋅ 43.61 m3 ⋅ = 0.972 m
min 7.481gal ft 60 s s
ft
32.2 2 ft ⋅ lb f
lb
W = 0.972 m ⋅ s ⋅ 50 ft = 48.6
s ft ⋅ lbm s
32.2
lb f ⋅ s
Accounting for friction:
ft ⋅ lb f
W s = 1.06W = 51.5
s
ft ⋅ lb f
W s = 51.5 = 0.09 hp
s

118
Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 5
Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

5.11)

GIVEN: Nominal, schedule 40, 4” commercial steel pipe, vf = 7 ft/s, Tf = 60ºF;


40% ethylene glycol in one case, water in another.

FIND: f for water and 40% ethylene glycol

ASSUMPTIONS: Fully developed flow.

LOOKUP VALUES: 6” steel pipe, schedule 40


Di = 0.3355 ft (Pipe Properties Table on CD)
ρw = s.g.(ρref) = 0.9991(63.42 lb/ft3) = 63.36 lb/ft3
µgly = 0.00206 lbm/ft-s
ρgly = 66.30 lb/ft3 (from Ethylene Glycol Table on CD,
interpolate between 30% and 50%)

SOLUTION:
1.325
f = (eq. 5.15)
{ln[∈ /(3.7 Dh ) + 5.74 / Re 0.9 ]}2
1
µ= (eq. 5.6)
32.0( D + 8078.4 + D 2 ) − 1786
D ≡ (0.556T − 26.21)  F = 7.15  F (eq. 5.7)
1 lb
µ= = 0.000753 2 m
32.0(7.15 + 8078.4 + 7.15 2 ) − 1786 ft ⋅ s
µ 0.000753lbm / ft ⋅ s
ν= = = 1.19 ⋅ 10 −5 ft 2 / s (eq. 5.4)
ρ 63.36lbm / ft 3

vD 7 ft / s ⋅ 0.3355 ft
Re = h = = 1.97 ⋅ 10 5
ν −5
1.19 ⋅ 10 ft / s 2

from Figure 5.2, ∈ / D = 0.00045


1.325
f water =
{ln[0.00045 / 3.7 + 5.74 /( 2.97 ⋅ 10 5 ) 0.9 ]}2
f water = 0.018

For 40% ethylene glycol:


µ 0.00206lbm / ft ⋅ s
ν= = = 3.11 ⋅ 10 −5 ft 2 / s
ρ 66.30lbm / ft 3

vD 7 ft / s ⋅ 0.3355 ft
Re = h = = 7.55 ⋅ 10 4
ν 3.11 ⋅ 10 −5 ft 2 / s
1.325
f glycol = f glycol = 0.021
{ln[0.00045 / 3.7 + 5.74 /(7.55 ⋅ 10 4 ) 0.9 ]}2

119
Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 5
Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

5.13)

GIVEN: Tw = 100ºF; 5 in. nominal, schedule 40 steel pipe; hf/L = 4 ft W.G./100 ft;
water.

FIND: Vw

ASSUMPTIONS: Fully developed, steady flow.

LOOKUP VALUES: Di = 0.4206 ft (Pipe Properties Table on CD)


ν = 7.350 x 10-6 ft2/s
∈ / D =0.00037 (Figure 5.2)

SOLUTION:
ª ∈
1.782νD º»
Vw = −0.966 gD 5 (h f / L) ln « + (eq. 5.20)
« 3.7 D gD 5
( h / L ) »
¬ f ¼
ft
gD 5 (h f / L) = (32.2 2 )(0.4206 ft ) 5 (4 ft / 100 ft ) = 0.130 ft 3 / s
s
ª − 6 ft
2
º
ft 3 « 0.00037 1.782(7.35 ⋅ 10 )(0.4206 ft ) »
Vw = −0.966 ⋅ 0.130 ln « + s »
s « 3.7 0.130 ft 3 / s »
«¬ »¼
ft 3
Vw = 1.11
s
ft 3 7.481gal 60s
Vw = 1.11 ⋅( )( )
s ft 3 1 min
gal
Vw = 499
min

120
Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 5
Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

5.15)

GIVEN: ¾ in. type L copper pipe; L = 300 ft; V = 4 gpm; T = 180ºF, water; heat
exchanger pressure drop equivalent to 30 ft of pipe; valves are
threaded, elbows are soldered.

FIGURE: P5.15

FIND: Pressure drop if all valves are wide open.

LOOKUP VALUES: Di = 0.06542 ft, Ai = 0.00361 ft2 (Pipe Properties Table on


CD)
ν = 3.836 x 10-6 ft2/s
∈ =0.000005 (Figure 5.2)

SOLUTION:

V gal § 1 ft 3 · 1 min ft
v= =4 ¨¨ ¸¸ / 0.00361 ft 2 = 2.47
A min © 7.481gal ¹ 60 s s
VD (2.47 ft / s )(0.06542 ft )
Re = = = 4.21 ⋅ 104
v 3.836 ⋅ 10− 6 ft 2 / s
1.325
f =
{ln[∈ /(3.7 D) + 5.74 / Re0.9 ]}2
f = 0.022
v 2 § fL ·
hL = ¨
2 g ¨© D
+ ¦K f
¸ (eq. 5.24)
¸
fittings ¹

Fittings Kf (Fig 5.6)


3 gate valves 0.29 (No. 34)
1 swing type check valve 2.00 (No. 32)
2 45º elbows 0.21 (No. 10)
1 tee, line flow 0.90 (No. 18)
7 90º elbows 0.30 (No. 4)

ΣKf = 3(0.29) + 2.00 + 2(0.21) + 0.90 + 7(0.30) = 6.29


(2.47 ft / s ) 2 § 0.022(300 ft + 30 ft ) ·
hL = 2 ¨
¨ + 6.29 ¸¸
2(32.2 ft / s ) © 0.06542 ft ¹
hL = 11.1 ft W .G.

121
Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 5
Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

5.17)

GIVEN: V = 100 gpm; 3 in. nominal, schedule 40 steel pipe; water flow; all fittings
are threaded

FIGURE: P5.17

FIND: vw and hL

LOOKUP VALUES: Di = 0.2557 ft, Ai = 0.05134 ft2 (Pipe Properties Table on


CD)

SOLUTION:

V gal § 1 ft 3 · 1 min
vw = = 100 ¨ ¸ / 0.05134 ft 2
A min ¨© 7.481gal ¸¹ 60 s
ft
v w = 4.34
s

From P5.17, L = 320 ft


From Figure 5.4a,
hL,straight = 5 ft W.G./100 ft
For the straight pipe sections,
hL,straight = 5 ft W.G./100 ft (320 ft) = 16 ft W.G.

Fittings Kf (Fig 5.6)


1 gate valve 0.10 (No. 34)
1 swing type check valve 2.00 (No. 32)
8 90º elbows 0.86 (No. 4)

ΣKf = 0.10 + 2.00 + 8(0.86) = 8.98


hL = hL,straight + hL,fittings

V2 § ·
hL = hL , straight + ¨ ¦Kf
¸
¸
2 g ¨© fittings
¹
(4.34 ft / s ) 2
hL = 16 ftW .G. + (8.98)
2(32.2 ft / s 2 )
hL = 18.6 ft W .G.

122
Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 5
Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

5.22)

GIVEN: 300 ft of 25 in diameter duck work; hf = 0.25 in W.G.; sea level

FIND: V and v

ASSUMPTIONS: Standard temperature and pressure air; average roughness


ducts.

SOLUTION:

hf = 0.25 in W.G / 300 ft = 0.083 in W.G. / 100 ft

On Figure 5.9a, find the intersection of hf = 0.083 in W.G. / 100 ft and duct
diameter = 25”

V = 4700 cfm
v = 1300 fpm

123
Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 5
Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

5.24)

GIVEN: v = 1800 ft/min, V = 5000 cfm, L = 150 ft; air flowing in duct.

FIND: D and hL

ASSUMPTIONS: Standard air; average roughness ducts.

SOLUTION:

From the intersection of V and v on Figure 5.9a,

D = 23 in.

hL = 0.18 in. W.G./100 ft


hL = 0.18 in. W.G./100 ft (150 ft)

hL = 0.27 in. W.G.

124
Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 5
Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

5.25)

GIVEN: V =5000 cfm; T = 55°F; hL = 2.0 in W.G. at sea level

FIND: hf at 5000 ft if V remains the same

SOLUTION:

ρ2
h f , 2 = h f ,1 ⋅ (eq. 5.35)
ρ1
e − H / 27 , 000
ρ = 39.8 ⋅ ( ) (eq. 3.3)
T + 460
1 lb
ρ1 = 39.8 ⋅ ( ) = 0.077 m3
55 + 460 ft
e −5000 / 27 ,000 lb
ρ 2 = 39.8 ⋅ ( ) = 0.064 m3
55 + 460 ft
0.064
h f , 2 = 2.0 inW .G. ⋅
0.077
h f , 2 = 1.66 inW .G.

125
Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 5
Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

5.28)

GIVEN: Standard air (ρ = 0.075 lb/ft3); ∆psys = 1.0 in. W.G.; heat is added so ρ =
0.062 lb/ft3 in the duct; ∆pcoil = 0.3 in. W.G. when the heat is off.

FIND: ∆psys after heat is added

SOLUTION:

From eq. 5.22 we know that ∆p ∝ ρv2


therefore, ∆p ∝ ρ( m 2/ρ2)
At constant mass flow rate,
∆p2 = ∆p1(ρ1/ρ2)

Assuming that ρ2,coil = the average of the inlet and outlet conditions:
ρ2,coil = (0.075+0.062)/2 = 0.0685 lb/ft3

∆p2 = ∆p2coil + ∆p2duct

∆p2coil = ∆p1coil(ρ1/ρ2) = 0.3 in. W.G. (0.075/0.0685) = 0.33 in. W.G.

∆p2duct = (∆p1sys - ∆p1coil) (ρ1/ρ2duct)


∆p2duct = (1.0 - 0.3) in. W.G. (0.075/0.062) = 0.85 in. W.G.

∆p2sys = (0.33 + 0.85) in. W.G.


∆p2sys = 1.18 in. W.G.

126
Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 5
Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

5.30)

GIVEN: V = 10,000 cfm; 750 ft of 24” dia ductwork, 6 (r/D = 2) smooth 90°
elbows, one filter at 0.2 in W.G., and one full diameter butterfly damper,
wide open; sea level; standard air.

FIND: hf of system

SOLUTION:

Straight sections:
Fig. 5.9a intersection of V = 10,000 cfm and D = 24”,
hf = 0.47 in W.G./ 100 ft
hf = 0.47 in W.G./ 100 ft x 750 ft = 3.53 in W.G.
V = 3200 ft/min = 53.3 ft/s (fig. 5.9a)

Elbows:
C90 (at r/D = 2) = 0.13 (Table 5.5)
v2
∆Pf = Cρ
2gc
lbm (53.3 ft / s ) 2 lb f
∆Pf = 0.13(0.075 ) = 0.43 2
ft 2 ⋅ 32.2 ft ⋅ lbm / lb f ⋅ s
3 2
ft
lb f 1 ft 2 27.7in W .G.
h f = 0.43 ⋅ ( ) ⋅ ( ) = 0.083in W .G.
ft 2 144in 2 1 psi
For 6 elbows:
h f = 6 ⋅ 0.083in W .G. = 0.50in W .G.

Butterfly damper:
θ = 0° since fully open
D/Do = 1
Co = 0.19 (Table A5.6j)
lb (53.3 ft / s) 2 lb f
∆Pf = 0.19(0.075 m3 ) = 0.63 2
ft 2 ⋅ 32.2 ft ⋅ lbm / lb f ⋅ s 2
ft
lb f1 ft 2 27.7in W .G.
h f = 0.63 2 ⋅ ( ) ⋅ ( ) = 0.083in W .G.
ft 144in 2 1 psi
Filter:
hf = 0.2 in W.G.

Total:
hfT = hf,straight + hf,elbows + hf,damper + hf,filter
hfT = (3.53 + 0.50 + 0.12 + 0.20) in W.G. = 4.35 in W.G.

127
Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 5
Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

5.33)

GIVEN: v = 1800 ft/min everywhere; hf,diff = 0.1” W.G.

FIGURE: P5.33

FIND: hf between the fan outlet and point B on Fig P5.33

ASSUMPTIONS: standard temperature and pressure air; average roughness


ducts; smooth radius elbows, r/D = 1.0, θ = 90º.

SOLUTION:

From the fan to branch A,


L1 = 120’
V1 = 3000 ft3/min
v = 1800 ft/min
The intersection of V1 and v on Fig. 5.9a results in,
18” duct and hf/L = 0.2 in. W.G./100 ft
hf = 0.2” W.G./100 ft x 120 ft = 0.24 in. W.G.

From branch A to branch C,


L2 = 40’
V2 = 2000 ft3/min
v = 1800 ft/min
From Fig. 5.9a,
14” duct and hf/L = 0.32 in. W.G./100 ft
hf = 0.32” W.G./100 ft x 40 ft = 0.13 in. W.G.

From branch C to outlet B,


L3 = 60’
V3 = 1000 ft3/min
v = 1800 ft/min
From Fig. 5.9a,
10” duct and hf/L = 0.46 in. W.G./100 ft
hf = 0.46” W.G./100 ft x 60 ft = 0.28 in. W.G.

Elbows,
r/D = 1.0, Cao = 0.22 (Table 5.5)
§ ρ ·§ v 2 ·
∆p f = C ¨¨ ¸¸¨¨ ¸¸ (eq. 5.38)
© g c ¹© 2 ¹
§ 0.075lbm / ft 3 ·§ (1800 ft / min) 2 ·§ 1 min · 2 lb f
∆p f = 0.22¨ ¸¨
¨ ¸¸¨ ¸ = 0.23 2
¨ 32.2 ft ⋅ lb / lb ⋅ s ¸©
2
2 ¹© 60s ¹ ft
© m f ¹

128
Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 5
Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

5.33 continued)

lb f1 ft 2 27.7in. W .G.
h f = 0.23 2 ( )( ) = 0.044 in. W .G.
ft 144in 2 psi

Section L (ft) V v Dia ∆hf/L ∆hf Elbow Elbow


(cfm) (ft/min) (in) (in. (in. (in. (in.
W.G./100 ft) W.G.) W.G.) W.G.)
1 120 3000 1800 18 0.20 0.24 0.044 0.284
2 40 2000 1800 14 0.32 0.13 -- 0.130
3 60 1000 1800 10 0.46 0.28 0.044 0.324
Diff -- -- -- -- -- -- -- 0.100
Total Loss 0.838

The total pressure drop from the fan to outlet B is 0.838 in. W.G.

129
Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 5
Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

5.35)

GIVEN: V = 5,000 cfm; hL = 2.0 in. W.G.; ηfan = 0.68; sea level and 5000 ft
elevation

FIND: Shaft power input of fan at each elevation

ASSUMPTIONS: Standard temperature air at each elevation (70°F).

SOLUTION:

1 psi 144in 2 lb f
∆p f = 2.0in W .G.( )( )⋅ = 10.4
27.7in W .G. 1 ft 2 ft 2
W fluid = V ⋅ ∆p f (eq. 5.47)
ft 3 lb f 1 min ft ⋅ lb f
W fluid = 5,000 (10.4 2 )( ) = 867
min ft 60s s
W fluid
W shaft = (eq. 5.48)
η fan
867 ft ⋅ lb f / s ft ⋅ lb f
W shaft = = 1275
0.68 s
ft ⋅ lb f 1hp
W shaft = 1275 ⋅( ) = 2.3 hp at sea level
s 550 ft ⋅ lb f / s

ρ5000ft = 0.062 lbm/ft3


ρ
W 2 = W1 ⋅ ( 1 ) (Table 5.6)
ρ2
ρ1 = 0.075 lbm/ft3
0.062
W 2 = 2.3hp ⋅ ( ) = 1.9 hp at 5000 ft
0.075

130
Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 5
Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

5.37)

GIVEN: V = 9000 cfm; hL = 0.80 in. W.G.

FIGURE: P5.37

FIND: Flow rate and pressure drop from fan curve

ASSUMPTIONS: Standard air

SOLUTION:

Since curve B is already drawn, one only has to locate the intersection of
curve B and the fan curve to get the operating point. At the operating point:

V = 10,800 cfm
hL = 1.16 in. W.G.

131
Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 5
Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

5.38)

GIVEN: System described in problem 5.37, operating at V = 10,800 cfm; hL =


1.16 in. W.G.

FIGURE: P5.37

FIND: The pressure drop a damper must produce to reduce the flow to 9000 cfm

ASSUMPTIONS: Standard air

SOLUTION:

On P5.37 the intersection of V = 9000 cfm and the fan curve occurs at
hL = (1.37 – 1.16) in. W.G. = 0.21 in. W.G.

The damper must produce 0.21 in. W.G. pressure drop.

132
Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 5
Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

5.41)

GIVEN: Operating point at V = 12,500 cfm and hL = 2.0 in. W.G.; N1 = 575 rpm

FIGURE: P5.37

FIND: V2 and W 2 if the fan speed is reduced to 475 rpm.

ASSUMPTIONS: When fan speed is reduced, the rotor diameter remains


constant.

SOLUTION:

From the power curve on P5.37,


W1 = 3.05 hp
N
V2 = V1 2 (Table 5.6)
N1
ft 3 § 475 ·
V2 = 12,500 ¨ ¸ = 10,330 cfm
min © 575 ¹

3
§N ·
W 2 = W1 ¨¨ 2 ¸¸ (Table 5.6)
© N1 ¹
3
§ 475 ·
W 2 = 3.05 hp¨ ¸ = 1.72 hp
© 575 ¹

133
Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 5
Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

5.45)

GIVEN: V = 100 gpm; hf = 40 ft W.G.

FIGURE: P5.45

FIND: Most appropriate pump from P5.45, state efficiency, motor power input,
impeller size and NPSH of selection.

SOLUTION:

The point V = 100 gpm and hf = 40 ft W.G. falls between the 6.5” and 7.0”
impeller sizes. The larger size should be chosen.

7.0” Impeller

Since the pump is not a precise match to the specified flow condition one
must find the operating point by plotting the system curve.
h f = CV 2 (from equation 5.24)
40
C= = 0.004
100 2
Plotting on Fig. P5.45

V hf
25 2.5
50 10.0
75 22.5
100 40
125 62.5

The operating point (where the system curve crosses the 6.5” curve) is 110
gpm and 47 ft W.G.
At the operating point,

η = 68%

V ⋅ h f
W s −in = (eq. 3.49)
3960η
110 gpm ⋅ 47 ft W .G.
W s −in = = 1.92 hp = 1.42 kW
3960 ⋅ 0.68

NPSH = 5 ft

134
Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 5
Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

5.46)

GIVEN: 1750 rpm; 7.0” impeller pump; V = 100 gpm; hf = 35 ft W.G.

FIGURE: P5.45

FIND: Actual flow by plotting the system curve. What are η and W s if a control
valve is closed to produce 100 gpm.

SOLUTION:

From prob. 4.45, the operating point is approximately 110 gpm, 47.0 ft W.G.

The actual flow is approximately 110 gpm.

Closing a control value increases the head loss until the desired flow is
achieved. On Fig. P5.45, it is found that at the 100 gpm flow rate on the 7.0”
pump curve, hf = 48 ft W.G.
48
h f = CV 2 (from equation 5.24) C= = 0.0048
100 2
V hf
25 3.0
50 12.0
75 27.0
100 48.0
125 75.0

Plot these values to get the system curve.


At 100 gpm, 48 ft W.G.

η = 67%

V ⋅ h f 105 gpm ⋅ 38.6 ft W .G.


W s −in = = = 1.8 hp = 1.3 kW
3960η 3960 ⋅ 0.67

135
Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 5
Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

5.47)
GIVEN: 1750 rpm pump operating at 115 gpm. Pump slowed to reach V2 = 100
gpm

FIND: The new pump curve and power input

SOLUTION:
§N ·
V2 = V1 ¨¨ 2 ¸¸ (Table 5.7)
© N1 ¹
§ V · § 100 ·
N 2 = N 1 ¨¨ 2 ¸¸ = 1750¨ ¸ = 1522 rpm
 © 115 ¹
© V1 ¹
2
§N ·
h2 = h1 ¨¨ 2 ¸¸ (Table 5.7)
© N1 ¹
V1 (gpm) h1 (ft W.G.) V2 (gpm) h2 (ft W.G.)
25 50 21.7 37.8
50 51 43.5 38.6
75 50 65.2 37.8
100 48 87.0 36.3
125 45 108.7 34.0
150 40 130.5 30.3
175 33 152.2 25.0
V1 and h1 are read from Fig. P5.45. V2 and h2 are calculated.
60

Existing Pump Curve


New Pump Curve
50

40
head (ft. W.G.)

30

20

10

0
0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200
V (gpm)

W1 = 1.9 hp (from P5.45)


3
§N ·
W2 = W1 ¨¨ 2 ¸¸ (Table 5.7)
© N1 ¹
W2 = 1.3 hp

136
Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 5
Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

5.49)

GIVEN: Pitot tube manometer; hf = 1.23 in gauge oil, s.g.oil = 0.826. Wind
measurement.

FIND: Wind speed at sea level and at 2500 ft.

ASSUMPTIONS: Standard temperature and pressure air; steady flow. (ρair =


0.075 lbm/ft3)
SOLUTION:
1/ 2
§ 2∆p ·
V = ¨¨ ¸¸ (eq. 5.57)
© ρ ¹
h f ρg
∆p =
gc
ρ oil = s.g .oil ρ water
lb lb
ρ oil = 0.826(62.4 m3 ) = 51.5 m3
ft ft
lb ft
1.23in(51.5 m3 )(32.2 2 )
ft s 1 ft
∆p oil = ⋅( )
ft ⋅ lbm 12in
32.2
lb f ⋅ s 2
lb f
∆p oil = 5.28
ft 2
1/ 2
§ lb f ·
¨ 2(5.28 2 ) ¸
¨ ft ¸ ft
V =¨ ¸ V = 67.3
lb lb ⋅ ft s
¨ 0.075 m3 / 32.2 m 2 ¸
¨ ft lb f ⋅ s ¸
© ¹

At 2500 ft:
e −2500 / 27 ,000 lb
ρ 2 = 39.8 ⋅ ( ) = 0.068 m3
70 + 460 ft
1/ 2
§ lb f ·
¨ 2(5.28 2 ) ¸
¨ ft ¸ V = 70.7
ft
V =¨ ¸
lb lb ⋅ ft s
¨ 0.068 m3 / 32.2 m 2 ¸
¨ ft lb f ⋅ s ¸
© ¹

137
Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 5
Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

5.51)

GIVEN: Universal venturi meter; Dpipe = 8”, Vpipe = 6ft/s; ∆p = 6.0 psia; water flow

FIND: Dthroat

ASSUMPTIONS: Fully developed, steady flow. (ρwater = 62.4 lbm/ft3)

SOLUTION:
2∆pg c
vthroat = CE (eq. 5.53)
ρ
by continuity:
Vthroat = V pipe
V = vA
πDthroat 2 πD pipe
2

vthroat ( ) = v pipe ( )
4 4
D
β = throat
D pipe
v pipe 2∆pg c
vthroat = = CE
β2 ρ
1/ 2
1 §¨ v pipe ρ ·¸
2

β2 =
CE ¨© 2∆pg c ¸¹
Since E = (1 − β 4 ) −1 / 2 is dependent on β, this is an implicit equation for β.
However, even for fairly large values of β, E is relatively near unity.
Therefore, assume E = 1 for a first guess.

1/ 2
§ ·
¨ ¸
¨ ¸
2 3
1 ( 6 ft / s ) ( 62 . 4lb / ft )
β2 = ¨
m

0.9797 ft ⋅ lbm ¸
¨ 2(6.0lb f / in 2 )(144in 2 / ft 2 )(32.2 )¸
¨ lb ⋅ s 2 ¸
© f ¹
β = 0.453
Testing the assumption that E = 1,
E = (1 − 0.453 4 ) −1 / 2 = 1.02 which is negligible difference over the assumed
value.
D
β = throat Dthroat = 0.428 (8”) = 3.6”
D pipe

138
Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 5
Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

5.52)

GIVEN: Tw = 40ºC; Dpipe = 120 mm; Dorifice = 30 mm; ∆p = 30 kPa

FIND: water flow rate

SOLUTION:

ρw = 992.2 kg/m3 (From Table on CD, at 40ºC)


Dorifice
β= = 0.25
D pipe
Since the Reynolds number can’t be found, assume that it is insignificant for a
first guess.
β4
C = 0.5959 + 0.0312 β − 0.184 β + 0.039
2.1 8
− 0.0158β 3 (eq. 5.56 without Re)
(1 − β )
4

C = 0.598
2∆p
v = CE (eq. 5.53)
ρ
E = (1 − B 4 ) −1 / 2 = (1 − 0.25 4 ) −1 / 2 = 1.00 (eq. 5.54)
2 ⋅ 30,000 pa m
v = 0.598(1.00) 3
= 4.65
992.2kg / m s
3
 m (0.03m) 4 m
V = vA = 4.65 ⋅ π = 0.0033
s 4 s

Testing the assumption that Re was insignificant to eq. 5.56,

υ at 40ºC = 0.658 x 10-6 m2/s (Properties of Water Table on CD)

vD (4.65m / s )(.0100m)
Re = = = 7.07 ⋅ 10 5
ν −6
0.658 ⋅ 10 m / s
2

In eq. 5.56 the last term would then be


0.25 2.5
91.71 = 1.18 ⋅ 10 − 4
(7.07 ⋅ 10 5 ) 0.75

This last term would be insignificant to C, so the original assumption to ignore


Re was acceptable.

139
Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 6
Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

Chapter 6

140
Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 6
Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

6.3)

FIND: The yearly and daily variation in Io, extraterrestrial normal solar irradiance

ASSUMPTIONS: Eq. 6.16 is an adequate model of extraterrestrial normal solar


irradiance.

SOLUTION:

ª § 360 + n ·º W
I o = «1 + 0.033 cos¨ ¸» ⋅ 1373 2 (eq. 6.16)
¬ © 365.25 ¹¼ m
Setting the first derivative of Io equal to zero and solving for n will locate the
days on which the minimum and maximum occur.
360 360n
I o ' = −1373(0.033)( ) sin( )=0
365.25 365.25
sin x = 0 when x = 0, 180, 360 …
360n
therefore, Io’ = 0 when =x
365.25
360n
= 180 ; n = 183
365.25
360n
= 360 ; n = 365
365.25
solving Io at n = 183 and n = 365,
Io (n = 183) = 1327.7 W/m2
Io (n = 365) = 1418.3 W/m2

Therefore, Io varies 1418.3 W/m2 – 1327.7 W/m2 = 90.6 W/m2 in 182.5 days.
The average daily variation is 90.6 W/m2/182.5 days = 0.50 W/m2-day.

One can find the maximum daily variation by setting the second derivative to
zero and solving for n.

− 360 360n
Io ''= (44.7) cos( )=0
365.25 365.25
cos x = 0 when x = 90, 270 …
360n
= 90 ; n = 91
365.25
360n
= 270 ; n = 274
365.25

141
Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 6
Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

6.6)

GIVEN: I = 200 Btu/hr-ft2; SC = 0.64; τ = 0.33

FIND: The instantaneous solar heat gain and the solar heat gain factor (SHGF)

SOLUTION:

SC = 0.64 = F / 0.87 (eq. 6.57)


F = 0.64(0.87) = 0.56

SHGF = FI (eq. 6.58)


SHGF = 0.56 (200 Btu/hr-ft2)
SHGF = 112 Btu/hr-ft2

qsol = A x SC x SHGF (eq. 6.59)


qsol/A = SC x SHGF
qsol/A = 0.64 x 112 Btu/ hr-ft2
qsol/A = 72 Btu/ hr-ft2

142
Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 6
Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

6.7)

GIVEN: I = 200 Btu/hr-ft2; To = 80ºF;


α/ho = 0.15 hr-ft2-ºF/Btu for light surface
α/ho = 0.30 hr-ft2-ºF/Btu for dark surface

FIND: sol-air temperature Tos for a vertical surface (for both the light and the dark
cases)

SOLUTION:

αI
Tos = To + (eq. 6.39)
ho
a) light surface
hr ⋅ ft 2 ⋅ F Btu
Tos = 80  F + 0.15 (200 )
Btu hr ⋅ ft 2
Tos = 110  F

b) dark surface
hr ⋅ ft 2 ⋅ F Btu
Tos = 80  F + 0.15 (200 )
Btu hr ⋅ ft 2
Tos = 140  F

143
Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 6
Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

6.8)

GIVEN: Idir = 70 W/m2; Idif = 150 W/m2; θs = 30º

FIND: global horizontal irradiance, Iglo,hor

SOLUTION:

I glo ,hor = I dir cosθ s + I dif (eq. 6.23)


W W
I glo ,hor = 700 2
cos(30  ) + 150 2
m m
W
I glo ,hor = 756 2
m

144
Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 6
Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

6.10)

GIVEN: summer and winter solstice in a) Honolulu (λ = 21ºN)


b) Stockholm (λ = 59.35ºN)

FIND: length of day (sunrise to sunset)

SOLUTION:
winter solstice is Dec. 21st, n = 335
summer solstice is June 21st, n = 172
360(n + 10)
sin δ = − sin( 23.45) cos( ) (eq. 6.4)
365.25
cos(ω ss ) = − tan λ tan δ (eq. 6.7)

a) Honolulu: λ = 21ºN
1. winter solstice: n = 355
δ = -23.45º
ωss = 80.4º
Since the number of hours from noon (solar) to sunset is the same as
the number of hours from sunrise to noon,
Day length = 2 x ωss x 24 hr/360º
Day length = 10.7 hrs

2. summer solstice: n = 172


δ = 23.45º
ωss = 99.6º
Day length = 2 x 99.6 x 24 hr/360º
Day length = 13.3 hrs

b) Stockholm: λ = 59.35ºN
1. winter solstice: n = 355
δ = -23.45º
ωss = 42.9º
Day length = 2 x 42.9º x 24 hr/360º
Day length = 5.7 hrs

2. summer solstice: n = 172


δ = 23.45º
ωss = 137.1º
Day length = 2 x 137.1º x 24 hr/360º
Day length = 18.3 hrs

Comment: The closer one gets to the equator, the less the variation in day
length.

145
Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 6
Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

6.12)

GIVEN: General case of an unshaded fixed surface at an arbitrary tilt and zero
azimuth. Specific cases at tilt = latitude on summer and winter
solstices.

FIND: Equation for the number of hours per day when direct solar radiation can
reach the surface.

SOLUTION:

From equation 6.7, the sunset over the horizon is:


ω ss = cos −1 (− tan λ tan δ ) (eq. 6.7)
however the “sunset” on a tilted surface may occur before this, depending on
the tilt of the surface and the time of year:
ω ss ' = cos −1 (− tan(θ − λ ) tan δ )

One must determine which happens first:

24hr
τ = 2⋅ ⋅ min[ω ss , ω ss ' ] = number of hours with solar radiation
360

On the summer solstice, n = 172, δ = 23.45 (eq. 6.4)


λ = θp, so Wss ' = cos −1 (− tan(0) tan(23.45)) = 90 
ωss varies with latitude; at λ = 0º, ωss = 90º; at λ = 55º, ωss = 128º
The minimum is 90º or ωss’ so
24hr
τ = 2⋅ 
⋅ 90 
360
τ = 12 hrs

On the winter solstice, n = 355, δ = -23.45 (eq. 6.4)


λ = θp, so ω ss '= 90
ωss varies from 90º at λ = º0 to 41º at λ = 60º
The minimum is ωss so
24hr
τ = 2⋅ ⋅ ω ss
360
24hr
τ = 2⋅ 
⋅ cos −1 (− tan λ tan(−23.45))
360

146
Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 6
Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

6.13)

GIVEN: Vertical rod 1 m length at λ = 40ºN, Long = 75ºW

FIND: a) Time of day and time of year when the shadow is 0.5 m long, pointing
due north.
b) Time of day and time of year when the shadow is 0.5 m long, pointing
45º east of north
c) The corresponding standard times

SOLUTION:

a) From geometry, one can find the zenith angle, θs:


θs
Tan θs = 0.5/1
1m rod
sun beam
θs = 26.6º

0.5m shadow

Since the problem states that the shadow is due north, one knows the sun
is due south (φs = 0º) which occurs at solar noon, when W = 0º (hour
angle).
cos(θ s ) = cos λ cos δ cos ω + sin λ sin δ (eq. 6.5)
cos(26.6  ) = cos(40  ) cos δ cos(0  ) + sin( 40  ) sin δ
using the trigonometric identity,
cos A cos B + sin A sin B = cos( A − B)
cos(26.6  ) = cos(40  − δ )
26.6  = ±(40  − δ ) (only the positive answer is meaningful)
δ = 13.4 

§ 360(n + 10) ·
sin δ = − sin( 23.45  ) cos¨ ¸ (eq. 6.4)
© 365.25 ¹
§ 360(n + 10) ·
sin 13.4  = − sin( 23.45  ) cos¨ ¸
© 365.25 ¹
n = 117.4 (or April 27)
§ 360(n + 10) · sin 13.4 
or, solving cos −1 ¨ ¸ = − for the third quadrant solution
© 365.25 ¹ sin 23.45 
n = 227.8 (or Aug. 16)

There will always be two solutions that are an equal number of days away
from the solstice or equinox. In this example, April 27 is 37 days after the
spring equinox and July 28 is 37 days before the fall equinox.

147
Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 6
Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

6.13 continued)

b) At times other than solar noon, the solution is more complicated, but
solvable.
From part a, θs = 26.6º
φs = 45º since the shadow points 45º east of north
cos(θ s ) = cos λ cos δ cos ω + sin λ sin δ (eq. 6.5)
cos δ sin ω
sin φ s = (eq. 6.8)
sin θ s
rewriting these,
(cosθ s − sin λ sin δ )
cos δ cos ω =
cos λ
cos δ sin ω = sin φs sin θ s
squaring both sides and adding,
§ cosθ s − sin λ sin δ ·
2

cos δ (sin ω + cos ω ) = (sin φ s sin θ s ) + ¨


2 2 2 2
¸
© cos λ ¹
since (sin 2 ω + cos 2 ω ) = 1 , the equation has only one unknown. Using an
equation solver, such as MathematicaTM, this can be reduced to:
sin δ = sin λ cosθ s ± cos φ s cos λ sin θ s

The negative sign is correct, so


sin δ = sin λ cosθ s − cos φ s cos λ sin θ s
sin δ = sin( 40  ) cos(26.6  ) − cos(45  ) cos(40  ) sin(26.6  ) δ = 19.4 
from eq. 6.4 for δ, n = 138.7 (May 19) or n = 206.5 (July 26)

sin φ s sin θ s sin 45  sin 26.6 


sin ω = =
cos δ cos19.4 
sin ω = 19.6 

§ 24hr ·
t = ω¨  ¸
+ 12hr = 13.3 hr or 1:18 pm
© 360 ¹

c) Et = 9.87 sin 2 B − 7.53 cos B − 1.5 sin B (eq. 6.1)


360 (n − 81)

B=
364
on April 27 (n =117), Et = 2.3 min
Lloc = 75º = Lstd since 75º is a standard time meridian
tstd = tsol – [4(Lstd – Lloc)+Et] (eq. 6.3)
tstd = tsol – Et = 12:00-2.3 min = 11:58 am

148
Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 6
Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

6.13 continued)

on Aug. 16 (n = 228), Et = -3.9 min


tstd = tsol – Et = 12:00 + 3.9 min = 12:04 pm
if it is an area of daylight savings time, tstd = 1:04 pm

on May 19 (n = 139), Et = 3.6 min


tstd = tsol – Et = 1:18 - 3.6 min = 1:14 pm
if it is an area of daylight savings time, tstd = 2:14 pm

on July 26 (n = 107), Et = -6.2 min


tstd = tsol – Et = 1:18 + 6.2 min = 1:24 pm
if it is an area of daylight savings time, tstd = 2:24 pm

149
Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 6
Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

6.15)

GIVEN: South-facing vertical window; tsol = 13.5; n = 21 (Jan 21st); λ = 45ºN

FIND: a) θs and φs
b) θi
c) Iglo,p when Idir = 700 W/m2 and Idiff = 100 W/m2; ρ = 0.2
d) Repeat part c with ρ = 0.7
e) Repeat part c with specular reflectance

SOLUTION:

360 
a) ω = (t sol − 12h) (eq. 6.6)
24hr
tsol = 13.5
360 
ω = (13.5 − 12h) = 22.5 
24hr
§ 360(n + 10) ·
sin δ = − sin( 23.45  ) cos¨ ¸ (eq. 6.4)
© 365.25 ¹
n = 21
δ = -20.0º
cos(θ s ) = cos λ cos δ cos ω + sin λ sin δ (eq. 6.5)
cos(θ s ) = cos(45 ) cos(−20 ) cos(22.5 ) + sin( 45  ) sin( −20  )
  

θ s = 68.2 
cos δ sin ω
sin φ s = (eq. 6.8)
sin θ s
cos(−20  ) sin(22.5  )
sin φ s =
sin(68.2  )
φ s = 22.8 

b) φp = 0º since it is south facing


θp = 90º since it is a vertical plane
cos(θ i ) vert = sin θ s cos(φ s − φ p ) (eq. 6.11)
cos(θ i ) vert = sin(68.2  ) cos(22.8  − 0)
θ i = 31.1

150
Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 6
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6.15 continued)

c) I glo ,hor = I dir cosθ s + I diff (eq. 6.23)


W W W
I glo ,hor = 700 2
cos(68.2  ) + 100 2 = 360 2
m m m
I diff I glo ,hor ρ g
I glo ,vert = I dir cosθ i + + (eq. 6.24)
2 2
W 100W / m 2 360W / m 2 (0.2)
I glo ,vert = 700 2 cos(31.1 ) + +
m 2 2
W
I glo ,vert = 685 2
m

W
d) I glo ,hor = 360 (from part c); ρ = 0.7
m2
W 100W / m 2 360W / m 2 (0.7)
I glo ,vert = 700 2 cos(31.1 ) + +
m 2 2
W
I glo ,vert = 775 2
m

I diff I diff ρ g
e) I glo ,vert = I dir cosθ i + + I dir cos(θ i ρ ) +
2 2
2
W 100W / m W 100W / m 2 (0.7)
I glo ,vert = 700 cos(31.1
) + + 700 cos(31.1
)( 0.7 ) +
m2 2 m2 2

W
I glo ,vert = 1104
m2

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6.16)

FIND: a) θs and θI for vertical surfaces facing the four cardinal directions as a
function of time of day. Create a spreadsheet to facilitate different
values for the variables. Produce plots for the equinox and solstices at
40ºN latitude.
b) Add to the spreadsheet Idir and Idif according to Hottel’s clear day model
for a mid-latitude, sea level, 23 km visibility. Plot the direct normal and
diffuse horizontal irradiance vs. time of day for July 21, λ = 40ºN.

SOLUTION:

The spreadsheet should include the following equations:


ª § 360(n + 10) ·º
δ = sin −1 «− sin(23.45  ) cos¨ ¸» (eq. 6.4)
¬ © 365.25 ¹¼
360 
ω = (t sol − 12hr ) (eq. 6.6)
24hr
θ s = cos −1 (cos λ cos δ cos ω + sin λ sin δ ) (eq. 6.5)
§ cos δ sin ω ·
φ s = sin −1 ¨¨ ¸¸ (eq. 6.8)
© sin θ s ¹
θ i ,vert = cos −1 [sin θ s cos(φ s − φ p )] (eq. 6.11)
where φp = 0º for south, φp = 90º for west,
φp = -90º for east, φp = 180º for north

a) for the plots, n = 355 for the winter solstice, n = 172 for the summer
solstice, and n = 80 for the spring equinox. (see plots)
360n W
b) I o = [1 + 0.033 cos( )] ⋅ 1373 2 (eq. 6.16)
365.25 m
I dir = I o [a o + a1e − k / cos θ s ] (eq. 6.25)
with,
ao = ro[0.4237 - 0.00821(6 - A)2]
a1 = r1[0.5055 + 0.00595(6.5 - A)2]
k = rk[0.2711 - 0.01858(2.5 - A)2]
from Table 6.2 for 23 km visibility,
with ro = 0.97, r1 = 0.99, rk = 1.02 for a mid-latitude summer (Table 6.2)

I dif = (0.271I o − 0.2939 I dir ) cosθ s (eq. 6.26)

(see plot for July 21, n = 202)

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6.16 continued)

Lat = 40 degrees N, Dec. 21

180

South
160 West
East
North
140
Horizontal
Incidence Angle (degrees)

120

100

80

60

40

20

0
0 4 8 12 16 20 24
Time of Day

Lat = 40 degrees N, March 21

160

South
140 West
East
North
120 Horizontal
Incidence Angle (degrees)

100

80

60

40

20

0
0 4 8 12 16 20 24
Time of Day

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6.16 continued)

Lat = 40 degrees N, June 21

160

South
140 West
East
North
120 Horizontal
Incidence Angle (degrees)

100

80

60

40

20

0
0 4 8 12 16 20 24
Time of Day

Irradiance vs. Time of Day


23 km visibility, July 21, Lat. = 40N
900

Direct Normal
800
Diffuse

700

600
Irradiance (W/m^2)

500

400

300

200

100

0
0 4 8 12 16 20 24
Time of Day

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6.17)

GIVEN: At solar noon on the summer solstice in a location with latitude of 40º,
the length of a telephone pole’s shadow is 5 m.

FIND: The height of the telephone pole.

SOLUTION:

hpole
α
5m

At the summer solstice, the declination reaches its maximum, δ = 23.45º.

At local solar noon:

Solar altitude angle, α = 90 − λ − δ = 90 − 40 − 23.45 = 73.45 

h pole
tan α =
5m

h pole = 16.9 m

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6.18)

GIVEN: You want to measure the height of a telephone pole without climbing it
and without waiting for a solstice. The location is Boulder, CO (40.00ºN
x 105.27ºW). The shadow is 10 m at 10 AM MDT on May 15.

FIND: The height of the telephone pole.

SOLUTION:

hpole
α
10 m
On May 15, n = 135,
360  ⋅ (n + 10)
sin δ = − sin 23.45 cos δ = 18.5
365.25
For the equation of time,
n − 81
B = 360  ⋅ = 53.4 
364
Et = 9.87 sin 2 B − 7.53 cos B − 1.5 sin B = 3.75 min
To find solar time,
t mst = t mdt − 1 = 10.00 − 1 = 9.00
Lstd − Lloc Et
t sol = t std + 
+
15 / h 60 min/ h
105.00 − 105.27 3.75
t sol = 9.00 + 
+ = 9.0445 hrs
15 / h 60 min/ h
Find hour angle,
(t − 12h) ⋅ 360 
ω = sol = −44.33
24h
Find zenith angle,
cosθ s = cos λ cos δ cos ω + sin λ sin δ θ s = 43.64 
Solar altitude angle, α = 90 − θ s = 46.35 
h pole
tan α =
10 m
h pole = 10.5 m

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6.19)

GIVEN: You are design a sanctuary in Truth or Consequences, NM (33.23ºN x


107.27ºW) in which you want the sun to illuminate a golden sphere at
sunrise on the summer solstice as the sunlight passes through a notch
between two rocks. The ground is flat at that location.

FIND: At what direction (i.e. angle from due east) should the sphere be placed
relative to the notch?

SOLUTION:

At the summer solstice, the declination reaches its maximum, δ = 23.45º.

Find the hour angle at sunrise (α = 0º):


cosω sr = − tan λ tan δ
ω sr = −106.55 

Find the solar azimuth angle:


cos δ sin ω
sin φ s =
sin θ s
φ s = −61.5 

Since the sun is beyond due east during sunrise at this location (λ>δ), the
solar azimuth angle must be corrected, as:
φ s = 180  − φ s = 118.5  east of south

This is equal to:

28.5º north of due east

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6.20)

GIVEN: Summer solstice and clear sky.

FIND: At what latitude can you collect the greatest amount of energy on a
horizontal surface? At what latitude is the lowest amount collected?

SOLUTION:

At the summer solstice, the declination reaches its maximum, δ = 23.45º.

Highest:

Find the latitude at which the absolute value of the sunrise/sunset hour angle
(α = 0º) is maximized:
cosω sr = − tan λ tan δ
ω max = 180  at λ = 66.5º (the north pole)

Highest:

Find the latitude at which the absolute value of the sunrise/sunset hour angle
(α = 0º) is minimized:
cosω sr = − tan λ tan δ
ω min = 0  at λ = -66.5º (the south pole)

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6.21)

GIVEN: A horizontal surface at solar noon on the summer solstice at the top of
Mt. Whitney (4418 meters) and at the beach in Los Angeles.

FIND: The total direct and diffuse irradiance using the clear-day model of Hottel.

SOLUTION:
§ 360  ⋅ 172 · W W
On summer solstice(n=172): I 0 = ¨1 + 0.033 cos
¨ ¸¸ ⋅ 1373 2 = 1328.4 2
© 365.25 ¹ m m
At solar noon, solar zenith angle, θ s = λ − δ = 36.57 − 23.45 = 73.5 
ª k º
Direct radiation (Hottel), I dir = I 0 « a0 + a1 exp(− )»
¬ cosθ s ¼
Diffuse radiation (Liu and Jordan), I dir = (0.271I 0 − 0.2939 I dir ) cosθ s
• Mt. Whitney, A = 4.418 km (assume 23 km visibility, mid-latitude
summer):
From Table 6.2:
r0 = 0.97, r1 = 0.99, rk = 1.02
a 0 = r0 [0.4237 − 0.00821 ⋅ (6.0 − A) 2 ] = 0.391
a1 = r1 [0.5055 + 0.00595 ⋅ (6.5 − A) 2 ] = 0.526
k = rk [0.2711 + 0.01858 ⋅ (2.5 − A) 2 ] = 0.346

For Mt. Whitney, λ = 36.57º


At solar noon, solar zenith angle, θ s = λ − δ = 36.57 − 23.45 = 13.12 
W W
I dir = 1009.2 I dif = 61.7
m2 m2

• Los Angeles Beach, A = 0.0 km (assume 5 km visibility, mid-latitude


summer):
From Table 6.2:
r0 = 0.96, r1 = 0.99, rk = 1.02
a0 = r0 [0.2538 − 0.0063 ⋅ (6.0 − A) 2 ] = 0.0259
a1 = r1 [0.7678 + 0.0010 ⋅ (6.5 − A) 2 ] = 0.802
k = rk [0.2490 + 0.0810 ⋅ (2.5 − A) 2 ] = 0.755

For Los Angeles, λ = 34.0º


At solar noon, solar zenith angle, θ s = λ − δ = 34.0 − 23.45 = 10.55
W W
I dir = 528.7 I dif = 201.2
m2 m2

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6.22)

GIVEN: The following windows:


a. Ordinary glass
b. Ordinary glass with vacuum between panes
c. Low emittance coating with ε = 0.05 on both surfaces facing the gap
d. Low emittance coatings as in (c) but with a vacuum between panes

FIND: The U-value for each window.

ASSUMPTIONS: Heat transfer coefficients given in Example 2.11:


Between panes: hi,con = ho,con = 0.32 Btu/(hr-ft2-ºF)
Outside panes: hi = 1.46 Btu/(hr-ft2-ºF), ho = 5.0 Btu/(hr-ft2-ºF)
For window glass, resistance to heat transfer is negligible.
Neglect edge effects.

SOLUTION:
1 1 1 1 1 Btu
a. = + = + U = 1.13
U hi ho 1.46 5.0 hr ⋅ ft 2 ⋅ F
1 1 1 1
b. = + +
U hi hs ho
4σT 3 (460 + 55) 3 Btu
hrad = = 4(0.1714 ⋅ 10 −8 ) = 0.936
1/ ε1 + 1/ ε 2 − 1 1 / 1.0 + 1 / 1.0 − 1 hr ⋅ ft 2 ⋅ F
Since there is a vacuum between the panes, no convection in gap,
hs = hrad
1 1 1 1 Btu
= + + U = 0.512
U 1.46 0.936 5.0 hr ⋅ ft 2 ⋅ F
1 1 1 1
c. = + +
U hi hs ho
4σT 3 (460 + 55) 3 Btu
hrad = = 4(0.1714 ⋅ 10 −8 ) = 0.024
1/ ε1 + 1/ ε 2 − 1 1 / 0.05 + 1 / 0.05 − 1 hr ⋅ ft 2 ⋅ F
Btu
hs = hrad + 2hcon = 0.024 + 2 ⋅ 0.32 = 0.664
hr ⋅ ft 2 ⋅ F
1 1 1 1 Btu
= + + U = 0.418
U 1.46 0.664 5.0 hr ⋅ ft 2 ⋅ F
Btu
d. hs = hrad = 0.024
hr ⋅ ft 2 ⋅ F
1 1 1 1 Btu
= + + U = 0.024
U 1.46 0.024 5.0 hr ⋅ ft 2 ⋅ F

160
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6.23)

GIVEN: Double glazing with αo = 0.5 and αI = 0.05, U = 0.5 Btu/(hr-ft2-ºF)

FIND: The shading coefficient.

ASSUMPTIONS: Solar transmissivity, τ = 0.71


hi = 1.46 Btu/(hr-ft2-ºF), ho = 5.0 Btu/(hr-ft2-ºF)

SOLUTION:

Find hs:
1 1 1 1
= + +
U hi hs ho
1 1 1 1
= + + hs = 0.896 Btu/(hr-ft2-ºF)
0.5 1.46 hs 5.0

Find the solar heat gain coefficient:


U §1 1·
F = τ +αo + aiU ¨¨ + ¸¸
ho © hs ho ¹
0 .5 § 1 1 ·
F = 0.71 + 0.5 + 0.05 ⋅ 0.5¨ + ¸ = 0.793
5 .0 © 0.896 5.0 ¹

Find the shading coefficient:


F
SC =
0.87

SC = 0.911

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6.24)

GIVEN: Frost can form on a surface when the humidity is sufficiently high and
the surface temperature falls below freezing. With a single-glazed
window with a U-value of 1 Btu/(hr-ft2-ºF) and 60ºF indoor temperature,

FIND: The highest outdoor temperature at which frost can form on the inside.

ASSUMPTIONS: Solar transmissivity, τ = 0.71


hi = 1.46 Btu/(hr-ft2-ºF), ho = 6.0 Btu/(hr-ft2-ºF)

SOLUTION:

The temperature of the surface is given by eq. 6.48:


§ U· U
Ts = ¨¨1 − ¸¸Ti + To
© hi ¹ hi

Solve for outdoor temperature:


h §h · 1.46 § 1.46 ·
To = i Ts − ¨ i − 1¸Ti = 32 − ¨ − 1¸60
U ©U ¹ 1 © 1 ¹

To = 19.1ºF

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6.25)

GIVEN: You are designing an atrium with single-glazed fenestration and you are
worried about the possibility of the glass cracking when it is heated by
the sun and then suddenly hit by cold water from a nearby sprinkler.
The following conditions apply:
• Outdoor air temperature, To = 40ºC
• Solar radiation incident on the glass is I = 1000 W/m2
• The inside air temperature, Ti = 30ºC
• The U-value of the glazing is 6.0 W/m2-K
• The solar absorptance of the glazing is α = 0.5
• Inside surface convection coefficient is hi = 10 W/m2-K
• Outside surface convection coefficient is ho = 20 W/m2-K

FIND: The surface temperature.

ASSUMPTIONS: Upward facing surface.

SOLUTION:

Find the sol-air temperature:


αI ∆qir ∆qir
Tos = To + − ≈ 3.9 K for upward facing surfaces
ho ho ho
0.5 ⋅ 1000W / m 2
Tos = 313.15K + − 3.9 K = 334.25K = 61.1 C
20W / m ⋅ K
2

The temperature of the surface is given by eq. 6.48:


§ U· U
Ts = ¨¨1 − ¸¸Ti + Tos
© hi ¹ hi
§ 6· 6
Ts = ¨1 − ¸30 + 61.1
© 10 ¹ 10

Ts = 48.7ºC

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6.26)

GIVEN: A solar heat gain factor of 200 Btu/hr-ft2

FIND: The highest instantaneous solar heat gain among the nine glazing types
listed in Table 6.6. What is the lowest?

SOLUTION:

The instantaneous solar heat gain is given by eq. 6.59:


Q sol = A ⋅ SC ⋅ SHGF

With a constant SHGF, the glazing with the highest instantaneous solar heat
gain will be the one with the largest shading coefficient: clear double glazing,
SC = 0.82.

Q sol BTU
= 0.82 ⋅ 200
A hr ⋅ ft 2
Q sol BTU
= 164
A hr ⋅ ft 2

The lowest instantaneous solar heat gain will be the one with the smallest
shading coefficient, reflective double glazing, SC = 0.20.

Q sol BTU
= 0.20 ⋅ 200
A hr ⋅ ft 2
Q sol BTU
= 40
A hr ⋅ ft 2

164
Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 7
Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

Chapter 7

165
Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 7
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7.2)

GIVEN: 3 m high building; ∆pvent = 0; Ti – To = 15 K; v = 6.7 m/s; ∆Cp = 0.3

FIND: The indoor-outdoor pressure difference

ASSUMPTIONS: Standard air, ρ = 1.2 kg/m3; The neutral pressure level is at


the building mid-height; Ti = 21ºC

SOLUTION:

∆p = po – pi = ∆pwind + ∆pstack + ∆pvent (eq. 7.3)

ρ 2
∆p wind = ∆C p v (eq. 7.6)
2
1.2kg / m 3 m
∆p wind = 0.3 (6.7 ) 2 = 8.1 pa
2 s
T − To
∆p stack = −C d ρ i g∆h i (eq. 7.7)
To
Cd = 1.0 since there is only one floor
H = -1.5 m (at the base of the building)
To = Ti - 15ºC = 6ºC = 729 K
kg m 15 K
∆p stack = −1.0(1.2 3 )(9..8 2 )(−1.5m)( )
m s 279 K
∆p stack = 0.9 pa
∆p = 8.1 pa + 0.9 pa + 0 pa

∆p = 9.0 pa

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7.4)

GIVEN: Ten story office building, 50 ft x 50 ft x 130 ft; curtain wall construction
with airtight windows, window area/wall area = 0.5; Cd = 0.65; two
vestibule-type doors on each 100 ft façade; 1 person/150 ft2 of floor
area each making 5 door openings per 10 hrs; Ti = 70°F; To = 20°F;
vwind = 15 mph, parallel to a 50 ft façade; no roof insulation.

FIGURE:
C

50 ft Building plan view


D B with sides labeled
for analysis
100 ft
A
wind

FIND: a. ∆pstack and ∆pwind for floors 1, 5 and 10.


b. V inf, total for floors 1, 5 and 10 if the ventilation system is balanced,
∆pvent = 0
c. V inf, total if ∆pvent = -0.2” w.g.

ASSUMPTIONS: The neutral pressure level (NPL) is located at the mid-height


of the building (65 ft). The building is at sea level.

SOLUTION:

The stack effect pressure different will vary from floor to floor, while the wind
effect pressure difference will vary for each side of the building (labeled A,
B, C, and D in the figure). Therefore, the analysis must be done separately
for each floor, side A, B, C, and D. A spreadsheet makes this a much
simple task than the repetitive hand calculations.

a. Stack effect pressure difference

g § T − To ·
∆p st − −C d ρ i ∆h¨¨ i ¸¸ from Equation 7.7
gc © To ¹

Cd = 0.65 (given)
ρi = 0.075 lbm/ft3 (for 70°F dry air at sea level)

167
Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 7
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7.4 continued)

∆h = height of analysis – NPL, where the height of analysis is assumed to


be the distance from the ground to the mid-height of the floor of
analysis and NPL is the building midheight (65 ft).
Ti = 70°F = 530°R
To = 20°F = 480°R

For floor 5,

∆h = (4 x 13 ft + 0.5 x 13 ft) – 65 ft = -6.5 ft

ft
32.2
∆pst = -0.65 · 0.075 lbm/ft3 · s 2 · -6.5 ft · 530°R − 480°R
ft ⋅ lb m 480°R
32.2
lb f ⋅ s 2

2
= 0.033 lbf/ft
= 0.0063 in W.G.

wind effect pressure difference

ρ 2
∆p wind = ∆C p v wind from Equation 7.6
2g c

vwind = 15 mph · 5280 ft/mile · 1 hr/3600 s = 22 ft/s

Cp from figure 7.4b for each orientation:

Side A: θ = 0° Cp = 0.6
Side B: θ = 90° Cp = -0.4
Side C: θ = 180° Cp = -0.4
Side D: θ = 90° Cp = -0.4

∆Cp = Cp +0.2
ρ = 0.082 lb/ft3 (dry air at 20°F)

For side B
lb m
0.082
∆pwind = (-0.4 + 0.2) · ft 3 · (22 ft/s)2 · 0.5
ft ⋅ lb m
32.2
lb f ⋅ s 2

= -0.12 lbf/ft2 = -0.024 in W.G.

168
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7.4 continued)

b. Window infiltration

V w = lp · K · ∆pn from Equation 7.13

It’s given that the window to wall ratio is 0.5. However, it is necessary to
make some assumptions about the window size to obtain lp. Assume that
the windows are full height and alternate with the curtain wall. Assuming
that each window is 5 ft wide x 13 ft high, lp = 36 ft for each window.

Side A: 100 ft · 0.5 · 1 window/5 ft = 10 windows


lp = 10 windows · 36 ft = 360 ft
Side B: lp = 5 windows · 36 ft = 180 ft
Side C: lp = 360 ft
Side D: lp = 180 ft

n = 0.5 for windows


K = 1.0 for tight windows (from Figure 7.8)
∆p = ∆pst + ∆pwind

For floor 5, side B:

∆p = 0.0063 in W.G. – 0.024 in W.G. = -0.018 in W.G.

The negative value for ∆p signifies that this is exfiltration. When doing the
calculation for V w, one must use the absolute value of ∆p and ensure that
V w has the same sign as ∆p, so

V w = -180 ft · 1.0 · (0.018 in W.G.)0.5 = -24.1 CFM

Curtain wall infiltration

V cw = Acw · K · ∆p0.65

Side A: Acw = 0.5 · 100 · 13 = 650 ft2


Side B: Acw = 0.5 · 50 · 13 = 325 ft2
Side C: Acw = 650 ft2
Side D: Acw = 325 ft2
K = 0.22 for tight construction (from Figure 7.11)
∆p = ∆pst + ∆pwind

For floor 5, side B:

∆p = 0.0063 in W.G. – 0.024 in W.G. = -0.018 in W.G.

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7.4 continued)

V cw = -325 ft2 · 0.22 · 0.0180.65 = -5.25 CFM

b. Doors infiltration

V d = lp · K · ∆pn from Equation 7.13

Two doors on floor 1 side A and two doors on floor 1 side C. Assuming
each door is 6.5 ft x 4.5 ft,

lp = 22 ft for each door


K = 20 for tight construction
n = 0.65 for swinging doors

Only floor 1 sides A and C will have a non-zero value for V d.

Door openings

1 person / 150 ft2 (100 ft · 50 ft · 10 floors) = 333 people.

333 people · 5 openings/person · 10 hr · 4 doors = 42 openings/hr·door

From Figure 7.10b for vestibule-type doors, 42 openings per hour does
not significantly add to the infiltration rate (C=0).

Total infiltration

V total = V w + V cw + V d for each floor for each side

c. With a ventilation overpressure of ∆pvent = -0.2 in W.G., the same


calculations of part b are performed but with ∆p = -0.2 in W.G. for all floors
and all sides. Only one calculation for each component is necessary.

Windows

For each floor,

lp = 2 · 360 ft + 2 · 180 ft = 1080 ft

V w = -1080 ft · 1.0 · (0.2 in W.G.)0.5 = -483 CFM

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Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 7
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7.4 continued)

Curtain wall

For each floor,


Acw = 2 · 650 ft2 + 2 · 325 ft2 = 1950 ft2
V cw = -1950 ft2 · 0.22 · (0.2 in W.G.)0.65 = -151 CFM

Doors

For floor 1,

lp = 4 · 22 ft = 88 ft
V d = -88 ft · 20 · (0.2 in W.G.)0.65 = -618 CFM

For floors 5 and 10, V d = 0 CFM

Total infiltration

Floor 1: V inf = V w + V cw + V d
= -483 CFM – 151 CFM – 618 CFM = -1252 CFM

Floor 5: V inf = -483 CFM – 151 CFM = -643 CFM

Floor 10: V inf = -643 CFM

The negative values imply exfiltration.

See spreadsheet solution on the next page.

171
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7.4 continued)

Problem 7.4a
Floor Side del h Pstack del Cp Pwind Ptotal
(ft) (in. WG) (in. WG) (in. WG)
1 A -58.5 0.057 0.8 0.095 0.152
1 B -58.5 0.057 -0.2 -0.024 0.033
1 C -58.5 0.057 -0.2 -0.024 0.033
1 D -58.5 0.057 -0.2 -0.024 0.033
5 A -6.5 0.006 0.8 0.095 0.101
5 B -6.5 0.006 -0.2 -0.024 -0.017
5 C -6.5 0.006 -0.2 -0.024 -0.017
5 D -6.5 0.006 -0.2 -0.024 -0.017
10 A 58.5 -0.057 0.8 0.095 0.038
10 B 58.5 -0.057 -0.2 -0.024 -0.081
10 C 58.5 -0.057 -0.2 -0.024 -0.081
10 D 58.5 -0.057 -0.2 -0.024 -0.081

Problem 7.4b
Floor Side lp-wi Vwi Acw Vcw lp-dr Vdr Vtot
(ft) (cfm) (ft2) (cfm) (ft) (cfm) (cfm)
1 A 360 140 650 42 44 258 440
1 B 180 33 325 8 0 0 41
1 C 360 66 650 16 44 97 178
1 D 180 33 325 8 0 0 41
5 A 360 114 650 32 0 0 147
5 B 180 -24 325 -5 0 0 -29
5 C 360 -47 650 -l0 0 0 -58
5 D 180 -24 325 -5 0 0 -29
10 A 360 70 650 17 0 0 87
10 B 180 -51 325 -14 0 0 -65
10 C 360 -102 650 -28 0 0 -130
10 D 180 -51 325 -14 0 0 -65

Problem 7.4c
Floor lp-wi Vwi Acw Vcw lp-dr Vdr Vtot
(ft) (cfm) (ft2) (cfm) (ft) (cfm) (cfm)
1 1080 -483 1950 -151 88 -618 -1252
5 1080 -483 1950 -151 0 0 -634
10 1080 -483 1950 -151 0 0 -634

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7.5)

GIVEN: There is an odor in your room that you would like to get rid of before
your mother visits later this afternoon. The concentration of the odor-
causing substance needs to be reduced by a factor of 10 in order to
become unnoticeable.

FIND: The number of hours that the windows should be open before mother’s
visit, using Figure 7.2.

ASSUMPTIONS: The room is on the upper floor of a two-story house, windward


side. Wind speed is 3 m/s.

SOLUTION:

From Figure 7.2, use curve 2. At 3 m/s, Air changes per hour, ACH = 3.5.

Co = X
Cf = 0.1X

Use a spreadsheet to represent concentration as a function timestep n (in


hours), where:
C n +1 = C n − C n * ACH * n
1.200

1.000
Concentration (% of original)

0.800

0.600

0.400

0.200

0.000
0:00 0:30 1:00 1:30 2:00 2:30 3:00
Time

The concentration goes below 0.1 of original at 39 minutes.

Note: Answers will vary depending on selected timestep. This figure shows a
timestep of one minute.

173
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7.6)

GIVEN: Two-story house in a residential neighborhood that has 10 double-hung


1 m x 1.5 m windows that are not weather-stripped. The indoor
temperature is constant at 20ºC.

FIND: a. Estimate the leakage area from just the windows


d. Assuming an average winter wind speed of 2 m/s and an average
outdoor temperature of 5ºC, what is the infiltration rate?
e. Estimate the associated heat load with this infiltration.
f. If the energy costs are $5/GJ, what is the cost of heating this air?
g. How much money could you save per year if the windows had
weather stripping?

ASSUMPTIONS: Shielding class 3. Heating is needed during ½ the year (4380


hours).

SOLUTION:

a. From Table 7.1, the best estimate for leakage with a non-weather-stripped
double-hung window is 0.086 in2/ft2.
Awindow = 1 m x 1.5 m = 1.5 m2 = 16.15 ft2
Atotal = 16.15 ft2/window x 10 windows = 161.5 ft2
Leakage area, Aleak = 0.086 in2/ft2 x 161.5 ft2
Aleak = 13.9 in2 = 89.6 cm2

b. Use LBL model, eq. 7.12:


V = A a ∆T + a v 2
;eak s w

From Tables 7.2 and 7.3,


as = 0.000290 (L/s)2/(cm4-K)
aw = 0.000231 (L/s)2/[cm4-(m/s)2]
V = 6.057 L / s
c. Estimated heat load:
Q = m c p (Ti − To )
With density, ρ = 1.187 kg/m3,
 L 1m 3 kg
m = Vρ = 6.507 ⋅
 ⋅ 1.187 3 = 0.00772 kg / s
s 1000 L m
kJ
c p = 1.026
kg ⋅ K
kg kJ kJ
Q = 0.00772 ⋅ 1.026 ⋅ (20 − 5) = 0.1189
s kg ⋅ K s

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7.6 Continued)

kJ 60 2 s hr
Q = 0.1189 ⋅ ⋅ 4380
s hr yr

Q = 1.875 GJ / yr

d. Estimated heating costs due to infiltration:


Cost = 1.875 GJ/yr * $5/GJ = $9.38/yr

e. Money saved with weather-stripping:


From Table 7.1, leakage area is cut in half by weather-stripping, from
0.086 to 0.043 in2/ft2. Therefore, the infiltration rate, the heating load, and
the heating cost will be reduced by ½.
Costsaved = 0.5 * $9.38/yr = $4.69/yr

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7.8)

GIVEN: Single-family detached residence is a single story building with an


attached heated garage.

FIND: a. Calculate overall UA values for each element of building envelope.


b. What is the heating load contribution due to conduction if the outdoor
temperature is constant at 5ºF and the indoor temperature is
maintained at 70ºF?
c. How much would the conduction portion of the building heat loss be
reduced by replacing the 0.5 in. plywood sheathing in the walls with
0.75 in. Styrofoam (expanded, extruded polystyrene)?
d. If you needed to reduce conduction through the envelope by 20%,
how would you do it?

ASSUMPTIONS: hi = 1.46 Btu/(hr-ft2-ºF), ho = 6.0 Btu/(hr-ft2-ºF)

SOLUTION:

a. Look-up thermal conductivity values for given building materials.

Wall:
Stud Path Ins. Path
k (Btu-in / U (Btu / Rth ((hr-ft^2- Rth ((hr-ft^2-
Component ∆x (in.) (hr-ft^2-F)) (hr-ft^2-F)) F) / Btu) F) / Btu)
Outdoor surface, ho -- -- 6 0.17 0.17
Wood siding 0.5 0.653 1.31 0.77 0.77
Plywood sheathing 0.5 0.8 1.6 0.63 0.63
Framing 4 0.8 0.2 5.00 --
Fiberglass batt insulation 4 0.25 0.06 -- 16.00
Gypsum 0.5 1.11 2.22 0.45 0.45
Indoor surface, hi -- -- 1.46 0.68 0.68
Rtot = 7.69 18.69
Utot = 1/Rtot = 0.130 0.053

k 1
U= Rth =
∆x U
§A · § A ·
U wall = ¨¨ stud¸¸U stud + ¨¨ ins ¸¸U ins
© Awall¹ © Awall ¹
§ 2· § 14 · Btu
U wall = ¨ ¸0.130 + ¨ ¸0.053 = 0.0626
© 16 ¹ © 16 ¹ hr ⋅ ft 2 ⋅ F
Awall = 2880 ft 2
Btu
UAwall = 180.4
hr ⋅ F

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7.8 continued)

Roof:
Truss Path Ins. Path

k (Btu-in / U (Btu / Rth (hr-ft^2- Rth (hr-ft^2-


Component ∆x (in.) (hr-ft^2-F)) (hr-ft^2-F)) F) / Btu F) / Btu
Outdoor surface, ho -- -- 6.00 0.17 0.17
Wood shingles, cedar shake 0.4375 1.49 3.41 0.29 0.29
Felt building paper -- -- -- -- --
Plywood sheathing 0.5 0.8 1.60 0.63 0.63
Basement surface, hb1 -- -- 1.46 0.68 0.68
Basement surface, hb2 -- -- 1.46 0.68 0.68
Framing 6 0.8 0.13 7.50 --
Cellulose insulation 8 0.295 0.04 -- 27.12
Framing 6 0.8 0.13 7.50 --
Gypsum 0.5 1.11 2.22 0.45 0.45
Indoor surface, hi -- -- 1.46 0.68 0.68
Rtot = 18.59 30.71
Utot = 1/Rtot = 0.054 0.033
§A · § A ·
U roof = ¨ truss ¸U roof + ¨ ins ¸U ins
¨A ¸ ¨A ¸
© roof ¹ © roof ¹
§ 2 · § 22 · Btu
U roof = ¨ ¸0.054 + ¨ ¸0.033 = 0.0348
© 24 ¹ © 24 ¹ hr ⋅ ft 2 ⋅ F
Aroof = 3420 ft 2
Btu
UAroof = 118.8
hr ⋅  F

Windows:
§A · § A ·
U wall = ¨¨ stud ¸¸U stud + ¨¨ ins ¸¸U ins
© Awall ¹ © Awall ¹
Btu
U windows = 0.42
hr ⋅ ft 2 ⋅ F
Awindows = 332 ft 2
Btu
UAwindows = 139.4
hr ⋅ F

Doors:
Btu
U doors = 0.33
hr ⋅ ft 2 ⋅  F
Adoors = 70 ft 2
Btu
UAdoors = 23.1
hr ⋅ F

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7.8 continued)

Garage Door:
Btu
U garage door = 0.55
hr ⋅ ft 2 ⋅  F
Agarage door = 120 ft 2
Btu
UAgarage door = 66.0
hr ⋅ F

b. Heating load due to conduction:

Q = ΣUA ⋅ (Ti − To ) = (180.4 + 118.8 + 139.4 + 23.1 + 66.0) ⋅ (70 − 5)


Btu
Q = 34,300
hr

Stud Path Ins. Path

k (Btu-in / U (Btu / Rth (hr-ft^2- Rth (hr-ft^2-


Component ∆x (in.) (hr-ft^2-F)) (hr-ft^2-F)) F) / Btu F) / Btu
Outdoor surface, ho -- -- 6.00 0.17 0.17
Wood siding 0.5 0.653 1.31 0.77 0.77
Styrofoam (exp.., ext. polystyrene) 0.75 0.25 0.33 3.00 3.00
Framing 4 0.8 0.20 5.00 --
Fiberglass insulation 4 0.25 0.06 -- 16.00
Gypsum 0.5 1.11 2.22 0.45 0.45
Indoor surface, hi -- -- 1.46 0.68 0.68
Rtot = 10.07 21.07
Utot = 1/Rtot = 0.099 0.047

c. Replacing wall plywood with Styrofoam:

§ 2· § 14 · Btu
U wall = ¨ ¸0.099 + ¨ ¸0.047 = 0.0535
© 16 ¹ © 16 ¹ hr ⋅ ft 2 ⋅ F
Awall = 2880 ft 2
Btu
UAwall = 154.1 
hr ⋅ F

Q = ΣUA ⋅ (Ti − To ) = (154.1 + 118.8 + 139.4 + 23.1 + 66.0) ⋅ (70 − 5)


Btu
Q = 32,590
hr
Load reduced by 5%.

d. To reduce conduction by 20%, the windows could be replaced by triple


insulated glass with a storm sash (10% reduction) in conjunction with
Styrofoam addition to the walls and increased insulation in the attic.

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7.9)

GIVEN: House described in N.7.3) to be built in a suburb of Denver on a 0.3


acre lot, which is large compared to most suburban densities, and will
have several small trees and shrubs near the house. The house will
have an estimated 0.5 ACH under typical winter conditions of 10 mph
wind speed and outdoor temperature of 30ºF.

FIND:
a. The effective infiltration leakage area of the house using the LBL
model
b. Calculate the heating load due to infiltration under design winter
conditions of 15 mph wind speed and 2ºF outdoor temperature.

ASSUMPTIONS: House is maintained at 70ºF.

SOLUTION:

a. Use LBL model, eq. 7.12:


V = A a ∆T + a v 2
;eak s w

air changes ft 3 ft 3
V = ACH ⋅ Vhouse = 0.5 ⋅ 23,776 ft 3 = 11,888 = 198.1
hr hr min
From Tables 7.2 and 7.3,
as = 0.0156 (ft3/min)2/(in4-ºF)
aw = 0.0065 (ft3/min)2/[in4-(mi/h)2]

198.1
Aleak =
0.0156 ⋅ (70 − 30) + 0.0065 ⋅ (10) 2

Aleak = 175.5 in 2

b. V = A;eak a s ∆T + a w v 2
ft 3
V = 175.5 0.0156 ⋅ (70 − 2) + 0.0065 ⋅ (15) 2 = 278.8
min
Estimated heat load at 5,000 ft:
Q inf = 0.9 ⋅ CFM ⋅ (Ti − To ) = 0.9 ⋅ 278.8 ⋅ (70 − 2)

Btu
Q = 17,060
hr

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7.10)

GIVEN: House described in N.7.3) has a heated full basement under all but the
garage. (The garage measures 22.5x19.5 ft.) The basement
foundation wall is insulated on the outside with R4 insulation. The wall
is 7.5 ft high with 1.5 ft above grade. The garage is built on a slab-on-
grade floor. The slab foundation wall is also insulated below grade with
the same insulation. The average winter temperature is 25ºF and that
the soil conductivity is 0.8 Btu/hr-ft-ºF.

FIND: The design heat loss from the basement and garage slab.

ASSUMPTIONS: House is maintained at 70ºF. Steady conduction. Shortest


width of building is 24 ft. Denver has approximately 5350 ºF-
days. Wall of slab-on-grade is 8 inch block with brick.

SOLUTION:

Basement wall:

From Table 2.4a, the unit heat loss thru the wall is:
Q Btu
¦
depth ( L∆T )
= 0.57
hr ⋅ ft ⋅ F

From Figure 2.6:


Tg , des = Tw, avg − ∆Tg = 25 − 20 = 5  F

§ Q ·
Q basement wall = ¨¨ ¦ ¸ L(Ti − Tg ,des )
¸
© depth L ∆T ¹
Btu
Q basement wall = 0.57 ⋅ 276 ⋅ (70 − 5) = 10,226
hr

Basement floor:

From Table 2.5a, the U-value of the floor is:


Btu
U floor = 0.0265
hr ⋅ ft 2 ⋅ F
Q =U
floor A (T − T )
floor floor i g ,des

Btu
Q floor = 0.0265 ⋅ 2516 ⋅ (70 − 5) = 4,334
hr

180
Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 7
Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

7.10 continued)

Garage slab-on-grade floor:

From Table 2.6, F2 = 0.5 Btu/(h-ft-ºF)


Btu
Q slab = F2 P(Ti − To ) = 0.5 ⋅ (22.5 ⋅ 2 + 19.5 ⋅ 2) ⋅ (70 − 25) = 2,100
hr

Basement wall above grade:

Rth,wall = Rth,ins + Rth,block + Rth,ho + Rth,hi

Rth,wall = 4 + 1.6 + 0.17 + 0.68 = 6.45 hr-ft2-ºF/Btu


Aabove− grade wall (Ti − To ) 1.5 ⋅ 360 ⋅ (70 − 25) Btu
Q above − grade wall = = = 3,767
Rth ,wall 6.45 hr

Total heat loss:

Q basement , slab = Q basement wall + Q floor + Q slab + Q above− grade wall

Btu
Q basement , slab = 20,430
hr

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7.11)

GIVEN: One story building; 100 ft x 100 ft x 13 ft; steel deck roof with 3.33”
insulation; steel siding with 4” insulation; window/wall ratio = 0.4;
double-glazed windows; neglect ground losses.

FIND: Conductive heat loss coefficient, Kcond

SOLUTION:

Uroof = 0.080 Btu/hr-ft2-ºF (Table 7.7a)


Uwall = 0.066 Btu/hr-ft2-ºF (Table 7.7b)
2
Uglaze = 0.50 Btu/hr-ft -ºF (Table 6.6)
(including frame and edge effects)

Aroof = 100 ft x 100 ft = 10,000 ft2


Awall = (100 ft x 13 ft x 4) x 0.6 = 3120 ft2
Aglaze = (100 ft x 13 ft x 4) x 0.4 = 2080 ft2

Kcond = UglazeAglaze + UwallAwall + UroofAroof (eq. 7.21)


Kcond = (0.50 Btu/hr-ft2-ºF)(2080 ft2) + (0.066 Btu/hr-ft2-ºF)(3120 ft2)
+ (0.080 Btu/hr-ft2-ºF)(10,000 ft2)

Kcond = 2046 Btu/hr-ºF

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7.12)

GIVEN: Wall consisting of 0.75 in. gypsum plaster, 4.0” glass wool insulation, 4”
face brick.

FIND: a) U-value for wind speeds 0 mph and 15 mph


b) Inside surface temperature of wall if Ti = 70ºF and To = 0ºF
c) Qualitatively what would happen if the order of the brick and the
insulation were interchanged? Would U-value change? Would peak
conductive cooling load change?

LOOKUP VALUES: Kgyp = 1.11 Btu/hr-ft2-ºF (Properties of Materials on CD)


Kins = 0.25 Btu/hr-ft2-ºF
Kf-brick = 9.0 Btu/hr-ft2-ºF

SOLUTION:

k
U= (eq. 2.5 and 2.6)
∆x
k gyp 1.11Btu ⋅ in /(hr ⋅ ft 2 ⋅ F ) Btu
a) U gyp = = = 1.48
∆x gyp 0.75in hr ⋅ ft 2 ⋅ F
k ins 0.25Btu ⋅ in /(hr ⋅ ft 2 ⋅ F ) Btu
U ins = = = 0.06
∆xins 4.0in hr ⋅ ft 2 ⋅ F
k f ⋅brick 9.0 Btu ⋅ in /(hr ⋅ ft 2 ⋅ F ) Btu
U f ⋅brick = = = 2.25
∆x f ⋅brick 4.0in hr ⋅ ft 2 ⋅ F
ho = 1.46 Btu/(hr-ft2-ºF) at 0 mph (Table on CD)
hi = 1.46 Btu/(hr-ft2-ºF)
ho = 6.0 Btu/(hr-ft2-ºF) at 15 mph

The equivalent circuit for the wall is:


ho Ufbrick Uins Ugyp hi

1 1 1 1 1 1
= + + + +
U T ho U fb U ins U gyp hi
Btu
at 0 mph wind, U T = 0.052
hr ⋅ ft 2 ⋅ F
Btu
at 15 mph wind, U T = 0.054
hr ⋅ ft 2 ⋅ F

Q
b) = U T (Ti − To ) (Eq. 2.3, 2.4, 2.6)
A

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7.12 continued)

Q Btu Btu
= 0.052 (70  F − 0  F ) = 3.64
A hr ⋅ ft ⋅ F
2 
hr ⋅ ft 2

The total U-value from the outdoor air to the inside surface is:
1 1 1 1 1
= + + +
U T ' ho U fb U ins U gyp
Btu
U T ' = 0.054
hr ⋅ ft 2 ⋅ F
Q
= U T (Ts − To ) where Ts is the inside surface temperature
A
Btu Btu
3.64 = 0.054 (Ts − 0)
hr ⋅ ft 2
hr ⋅ ft 2 ⋅ F
Ts = 67.4  F (no wind condition)

c) The peak conductive cooling load will decrease if the brick is on the inside
of the insulation because in that position it acts as thermal mass, while on
the outside it was decoupled from the building.

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7.13)

GIVEN: Wall consisting of the following components (inside to outside):


0.75 inches of gypsum plaster
2 inches of foam insulation
4 inches of lightweight concrete

FIND: a) The U-value for wind speed of 0 and 15 mph.


b) What is the inside surface temperature of the wall if Ti = 70ºF and To =
0ºF?
c) Consider qualitatively what would happen if the order of insulation and
concrete were interchanged. Would the U-value change? How would
the peak conductive cooling load change?

ASSUMPTIONS: Insulation is expanded polystyrene extruded, smooth skin


surface. Concrete is 80 lb/ft3. hi = 1.46 Btu/(hr-ft2-ºF), hrad,o =
2.275 Btu/(hr-ft2-ºF). L = 15 ft.
SOLUTION:

a) From eq. 2.25US for turbulent flow over planes,


1/ 5 1/ 5
§ v4 · § 22 4 · Btu
For 15 mph (22 ft/s): hcon = 0.54¨¨ ¸¸ = 0.54¨¨ ¸¸ = 3.725
© L¹ © 15 ¹ hr ⋅ ft 2 ⋅ F
At 15 mph:

Btu
ho = hrad + hcon = 6.0
hr ⋅ ft 2 ⋅ F

k (Btu-in / U (Btu / Rth (hr-ft^2-


Component ∆x (in.) (hr-ft^2-F)) (hr-ft^2-F)) F) / Btu
Outdoor surface, ho -- -- 6.00 0.17
Lightweight concrete 4 2.5 0.63 --
Foam insulation 2 0.25 0.13 8.00
Gypsum 0.75 1.11 1.48 0.68
Indoor surface, hi -- -- 1.46 0.68
Rtot = 9.53
Utot = 1/Rtot = 0.105

Btu
U wall = 0.105
hr ⋅ ft 2 ⋅ F

185
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7.13 continued)

At 0 mph:
Btu
ho = hrad + hcon = 2.275
hr ⋅ ft 2 ⋅ F

k (Btu-in / U (Btu / Rth (hr-ft^2-


Component ∆x (in.) (hr-ft^2-F)) (hr-ft^2-F)) F) / Btu
Outdoor surface, ho -- -- 2.28 0.44
Lightweight concrete 4 2.5 0.63 --
Foam insulation 2 0.25 0.13 8.00
Gypsum 0.75 1.11 1.48 0.68
Indoor surface, hi -- -- 1.46 0.68
Rtot = 9.80
Utot = 1/Rtot = 0.102

Btu
U wall = 0.102
hr ⋅ ft 2 ⋅ F

b) The U-value of the gypsum and indoor surface can be defined as:
−1
§ 1 1· Btu
U i , gyp = ¨ + ¸ = 0.735
¨U ¸ hr ⋅ ft 2 ⋅ F
© gyp hi ¹
Q Q
Since = U wall (Ti − To ) and = U i , gyp (Ti − Ts ) ,
A A
U 0.105
Ts = Ti − wall (Ti − To ) = 70 − (70 − 0)
U i , gyp 0.735
Ts = 60  F

c) If the order of insulation and concrete were changed, the U-value would
not change, because the resistance to heat transfer would remain the sum
of the resistances of all wall components. However, the peak conductive
cooling load could be increased if the concrete and the insulation were
switched. This would be due to the location of the smaller capacitance
being closer to the solar gain, allowing the indoor temperature to be more
susceptible to outdoor temperature fluctuations.

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7.16)

GIVEN: House with Kcond = 120 W/K; ventilation system provides 7.5 l/s-person;
32 people at party; Q gain = 1 kW (from other than people); steady state
conditions.

FIND: a) Latent and sensible heat gains and outdoor air requirements before
and during party.
b) How much the heating load changes relative to steady state conditions
before the party when To = 0ºC and Ti = 20ºC.
c) Does the latent gain have any effect on the heating load if there is no
humidity control in the house?

ASSUMPTIONS: Ignore storage effects and ground coupling; standard air;


ρ = 1.2 kg/m3

SOLUTION:

a) Latent loads: 45 W/person (Table 7.5)


Sensible loads: 75 W/person (Table 7.5)
(These numbers assume that the heat output of the party-goers is similar
to people seated, doing light office work from Table 7.5)

Before the party:


Latent gain = 45 W/person x 2 persons = 90 W
Sensible gain = 75 W/person x 2 persons = 150 W
+ Q gain = 150 W + 1000 W = 1150 W
Ventilation = 7.5 l/s-person x 2 person = 15 l/s

During the party:


Latent gain = 45 W/person x 32 persons = 1440 W
Sensible gain = 75 W/person x 32 persons = 2400 W
+ Q gain = 2400 W + 1000 W = 3400 W
Ventilation = 7.5 l/s-person x 32 person = 240 l/s

b) K tot = K cond + ρ c pV (eq. 7.24)


Q = K (T − T ) − Q
tot i o gain ,total (eq. 7.32)
= sensible load

Before the party:


W kg kJ l 1m 3 1000 J
K tot = 120 + 1.2 3 (1.0 )(15 )( )( )
K m kg ⋅ K s 1000l 1kJ

187
Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 7
Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

7.16 continued)

W
K tot = 138
K
Q gain ,total = 1150 W
W
Q sens = 138 (20  C − 0  C ) − 1150W
K

Qsens = 1610 W

During the party:


W kg kJ l 1m 3 1000 J
K tot = 120 + 1.2 3 (1.0 )(240 )( )( )
K m kg ⋅ K s 1000l 1kJ
W
K tot = 408
K

Q gain ,total = 3400 W
W
Q sens = 408 (20  C − 0  C ) − 3400W
K

Qsens = 4760 W

The heat load increases almost 300% during the party compared to
before the party.

c) Unless there is humidity control in the house, the latent gain has no effect
on the heating load.

Comment: If the mechanical ventilation were equipped with an air-to-air heat


exchanger for heat recovery (heat recovery ventilator or HRV) the
results would be quite different. Assuming an HRV effectiveness
of 70% (i.e. 70% of the energy in the outgoing exhaust air is
imported to the incoming ventilation air), the load before the party
would be 1358 W and during the party would be 728 W.

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7.17)

GIVEN: Unheated attached garage 5m x 5m x 3m


Ugar-house = 0.5 W/m2-K
Ugar-out = 5.0 W/m2-K
Floor is 0.1 m concrete; Tgr = 12ºC; V =0.1 ACH; To = -10ºC

FIND: Estimated temperature in the unheated garage, Tgar

ASSUMPTIONS: One dimensional steady conduction is the only mode of heat


transfer. Standard air, ρ = 1.2 kg/m3; Ti = 21ºC

SOLUTION:

For an estimate of the garage temperature one can use a simple thermal
network analysis:
Tgr
To
Ti Tgar

1/(UA)gar-house 1/(ρcpV)
0.1m concrete:
k = 9 Btu-in/(hr-ft2-ºF) = 1.3 W/m-ºC (Properties of Materials on CD)
k 1.3W / m ⋅ C W
U= (eq. 2.5 and 2.6) U fl = = 13 2 
∆x 0.1m m ⋅ C
2
Afl = 5m x 5m = 25 m
W W
(UA) gar −out = 5.0 2  (5m ⋅ 5m + 3 ⋅ 5m ⋅ 3m) = 350 
m ⋅ C C
kg kJ AC (5m ⋅ 5m ⋅ 3m) 1hr W
ρc pV = 1.2 3 (1.0 )(0.1 ) ( ) = 2 .5 
m kg ⋅ C

hr 1AC 3600 s C
Combining the resistances from Tgar to To add (UA)gar-out and ρc V since they
p

are parallel resistances:


W W W
(UA) out = 350  + 2.5  = 352.5 
C C C
2
Agar-house = 5m x 3m = 15 m
The steady state heat balance on the Tgar node is:
UflAfl(Tgr – Tgar) + (UA)gar-house(Ti – Tgar) = (UA)out(Tgar – To)
W W
13 2  (25m 2 )(12  − Tgar ) + 0.5 2  (15m 2 )(21 − Tgar )
m ⋅ C m ⋅ C
W
= 352.5  (Tgar − (−10  C ))
C
Tgar = 1.0  C

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7.19)

GIVEN: Sedentary occupants; Vout = 20 cfm/occupant; To,db = 92ºF; To,wb = 74ºF

FIND: Latent cooling load per occupant

ASSUMPTIONS: Sea level; hfg = 1076 Btu/lbm; Ti,db = 70ºF, RHi = 50%

SOLUTION:

Q air ,lat = Vρh fg (Wo − Wi ) (eq. 7.26)

lbw
Wo = 0.014 (Fig. 4.6)
lbda
lb
Wi = 0.008 w (Fig. 4.6)
lbda
1 1 lb
ρ= = 3
= 0.074 3 (Fig. 4.6 at indoor conditions)
v 13.5 ft / lb ft

ft 3 lb Btu lb 60 min
Q air ,lat = 20 (0.074 da3 )(1076 )(0.014 − 0.008) w ( )
min⋅ occ ft lbw lbda 1hr
Btu
Q air ,lat = 573
hr ⋅ occ

Occupant gain for sedentary activity:


Btu
Q occ ,lat = 150
hr ⋅ occ

Total latent load:


Btu Btu
Q lat = Q air ,lat + Q occ ,lat = 573 + 150
hr ⋅ occ hr ⋅ occ
Btu
Q lat = 723
hr ⋅ occ

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7.23)

GIVEN: South-facing, vertical window; Aw = 100 ft2; λ = 32ºN; July; medium


construction type

FIND: The peak solar cooling load for:


a) an unshaded window with clear double glazing (SC = 0.88)
b) same as a) but completely shaded from direct solar radiation
c) which glazing types in Tables 6.5 and 6.6 minimize cooling loads.

ASSUMPTIONS: Peak cooling load occurs at 3:00 pm; All assumptions used for
Table on CD for CLTD’s for glass hold true.

SOLUTION:
Q c ,cond , glaz ,t = UA ⋅ CLTD glaz ,t (eq. 7.42)
Q = A ⋅ SC ⋅ SHGF ⋅ CLF
c , sol ,t max t (eq. 7.43)
2
Uglaz = 0.5 Btu/hr-ft -ºF (Table 6.6)
CLTDglaz,1500 = 14ºF
Btu Btu
Q c ,cond . glaz ,1500 = 0.5 (100 ft 2 )(14  F ) = 700
hr ⋅ ft ⋅ F
2 
hr

a) Direct solar gain for unshaded window:


SHGFmax (32ºLat, July, south) = 72 Btu/hr-ft2 (Table on CD for SHGF’s)
CLF1500 (south, med. construction) = 0.53 (Table on CD for CLTD’s)
Btu
Q c , sol ,1500 = 100 ft 2 (0.88)(72 )(0.53)
hr ⋅ ft 2
Btu
Q c , sol ,1500 = 3358
hr

b) For extremely shaded glass:


SHGFmax = 41 Btu/hr-ft2
CLF1500 = 0.5
Btu
Q c , sol ,1500 = 100 ft 2 (0.88)(41 )(0.5)
hr ⋅ ft 2
Btu
Q c , sol ,1500 = 1804
hr

c) The portion of the cooling load from windows is the result of both the
conductive and the solar gains. In this example, the conductive portion is
significantly less than the solar portion. Therefore, it is most important to
choose a window with a low shading coefficient. Type #1 in Table 6.6 will
result in the lowest cooling load in this example.

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7.24)

GIVEN: The following three conductive heat load profiles were calculated for
south facing walls in Denver in July.

The walls are 4” concrete, 8” concrete, and 12” concrete.

FIND: Which wall is which and justify your answer without doing any
calculations.

SOLUTION:

Wall A is the 4” of concrete. This is because Wall A has the shortest time
constant for conduction, meaning a quicker response to outdoor temperature
changes due to solar gain. The wall with the most thermal mass (12”
concrete) is wall C because it has the longest time constant, and is slow to
respond conductive heat. Wall B is the 8” of concrete, because it has a
response between wall A and C.

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7.34)

GIVEN: Default building in the HCB loads menu in Phoenix in July.

FIND: Compare the effect of a dark roof versus a light roof on the total cooling
load. Change the roof type to include more insulation. How does this
affect the total cooling load?

SOLUTION:

With dark roof (max cooling load = 57,353 Btu/hr):

With light roof (max cooling load = 44,871 Btu/hr):

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7.34 continued)

With light roof and increased insulation (2”) (max cooling load = 39,514 Btu/hr):

Going from a dark to a light roof reduces the cooling load by approximately 22%.
Adding insulation has less of an impact, reducing the cooling load by
approximately 12%.

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Chapter 8

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8.1)

GIVEN: Ktot = 200 W/K; 4 occupants; Q gain ,lights = 600 W; Isol = 25 W/m2; Aw = 10
m2; Ti = 21ºC

FIND: Internal heat gains and Tbal

ASSUMPTIONS: Occupancy is 24 hrs/day

SOLUTION:

People: Q gain , people = 70 W/person x 4 person = 280 W (Table 7.5)

Lights: 600 W

Solar: 25 W/m2 x 10 m2 = 250 W

Q gain ,total = 280 W + 600 W + 250 W


Q gain ,total = 1130 W

Q gain ,total
Tbal = Ti − (eq. 8.2)
K tot
1130 W
Tbal = 21 C −
200 W /  C
Tbal = 15.4  C

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8.3)

GIVEN: Ktot = 200 W/K; Ti = 21ºC; Q g = 1200 W; ηheat = 0.80; house located in
Washington, D.C.

FIND: Annual energy consumption using variable base degree days and bin
data method.

SOLUTION:
Degree Day Method
Q g
Tbal = Ti − (eq. 8.2)
K tot
1200 W
Tbal = 21 C − 
= 15 C
200 W / C
From Fig. 8.3, Dh (15ºC) = 1890 K-days
K tot
Q h , yr = (eq. 8.6)
η h Dh (Tbal )
200 W / K
Q h , yr =
(0.8)(1890 K ⋅ days)(24hrs / day )
kWh GJ
Q h , yr = 11,340 = 40.8
yr yr

Bin Method
K
Qbin = N bin ( tot )(Tbal − Tbin ) (eq. 8.18)
ηh
Bin
Temp No. Qbin
(C) Hours (kWh)
14 673 168
11 690 690
8 684 1197
6 790 1778
3 744 2232
0 542 2033
-3 254 1143
-6 138 725
-8 54 311
-11 17 111
-14 2 15
Σ= 10400
The bin method and the degree day method resulted in an 940 kWh
difference, with the bin method results about 8% lower than the degree day
method.

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8.5)

GIVEN: Commercial building located in Boston; 30 ft x 30 ft x 8 ft oriented due


south, open floor plan; Ti = 70°F;
equal windows on all sides with window/wall ratio = 0.25,
Uwi = 0.5 Btu/hr·ft2·°F,
SC = 0.82,
V = 0.5 ac/hr from 8 AM to 6 PM, V = 0.2 ac/hr from 6 PM to 8 AM
Q gain, lights = 3.0 W/ft2 from 8 AM to 6 PM
Q gain, lights = 0.5 W/ft2 from 6 PM to 8 AM
0.01 occupants/ft2 from 8 AM to 6 PM
ηh = 0.8

FIND: a) the peak heating load


b) the balance point temperatures corresponding to daytime and nighttime
conditions
c) the heating energy for January using bin data from the HCB software

ASSUMPTIONS: Ignore storage effects. The building operates as one zone.


Uwall = 0.08 Btu/hr·ft2·°F, Uroof = 0.06 Btu/hr·ft2·°F.

SOLUTION:

a) Boston 97.5% winter design condition = 9°F db


Roof area, Aroof = 30 ft · 30 ft = 900 ft2
Window area, Awi = 0.25 · 30 ft · 8 ft · 4 = 240 ft2
Wall area, Awall = 0.75 · 30 ft · 8 ft · 4 = 720 ft2
Volume = 30 ft · 30 ft · 8 ft = 7200 ft3

Nighttime

Kcond = Uwi · Awi + Uwall · Awall + Uroof · Aroof (from Equation 7.21)

= (0.5 Btu/hr·ft2·°F) · (240 ft2) + (0.08 Btu/hr·ft2·°F) · (720 ft2)


+ (0.06 Btu/hr·ft2·°F) · (900 ft2) = 231.6 Btu/hr·°F

Ktot = Kcond + ρcp V (from Equation 7.24)

ρ = 0.085 lbm/ft3 at 90°F


cp = 0.24 Btu/lb·°R
V = 0.2 ac/hr · 7200 ft3/ac = 1440 ft3/hr

Ktot = 231.6 Btu/hr·°F + (0.085 lbm/ft3) · (0.24 Btu/lb·°R) · (1440 ft3/hr)


= 261 Btu/hr·°F

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8.5 Continued)

 gain = (0.5 W/ft2) · (900 ft2) · (3.413 Btu/hr/W) = 1536 Btu/hr


Q

Q  gain
 =Ktot · (Ti – To) – Q (from Equation 7.32)

 = (261 Btu/hr·°F) · (70°F – 9°F) – 1536 Btu/hr = 14385 Btu/hr


Q

Daytime

Kcond = 231.6 Btu/hr·°F


V = (0.5 ac/hr) · (7200 ft3/ac) = 3600 ft3/hr

Ktot = (0.085 lbm/ft3) · (0.24 Btu/lb·°R) · (3600 ft3/hr) + 231.6 Btu/hr·°F


= 305 Btu/hr·°F

 gain = (3.0 W/ft2) · (900 ft2) · (3.413 Btu/hr/W) = 9215 Btu/hr


Q

 occ, gain = (0.01 occ/ft2) · (900 ft2) · (255 Btu/hr·occ) = 2295 Btu/hr
Q

Q = (305 Btu/hr·°F) · (70°F – 9°F) – 9215 Btu/hr – 2295 Btu/hr = 7095


Btu/hr

The peak heating load is 14385 Btu/hr and occurs at night. The additional
gains from people and lights and equipment in the day outweigh the
additional load caused by increased ventilation.

b. Daytime Tbal

From the appendices, the average clearness index for Boston in January
is k T = 0.39

From Figure 6.16 for January, λ = 42°N, k T = 0.39,


H glo, north = 176 Btu/ft2
H glo, east = 352 Btu/ft2
H glo, south = 800 Btu/ft2
H glo, west = 352 Btu/ft2

From Figure 6.4, sunset occurs 4.75 hours after noon on January 21 at
42°N latitude. Therefore, the day length = 2 x 4.75 = 9.5 hours.

 gain, solar, N = (176 Btu/ft2) · (60 ft2) · (0.82) / (9.5 hrs) = 912 Btu/hr
Q
 gain, solar, E = (352 Btu/ft2) · (60 ft2) · (0.82) / (9.5 hrs) = 1823 Btu/hr
Q

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8.5 Continued)

 gain, solar, S = (800 Btu/ft2) · (60 ft2) · (0.82) / (9.5 hrs) = 4143 Btu/hr
Q
 gain, solar, w = (352 Btu/ft2) · (60 ft2) · (0.82) / (9.5 hrs) = 1823 Btu/hr
Q

 gain, solar, total = 912 Btu/hr + 1823 Btu/hr + 4143 Btu/hr + 1823 Btu/hr
Q
= 8701 Btu/hr
 gain, lights = 9215 Btu/hr (from part a)
Q
 gain, occ = 2295 Btu/hr (from part a)
Q

 gain, total = (8701 + 9215 + 2295) Btu/hr = 20,211 Btu/hr


Q

 gain, total / Ktot


Tbal = Ti – Q (from Equation 8.2)

Tbal, day = 70°F – (20,211 Btu/hr) / (305 Btu/hr·°F) = 3.7°F

Nighttime Tbal

 gain, solar = 0 Btu/hr


Q
 gain, lights = 1536 Btu/hr
Q (from part a)
 gain, occ = 0 Btu/hr
Q

Tbal, night = 70°F – (1536 Btu/hr) / (261 Btu/hr·°F) = 64.1°F

c. The bin data analysis is shown in the following spreadsheet. For each bin,

 h = Ktot / ηh [Tbal – Tbin] · [# hrs in bin]


Q

with Ktot = 305 Btu/hr·°F and Tbal = 3.7°F during the day, and
Ktot = 261 Btu/hr·°F and Tbal = 64.1°F at night

Temp Day Night Qbin Qbin


(F) Hrs Hrs day night
(MBtu) (MBtu)
52 - 1 0 4
47 - 10 0 56
42 - 25 0 180
37 - 72 0 637
32 - 113 0 1183
27 - 69 0 835
22 - 91 0 838
17 - 36 0 553
12 - 28 0 476
7 - 21 0 391
2 0 0 0 0
Total 5153

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8.6)

GIVEN: House in New York City with Ktot = 200 W/K; Q gain = 1000 W; ηheat =
0.80; heat capacity of house is negligible.

FIND: The energy savings if the thermostat is reduced from 21ºC to 16ºC 12
hrs/day.

SOLUTION:

Variable based degree-day method:

Q g
Tbal = Ti − (eq. 8.2)
K tot
1000 W
Tbal , 21 = 21 C − 
= 16  C
200 W / C
1000 W
Tbal ,16 = 16  C − 
= 11 C
200 W / C
Dh (16ºC) = 2335 ºC-days (Fig. 8.3)
Dh (11ºC) = 1275 ºC-days (Fig. 8.3)

If it were set at 21ºC for 24 hrs/day,


K tot
Q h , yr = (eq. 8.6)
η h Dh (Tbal )
200 W / K
Q h , yr = = 50.4 GJ
(0.8)(2335K ⋅ days)(24hrs / day )(3600s / hr )

Set for 12 hrs at 21ºC and 12 hrs at 16ºC


200 W / K
Q h , yr = = 39.0 GJ
(0.8)[2335 K ⋅ days + 1275 K ⋅ days)](24hrs / day )(3600s / hr )

There is a 23% reduction in energy use.

The savings would not be as great if the inertia were taken into account. With
heat capacity, the average Ti would be higher resulting in more losses.

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8.8)

GIVEN: Tbal = 72ºF, location is Washington D.C.

FIND: Cooling degree days using Fig. 8.3 and Table on CD showing annual
average outdoor temperatures

SOLUTION:

Dh(Tbal) – Dc(Tbal) = 365 days x (Tbal – To,av) (eq. 8.8)

Dc(Tbal) = Dh(Tbal) – 365 days x (Tbal – To,av)


To,av = 53.8ºF
Tbal = 72ºF
Dh(72ºF) = 6400ºF-days (Fig. 8.3)

Dc(Tbal) = 6400ºF-days – 365 days x (72ºF – 53.8ºF)


Dc(72ºF) = -243ºF-days

The negative result is meaningless for cooling degree-days. The answer is


therefore, 0ºF-days.

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8.9)

GIVEN: Ktot = 30 kW/K; Ceff = 2.4GJ/K; To = 0ºC, Ti = 20ºC, T2 = 15ºC

FIND: τ and the time it takes for the temperature to drop from Ti to T2

SOLUTION:

R = 1/Ktot (eq. 8.30)


τ = RC = C/Ktot (eq. 8.32)
τ = (2.4GJ/K)(1 x 106 kJ/GJ) / 30 kJ/s-K = 8 x 104 s
τ = 22.2 hrs

T(t) = T(0)exp(-t/τ) (eq. 8.36)


15ºC = (20ºC)exp(-t/22.2hrs)
0.75 = exp(-t/22.2hrs)
ln(0.75) = -t/22.2hrs
t = 6.4 hrs

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8.13)

GIVEN: The house of Ex.7.5 (Fig. 7.7) has a forced air heating system with
some air ducts placed directly along the outside walls. The total duct
surface is 20 m2, and the portion in contact with the outside wall is 4 m2;
the surface heat transfer coefficient inside the duct is 20 W/m2. The hot
air is distributed at 60ºC when the furnace is running; when the furnace
is off assume for simplicity that the duct is at Ti=20ºC. Thus on average
the temperature rise above Ti of the duct is proportional to the load.

FIND:
a) How much do these duct losses increase the peak heating load, in
absolute and in relative terms?
b) How much does the annual energy consumption for heating increase,
in absolute and in relative terms?
c) How would these answers change if the duct were insulated with 2.5
cm of glass wool?
d) What is the payback time of adding this glass wool insulation if the
house is heated with natural gas at $5 per GJ, the furnace efficiency
is 90%, and the glass wool costs $25?

ASSUMPTIONS: The design outdoor temp is -10ºC.

SOLUTION:
a) It is not necessary to consider the 16 m2 of duct that does not contact the
exterior wall, since this heat is rejected to the heated space.
From Ex.7.5, Uwall = 0.40 W/(m2-K)
Total U-value from forced air to outdoors is:
−1
§ 1 1 1 ·
U tot = ¨¨ + + ¸¸
© U wall ho hduct ¹
−1
§ 1 1 1 · W
U tot = ¨ + + ¸ = 0.388 2
© 0.40 34.0 20 ¹ m ⋅K
W
Q = UA∆T = 0.388 2 ⋅ 4 m 2 ⋅ (60 − (−10)) = 108.6 W
m ⋅K
Without the duct, the U-value and heat loss over these 4 m2 would be:
−1
§ 1 1 1· W
U tot = ¨¨ + + ¸¸ = 0.377 2
© U wall ho hi ¹ m ⋅K
W
Q = UA∆T = 0.377 2 ⋅ 4 m 2 ⋅ (20 − (−10)) = 45.3 W
m ⋅K
Therefore, the increase in peak heating load:

Q added = 108.6 − 45.3 Q added = 63.3 W

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8.13 continued)

For the total heating load, using the heat transmission coefficient found in
Ex.7.5:
W
Q building = K tot (Ti − To ) = 205 (20 − (−10)) = 6150 W
K
Therefore, the increase in the heating load is:
Qadded 63.3
= = 1%
Qbuilding 6150
K tot Dh
b) Qh , yr =
ηh
205W / K ⋅ 2800 K ⋅ days ⋅ 24h / day ⋅ 3600 s / h
Qh , yr = = 55.10 GJ / yr
0 .9
With the duct against the wall, Ktot is increased by 2.11 W/K.
207.11W / K ⋅ 2800 K ⋅ days ⋅ 24h / day ⋅ 3600 s / h
Qh , yr = = 55.67 GJ / yr
0 .9
Annual heating load increases by 0.57 GJ/yr, or 1%.

c) If the duct were insulated with 2.5 cm of glass wool:


From the CD, Table of Building Materials,
Glass fiber, organic bonded kwool = 0.036 W/(m-K)
k 0.036 W
U wool = = = 1.44 2
∆x 0.025 m ⋅K
−1
§ 1 1 1 1 ·
U tot = ¨¨ + + + ¸¸
© U wall ho hduct U wool ¹
−1
§ 1 1 1 1 · W
U tot =¨ + + + ¸ = 0.305
© 0.40 34.0 20 1.44 ¹ m2 ⋅ K
W
Q = UA∆T = 0.305 2 ⋅ 4 m 2 ⋅ (60 − (−10)) = 85.5 W
m ⋅K
Without the duct, the U-value and heat loss over these 4 m2 would be:
−1
§ 1 1 1· W
U tot = ¨¨ + + ¸¸ = 0.377
© U wall ho hi ¹ m2 ⋅ K
W
Q = UA∆T = 0.377 ⋅ 4 m 2 ⋅ (20 − (−10)) = 45.3 W
m ⋅K
2

Therefore, the increase in peak heating load:


Q added = 85.5 − 45.3

Q added = 40.2 W

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8.13 continued)

Therefore, the increase in the heating load is:


Qadded 40.2
= = 0.65%
Qbuilding 6150
K tot Dh
Qh , yr =
ηh
205W / K ⋅ 2800 K ⋅ days ⋅ 24h / day ⋅ 3600 s / h
Qh , yr = = 55.09 GJ / yr
0 .9
With the duct against the wall, Ktot is increased by 1.34 W/K:
206.34W / K ⋅ 2800 K ⋅ days ⋅ 24h / day ⋅ 3600 s / h
Qh , yr = = 55.46 GJ / yr
0 .9
Annual heating load increases by 0.36 GJ/yr, or 0.66%.

d) Payback:

Savings = 0.57 - 0.36 = 0.21 GJ/yr * $5/GJ = $1.05/yr

$25
Payback =
$1.05 / yr
Payback = 23.8 yrs

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8.15)

GIVEN: Consider a house with Ktot = 500 Btu/hr-ºF and Ti = 70ºF, constant
during the entire heating season.

FIND:
a) What average internal heat gain due to solar, lights, people, and
equipment would be required to give a balance temperature of 65ºF?
b) Using the degree-day data of Figure 8.3, what is the annual heating
energy consumption if the house is heated with a furnace have a
constant efficiency of 82%?
c) What would be the annual heating energy consumption if the house
was moved to a location with the bin data in the following table?
Temperature Nbin
(ºF) (hours)
52.5 32
57.5 180
62.5 300
67.5 620

ASSUMPTIONS: House is located in New York.

SOLUTION:
a) Q gain = K tot (Ti − Tbal )
Q = 500(70 − 65)
gain

Btu
Q gain = 2,500
hr

b) From Figure8.3, Dh(65ºF) = 5000ºF-days


K
Qh , yr = tot Dh (Tbal )
ηh
Btu
500
hr ⋅ 
F

F ⋅ days hr
Qh , yr = ⋅ 5000 ⋅ 24
0.82 yr day
Qh , yr = 73.2 MBtu / yr

K tot
c) Qbin = N bin (Tbal − To ) +
η

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8.15 continued)
Temperature Nbin Qbin
(ºF) (hours) (MBtu)
52.5 32 5.9
57.5 180 19.8
62.5 300 11.0
67.5 620 --
Σ= 36.6

Qh , yr = 36.6 MBtu / yr

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8.16)

GIVEN: Building from Example 8.1 and Figure 7.7. Assume the internal
temperature remains constant through the year and that the house is
slab-on-grade construction with uniform horizontal insulation under the
slab. The insulation is 2.5 cm of polyisocyanurate (conductivity of 0.02
W/m-K).

FIND: The annual mean and peak heat gain/loss from this slab.

ASSUMPTIONS: Construction is 4” block wall with brick. Building is located in


New York. From the CD: To,avg = 12.5ºC To,winter,des = -11.7ºC
To,summer,des = 33.33ºC.

SOLUTION:
k 0.02 W 1 1 m 2 ⋅W
U ins = = = 0 .8 2 Rth = = = 1.25
∆x 0.025 m ⋅K U 0.8 K

For slab on grade, equation 2.10:

Q edge = F2 P(Ti − To )

From Table 2.6,


W
F2 = 0.85
m⋅K
P = 48 m

Average loss:
Q avg = 0.85 ⋅ 48 ⋅ (20 − 12.5)

Q avg = 306 W

Max loss:
Q avg = 0.85 ⋅ 48 ⋅ (20 − (−11.7))

Q max loss = 1293 W

Max gain:
Q avg = 0.85 ⋅ 48 ⋅ (20 − 33.33)

Q max gain = 544 W

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Chapter 9

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9.1)

GIVEN: Type 3 gas furnace; DDh = 6500ºF-days; Qfuel = 100 MBtu; Ts = 72ºF;
New Ts = 68ºF

FIND: Gas consumption, Qfuel, at Ts

ASSUMPTIONS: Ktot and Q gain remain the same at the new Ts.

SOLUTION:

For type 3 furnace,


AFUE = 78% (Table 9.1)

Qfuel = Qyr / AFUE (eq. 9.2)


Qyr = 78 MBtu

Qyr = Ktot(DDh) (eq. 8.6)


Ktot = 78 MBtu / 6500ºF-days

Use Fig. 8.3 to find the new degree-days at the new Ts. A line is not drawn
for Chicago, but Washington D.C. shows almost the same degree-days at
72ºF, so can be used to estimate Chicago’s. Also, the slopes of the lines for
New York, Denver, and Washington D.C. are very similar at the higher
balance point temperatures, giving more validity to the idea of using
Washington D.C. data to estimate Chicago’s.

Dropping Tbal from 72ºF to 68ºF results in a reduction in DDh of 1000ºF-days.


The new DDh is therefore,
DDh = 5500ºF-days

Qyr = Ktot(DDh) = 78 MBtu / 6500ºF-days (5500ºF-days)


Qyr = 66 MBtu

Qfuel = Qyr / AFUE = 66 MBtu / 0.78


Qfuel = 84.6 MBtu

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9.2)

GIVEN: Qh = 120 MBtu; oil heating value = 140 MBtu/gal; oil cost = $1.05/gal;
Replacing standard oil-fired furnace with condensing type; condensing
furnace costs $800 more than replacing standard type.

FIND: Gallons of oil saved, annual cost saving, and simple payback of
condensing furnace.

ASSUMPTIONS: Oil price is constant; Furnace efficiency doesn’t degrade with


time.

SOLUTION:

AFUE = 71% for standard oil furnace (Table 9.1)


AFUE = 91% for condensing oil furnace

Qfuel = Qyr / AFUE (eq. 9.2)


Standard: Qfuel,1 = 120 MBtu / 0.71 = 169 MBtu
Condensing: Qfuel,2 = 120 MBtu / 0.91 = 132 Mbtu

Savings = Qfuel,1 - Qfuel,2 = (169 – 132) = 37 MBtu


Oil Savings = 37 x 106 Btu / (140 x 103 Btu/gal oil)
Oil Savings = 264 gal oil

Annual cost savings = 264 gal ($1.05/gal)


Annual cost savings = $277/yr

Simple Payback = investment / annual savings (eq. 1.1)


Simple Payback = $800 / ($277/yr)
Simple Payback = 2.9 years

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9.5)

GIVEN: Flue gas analysis: 11% CO2, 5% O2, 83.5% N2, 0.5% CO.

FIND: Excess air fraction. Suggest recommendations for adjusting boiler.

SOLUTION:

O2 − 0.5CO
f exc ,air = (eq. 9.5)
0.264 N 2 − (O2 − 0.5CO )
5 − 0.5(0.5)
f exc ,air =
0.264(83.5) − (5 − 0.5(0.5))
f exc ,air = 27.5%

The excess air fraction is between the recommended


10% and 50% so adjustments are not necessary.

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9.7)

GIVEN: Chemical reaction for the stoichiometric combustion of methane:


CH4 + 2O2 Æ CO2 + 2H2O

FIND: Volume of air needed to completely combust 1 ft3 of methane.

SOLUTION:

Molecular weight of methane:


MW CH4 = 16

Molecular weight of oxygen:


MW O2 = 32

The equation for combustion shows that 2 moles of oxygen are needed for
every one mole of methane. Avogadro’s Law states that a mole of any two
gases at the same temperature and pressure occupies the same volume.
Therefore, 2 ft3 of oxygen are needed for every 1 ft3 of methane.

Air is 23% oxygen, so we need


2 ft3 / 0.23 = 8.7 ft3 of air per 1 ft3 of methane

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9.9)

GIVEN: Well-insulated, 200,000 ft2 warehouse in Chicago; square plan, 10 ft


high, flat roof; Rroof = Rwalls = R20; 0.7 ACH; ignore slab losses.

FIND: Estimate the boiler input heat rating using a “rule of thumb”. Check the
estimate by calculation. Select boilers for the warehouse.

ASSUMPTIONS: Ti = 60ºF

LOOKUP VALUES: Tdes = 0ºF for Chicago (Table on CD)

SOLUTION:

The rule of thumb described in Section 9.2.2.1 states,


Input heat rating = 1/3 to 1/5 x ∆Tdes x Afl
assume 1/5 since it is well-insulated.
Input heat rating = 1/5 x (60ºF - 0ºF)(200,000 ft2) = Qin
Qin = 2400 kBtu

By calculation,
Aroof = 200,000 ft2
Awalls = (200,000 ft2)1/2 x 10 ft x 4 = 17,890 ft2

K tot = K cond + ρc pV (eq. 7.2)


AT
K tot = + ρc pV
RT
200,000 ft 2 + 17,890 ft 2 Btu ac
K tot = + (0.018 3  )(0.7 )(200,000 ft 2 ⋅ 10 ft / ac)
20hr ⋅ ft ⋅ F
2 
ft ⋅ F hr
Btu
K tot = 36,095
hr ⋅ F
Q h = K tot (Ti − Tdes )
Btu kBtu
Q h = 36,095 (60  F − 0  F ) = 2166
hr ⋅ F

hr

However, Qh is the heat load, not the input heat rating. Assuming an
efficiency of 80%:
Q 2166kBtu
Q in = h =
η 0.8
Q = 2708 kBtu
in

Two model 686 with output of 1160 kBtu each would satisfy the load.

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9.13)

GIVEN: Boiler with peak efficiency η = 0.90 and peak load of 5 MBtu/hr

FIGURE: P9.13

FIND: The efficiency at 45% load and at 80% load.

ASSUMPTIONS: The air behaves as an ideal gas.

SOLUTION:

From fig P9.13,


At 45% load, PLR = 0.45, Q in / Q in , full = 0.52
At 80% load, PLR = 0.80, Q in / Q in , full = 0.83

Q o = PLR ⋅ Q o, full (eq. 9.8)


At 45% load, Q o = 0.45(5MBtu / hr ) = 2.25MBtu / hr
At 80% load, Q = 0.80(5MBtu / hr ) = 4.0 MBtu / hr
o

At full load,
Q o, full
η = 0.90 =
Q in , full

5MBtu / hr
Q in , full = = 5.56 MBtu / hr
0 .9

At 45% load,
Q in / Q in , full = 0.52
Q = 0.52(5.56 MBtu / hr ) = 2.89 MBtu / hr
in

Q o 2.25
η= = = 78%
Q in 2.89

At 80% load,
Q / Q
in = 0.83
in , full

Q in = 0.83(5.56 MBtu / hr ) = 4.61MBtu / hr


Q 4.0
η= o = = 87%

Qin 4.61

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9.15)

GIVEN: Hospital in Denver; Tbal = 62ºF; Q = 10MBtu/hr at –2.5ºF;


Q =11 MBtu/hr; ηfull = 0.82; Q / Q
boil , full = 0.10 + 0.9 PLR ; Ti = 72ºF
i i , full

FIND: Annual energy consumption, annually averaged efficiency, and the annual
PLR of the boiler.

SOLUTION:

First, find the overall building KTOT from the known condition at –2.5ºF:
Q 10MBtu Btu
K TOT = = = 1.34 ⋅ 10 5  at peak load
(Ti − Ta ) (72 − (−2.5)) F

hr F

Use the following equations to set up a spreadsheet with bin data from the
CD for Denver.

Q o = K tot (Tbal − Tbin )


Q o
PLR =
Q o, full
Q out , full
Q in , full =
η full
Q = Q
in (0.10 + 0.9 PLR )
in , full

Q out
η=
Qin

Fuel Used = Q in ⋅ N bin


Net Output = Q out ⋅ N bin

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9.15 continued)
Qboil,full = 11 MBtu/hr
ηfull = 0.82
Ktot = 1.34E+05 Btu/hr-F
Tbal = 62 F

Heating
Load, Fuel Net
Bin Temp Bin Size Qout Qin Boiler Used Output
(F) (hrs) (MBtu/hr) PLR (Mbtu/hr) Efficiency (MBtu) (MBtu)
57 731 0.67 0.061 2.08 0.323 1518 490
52 678 1.34 0.122 2.81 0.476 1907 909
47 704 2.01 0.183 3.55 0.567 2497 1415
42 692 2.68 0.244 4.28 0.626 2964 1855
37 717 3.35 0.305 5.02 0.668 3598 2402
32 721 4.02 0.365 5.75 0.699 4148 2898
27 553 4.69 0.426 6.49 0.723 3588 2594
22 359 5.36 0.487 7.22 0.742 2594 1924
17 216 6.03 0.548 7.96 0.758 1719 1302
12 119 6.7 0.609 8.70 0.771 1035 797
7 78 7.37 0.670 9.43 0.782 736 575
2 36 8.04 0.731 10.17 0.791 366 289
-3 22 8.71 0.792 10.90 0.799 240 192
-8 6 9.38 0.853 11.64 0.806 70 56
-13 1 10.05 0.914 12.37 0.812 12 10
-18 1 10.72 0.975 13.11 0.818 13 11
Σ= 27005 17719
The annual energy consumption is the total of the “Fuel Used” column,
Annual Energy consumption = 27,005 MBtu/yr.

The annual efficiency is the totaled output column divided by the totaled fuel
used column,
Annual Efficiency =66%

The annual PLR can be calculated by taking tha weighted average of the PLR
values.
PLR = (PLR1(Nbin1) + PLR2(Nbin2) + PLR3(Nbin3)…) / Total Hours
Annual PLR =0.286

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9.16)

GIVEN: Hospital in Denver with heating system described in 9.15

FIND: Annual energy consumption, annually averaged efficiency, and the annual
PLR of the boiler using the HCB software.

SOLUTION:

The site location, Tbal, ηboiler, and the maximum boiler input are entered into
the PLR analysis of a steam boiler portion of the HCB software. The PLR
equation coefficients are also entered. The printouts of the software are
shown below. Due to the nature of the program, one must use the leaders on
the input screen to specify balance temp, heat loss coefficient, max boiler
input, and boiler efficiency. These leaders only allow for certain accuracy,
and values for inputs can be made close, but not exact (e.g. 61.9 rather than
62ºF balance temp). These differences have fairly negligible impacts on
results of the analysis.

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9.16 continued)

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9.19)

GIVEN: Gas boiler to supply space heat to building. Tbal = 57.5ºF; Q in, full = 8750
kBtu/hr; Q = 7000 kBtu/hr; ηfull = 0.80; Bin temperatures and hours,
o , full

and corresponding heating loads are given in Table 9.5. Three boilers
Q i
each with capacity Q o, full /3 are used. = 0.1 + 1.6( PLR ) − 0.7( PLR ) 2

Qi , full

FIND: Fuel used with the three boiler approach.

SOLUTION:

A spreadsheet solution is shown below. The first three columns are taken
from Table 9.5. As an example, the calculations for the 22.5ºF bin are shown.

Bin Fuel
Range Bin Load Qin1 Qin2 Qin3 Qin,t Used
(F) (hr) (kBtu/hr) PLR1 PLR2 PLR3 (kBtu/hr) (kBtu/hr) (kBtu/hr) (kBtu/hr) (MBtu)
57.5 762 0 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- --
52.5 783 500 0.21 -- -- 1198 -- -- 1198 938
47.5 716 1000 0.43 -- -- 1917 -- -- 1917 1372
42.5 665 1500 0.64 -- -- 2448 -- -- 2448 1628
37.5 758 2000 0.86 -- -- 2792 -- -- 2792 2116
32.5 713 2500 1.00 0.07 -- 2917 615 -- 3532 2519
27.5 565 3000 1.00 0.29 -- 2917 1459 -- 4376 2473
22.5 399 3500 1.00 0.50 -- 2917 2115 -- 5032 2008
17.5 164 4000 1.00 0.71 -- 2917 2584 -- 5501 902
12.5 106 4500 1.00 0.93 -- 2917 2865 -- 5782 613
7.5 65 5000 1.00 1.00 0.14 2917 2917 918 6752 439
2.5 80 5500 1.00 1.00 0.36 2917 2917 1699 7533 603
-2.5 22 6000 1.00 1.00 0.57 2917 2917 2293 8127 179
Σ = 15789.3

Each boiler, Q o, full = 7000 kBtu/hr / 3 = 2333 kBtu/hr


Q o
PLR = (eq. 9.8)
Q o , full

at 22.5ºF
PLR1 = MIN[1.0, 3500 kBtu/hr/(2333 kBtu/hr)]
PLR1 = MIN[1.0, 1.2] = 1.0
PLR2 = MAX[0.0, (3500 kBtu/hr - 2333 kBtu/hr)/2333 kBtu/hr]
PLR2 = MAX[0.0, 0.5] = 0.5

Q i = Q i , full [0.1 + 1.6( PLR ) − 0.7( PLR ) 2 ]


8750kBtu / hr kBtu
Q i , full = = 2917 for each boiler
3 hr

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9.19 continued)

at 22.5 ºF
kBtu kBtu
Q in ,1 = 2917 [0.1 + 1.6(1.0) − 0.7(1.0) 2 ] = 2917
hr hr
kBtu kBtu
Q in , 2 = 2917 [0.1 + 1.6(0.5) − 0.7(0.5) 2 ] = 2115
hr hr
   
Qin ,t = Qin ,1 + Qin , 2 + Qin ,3
at 22.5ºF
kBtu kBtu
Q in ,t = (2917 + 2115) = 5032
hr hr

Fuel used = Qin ,t (# bin hrs )
At 22.5ºF
Fuel used = (5032 kBtu/hr)(399 hrs) = 2008 MBtu

The total annual fuel energy use is the sum of the “fuel used” column:
Qtotal = 15,800 MBtu

With only one boiler, Qtotal = 21,800 MBtu


The energy saved was:
Qtotal – Qtotal’ = 6000 MBtu or 27%

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9.21)

GIVEN: Tsource = 48ºF; 40 meals/hr peak; 280 meals/ day daily total;
Vr = 40 gal/hr

ASSUMPTIONS: Tset = 140ºF; ignore standby losses; fuseful = 0.8

FIND: The peak and daily water heating loads. The size of the storage tank to
meet the recovery rate.

SOLUTION:

From Table 9.6, for a Type A restaurant,


maximum hourly demand =1.5 gal/max meals/hr
average daily demand = 2.4 gal/avg. meals/day

Peak demand = 1.5 gal/(meals/hr)*(40 meals) = 60 gal/hr


Daily demand = 2.4 gal/(meals/day)*(280 meals) = 672 gal/day

Q = m w C w (Tset − Tsource ) (eq. 9.13)

Peak:
m w = Vw ρ w
ρw at 140ºF = 0.9832(63.42 lbm/ft3) = 62.35 lbm/ft3
gal 1 ft 3 lb lb
m w = 60 ( )(62.35 m3 ) = 500.1 m
hr 7.481gal ft hr
Btu
c w = 1.0 
lbm F
lb Btu
Q peak = 500.1 m (1.0 
)(140  F − 48  F ) = 46.0 kBtu/hr
hr lbm F
Daily:
gal 1 ft 3 lb lb
m w = 672
 ( )(62.35 m3 ) = 5600 m
day 7.481gal ft hr
Btu
c w = 1.0 
lbm F
lb Btu
Q peak = 5600 m (1.0 
)(140  F − 48  F ) = 515.3 kBtu/day
hr lbm F
( f usefulVtan k )
Vwater = Vr +
∆t
gal gal (0.8Vtan k )
60 = 40 + Vtan k = 75 gal
hr hr 3hrs

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9.23)

GIVEN: Carnot heat pump in Nashville; TH = 70ºF, TL varies; Ktot= 500 Btu/hr-ºF,
Tbal = 64ºF; Q o , full = 16,000 Btu/hr at 32ºF

FIND: Seasonal COPhp

ASSUMPTIONS: The input power at 32ºF is constant at all temperatures.

SOLUTION:

Bin data are taken from the CD and are shown in the first two columns of the
spreadsheet below.
Bin Heat HP Aux. Heat Energy
Temp Bin Load Output HP Input Power Output Input
(F) (hrs) (Btu/hr) COP (Btu/hr) (Btu/hr) (Btu/hr) (kBtu) (kBtu)
62 738 1000 66.3 1000 15 0 738 11
57 697 3500 40.8 3500 86 0 2440 60
52 637 6000 29.4 6000 204 0 3822 130
47 619 8500 23.0 8500 369 0 5262 228
42 627 11000 18.9 11000 581 0 6897 364
37 565 13500 16.1 13500 841 0 7628 475
32 463 16000 13.9 16000 1147 0 7408 531
27 263 18500 12.3 14140 1147 4360 4866 1449
22 132 21000 11.0 12667 1147 8333 2772 1251
17 67 23500 10.0 11472 1147 12028 1575 883
12 28 26000 9.1 10483 1147 15517 728 467
7 9 28500 8.4 9651 1147 18849 257 180
2 3 31000 7.8 8941 1147 22059 93 70
-3 1 33500 7.3 8329 1147 25171 34 26
-8 1 36000 6.8 7795 1147 28205 36 29
Σ= 44553 6154

Heat Load = Ktot(Tbal – Tbin) = Q o

QH TH
COPhp = = (eq. 3.30)
W TH − T L
TH = 70ºF + 460 = 530ºR
TL = (Tbin + 460)ºR

HP output equals the heat load until the temperature drops below 32ºF, the
heat pump output equals COPhp(W in), where Win is calculated by:
Q o , full
W in , full =
COP32

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9.23 continued)

Heat pump input equals the heat pump output divided by the COP for the bins
32ºF and warmer. Below 32ºF, the heat pump input = W in , full .
(In reality, the heat pump input would always be W , but it would cycle on
in , full

and off during bin hours.)

Aux. Power = Heat Load – HPoutput

Heat Output = (HPoutput + Aux. Power)(# bin hours)

Energy Input = (HPinput + Aux. Power)(# bin hours)

QH
COPseasonal =
Win
44553kBtu
COPseasonal =
6154kBtu
44553kBtu
COPseasonal =
6154kBtu

COPseasonal = 7.2

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9.25)

GIVEN: Ktot = 1700 Btu/hr-ºF, Tbal = 66ºF

FIGURE: P9.25 – heat pump capacities

FIND: The heat pump balance point for each heat pump.

SOLUTION:

Calculate the building load for several outdoor temperatures.


Btu
Q = K tot (Tbal − To ) = 1700  (66  F − To )
hr F

To (ºF) Q (Btu/hr)
70 --
60 10200
50 27200
40 44200
30 61200
20 78200
10 95200
0 112200

Plot these values on P9.25. The intersection of this line and the heat pump
line is the heat pump balance point.

Heat Pump Heat Pump


Capacity Balance Point
4 tons 40ºF
5 tons 35ºF
7.5 tons 27ºF
10 tons 21ºF

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9.27)

GIVEN: Residence in Boise, Idaho, Ktot = 700 Btu/hr-ºF, Tbal = 68ºF

FIGURE: P9.27

FIND: SPF of model C, B, A heat pumps and the overall heating SPF for each
system.

SOLUTION:

The bin temperatures and hours are taken from the CD. The heat load for
each bin is calculated:
Btu
Q h = K tot (Tbal − Tbin ) = 700  (68  F − Tbin )
hr F
The “Max. HP Output” and the “max. HP Input” are from figure P9.27.

Create a spreadsheet using the following equations:


HPout
COP =
HPin
HPoutoput = MIN ( Heat Load , Max. HPoutput )
HPinput = HPoutput / COP
Aux. Power = Heat Load − HPoutput
HPoutput (energy ) = HPoutput ⋅ N bin
HPinput (energy ) = HPinput ⋅ N bin
Aux.input = Aux. Power ⋅ N bin
a) Model C
Heating
Bin Bin Load, Max HP Max HP HP Aux. HP HP Aux.
Temp Size Qout Output Input Output HP Input Power Output Input Power
(F) (hrs) (kBtu/hr) (kBtu/hr) (kW) COP (kBtu/hr) (kBtu/hr) (kBtu/hr) (kBtu) (kBtu) (kBtu)
67 575 0.7 34.2 4.10 2.44 0.70 0.29 0.00 403 165 0
62 643 4.2 33.8 4.00 2.48 4.20 1.70 0.00 2701 1090 0
57 702 7.7 33.0 3.90 2.48 7.70 3.10 0.00 5405 2180 0
52 786 11.2 31.8 3.80 2.45 11.20 4.57 0.00 8803 3589 0
47 798 14.7 30.3 3.70 2.40 14.70 6.12 0.00 11731 4888 0
42 878 18.2 28.2 3.60 2.30 18.20 7.93 0.00 15980 6960 0
37 829 21.7 25.9 3.50 2.17 21.70 10.01 0.00 17989 8295 0
32 522 25.2 23.7 3.40 2.04 23.70 11.60 1.50 12371 6056 783
27 307 28.7 21.5 3.30 1.91 21.50 11.26 7.20 6601 3457 2210
22 148 32.2 19.6 3.20 1.80 19.60 10.92 12.60 2901 1616 1865
17 53 35.7 17.6 3.10 1.66 17.60 10.58 18.10 933 561 959
12 26 39.2 15.8 3.00 1.54 15.80 10.24 23.40 411 266 608
7 14 42.7 14.0 2.90 1.41 14.00 9.89 28.70 196 139 402
2 6 46.2 12.6 2.80 1.32 12.60 9.55 33.60 76 57 202
-3 2 49.7 11.1 2.70 1.20 11.10 9.21 38.60 22 18 77
Σ = 86521 39336 7107

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9.27 Continued)

HPoutput 86521
SPFHP = = SPFHP = 2.20
HPinput 39336
( HPoutput + Auxinput ) (86521 + 7107)
SPFSYS = = SPFHP = 2.01
( HPinput + Auxinput ) (39336 + 7107)

b) Model B
Heating
Bin Bin Load, Max HP Max HP HP Aux. HP HP Aux.
Temp Size Qout Output Input Output HP Input Power Output Input Power
(F) (hrs) (kBtu/hr) (kBtu/hr) (kW) COP (kBtu/hr) (kBtu/hr) (kBtu/hr) (kBtu) (kBtu) (kBtu)
67 575 0.7 35.4 4.30 2.41 0.70 0.29 0.00 403 167 0
62 643 4.2 35.0 4.20 2.44 4.20 1.72 0.00 2701 1106 0
57 702 7.7 34.1 4.10 2.44 7.70 3.16 0.00 5405 2218 0
52 786 11.2 32.9 3.90 2.47 11.20 4.53 0.00 8803 3561 0
47 798 14.7 31.4 3.80 2.42 14.70 6.07 0.00 11731 4844 0
42 878 18.2 29.2 3.70 2.31 18.20 7.87 0.00 15980 6909 0
37 829 21.7 27.0 3.60 2.20 21.70 9.87 0.00 17989 8184 0
32 522 25.2 24.6 3.50 2.06 24.60 11.94 0.60 12841 6234 313
27 307 28.7 22.5 3.40 1.94 22.50 11.60 6.20 6908 3561 1903
22 148 32.2 20.6 3.30 1.83 20.60 11.26 11.60 3049 1666 1717
17 53 35.7 18.5 3.20 1.69 18.50 10.92 17.20 981 579 912
12 26 39.2 16.6 3.10 1.57 16.60 10.58 22.60 432 275 588
7 14 42.7 14.8 3.00 1.45 14.80 10.24 27.90 207 143 391
2 6 46.2 13.2 2.90 1.33 13.20 9.89 33.00 79 59 198
-3 2 49.7 11.7 2.80 1.22 11.70 9.55 38.00 23 19 76
Σ = 87531 39524 6097

87531
SPFHP = SPFHP = 2.21
39524
(87531 + 6097)
SPFSYS = SPFHP = 2.05
(39524 + 6097)
Model A
Heating
Bin Bin Load, Max HP Max HP HP Aux. HP HP Aux.
Temp Size Qout Output Input Output HP Input Power Output Input Power
(F) (hrs) (kBtu/hr) (kBtu/hr) (kW) COP (kBtu/hr) (kBtu/hr) (kBtu/hr) (kBtu) (kBtu) (kBtu)
67 575 0.7 27.4 3.60 2.23 0.70 0.31 0.00 403 180 0
62 643 4.2 27.1 3.60 2.21 4.20 1.90 0.00 2701 1224 0
57 702 7.7 26.4 3.50 2.21 7.70 3.48 0.00 5405 2445 0
52 786 11.2 25.5 3.40 2.20 11.20 5.10 0.00 8803 4005 0
47 798 14.7 24.3 3.30 2.16 14.70 6.81 0.00 11731 5435 0
42 878 18.2 22.4 3.20 2.05 18.20 8.87 0.00 15980 7789 0
37 829 21.7 20.4 3.10 1.93 20.40 10.58 1.30 16912 8768 1078
32 522 25.2 18.3 3.00 1.79 18.30 10.24 6.90 9553 5343 3602
27 307 28.7 16.4 2.90 1.66 16.40 9.89 12.30 5035 3038 3776
22 148 32.2 14.6 2.80 1.53 14.60 9.55 17.60 2161 1414 2605
17 53 35.7 13.0 2.70 1.41 13.00 9.21 22.70 689 488 1203
12 26 39.2 11.7 2.60 1.32 11.70 8.87 27.50 304 231 715
7 14 42.7 10.6 2.50 1.24 10.60 8.53 32.10 148 119 449
2 6 46.2 9.5 2.40 1.16 9.50 8.19 36.70 57 49 220
-3 2 49.7 8.6 2.30 1.10 8.60 7.85 41.10 17 16 82
Σ = 79898 40545 13730

228
Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 9
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9.27 Continued)

79898
SPFHP = SPFHP = 1.97
40545
(87531 + 13730)
SPFSYS = SPFHP = 1.90
(39524 + 13730)

Model B has the highest SPFsys, so uses the least energy overall. Model A
uses the most energy and requires a large amount of auxiliary energy. Model
C is very close to Model B in performance, so may be chosen if its capital
cost is significantly lower than model B’s.

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9.29)

GIVEN: Residence in Boise, Idaho, Ktot = 700 Btu/hr-ºF, Tbal = 68ºF

FIGURE: P9.27

FIND: SPF of model C, B, A heat pumps and the overall heating SPF for each
system using the HCB software.

SOLUTION:

Use the “Building simulation” section of the HCB software. In the load
calculations example change the default values (“enter building data”) to get
Ktot = 650 Btu/hr-ºF and Tbal = 68ºF. Check your changes in the “Bin
Calculations” section. When Ktot = 650 Btu/hr-ºF and Tbal = 68ºF proceed to
“configure Heat Pump” and enter the data from Fig. P9.29. The printouts
from the software using Model A heat pump are shown below.

230
Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 9
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9.29 continued)

231
Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 9
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9.29 continued)

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9.31)

GIVEN: Ktot = 800 Btu/hr-ºF, Tbal = 64.5ºF; Models D and F heat pumps in Fig
P9.27.

FIGURE: P9.27

FIND: Balance point for each heat pump.

SOLUTION:

To solve this problem one can graph the building load vs. temperature and
the heat pump capacity vs. temperature. The intersection of the lines is the
heat pump balance point.

The heat pump capacity vs. temperature is provided in P9.27. The Load vs.
temperature is found from:
Btu
Q = K tot (Tbal − To ) = 800  (64.5  F − To )
hr F
Heat Pump Balance Point
70

model D
60 model F
Building Load

50
Capacity or Load (kBtu/hr)

40

30

20

10

0
-30 -20 -10 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70
Temperature (F)

The balance point for model D is 29ºF.


The balance point for model F is 27ºF.

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9.36)

GIVEN: Ground source heat pump, Tsource = 48ºF; Ktot = 700 Btu/hr-ºF, Tbal =
68ºF; Location is Boise, Idaho; Heat pump model C in Fig P9.27.

FIGURE: P9.27

FIND: SPFhp and SPFsys

SOLUTION:

From Figure P9.27, find the heat pump input and output at 48ºF for model C.
At 52ºF, hp output = 31.8 kBtu/hr
At 47ºF, hp output = 30.3 kBtu/hr
Interpolating, at 48ºF, hp output = 30.6 kBtu/hr

At 52ºF, hp input = 3.8 kW


At 47ºF, hp input = 3.7 kW
Interpolating, at 48ºF, hp output = 3.72 kW = 12.7 kBtu/hr

COPhp = hpout / hpin = 30.6 / 12.7 = 2.41


Heating
Bin Bin Load, HP Aux. HP HP Aux.
Temp Size Qout Output HP Input Power Output Input Power
(F) (hrs) (kBtu/hr) (kBtu/hr) (kBtu/hr) (kBtu/hr) (kBtu) (kBtu) (kBtu)
67 575 0.7 0.70 0.29 0.00 403 167 0
62 643 4.2 4.20 1.74 0.00 2701 1121 0
57 702 7.7 7.70 3.20 0.00 5405 2243 0
52 786 11.2 11.20 4.65 0.00 8803 3653 0
47 798 14.7 14.70 6.10 0.00 11731 4867 0
42 878 18.2 18.20 7.55 0.00 15980 6631 0
37 829 21.7 21.70 9.00 0.00 17989 7464 0
32 522 25.2 25.20 10.46 0.00 13154 5458 0
27 307 28.7 28.70 11.91 0.00 8811 3656 0
22 148 32.2 32.20 13.36 0.00 4766 1977 0
17 53 35.7 30.60 12.70 5.10 1622 673 270
12 26 39.2 30.60 12.70 8.60 796 330 224
7 14 42.7 30.60 12.70 12.10 428 178 169
2 6 46.2 30.60 12.70 15.60 184 76 94
-3 2 49.7 30.60 12.70 19.10 61 25 38
Σ = 92833 38520 795
HPoutput 92833
SPFHP = = SPFHP = 2.41
HPinput 38520
( HPoutput + Auxinput ) (92833 + 795)
SPFSYS = = SPFHP = 2.38
( HPinput + Auxinput ) (38520 + 795)

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9.37)

GIVEN: Double pipe, counter-flow heat exchanger between two water streams;
Vcold = 300 gpm, Vhot = 500 gpm, Tci = 50ºF, Tco = 100ºF, Thi = 115ºF

FIND: UoAo, LMTD, and ε

SOLUTION:

A heat balance on the two streams,


m cold (Tco − Tci ) = m hot (Thi − Tho ) ; ρ ⋅ c p ,cold = ρ ⋅ c p ,hot
300 gpm(100  F − 50  F ) = 500 gpm(115  F − Tho )
Tho = 85  F

∆T1 = Thi − Tco = 115  F − 100  F = 15  F (eq. 9.17)


∆T2 = Tho − Tci = 85  F − 50  F = 35  F

∆T1 − ∆T2 15 − 30
LMTD = = = 21.6  F (eq. 9.16)
ln(∆T1 / ∆T2 ) ln(15 / 30)
Q = m c p ∆T
m = ρV
on the cold side the average ρ,
ρ = 0.9973 x 63.42 lbm/ft3 = 63.25 lbm/ft3 (from CD prop. of water at 75ºF)
cp = 1.0 Btu/lbm-ºF
lb gal 1 ft 3 Btu
Q = 63.25 m3 (300 )( )(1.0  )(100  F − 50  F )
ft min 7.481gal lbm F
kBtu MBtu
Q = 126.8 = 7 .6
hr hr

Q 7.6MBtu / hr
U o Ao = = (eq. 9.15)
LMTD 21.6  F
kBtu
U o Ao = 352 
hr F
Q
ε= (eq. 2.32)
(m c p ) min (Thi − Tci )
ρc pVc (Tco − Tci ) (100  F − 50  F )
ε= =
ρc pV (Thi − Tci ) (115  F − 50  F )
ε = 0.77

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9.40)

GIVEN: Counter-flow heat exchanger between two water steams; Thi = 60ºC,
m h = 12 kg/s, Tci = 8ºC, Tco = 42ºC, m c = 15 kg/s

FIND: UoAo, ε

SOLUTION:

m c (Tco − Tci ) = m h (Thi − Tho ) ; c p ,c = c p , h


kg kg
15 (42  C − 8  C ) = 12 (60  C − Tho )
s s
Tho = 17.5 C


∆T1 = Thi − Tco = 60  C − 42  C = 18  C (eq. 9.17)


∆T2 = Tho − Tci = 17.5 C − 8 C = 9.5 C
  

∆T1 − ∆T2 18 − 9.5


LMTD = = = 13.3 C (eq. 9.16)
ln(∆T1 / ∆T2 ) ln(18 / 9.5)

Q = m c p ∆T
kg kJ
Q = 12 (4.186  )(60  C − 17.5  C )
s kg C
Q = 2134.9kW

Q 2134.9kW
U o Ao = = (eq. 9.15)
LMTD 13.3 C
kW
U o Ao = 160.5 
C

m h c p (Thi − Tho )
ε=
(m c p ) min (Thi − Tci )
m h c p = (m c p ) min
(60  C − 17.5 C )
ε=
(60  C − 8  C )
ε = 0.82

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9.41)

GIVEN: Counter-flow heat exchanger between two water steams; Thi = 60ºC,
m h = 12 kg/s, Tci = 10ºC, m c = 15 kg/s, UoAo = 0.8(117.7 kW/ºC)

FIND: ε and Q . By how much does the hot fluid inlet temperature have to be
increased to achieve the same heat transfer rate in 9.40.

SOLUTION:
kW kW
U o Ao = (1.0 − 0.18)(160.5 
) = 131.6 
C C
Q
U o Ao =
LMTD

Q = m c (Tco − Tci ) = m h (Thi − Tho ) ; c p ,c = c p , h
kg kg
15 (Tco − 8  C ) = 12 (60  C − Tho )
s s
12
Tco = (60  C − Tho ) + 8  C
15

∆T1 = Thi − Tco = 60  C − Tco


∆T2 = Tho − Tci = Tho − 8  C
∆T1 − ∆T2
LMTD = (eq. 9.16)
ln(∆T1 / ∆T2 )
12
plugging in Tco = (60  C − Tho ) + 8  C into the LMTD equation will result in one
15
equation and one unknown.
(60 − (0.8(60 − Tho ) + 8) − (Tho − 8))
LMTD =
§ 60 − (0.8(60 − Tho ) + 8) ·
ln¨¨ ¸¸
© (T ho − 8) ¹
(12 − 0.2Tho )
LMTD =
§ 4 + 0.8Tho ·
ln¨¨ ¸¸
© (Tho − 8) ¹
Q
U o Ao =
LMTD

Q = mh c p (Thi − Tho )

kg kJ
Q = 12 (4.186  )(60 C − Tho ) = 3014kW − (50.2Tho )kW
s kg C

237
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9.41 continued)

(12 − 0.2Tho )
131.6 = (3014 − (50.2Tho )) /
§ 4 + 0.8Tho ·
ln¨¨ ¸¸
© (Tho − 8) ¹
by trial and error, Tho = 19.7ºC

kg kJ
Q = 12 (4.186  )(60  C − 19.7  C ) = 2024kW
s kg C
(T − Tho ) (60 − 19.7)
ε = hi = = 0.78
(Thi − Tci ) (60 − 8)

From solution 9.40,


Q clean = 2135kW
(T − Tho )
Since, ε = 0.78 = hi
(Thi − Tci )
Thi − Tho = 0.78(Thi − Tci )
Q = 2135kW = m h c p (Thi − Tho ) = m h c p (0.78)(Thi − Tci )
kg kJ
2135kW = 12 (4.186  )(0.78)(Thi − 8  C )
s kg C
Thi = 62.5 to achieve the same output as the clean heat exchanger.

238
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Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

Chapter 10

239
Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 10
Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

10.1)

GIVEN: Refrigerant chemical formulas CCl2FCCLF2 and CClF3

FIND: ASHRAE numbers for refrigerants

SOLUTION:

Left digit = Carbon atoms – 1


Center digit = Hydrogen atoms + 1
Right digit = Fluorine atoms

CCl2FCCLF2
Left digit = 2 – 1 = 1
Center digit = 0 + 1 = 1
Right digit = 3
R-113

CClF3
Left digit = 1 – 1 = 0
Center digit = 0 + 1 = 1
Right digit = 3
R-13

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10.3)

GIVEN: p1 = 43 psia, p2 = 180 psia; m = 1000 lbm/hr; R134a refrigerant

FIGURE: 10.1

FIND: Q L , W i , COP

ASSUMPTIONS: All processes steady. Ideal vapor compression refrigeration


cycle.

SOLUTION:

Using HCB software tables; the pressure-enthalpy diagram, or other tables in


a standard thermodynamics text, find the properties at each point.

State 1: p1 = 20 psia, saturated vapor


h1 = 102.66 Btu/lbm, s1 = 0.2255 Btu/lbm-ºF (from CD)

State 2: p2 = 180 psia, s2 = s1 = 0.2255 Btu/lbm-ºF


h2 = 122.20 Btu/lbm (from CD)

State 3: p3 = 115 psia, saturated liquid


h3 = 50.34 Btu/lbm (from CD)

State 4: h4 = h3 = 50.34 Btu/lbm

lb Btu
Q L = m (h1 − h4 ) = 1000 m (102.66 − 50.34)
hr lbm
Btu
Q L = 52,320
hr
lb Btu
W i = m (h2 − h1 ) = 1000 m (122.20 − 102.66)
hr lbm
Btu
W i = 19,540
hr

Q L 52,320
COP = =
W i 19,540
COP = 2.68

Comment: Better accuracy will be achieved by using the thermodynamic


tables, rather than the pressure-enthalpy diagram.

241
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10.8)

GIVEN: Ideal chiller using R22; p1 = 65 psia, p2 = 250 psia; Q L = 200 tons

FIGURE: 10.1

FIND: m r , W i , COP, T3, and T1

ASSUMPTIONS: All processes steady. Ideal vapor compression refrigeration


cycle.

SOLUTION:
Using Table on CD for saturated R-22 and superheated R-22,
Point 1: p = p1 = 65 psia, saturated vapor
At p = 63.505 psia, T = 25ºF, hg = 106.65 Btu/lbm, sg = 0.222 Btu/lb-ºF
At p = 69.641 psia, T = 30ºF, hg = 107.09 Btu/lbm, sg = 0.221 Btu/lb-ºF
Interpolate for T, hg, and sg at p = 65.0 psia
T1 = 26.2ºF
h1 = 106.76 Btu/lbm
s1 = 0.222 Btu/lbm-ºR

Point 2: p2 = p3 = 250 psia, superheated s2 = s1 = 0.222 Btu/lbm-ºR


h2 = 122.0 Btu/lbm, T2 = 145ºF (Fig. 3.4)

Point 3: p3 = 250 psia, saturated liquid


At p = 241.13 psia, T = 110ºF, hf = 42.422 Btu/lbm
At p = 274.73 psia, T = 120ºF, hf = 45.694 Btu/lbm
Interpolate for T and hf at p = 250 psia
T3 = 112.6ºF
h3 = 43.3 Btu/lbm

Point 4: h4 = h3 = 43.3 Btu/lbm because a throttling process is isentropic.

Btu / hr MBtu
Q L = 200 tons (12,000 ) = 2 .4
ton hr

QL = m r (h1 − h4 )
2.4 MBtu / hr lbm
m r = m r = 37,800
(106.76 − 43.3) Btu / lbm hr
lb kBtu
W i = 576
Btu
W i = m r (h2 − h1 ) = 37,800 m (122.0 − 106.76)
hr lbm hr
Q 2.4
COP = L = COP = 4.17
W  0.576
i

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10.9)

GIVEN: Ideal chiller using R22 with compressor efficiency of 85% and 9ºF
superheat at the compressor inlet; p1 = 65 psia, p2 = 250 psia; chiller
capacity is 200 tons.

FIGURE: 10.1

FIND: W i , COP, Q L

ASSUMPTIONS: All processes steady. Ideal vapor compression refrigeration


cycle except inefficiencies described.

SOLUTION:
State 1: T1 = Tideal + 9ºF = 26.2ºF + 9ºF = 35.2ºF
p1 = 65 psia
h1 = 109 Btu/lbm (Fig. 3.9)
s1 = 0.23 Btu/lbm-ºR

State 2: h2,ideal = 12 Btu/lbm = h at 250 psia and s = s1


h2,act = h1 + (1/ηc)(h2,ideal – h1)
h2,act = 109 Btu/lbm + (1/0.85)(125 Btu/lbm – 109 Btu/lbm)
h2,act = 127.8 Btu/lbm

State 3: h3 = 43.3 Btu/lbm

State 4: h4 = h3 = 43.3 Btu/lbm

Btu / hr MBtu
Q L = 200 tons (12,000 ) = 2 .4
ton hr

QL = mr (h1 − h4 )

2.4 MBtu / hr lb
m r = m r = 36,500 m
(109 − 43.3) Btu / lbm hr
lb kBtu
W i = 687
Btu
W i = m r (h2 − h1 ) = 36,500 m (127.8 − 109)
hr lbm hr
Q 2.4
COP = L = COP = 3.49
W
i 0.687

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10.12)

GIVEN: Ideal chiller using R134a; T3 = 125ºF, T1 = 35ºF; Q L = 20 tons

FIGURE: 10.1

FIND: m r , p1, p3, COP. Compare COP with COP of Carnot refrigeration cycle
with Th = 125ºF, Tl = 35ºF.

ASSUMPTIONS: All processes steady. Ideal vapor compression refrigeration


cycle.

SOLUTION:
State 1: T1 = 35ºF, saturated vapor
p1 = 45.093 psia
h1 = hg = 106.71 Btu/lbm
s1 = sg = 0.219 Btu/lbm-ºF

State 3: T3 = 125ºF, saturated liquid


p3 = 199.236 psia
h3 = hf = 53.33 Btu/lbm

State 2: p2 = p3 = 199.236 psia


s2 = s1 = 0.219 Btu/lbm-ºF
h2 = 119.5 Btu/lbm

State 4: h4 = h3 = 53.33 Btu/lbm


Btu / hr MBtu
Q L = 200 tons (12,000 ) = 2 .4
ton hr
Q L = m r (h1 − h4 )
2.4 MBtu / hr lbm
m r = m r = 4,500
(106.71 − 53.33) Btu / lbm hr
lb kBtu
W i = 57.5
Btu
W i = m r (h2 − h1 ) = 4,500 m (119.5 − 106.71)
hr lbm hr
Q 2.4
COP = L = COP = 4.17
W  0.575
i

Tl
Carnot cycle: COPcarnot = (eq. 3.29)
Th − Tl
(35 + 460)  R
COPcarnot = COP = 5.5
(125 − 35)  R
The main reason the vapor compression cycle does not reach the Carnot
COP is that real refrigerants do not have ideal thermodynamic properties.

244
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10.14)

GIVEN: Chiller using R22; p1 = 55 psia, T3 = 130ºF; compressor efficiency =


0.85, 9ºF superheat at the compressor inlet.

FIGURE: 10.1

FIND: kW/ton power requirements

ASSUMPTIONS: All processes steady. Ideal vapor compression refrigeration


cycle except inefficiencies stated.

SOLUTION:
Ideal State 1: p1 = 55 psia, saturated vapor
Interpolating from R-22 table on CD
T1 = 17.4ºF
h1 = 105.97 Btu/lbm
s1 = 0.224 Btu/lbm-ºR

State 3: T3 = 130ºF, saturated liquid


p3 = 311.66 psia
h3 = 49.064 Btu/lbm

State 2-ideal: p2 = p3 = 311.66 psia


s2 = s1 = 0.222 Btu/lbm-ºR
h2 = 125.5 Btu/lbm (Fig. 3.4)

State 4: h4 = h3 = 49.064 Btu/lbm

Real State 1: T’ = T1 + 9ºF = 17.4ºF + 9ºF = 26.4ºF


p1 = 55 psia
h1 = 106.5 Btu/lbm

Real State 2: T’ = T1 + 9ºF = 17.4ºF + 9ºF = 26.4ºF


p1 = 55 psia
h1 = 106.5 Btu/lbm
Btu Btu
W ideal = m (h2 − h1 ) = m (125.5 − 105.97) = 19.53 (m )
lbm lbm
W Btu Btu
W real = ideal = 19.53 (m ) / 0.85 = 22.98 (m )
0.85 lbm lbm
Btu Btu
W real = 22.98 (m ) = m (h2 '− h1 ' ) = m (h2 '−106.5 )
lbm lbm
Btu Btu
h 2 ' = (22.98 + 106.5) = 129.5
lbm lbm

245
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10.14 continued)

Btu Btu
Q L = m (h1 '− h4 ) = m (106.5 − 49.064) = 57.4 (m )
lbm lbm
Btu
W real = 22.98 (m )
lbm
W real Btu Btu
= 22.98 / 57.4
Q  lb m mlb
L

W real Btu J 1 Btu 1 1ton


= 22.98 (1055 )( ) /[57.4 ( )( )]
Q lbm Btu 3600s lbm 1hr 12,000 Btu / hr
L

W real kW
= 1.41
QL ton

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10.17)

GIVEN: LiBr absorption cycle, Tcond = T4 = 100ºF; Tevap = T5 = 44ºF; Tgen = T2 =


T3 = 210ºF; Tabs = T1 = 93ºF; m =100 lbm/min

FIGURE: 10.4

FIND: COP and cooling rate

ASSUMPTIONS: All components operate at equilibrium; states 1 and 5 are at


saturation; Ignore all pressure and heat losses in piping.

SOLUTION:

State 4: p4 is saturation pressure at T4 = 100ºF


p4 = 0.9503 psia
p4 = p3 = p2
h4 = 68.05 Btu/lbm

State 5: p4 is saturation pressure at T5 = 44ºF


Interpolating from steam saturation table on CD,
p4 = 0.142 psia
p5 = p1
Interpolating for hg at T5 = 44ºF
h5 = 1080.7 Btu/lbm

State 1: Find the intersection of p1 = 0.142 psia and T1 = 93ºF on Fig. 10.5.
X1 = 0.54 LiBr
h1 = -75 Btu/lbm

State 3: Superheated vapor at T3 = 210ºF and


p3 = 0.9503 psia
h3 = 1154.66 Btu/lbm (from CD)

State 2: Intersection of p2 = 0.9503 psia and T2 = 210ºF on Fig. 10.5.


X2 = 0.68 LiBr
h2 = -25 Btu/lbm
lb
m 2 + m 3 = m 1 = 100 m (eq. 10.3)
min
m 1 X 1 = m 2 X 2 (eq. 10.4)
lb
100 m (0.54) = m 2 (0.68)
min
lb
m 2 = 39.7 m
min

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10.17 continued)

lbm lb lb
m 3 = m 1 − m 2 = 100 − 39.7 m = 60.3 m
min min min
m 3 = m 4 = m 5

lb Btu
Q evap = m 5 (h5 − h4 ) = 60.3 m (1080.7 − 68.05)
min lbm
Btu
Q evap = 61,060 = 305 tons cooling
min

Q gen = m 3 h3 + m 2 h2 − m 1 h1
lb Btu lb Btu lb Btu
Q gen = 60.3 m (1154.7 ) + 39.7 m (−25 ) − 100 m (−75 )
min lbm min lbm min lbm
Btu
Q gen = 76,140
min

Q evap 61060
COP = =
Q gen 76,140
COP = 0.80

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10.18)

GIVEN: Q L =200 tons; W i =9600 Btu/min; p1 = 65 psia, p3 = 250 psia; R22


refrigerant cycle; polytropic exponent for compressor = 1.35

FIGURE: 10.1

FIND: compressor efficiency

ASSUMPTIONS: The polytropic model is sufficiently accurate for this analysis.

SOLUTION:

Lookup vg at 65 psia, saturated R22 (Table A3.3)


Interpolating, vg = 0.83 ft3/lbm = vi

( n −1) / n
npi vi ª§ po · º
w= «¨¨ ¸¸ − 1» (eq. 10.10)
n − 1 «© pi ¹ »
¬ ¼
2
lb f in ft 3
1.35(65 2 )(144 2 )(0.83 ) (1.35−1) / 1.35
in ft lbm ª§ 250 · º
w= «¨ ¸ − 1»
1.35 − 1 ¬«© 65 ¹ »¼
ft ⋅ lb f
w = 12,525
lbm
ft ⋅ lb f 1Btu
w = 12,525 ⋅ = 16.1
lbm 778.2 ft ⋅ lb f

w real = m w
lbm
m = 630.3 (see solution 10.1.8)
min
lb Btu Btu
w real = 630.3 m (16.1 ) = 10,150
min lbm min
w 9600
η comp = ideal =
w real 10,150

η comp = 94.6%

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10.20)

GIVEN: Compressor rotor speed = 1800 rev/min; ho = 122.0 Btu/lb, hi = 106.8


Btu/lb, m = 630.3 lb/min (see solution 10.8)

FIND: Rotor diameter

SOLUTION:

1/ 2
ª Btu 778.2 ft ⋅ lb f ft ⋅ lbm º
u to = (ho − hi ) 1/ 2
= «(122.0 − 106.8) ( )(32.2 )» (eq. 10.17)
«¬ lbm Btu lb f ⋅ s 2 »¼
ft
u to = 617.2
s
rev rad 1 min rad
ω = 1800 (2π )( ) = 188.5
min rev 60 s s
u to = ω ro (eq. 10.14)
617.2 ft / s
ro =
188.5 / s
ro = 3.3 ft

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Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 10
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10.22)

GIVEN: 300 ton chiller; Vw =4 gpm/ton; Tdb = 95ºF, Twb = 75ºF air; Tw,i = 100ºF;
Tw,o = 85ºF; Air leaves tower at 92ºF, 90% R.H.

FIND: m da , water consumed, tower range and tower approach.

ASSUMPTIONS: Cooling tower operating at sea level (patm = 14.7 psia).

SOLUTION:

Use the psychrometric chart or equations to define the inlet and outlet air
conditions (Fig. 4.6)

At Tdb = 95ºF and Twb = 75ºF,


Wa,i = 0.0142 lbm,w/lbm,da
ha,i = 38.6 Btu/lbm,da
At Tdb = 92ºF and φ = 90%
Wa,o = 0.0297 lbm,w/lbm,da
ha,o = 54.8 Btu/lbm,da

cp,water = 1.0 Btu/lbm-ºF = cw


s.g. water at 92.5ºF = 0.9945 (Table A5.2)
ρwater = 0.9445(63.42 lbm/ft3) = 63.1 lbm/ft3
gal 1 ft 3 lb lbm
m w = Vw ρ w = 4 ( )(63.1 m3 ) = 33.7
min⋅ ton 7.481gal ft min⋅ ton
lbm lb
m w = 300tons ⋅ 33.7 = 10,110 m
min⋅ ton min
m da (ha ,o − ha ,i ) = m w c w (Tw,i − Tw,o ) + m da (Wo − Wi )c wTw,o (eq. 10.19)
(m w c w (Tw,i − Tw,o ))
m da =
[(h a ,o − ha ,i ) − (Wo − Wi )c wTw,o ]
lbm Btu
(10,110 )(1.0  )(100  F − 85  F ))
min lbm F
m da =
ª Btu lbm, w Btu º
«(54.8 − 38.6) − (0.0297 − 0.0142) (1.0  )(85  F )»
«¬ lbm lbm, da lbm F »¼
lb
m da = 10,190 m
min
lbm ,da lbm, w lbm,w
H 2 O consumed = m da (Wo − Wi ) = 10,190 (0.0297 − 0.0142) = 157.9
min lbm,da min
Tower Range = 100ºF - 85ºF = 15ºF

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10.27)

GIVEN: Q = 600,000 Btu/hr; Tw,i = 105ºF; Ta,i = 92ºF; φa,i = 40%;


m da = 300 lbm/min

FIND: εtower

ASSUMPTIONS: Sea level.

SOLUTION:

ha,sat,i = 81.375 Btu/lbm,da (From CD Psychrometric Table, air at 105ºF)


ha,i = 36.6 Btu/lbm,da (Fig. 4.6)

Q
ε tower =
m da (ha ,sat − ha ,i )
600,000 Btu / hr
ε tower =
lb min Btu
300 m (60 )(81.375 − 36.6)
min hr lbm
ε tower = 0.74

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10.29)

GIVEN: R134a chiller; T3 = 125ºF - 12ºF = 113ºF; T1 = 35ºF; m r = 4496 lbm/hr


(see solution 10.12)

FIGURE: 10.1

FIND: COP

ASSUMPTIONS: All processes steady; ideal vapor compression refrigeration


cycle.

SOLUTION:

State 1: T1 = 35ºF, saturated vapor


p1 = 45.093 psia (from CD)
h1 = hg = 106.71 Btu/lbm
s1 = sg = 0.219 Btu/lbm-ºF

State 3: T3 = 113ºF, saturated liquid


p3 = 168.29 psia
h3 = hf = 49.615 Btu/lbm

State 2: p2 = p3 = 168.29 psia, s2 = s1 = 0.219 Btu/lbm-ºF


h2 = 118.0 Btu/lbm (from CD)

State 4: h4 = h3 = 49.615 Btu/lbm

lb Btu
Q L = m r (h1 − h4 ) = 4496 m (106.71 − 49.615)
hr lbm
Btu
Q L = 256,700
hr
lb Btu
W i = m r (h2 − h1 ) = 4496 m (118.0 − 106.71)
hr lbm
Btu
W i = 50,760
hr

Q L 256,700
COP = =
W i 50,760
COP = 5.06

The COP was increased from 4.17 to 5.06, a significant increase.

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10.31)

GIVEN: TR = 75ºF, φR = 50%; SHR = 0.7

FIND: Comment on this design

ASSUMPTIONS: Sea level

SOLUTION:

Use the protractor on the psychrometric chart (Fig. 4.6). Draw the line from
the protractor center cross to 0.7 on the SHR scale. This is the slope of the
cooling coil process. Locate 75ºF and 50% RH on the psychrometric chart.
Draw a line at the slope of the SHR line from 75ºF and 50% RH. If the line
intersects the 100% saturation line on the psychrometric chart, the process is
feasible. In this problem, the slope line intersects the 100% saturation line at
approximately 46ºF, so the process is feasible .

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10.32)

GIVEN: Cooling coil, Ti = 70ºF, φi = 50%; SHR = 0.5

FIND: Modifications that would allow an ADP to be achieved.

ASSUMPTIONS: Sea level

SOLUTION:

Find the process line slope by drawing a line from the protractor cross center
to SHR = 0.5. Find the lowest RH at 70ºF at which this slope crosses the
saturation line on the psychrometric chart. It is about 74%.

Anything at 70ºF above 74% RH has an ADP.

To increase the SHR at the coil inlet, one could dry the air separately with a
desiccant or heat the coil incoming air with a waste heat source.

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10.34)

Q i 0.11 + 0.36( PLR ) + 0.53( PLR ) 2


GIVEN: = , COPfull = 1.2
Q i , full PLR

FIND: Plot COP as a function of PLR in the interval [0.10, 1.0]

SOLUTION:

Q cool , full
COPfull = 1.2 =
Q in , full

Q cool
PLR =
Q cool , full
Q cool § Q in , full ·
COP = = COPfull ( PLR )¨ ¸
Q in ¨ Q in
©
¸
¹
1.2( PLR ) 2
COP =
0.11 + 0.36( PLR ) + 0.53( PLR ) 2

COP of an Absorption Chiller

1.2

0.8
COP

0.6

0.4

0.2

0
0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1
PLR

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10.36)

GIVEN: Commercial building in Dallas with Q peak = 875 tons at 95ºF and 0
cooling load at 55ºF; Q =925 tons rated at 0.692 kW/ton.
full

FIND: Annual energy consumption and annual average COP.

SOLUTION:

Find bin data for Dallas from the HCB software. The spreadsheet analysis is
shown below.

Cool Elect. Cool


Bin Load Win Used Output
Bin Temp Hours (Btu/hr) PLR (Btu/hr) (MBtu) (MBtu)
57.5 622 656250 0.059 512577 318.8 408.2
62.5 615 1968750 0.177 669474 411.7 1210.8
67.5 687 3281250 0.296 839873 577.0 2254.2
72.5 805 4593750 0.414 1023776 824.1 3698.0
77.5 512 5906250 0.532 1221181 625.2 3024.0
82.5 362 7218750 0.650 1432090 518.4 2613.2
87.5 222 8531250 0.769 1656502 367.7 1893.9
92.5 97 9843750 0.887 1894417 183.8 954.8
3826.8 16057.1

Q cool , full
COPfull = 1.1 =
Q in , full

Since Q cool = 0 at 55ºF, Tbal = 55ºF


Q cool = (Tbin − Tbal ) K tot
at 95ºF, Q = 875 tons
cool

Btu
875tons (12,000 ) = (95  F − 55  F ) K tot
hr ⋅ ton
Btu
K tot = 262,500
hr ⋅ F

Btu
at 72.5ºF, Q cool = 262,500  (72.5  F − 55  F ) = 4.59 ⋅ 10 6 Btu / hr
hr F
Q 
Qcool
PLR = cool =

Q full (925tons ⋅ 12,000 Btu )
hr ⋅ ton
4.59 ⋅ 10 Btu / hr
6
at 72.5ºF, PLR = = 0.41
11.1 ⋅ 10 6 Btu / hr

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Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 10
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10.36 continued)
Q full
W in = [ A + B( PLR ) + C ( PLR ) 2 ]
COPfull
A = 0.201, B = 0.555, C = 0.221 (Table A10.1)

Btu
1ton(12,000 )
COPfull = hr ⋅ ton = 5.08
Btu
(0.692kW ⋅ 3413 )
hr ⋅ kW
925tons ⋅ 12,000 Btu / hr ⋅ ton
W in = [0.201 + 0.555( PLR ) + 0.221( PLR ) 2 ]
5.08

at 72.5ºF,
11.1 ⋅ 10 6 Btu / hr
W in = [0.201 + 0.555(0.41) + 0.221(0.41) 2 ]
5.08
Btu
W in = 1,067,590
hr

Electricity used = W in ⋅ N bin


at 72.5ºF, Electricity used = 1,067,590 Btu/hr * 805 hr = 859 MBtu

Cool Output = Cool Load ⋅ N bin


at 72.5ºF, Cool Output = 4,593,750 Btu/hr * 805 hr = 3698 MBtu

The annual energy consumption is the sum of the electricity used column.

Annual energy consumption = 3,962,929 MBtu

The annual average COP is the sum of the cool output column divided by the
annual energy consumption.

COP = 16,057,125 MBtu / 3,962,929

COP = 4.05

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10.38)

GIVEN: Commercial building in Chicago with Q cool = 875 tons at 95ºF and 0
cooling load at 55ºF; Chillers Q = 300 tons rated at 0.673 kW/ton.
full

FIND: Annual energy consumption and annual average COP of the 3 chiller
system.

SOLUTION:
Use bin data from the HCB software.
Ktot = 262,500 Btu/hr-ºF and the cooling load is found by Q cool = Ktot(Tbin – 55ºF)
(see solution for 10.36)
The spreadsheet solution is shown below.

Bin Elec. Cool


Range Bin Load Win1 Win2 Win3 Win,t Used Output
(F) (hr) (kBtu/hr) PLR1 PLR2 PLR3 (kBtu/hr) (kBtu/hr) (kBtu/hr) (kBtu/hr) (MBtu) (MBtu)
57.5 622 656 0.18 -- -- 219 -- -- 219 136 408
62.5 615 1969 0.55 -- -- 404 -- -- 404 248 1211
67.5 687 3281 0.91 -- -- 623 -- -- 623 428 2254
72.5 805 4594 1.00 0.28 -- 681 263 -- 944 760 3698
77.5 512 5906 1.00 0.64 -- 681 457 -- 1138 583 3024
82.5 362 7219 1.00 1.00 0.01 681 681 141 1504 544 2613
87.5 222 8531 1.00 1.00 0.37 681 681 310 1672 371 1894
92.5 97 9844 1.00 1.00 0.73 681 681 512 1875 182 955
Σ= 3253 16057

PLR1 = MIN[1.0, Q cool /((300t)(12000Btu/hr/t))]


If PLR1 = 1.0, then calculate PLR2
PLR2 = MIN[1.0, ( Q cool – (300t)(12000Btu/hr/t)) / ((300t)(12000Btu/hr/t))]
If PLR2 = 1.0, then calculate PLR3
PLR3 = MIN[1.0, ( Q cool – 2(300t)(12000Btu/hr/t)) / ((300t)(12000Btu/hr/t))]
Q full
W in = (0.201 + 0.602 PLR + 0.185PLR 2 ) (eq. 10.29)
COPfull
1ton(12,000 Btu / hr / t )
COPfull = = 5.22
(0.673kW )(3413Btu / hr ⋅ kW )
For each non-zero PLR, calculate Win
Win ,T = Win1 + Win 2 + Win 3
Electricity used = Win ,T (#hrs in bin)
The annual energy consumption is the sum of the values of “elec. used”.
Annual energy consumption = 3253 MBtu/yr

The annual average COP is the totaled “cool output”/annual energy consump.
COP = 16057 / 3253
COP = 4.94

259
Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 10
Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

10.40)

GIVEN: Commercial building in Chicago with Q cool = 875 tons at 95ºF and 0
cooling load at 55ºF; Q = 925 tons; COPfull = 1.1; Absorption chiller
full

described by eq. 10.33 with A = 0.13, B = 0.36, and C = 0.51.

FIND: Annual energy consumption and annual average COP.

SOLUTION:
Use bin data from HCB software for Chicago. The spreadsheet solution is
shown below.
Bin Heat Cool
Range Bin Load Qin Used Output
(F) (hr) (kBtu/hr) PLR (kBtu/hr) (MBtu) (MBtu)
57.5 622 656 0.06 26125 16250 408
62.5 615 1969 0.18 11942 7344 1211
67.5 687 3281 0.30 9592 6590 2254
72.5 805 4594 0.41 8932 7191 3698
77.5 512 5906 0.53 8836 4524 3024
82.5 362 7219 0.65 8997 3257 2613
87.5 222 8531 0.77 9295 2063 1894
92.5 97 9844 0.89 9676 939 955
48157 16057
Ktot = 262,500 Btu/hr-ºF and the cooling load is found by
Q cool = Ktot(Tbin – 55ºF)
Q cool
PLR =
Q
cool , full

Btu Btu
Q cool , full = Q full = 925ton ⋅ 12,000 = 11.1 ⋅ 10 6
hr ⋅ ton hr
 
Qin = Qin , full (0.13 + 0.36 PLR + 0.51PLR ) / PLR 2

Q cool , full 925ton ⋅ 12000 Btu / hr / ton Btu


Q in , full = = = 10.09 ⋅ 10 6
COPfull 1.1 hr
Heat used = Q (#hrs in bin)
in

Cool output = (Cool load)(#hrs in bin)

The annual energy consumption is the totaled “heat used” column:


Annual energy consumption = 48,157 MBtu

The annual average COP is the totaled “cool output” column divided by the
annual energy consumption.
COP = 16,057 / 48157
COP = 0.33

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Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 10
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10.41)

GIVEN: Commercial building in Chicago with Q cool = 875 tons at 95ºF and 0
cooling load at 55ºF; Two absorption chillers, one with Q = 617 cool , full

tons and the other with Q cool , full = 308 tons; COPfull = 1.1; chillers defined
by eq. 10.33 with A = 0.13, B = 0.36, and C = 0.51.

FIND: Annual energy consumption and annual average COP of the entire
system.

SOLUTION:
The spreadsheet solution is shown below. The first three columns are the
same as in solution 10.40.
Bin Heat Cool
Range Bin Load Qin1 Qin2 Qin,t Used Output
(F) (hr) (kBtu/hr) PLR1 PLR2 (kBtu/hr) (kBtu/hr) (kBtu/hr) (MBtu) (MBtu)
57.5 622 656 0.00 0.18 0 3974 3974 2472 408
62.5 615 1969 0.00 0.53 0 2942 2942 1810 1211
67.5 687 3281 0.00 0.89 0 3223 3223 2214 2254
72.5 805 4594 0.12 1.00 10056 3360 13416 10800 3698
77.5 512 5906 0.30 1.00 6379 3360 9739 4986 3024
82.5 362 7219 0.48 1.00 5895 3360 9255 3350 2613
87.5 222 8531 0.65 1.00 6005 3360 9365 2079 1894
92.5 97 9844 0.83 1.00 6327 3360 9687 940 955
Σ = 28651 16057
Chiller #1 is 617 tons and chiller #2 is 308 tons in this analysis. Chiller #2 is
operated first until full capacity.
PLR2 = MIN[1.0, Q cool /((308t)(12000Btu/hr/t))]
If PLR2 = 1.0, then calculate PLR1
PLR1 = MIN[1.0, ( Q cool – (308t)(12000Btu/hr/t)) / ((617t)(12000Btu/hr/t))]
Q = Q
in (0.13 + 0.36 PLR + 0.51PLR 2 ) / PLR (eq. 10.33)
in , full

Q cool , full1 617ton ⋅ 12000 Btu / hr / ton Btu


Q in , full1 = = = 6.73 ⋅ 10 6
COPfull 1.1 hr
Q cool , full 2 308ton ⋅ 12000 Btu / hr / ton Btu
Q in , full 2 = = = 3.36 ⋅ 10 6
COPfull 1.1 hr
Q = Q + Q
in ,T in1 in 2

Heat used = Q in ,T (#hrs in bin)


The annual energy consumption is the sum of the values of “heat used”.
Annual energy consumption = 28,651 MBtu/yr
The annual average COP is the totaled “cool output”/annual energy consump.
COP = 16057 / 3253
COP = 4.94

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Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 10
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10.42)

GIVEN: Tdi = 100ºF, Twi = 60ºF, εevap = 85%; direct evaporative cooler at sea
level.

FIND: Tdo, φo

SOLUTION:

(Tdi − Tdo )
ε evap = (eq. 10.34)
(Tdi − Twi )
(100 − Tdo )
0.85 =
(100 − 60)

Tdo = 66.0ºF

Two = Twi = 60ºF

From the psychrometric chart (Fig. 4.6)


At Tdo = 66.0ºF and Two = 60ºF

φo = 71%

262
Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 10
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10.44)

GIVEN: V = 9000 cfm standard air; Tdi = 95ºF, Twi = 59ºF, εevap = 84%

FIND: Q sens

ASSUMPTIONS: Sea level; ρair = 0.075 lbm/ft3

SOLUTION:

(Tdi − Tdo )
ε evap = (eq. 10.34)
(Tdi − Twi )
(95 − Tdo )
0.84 =
(95 − 59)

Tdo = 64.8ºF

Q sens = Vρ c p (∆T ) (eq. 7.22)


3
ft lb Btu
Q sens = 9000 (0.075 m3 )(0.24  )(95  F − 64.8  F )
min ft lbm F
Btu
Q sens = 4892 = 24.5 tons of cooling
min

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Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 10
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10.47)

GIVEN: εevap = 0.87, direct evaporative cooler; Tdi = 95ºF, Twi = 67ºF, Tr = 78ºF,
Q sens = 62,000 Btu/hr

FIND: Vair necessary to cool the space.

ASSUMPTIONS: Sea level; ρair = 0.075 lbm/ft3

SOLUTION:

(Tdi − Tdo )
ε evap = (eq. 10.34)
(Tdi − Twi )
(95 − Tdo )
0.87 =
(95 − 67)
Tdo = 70.6ºF

Q sens = Vρ c p (∆T ) (eq. 7.22)


Btu
62,000
V = hr
lbm Btu
(0.075 3
)(0.24  )(78  F − 70.6  F )
ft lbm F
ft 3
V = 465,465
hr

V = 7760 cfm

The assumption that ρair = 0.075 lb/ft3 can be refined by finding the actual ρair
at Tdo = 70.6ºF and Two = Twi = 67ºF. From the psychrometric chart (Fig. 4.6),
ρair = 1/13.65 lb/ft3 = 0.073 lb/ft3.

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Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 10
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10.50)

GIVEN: Bin data in Table 10.6; direct evaporative cooler, εevap = 87%, location is
Denver.

FIND: Cooling effect produced ( V = 50,000 cfm). Compare with results in


example 10.9.

SOLUTION:

The spreadsheet solution is shown below:

DB Temp WB Bin Td,o Qcool


(F) Temp (F) Hours (F) (kBtu/hr) Q (MBtu)
95 60 78 64.55 1315 103
85 59 371 62.38 977 363
75 58 541 60.21 639 346
65 55 750 56.3 376 282
1093

The first three columns are copied from Table 10.6.

Tdo = Tdi − ε (Tdi − Twi ) (eq. 10.34)

Q cool = Vρ c p (∆T ) (eq. 7.22)

Q = Q cool N bin

Total cooling effect is the sum of the values in the “Q” column:

Total cooling = 1093 MBtu


This is 24% higher than the indirect cooler in example 10.9.

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Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 10
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10.51)

GIVEN: Summer bin data for sea level location in table; direct evaporative
cooler, εevap = 0.85, V = 3000 cfm; building load = 36,000 Btu/hr at 95ºF
and decreases linearly with dry bulb temperature to zero at 70ºF. Fan
motor is 25 hp.

FIND: Sensible cooling energy and seasonal COP.

SOLUTION:

Q cool = Ktot(Tbin – 55ºF)


Find Ktot from the known condition:
Ktot = 36,000 Btu/hr / (95ºF – 70ºF) = 1440 Btu/hr-ºF
The spreadsheet solution follows:
Bin Wet Cool Fan
Temp Bulb Hours Load Temp Qcool Energy Fan Energy
(F) (F) Occur (Btu/hr) Out (F) (Btu/hr) (kBtu) Hours (kBtu)
95 62 120 36000 67.0 9882 1186 120 76
85 57 420 21600 61.2 28512 11975 318 202
75 54 490 7200 57.2 41634 20401 85 54
Σ= 33562 Σ= 333

Load = Ktot(Tbin – 70ºF) = 1440 Btu/hr-ºF(Tbin – 70ºF)


Temp out = Td,o = Tdi – ε(Tdi – Twi); ε = 0.85
Q cool = Vρc p ∆T
ft 3 60 min lb Btu
Q cool = 3000 ( )(0.075 3 )(0.24  )(70  F − Tdo )
min hr ft lb ⋅ F
(assuming that the building temperature is 70ºF, this is the cooling
provided to the building. Which is the significant value whne examining the
building load.)
Cool Energy = Q cool (#hrs in bin)
Fan hours is the equivalent number of hours that the fan operates. If Q is
cool

less than or equal to the load, the fan will operate during all of the bin hours
as is the case for the 95ºF temperature bin. However, if Q cool is greater than
the load, the fan will cycle on and off to provide the same cooling energy as
the load requires. In this case,
Fan hours = Load x (#hrs in bin) / Q cool
Fan energy = 0.25hp(2545.2Btu/hr/hp)(Fan hours)

COP = 33,562 / 333


COP = 101

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10.55)

GIVEN: Effectiveness of evaporative media: ε = 1 − e −4.76t / v


0.33

FIND: ε for six-inch pad at varying velocities and ε for fixed velocity of 8 ft/s with
varying thicknesses.

SOLUTION:

Effectiveness vs. Velocity


0.9

0.85

0.8
Effectiveness

0.75

0.7

0.65

0.6

0.55
2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20
Velocity (ft/s)

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10.55 continued)

Effectiveness vs. Thickness


1

0.9

0.8

0.7
Effectiveness

0.6

0.5

0.4

0.3

0.2
0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1
Thickness (ft)

A slower velocity results in higher effectiveness as well as less pressure drop


for the fan to work against. However, at lower velocity, large area and large
duct work is necessary to deliver the same cooling at a higher velocity.

The second graph shows that effectiveness increases as pad thickness


increases. Thicker pads will, however, cause more pressure drop for the fan,
thus requiring more fan power.

268
Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 11
Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

Chapter 11

269
Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 11
Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

11.1)

GIVEN: Converging, equal mail area, round tee; Qs = Qb

FIND: C for flow into the two input connections for branch flow area ratios
between 0.3 and 1.0.

SOLUTION:

From Table on CD for round, converging tee,

Qs = Qb = ½ Qc
Qb / Qc = 0.5

Ab / Ac Cc,b Cc,s
0.3 3.2 0.53
0.4 1.1 0.53
0.6 0.66 0.53
0.8 0.99 0.53
1.0 0.42 0.53

When the branch area, Ab is 0.6x the main area Ac or smaller, the pressure
loss coefficient in the branch becomes higher than that in the main.

270
Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 11
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11.3)

GIVEN: Round duct transitions with area ratio 2:1 used in supply (transition to a
smaller duct and return (transition to a larger duct); θ = 15º

FIND: Which transition has a larger pressure drop and by how much.

ASSUMPTIONS: The air velocity in both transitions is equal.

SOLUTION:

See Table on CD for round transition.

Supply transition:
Ao/A1 = 2/1 = 2 , θ = 15º
C = 0.20 supply

Return transition:
Ao/A1 = 1/2 = 0.5 , θ = 15º
C = 0.13 return

V2
Since ∆p f = C ( ρ ) (eq. 5.38), the pressure drop is directly proportional to
2
C. The supply transition has a 54% greater pressure drop than the return
transition.

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Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 11
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11.5)

GIVEN: A butterfly damper is used to balance the flow of a duct branch that has
one less 3-piece, r/D = 1 round 90º elbow that the other branch.

FIND: The angle for the butterfly damper with D/Do = ½ which will balance the
flow.

ASSUMPTIONS: The air velocity in both transitions is equal.

SOLUTION:

See Tables on CD for round elbows and round butterfly damper.

The pressure coefficient caused by the extra 3-piece, r/D = 1, 90º elbow:
C = 0.42

Find the butterfly damper angle which will have the same C. At D/Do = 0.5,
C = 0.37 at θ = 30º. Interpolating for C = 0.42,
(0.49 – 0.37)/(30º – 20º) = (0.49 – 0.42)/(30º – θº)
θ = 24º

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11.6)

GIVEN: Round ductwork; design pressure drop, ∆p/L = 0.1 in. W.G.; Pressure
loss at each branch outlet grill = 20 ft of duct; Elbows at G and E are full
radius (r/D = 1.0); Located at 4000 ft altitude.

FIGURE: 11.10

FIND: Branch pressure drops

ASSUMPTIONS: Ignore pressure loss due to duct size transitions. Tair = 70ºF.

SOLUTION:
This solution will be the same as that presented in Table 11.3 except for the
columns pv, fitting loss, and Total.
e − H / 27 , 000
ρ air = 39.8
T + 460
e −4000 / 27, 000 lb
ρ air = 39.8 = 0.0648 m3
70 + 460 ft
ρv 2
pv = (eq. 11.9)
2gc
(0.0648lbm / ft 3 )v 2
pv =
lb ⋅ ft 2 1 ft 2 27.7"W .G.
2(32.2 m 2 )( )( )
lb f ⋅ s 144in 2
1 psi
∆p fit = C fit ( p v )

Duct
Loss Pv (in. Fit Loss Total
Sec. (in. W.G.) V (ft/min) W.G.) Cfit (in. W.G.) (in. W.G.)
A-B 0.05 1210 0.079 -- 0.000 0.050
B-C 0.03 1070 0.062 0.48 0.030 0.060
D 0.02 1070 0.062 -- 0.000 0.020
B-D 0.06 1080 0.063 0.011 0.001 0.061
D-G 0.04 935 0.047 0.013 0.001 0.041
G-H 0.06 935 0.047 0.22 0.010 0.070
H 0.02 935 0.047 -- 0.000 0.020
D-E 0.04 890 0.043 0.025 0.001 0.041
E-F 0.04 890 0.043 0.011 0.000 0.040
F 0.02 890 0.043 -- 0.000 0.020
0.423

At 4000 ft, the total pressure drop is 0.423 in. W.G.,


as compared to 0.464 in. W.G. at sea level.

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11.8)

GIVEN: Air distribution system at sea level to be analyzed using the equal
friction method (∆p/L = 0.25 in. W.G./100 ft); Ductwork is round; Elbows
are smooth-radius, round, R/D = 1, Diverging tees at B and C are
round, conical branch designs, All size transitions are 15º converging
designs.

FIGURE: P11.8

FIND: Pressure loss in Branch ABCD

ASSUMPTIONS: Standard air; average roughness ducts.

SOLUTION: The velocities and duct sizes in the branch sections must be
calculated to find the pressure loss coefficients for the tees and the
size transitions. Figure 11.9 can be used to find the velocity and
duct diameter given ∆p/L and V for each section.

∆p/L (in. Diameter


Section V' (cfm) W.G./100 ft) (in.) V (fpm)
AB 10000 0.25 28 2400
BC 7000 0.25 24 2200
CD 4000 0.25 20 2000

At points B and C, there is both a diverging tee and a


size transition. The pressure coefficients can be
found for each separately.
Point B tee: (using Table on CD for the main branch
of a diverging conical tee)
Vs/Vc = VBC/VAB = 2200/2400 = 0.92
Interpolating for Cc,s at Vs/Vc = 0.92, C = 0.008
Point B size transition: (Table on CD for round
transition)
Ao/A1 = AAB/ABC = DAB2/DBC2 = 282 / 242 = 1.36
θ = 15º
interpolating for Ao/A1 = 1.36 and θ = 15º, C = 0.072
Point C tee: (using Table on CD for the main branch
of a diverging conical tee)
Vs/Vc = VCD/VBC = 2000/2200 = 0.91
Interpolating, C = 0.009

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11.8 continued)

Point C size transition: (Table on CD for round


transition)
Ao/A1 = ABC/ACD = DBC2/DCD2 = 242 / 202 = 1.44
θ = 15º
interpolating for Ao/A1 = 1.51 and θ = 15º, C = 0.088

Elbow CD: (Table on CD for elbow, smooth-radius)


r/D = 1, θ = 90º
C = 0.22

1 v2
∆p fit = C ( ρv 2 ) = C ( ) (eq. 11.9 and 11.10)
2 4005
with ∆pfit in in. W.G. and v in fpm

∆p/L (in. ∆p (in. ∆p (in. ∆ptotal (in.


Section L (ft) W.G./100 ft) W.G.) Cfit V (fpm) W.G.) W.G.)
AB 100 0.25 0.25 0.008 2400 0.003 0.253
0.072 2400 0.026 0.026
BC 100 0.25 0.25 0.009 2200 0.003 0.253
0.088 2200 0.027 0.027
CD 75 0.25 0.1875 0.22 2000 0.055 0.242
0.800

The total branch loss (not including an outlet diffuser)


is:
∆pABCD = 0.80 in. W.G.

(A diffuser or outlet loss should be added to get the


true pressure drop.)

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11.9)

GIVEN: Air distribution system at sea level to be analyzed using the equal
friction method (∆p/L = 0.25 in. W.G./100 ft); Branch CD pressure drop
(including size transition and tee) is ∆pCD = 0.269 in. W.G. (see 11.8)

FIGURE: P11.8

FIND: The diameter of branch CE be to produce the same pressure drop as


branch CD.

ASSUMPTIONS: Standard air; average roughness ducts.

SOLUTION:
Branches CD and CE are similar in that they are each
75’ long and each have on 90ºF elbow. However, CD
has the main branch of the tee and a size transition
while CE has the diverging branch of the tee.

Elbow: C = 0.22
Tee: C is dependent on V which depends on D.
Straight section: ∆p/L depends on D.

For a first guess, assume ∆p/L = 0.25 in. W.G./100 ft

From Fig. 11.9


VCE = 1680 fpm, DCE = 15”
Tee: Vb/Vc = VCE/VBC=1680 fpm / 2200 fpm = 0.76
C = 0.54 (Table A5.6h)
2 2
§ v · § 1680 ·
pv = ¨ ¸ =¨ ¸ = 0.176 in. W .G.
© 4005 ¹ © 4005 ¹
∆pT = (0.25”W.G./100 ft)(75 ft) + 0.176(0.22+0.54) in.
W.G.
∆pT = 0.321 in. W.G., which is too high

Move to the next larger size duct to reduce the


pressure drop. From Fig. 11.9 at 2000 cfm, D = 16”
VCE = 1490 fpm, ∆p/L = 0.19 in. W.G./100 ft

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Tee: Vb/Vc = VCE/VBC=1490 fpm / 2200 fpm = 0.68


C = 0.58 (Table A5.6h)
2 2
§ v · § 1680 ·
pv = ¨ ¸ =¨ ¸ = 0.138 in. W .G.
© 4005 ¹ © 4005 ¹
∆pT = (0.19”W.G./100 ft)(75 ft) + 0.138(0.22+0.58) in.
W.G.
∆pT = 0.252 in. W.G., which is lower than desired but
the closest from a standard size.
Therefore, the diameter of branch CD should be 16
inches.

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11.12)

GIVEN: Residential air heating distribution system; main duct velocity shouldn’t
exceed 1000 fpm; branch duct velocity shouldn’t exceed 600 fpm.

FIGURE: P11.12

FIND: Round duct sizes.

ASSUMPTIONS: Sea level, standard air; average roughness ducts.

SOLUTION:

The duct sizes can be found on figure 5.9a using the


velocity stipulations and the air volumes provided on
P11.12.

Section V (cfm) V (fpm) D (in.)


1 900 1000 13
2 650 1000 11
3 350 600 11
4 300 600 10
5 250 600 9

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11.13)

GIVEN: Residential air heating distribution system; main duct velocity shouldn’t
exceed 1000 fpm; branch duct velocity shouldn’t exceed 600 fpm.

FIGURE: P11.12

FIND: Rectangular duct sizes if they can’t exceed 8” deep.

ASSUMPTIONS: Sea level, standard air; average roughness ducts.

SOLUTION:

The round duct equivalents were found in solution 11.12 using Fig. 5.9a.
Convert these to rectangular ducts using,
(WH ) 0.625
Deq = 1.30 (eq. 5.34)
(W + H ) 0.25

Section Dround (in)


1 13
2 11
3 11
4 10
5 9
Round duct sizes from solution 11.12.

With H = 8 in, Deq can be calculated for several values of W. Typically these
values are presented in Table form.

W (in) Deq (in)


8 8.74
9 9.27
10 9.76
13 11.07
18 12.85
19 13.18

Section 1: 8” x 19”
Section 2: 8” x 13”
Section 3: 8” x 13”
Section 4: 8” x 11”
Section 5: 8” x 8”

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11.15)

GIVEN: V = 2000 cfm, VR = 35 fpm, 40 ft x 40 ft room

FIGURE: 11.13

FIND: Recommended diffuser throat diameter and static pressure drop if there is
no damper.

SOLUTION:

T = ½(40 ft) = 20 ft

On Fig. F11.13 find the intersection of T = 20 ft on the VR/VT = 35 fpm/100


fpm scale and V = 2000 cfm. Move vertically down to the bottom scale to
read Ds = 18” = throat D .

Read AK from the Dimensions table to find the outlet area.


AK = 1.5 ft2 at Ds = 18”
V 2000 ft 3 / min ft
VK = = 2
= 1333
AK 1.5 ft min
Read Ps w/o damper from the pressure drop table at VK = 1333 fpm.
Ps = 0.037 in. W.G.

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11.16)

GIVEN: 15 kW electric input fan equipped with either a VSD or inlet vane
control. Part load hours given in table; VSD costs $700 more than inlet
vanes; pe = $0.08/kWh.

FIND: kWh saving due to use of the VSD; payback period for VSD approach.

ASSUMPTIONS: The typical equations for VSD and inlet vane control provided
in the book are adequate for the chosen equipment. The
electricity price is constant.

SOLUTION:

VSD: W = W rate (0.00153 + 0.0052 PLR + 1.1086 PLR 2 − 0.1164 PLR 3 ) (eq. 11.6)
IVC: W = W (0.351 + 0.308 PLR − 0.541PLR 2 + 0.872 PLR 3 ) (eq. 11.8)
rate

W rate = 15 kW

W' - VSD W - VSD W' - IVC W - IVC


PLR hrs (kW) (kWh) (kW) (kWh)
0.2 300 0.69 207 5.97 1791
0.4 700 2.60 1822 6.65 4656
0.6 900 5.68 5111 7.94 7147
0.8 250 9.83 2458 10.46 2616
1 50 14.98 749 14.85 743
10348 16952

The VSD will use 10,348 kWh while the inlet vane control will require 16,952
kWh.

At $0.08/kWh:
VSD = $0.08/kWh (10,348 kWh) = $828
IVC = $0.08/kWh (16,952 kWh) = $1356

The payback time is capital cost / annual savings.


Payback = $700 / ($1356 – $828)
Payback = 1.3 years

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11.18)

GIVEN: V = 500 gpm, hf = 20 ft W.G.; ηm = 0.91; ηm = 0.72

FIND: Electrical power input

ASSUMPTIONS: ρwater = 62.4 lbm/ft3

SOLUTION:

W fluid = V ( pi − po ) (eq. 5.47)

gal 1 ft 3 1 min ft
V = 500 ( )( ) = 1.11
min 7.481gal 60s s
h f ρg
∆p = (eq. 5.10)
gc

20 ft (62.4lbm / ft 3 )(32.2 ft / s 2 ) lb f
∆p = = 1248 2
lb ft ft
32.2 m
lb f s

ft lb f ft ⋅ lb f
W fluid = 1.11 ⋅ 1248 2 = 1385 = 2.52 hp
s ft s

W fluid 2.52 hp
W elec = =
η pumpη motor (0.91 ⋅ 0.72)

W elec = 3.84 hp = 2.87 kW

This problem can also be solved directly using eq.


11.16.

V ( gpm)h f ( ft ) 500 gpm(20 ft )


W shaft = = = 3.51 hp
3960η pump 3960 ⋅ 0.72

W shaft 3.51 hp
W elec = = = 3.85 hp
η motor 0.91

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11.22)

GIVEN: 100 gal. Water in nominal 4 in. steel pipe; T1 = 100ºF, T2 = 200ºF

FIND: Volume of water that moves into the expansion tank.

ASSUMPTIONS: The tank is isothermal and does not track the system
operating temperature. Air charge is added to the tank after
system is filled at its operating pressure.

SOLUTION:

v 2 / v1 − 1 − 3α∆T
Vexp = Vsys (eq. 11.18)
1 − p1 / p 2

From Properties of Water Table on CD,


at 100ºF, SG = 0.9930 Æ ρ1 = 0.9930(63.42 lbm/ft3) =
62.98 lbm/ft3
at 200ºF, SG = 0.9631 Æ ρ2 = 0.9631(63.42 lbm/ft3) =
61.08 lbm/ft3

υ1 = 1/ ρ1 = 1/62.98 lbm/ft3 = 0.0159 ft3/lbm


υ2 = 1/ ρ2 = 1/61.08 lbm/ft3 = 0.0164 ft3/lbm

αsteel = 0.000065/ºF
Vsys = 100 gal

Assuming the air in the expansion tank is an ideal


gas, the pressures in equation 11.18 can be replaced
by the ratio of absolute temperatures.

(0.0164 / 0.0159) − 1 − 3(6.5 ⋅ 10 −5 )(200 − 100)


Vexp = 100 gal
1 − 559.67 / 659.67

Vexp = 7.88 gal

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11.24)

GIVEN: T1 = 100ºF, T2 = 200ºF; water in nominal 3 in. steel pipe; 70 gal water at
100ºF

FIND: Length change of pipe if it expands freely. Design U-type expansion loop
so length change can be accommodated (fixed anchors located at the
ends of this pipe).

ASSUMPTIONS: Schedule 40 steel pipe.

SOLUTION:

From Table on CD for properties of wrought steel and iron pipe, the flow area
of 3 in. schedule 40 steel pipe is 0.05134 ft2 rated at 70ºF. The volume of
water at 70ºF must be calculated to find the length of pipe.
At 100ºF, V = 70 gal = 9.36 ft3

Volume expansion V = Vo(3α∆T); α = 6.5 x 10-6/ºF


9.36 – Vo = Vo(3α∆T)
Vo = 9.36 ft3 / [3(6.5x10-6/ºF)(100ºF – 70ºF) + 1] = 9.35 ft3 at 70ºF
Lo = Vo/A = 9.35 ft3/0.05134 ft2 = 182 ft at 70ºF

Linear expansion, L = Loα∆T = (182 ft)(6.5x10-6/ºF)(200ºF – 70ºF)


L = 0.154 ft = 1.85 inches

From pipe expansion nonograms on CD, pt. III, enter the right part of the
figure at ∆T = 100ºF; move up to the 3” pipe size then draw a horizontal line
to the left. When the line intersects the vertical 200-ft distance line, the
intersection is the design point for 200-ft long pipe. Move up and to the left
parallel to the “O” dimension lines and read 0200 = 7 ft.

Since 0 scales linearly with pipe length:


O180 = O200 x 180/200
O180 = 6.3 ft

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11.26)

GIVEN: Vsys = 150 gal; T1 = 50ºF, T2 = 230ºF, p1 = 15 psig, p2 = 60 psig; sea


level

FIND: The volume of the expansion tank.

ASSUMPTIONS: The tank is isothermal. The system uses copper piping.

SOLUTION:

v 2 / v1 − 1 − 3α∆T
Vexp = Vsys (eq. 11.18)
1 − p1 / p 2

From Sat. Steam Table on CD (liquid),


υ1 = 0.016024 ft3/lbm
υ2 = 0.016846 ft3/lbm

αcu = 9.3 x 10-6/ºF

(0.016846 / 0.016024) − 1 − 3(9.3 ⋅ 10 −6 )(230 − 50)


Vexp = 150 gal
1 − 29.7 / 74.7

Vexp = 11.5 gal

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11.28)

GIVEN: VT = 20,000cfm, fixed volume with minimum fresh air 18%VT assuming
dry bulb control. Ts = 55ºF, Tr = 77ºF, φr = 50%; At 10ºF = To, the fresh
air is at its minimum.

FIGURE: 11.20b

FIND: Plot of the economizer outside airflow. How is the high temperature
return to minimum flow determined?

SOLUTION:

Vmin = 0.18VT = 0.18(20,000cfm) = 3600cfm

25000

20000
Outdoor Air (cfm)

15000

Maximum possible
economizer envelope.
Adjust high limit temp.
per note below.
10000

5000

0
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90
Outdoor Temp (F)

If the outside air enthalpy is less than the return air enthalpy, it will
take less energy to cool it than the return air. However, typically we
only have dry bulb temperature control and do not know the outdoor
air enthalpy. In dry climates you can set the economizer high
temperature return to minimum flow at the return air temperature and
expect that the outdoor enthalpy will be lower than the return air
enthalpy. In humid climates, the economizer high temperature would
be set a few degrees lower than the return air temperature.

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11.30)

GIVEN: VAV system; Tr = 75ºF, φR = 40%; Load varies from Q = 2000 Btu/hr to
5000 Btu/hr; Load is entirely sensible; Ts = 56ºF

FIND: Primary air flow range.

ASSUMPTIONS: sea level

SOLUTION:

Q = ρc pV∆T (eq. 11.24) ρ at zone air condition


ρ at 75ºF, 70% RH = 0.073 lbm/ft3 (Fig. 4.6)
cp = 0.24 Btu/lbm-ºF

Q
V =
ρc p ∆T
2000 Btu / hr
V1 =
(0.073lbm / ft )(0.24 Btu / lbm ⋅ F )(75  F − 56  F )
3

ft 3
V1 = 6000
hr

5000 Btu / hr
V2 =
(0.073lbm / ft )(0.24 Btu / lbm ⋅ F )(75  F − 56  F )
3

ft 3
V2 = 15,000
hr

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11.32)

GIVEN: Commercial building with 4 zones, each with a load of Q peak = 30,000
Btu/hr. Tci = 84ºF, φci = 38%; Tco = 53ºF, φco = 90%; Diversity = 80%.

FIND: Air handler fan flow rate and the sizes of the main and branch ducts
(square in cross section).

SOLUTION:

Btu Btu
Q peak ,total = 4 ⋅ 30,000 ⋅ 0.8 = 96,000
hr hr
Q 
V = (eq. 11.28)
ρ air (hcoil ,i − hcoil ,o )
From the psychrometric chart,
hci = 30.8 Btu/lbm,da at T = 84ºF, φ = 38%
hco = 21.2 Btu/lbm,da at T = 53ºF, φ = 90%

assuming ρ = 0.075 lbm/ft3

96,000 Btu / hr
V =
(0.075lbm / ft 3 )(30.8 − 21.2) Btu / lbm
ft 3
V = 133,333 = 2222 cfm
hr

For each zone:


30,000 Btu / hr ft 3
V = = 41,667 = 694 cfm
(0.075lbm / ft 3 )(30.8 − 21.2) Btu / lbm hr

Since the total airflow is less than 2500 cfm, it is considered a low
velocity system. On Fig. 11.9 the shaded band shows suggested
pressure drops for a low velocity system of 0.08 to 0.15 in. W.G./100 ft.

Main duct at 2222 cfm: a 18” diameter round duct has


∆p/L = 0.1 in. W.G./100 ft (Fig. 11.9 or 5.9)

Branch duct at 694 cfm: a 12” diameter round duct has


∆p/L = 0.1 in. W.G./100 ft (Fig. 5.9)

However, the ducts are to be square, so use eq. 5.34


to find the equivalent square duct flow areas.

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11.32 continued)

(WH ) 0.625
Deq = 1.30
(W + H ) 0.25
Since they are square, W = H
(W 2 ) 0.625 W 1.25
Deq = 1.30 = 1.30
(2W ) 0.25 (2W ) 0.25

Deq ⋅ 2 0.25
W=
1.3

For the 18” round equivalent main duct,


W = 16.5”: 17” x 17” square duct

For the 12” round equivalent branch duct,


W = 10.98”: 11” x 11” square duct

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11.34)

GIVEN: VAV system located in Denver; V = 3200 cfm; RH coil outlet = 90%;
∆Tsa = 20ºF; ∆Tsupply fan = 1.5ºF; ∆Treturn fan = 1.0ºF; ηfan = 63%, Hf = 3.5
in. W.G.
Zone 1 (exterior) Zone 2 (interior)
Sensible peak cooling load Q s1 = 150,000 Btu/hr Q s 2 = 250,000 Btu/hr
Latent peak cooling load Q = 40,000 Btu/hr
l1 Q l 2 = 60,000 Btu/hr
Heating peak cooling load Q h1 = 300,000 Btu/hr Q = 70,000 Btu/hr
h2
Zone temperature, Tzone 75ºF 75ºF

FIND: VAV system design

ASSUMPTIONS: Ignore duct losses and gains.

LOOKUP VALUES: 2.5% summer design conditions for Denver Tdb = 91ºF, Twb
= 59ºF; 97.5% winter design Tdb = 1ºF (Table on CD for
Design Conditions for US)
At 5000 ft, Tdb = 91ºF, Twb = 59º, W = 0.0056 lbw/lbda, v =
16.8 ft3/lb (Psychrometric chart for 5000 ft)

SOLUTION:

1. Loads (given)

2. Air flow rates


150,000 Btu / hr
V1 = (eq. 11.24)
(0.060lbm / ft 3 )(0.24 Btu / lbm ⋅ F )(20  F )
ft 3
V1 = 520,833 = 8,681 cfm
hr
250,000 Btu / hr
V2 =
(0.060lbm / ft 3 )(0.24 Btu / lbm ⋅ F )(20  F )
ft 3
V2 = 868,056 = 14,468 cfm
hr
Vtotal = V1 + V2 = 23,149 cfm
VH
fan power = W shaft = (eq. 5.50)
6356η fan
23,149(3.5)
W shaft = = 20.2 hp
6356(0.63)

3. Cooling air supply temperature


Tsa = Tzone – ∆Tsa = 75ºF – 20ºF = 55ºF

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11.34 continued)

4. Cooling coil leaving temperature


Tcoil,out = Tsa – ∆Tsupply fan – ∆Tduct = 55ºF – 1.5ºF = 53.5ºF

5. Zone return air condition


Tr = Tzone + ∆Tduct = 75ºF

6. Average return air humidity and temperature


Q lat = Vρh fg (Wra − Wi ) (eq. 7.26)
Q lat
Wra = + Wi
Vρh ) fg

Wi = 0.0094 lbw/lbda (at 53.5ºF, 90% RH from psychrometric chart)


(40,000 + 60,000) Btu / hr lb
Wra = 3 3
+ 0.0094 w
(23,149 ft / min)(0.060lbm / ft )(1075Btu / lbm )(60 min/ hr ) lbda
lb
Wra = 0.0105 w
lbda
Tra = Tzone + ∆Treturn fan = 75ºF + 1.0ºF = 76.0ºF

7. Mixed air condition


(assuming densities of air streams are the same)
Vtotal (Tmix ) = Vvent (To ) + Vreturn (Tra )
V = 3200 cfm
vent

Vtotal = 23,149 cfm ; To = 91ºF


Vreturn = (23,149 − 3200) cfm = 19,949 cfm ; Tra = 76.0ºF
(3200cfm)(91 F ) + (19,949cfm)(76  F )
Tmix = Tma =
23,149cfm
Tma = 78.1 F


V
total (W ) = V (W ) + V
ma vent o (W )
return ra

lb
Wo = 0.0056 w
lbda
(3200cfm)(0.0056) + (19,949cfm)(0.0105)
Wma =
23,149cfm
lb
Wo = 0.0098 w
lbda

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11.34 continued)

8. Coil loads
Q coil , sens = ρVc p ∆Tcoil
lb ft 3 Btu
Q coil , sens = (0.060 3 )(23,149 )(0.24  )(78.1 F − 53.5  F )
ft min lb ⋅ F
Btu Btu
Q coil , sens = 8200 = 492,018
min hr
 
Qcoil ,lat = ρVh fg ∆Wcoil
3
lb ft 3 Btu lb
Q coil ,lat = (0.060 3 )(23,149 )(1075 )(0.0098 − 0.0094) w
ft min lb lbda
Btu Btu
Q coil ,lat = 1348 = 80,897
min hr
Btu Btu
Q tot ,coil = 492,018 + 80,897
hr hr
Btu
Q tot ,coil = 572,900
hr

9. Preheat coil load


Q ph = ρVvent c p (Tcoil ,out − Tdes ,heat )
lb ft 3 Btu
Q ph = (0.060 3 )(3200 )(0.24  )(53.5  F − 1 F )
ft min lb ⋅ F
Btu
Q ph = 145,100
hr

10. Zone heating


Q h = Q h1 + Q h 2 + ρVvent c p (Tzone − Tsa )
Btu
Q h = (300,000 + 70,000) +
hr
lb ft 3 60 min Btu
(0.060 3 )(3200 )( )(0.24  )(75 − 55)  F
ft min hr lb F
Btu
Q h = 425,300
hr
Btu
Q heat ,total = (425,300 + 145,100)
hr
Btu
Q heat ,total = 570,400
hr

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11.38)

GIVEN: The reheat coil in an air handling system is located in the return duct
down-stream of the building exhaust for freeze protection.

FIND: Any difficulties with this approach.

SOLUTION:

In such an approach, the main drawback is that the


heat transfer between the coil and the air will be
reduced due to a smaller temperature difference
between them. A slightly larger coil will be necessary
to compensate for this effect.

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Chapter 12

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12.2)

GIVEN: Heating system with a wall thermostat, a gas valve, and a furnace.

FIND: Identify the sensor, controller, actuator, process, and controlled variable.

SOLUTION:

Sensor: The temperature sensing device in the thermostat (e.g. a thermister).

Controller: Linkage from the thermostat to the gas valve (e.g. an electric
signal to operate a motorized valve)

Actuator: The gas valve mechanism.

Controlled variable: Temperature.

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12.3)

GIVEN: Electric duct heater capacity ranging from 0 kW to 10 kW; proportional


controller signal ranging from 0 VDC to 5 VDC.

FIND: Throttling range and proportional gain.

SOLUTION:

Throttling range = ∆Vmax = 5 VDC – 0 VDC (eq. 12.3)


Throttling range = 5 VDC

Q max − Q min 10 kW − 0 kW
Kp = = (eq. 12.4)
∆Vmax 5 VDC
kW
Kp = 2
VDC

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12.4)

GIVEN: Electric duct heater with output ranging from 0 to 10 kW. Thermostat
output voltage varies from 0 to 5 VDC decreasing linearly with
temperature between 90ºF and 60ºF; Tset = 75ºF

FIND: Equation relating heater output to sensed temperature.

ASSUMPTIONS: Steady state operation.

SOLUTION:

Q max − Q min
Kp = (eq. 12.4)
∆Vmax
∆Vmax = 90ºF – 60ºF = 30ºF

10 kW − 0 kW
Kp = 
= 1 kW / 3 F
30 F

Q
Q = K p (Tset − Tsensed ) + max (eq. 12.5)
2
1 kW
Q =  (75  F − Tsensed ) + 5 kW
3 F

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12.8)

GIVEN: T1 = 55ºC, T2 = 75ºC, τ = 5.0 s

FIND: After how many seconds does T(t) = 65ºC? What is T(t) after 15.0 s?

SOLUTION:

T2 − T (t )
e −t / τ =
T2 − T1

75  C − 65  C
e −t / 5.0 s =
75  C − 55  C
e −t / 5.0 s = 3.47 s

75  C − T (t )
e −15.0 / 5.0 =
75  C − 55  C
T (t ) = 74.0  C

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12.9)

GIVEN: Linear control valve, V = 100 gpm, ∆p = 5 psi

FIND: Cv and the gain expressed on the basis of its total stem travel and on the
basis of the control actuator voltage (0-10V).

SOLUTION:

V = C v ∆p (eq. 12.18)
V 100
Cv = =
∆p 5
C v = 44.7

100 gpm − 0 gpm


K=
1.0 in − 0 in
K = 100 gpm/in. on the basis of stem travel

100 gpm − 0 gpm


K=
10V − 0V
K = 10 gpm/V. on the basis of voltage

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12.10)

GIVEN: ∆psys = 85 kPa, ∆pcoil = 2.5 V 2 . System made up of coil and linear valve.

FIND: Plot system flow vs. percent of valve travel for Cv = 0.5 and Cv = 1.3.

SOLUTION:
Vvalve ,max = C v ∆p des (eq. 12.18)
For a linear valve:
V Z ∆pvalve
=
Vmax Z max ∆p des
Z ∆p des
Vmax = V max
Z ∆pvalve
substituting Vmax into 12.18
Z ∆p des
V max = C v ∆p des
Z ∆p valve
Z
V = C v ∆p valve
Z max
§ V Z max ·
2

∆p sys = 85kPa = ∆p coil + ∆p valve = 2.5V + ¨ (
2
¨ ¸

© Cv Z ¹
now vary Z/Zmax and plot V for the two valves of Cv.

Loop Flow With Linear Valve


Comparison of Two Cv Valves

6
Cv = 0.5
Cv = 1.3
5

Loop characteristic remains linear

4
Flow (l/s)

Loop characteristic remains linear


1

0
0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1
Fraction of Valve Stem Travel

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12.14)

GIVEN: Linear control valve, V = 20 gpm, ∆psys = 4 psi

FIND: Cv and gain based on stem travel (2.0 in.) and on control actuator voltage
(0-5 V)

SOLUTION:

V
Cv = (eq. 12.18)
∆p
20 gpm
Cv =
4 psi
C v = 10

Gain based on travel:


20 gpm
Kp =
2.0in
gpm
K p = 10
in

Gain based on voltage:


20 gpm
Kp =
5V
gpm
Kp = 4
V

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12.34)

GIVEN: Pneumatic controls can take advantage of small air pressures by


varying the size of the diaphragm used in the actuator. 15-psi control
signal.

FIND: What actuator force can the signal exert if the round diaphragm is 3
inches in diameter? 6 inches in diameter? 12 inches in diameter.

SOLUTION:

3-inch diameter:

πd 2 π ⋅ 3 2
A= = = 7.07 in 2
4 4
lb f
F = P ⋅ A = 15 2 ⋅ 7.07 in 2
in
F = 106 lb f

6-inch diameter:

πd 2 π ⋅ 6 2
A= = = 28.27 in 2
4 4
lb f
F = P ⋅ A = 15 2 ⋅ 28.27 in 2
in
F = 424 lb f

12-inch diameter:

πd 2 π ⋅ 12 2
A= = = 113.10 in 2
4 4
lb f
F = P ⋅ A = 15 2 ⋅ 113.10 in 2
in
F = 1696 lb f

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12.35)

GIVEN: System schematic of Figure 12.2a.

FIND: The effect on the controlled variable as the temperature sensor is moved
farther away from the coil.

SOLUTION:

As the temperature sensor is moved farther away from the coil, the lag time of
the process increases. The sensor response will be delayed, and it will
appear as if the time constant of the system has increased. Consequently,
the controlled variable (Tsa) is more likely to experience overshoot or
undershoot in response to changes in the setpoint and airflow rate.

The system controller will most likely require an increased derivative gain.

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12.36)

GIVEN: The resistance of a platinum RTD is measured using a constant current


of 1 mA. The nominal resistance of the RTD is 100 Ω at 0ºC. The air
around the RTD is at 20ºC but the current running through the RTD
causes it to heat up.

FIND: a) The theoretical resistance of the RTD at 20ºC.


b) The power dissipated by the RTD in the form of heat.
c) If the heat loss for the RTD to the environment is 0.05 W/ºC, what is
the actual temperature of the RTD including the effect of self-heating?

SOLUTION:

a) For platinum RTD’s, k = 3.85 x 10-3 ºC-1

R = Ro (1 + kT )

R = 100 Ω ⋅ (1 + 3.85 ⋅ 10 −3 C −1 ⋅ 20  C )
R = 107.7 Ω

b) P = I 2 R
( 2
)
P = 1 ⋅ 10 −3 A ⋅ 107.7 Ω
P = 1.303 ⋅ 10 −4 W

c) Doing an energy balance,


Q in = Q out
W
1.303 ⋅ 10 − 4 W = 0.05  (Tact − 20  C )
C
Tact = 20.003 C 

The resistive self-heating does not have much of an effect on the actual
temperature of the RTD. Note, however, that the self-heating is a function
of the square of the current, so at higher reference currents the self-
heating effect becomes much more pronounced.

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12.37)

GIVEN: The temperature of the air stream is measured by connecting a platinum


RTD to a building energy management system using 200 ft of 20-gauge
wire. The wire has a resistance of 10 Ω/1000 ft.

FIND: How much error does the wire resistance introduce into the measurement
if the nominal resistance of the RTD is 100 Ω at 32ºF? How much error
would the wire resistance add if the sensor is a thermistor with a nominal
resistance of 25 kΩ at 32ºF?

SOLUTION:

For RTD:

Resistance of wire in each direction:


10 Ω
Rwire = ⋅ 200 ft = 2 Ω
1000 ft

So the overall resistance of the wire is 2 · 2 Ω = 4 Ω. Using a typical k value


for an RTD of k = 3.85 x 10-3 ºC-1, the error introduced by the line resistance
is about

4 Ω / (100 · 3.85 x 10-3 ºC-1) = 10.39ºC

Error introduced by wire resistance = 10.7°C

For Thermistor:

R = Ae B / T
B
T=
ln( R / A)
The wire resistance is very small relative to the nominal resistance (about
0.02%) and therefore negligible.

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12.38)

GIVEN: An analog-to-digital converter is used to generate a computer readable


value for a measured voltage. A temperature sensor produces a 0 to
10 VDC signal over the range of -20ºF to 120ºF. The signal is
converted into an 8-bit value, which means that the total voltage range
is divided into 28 = 256 discrete values.

FIND: The minimum temperature change that can be recorded using this
temperature sensor.

SOLUTION:

Since the temperature range is 140ºF, and the total range can be divided into
256 discrete values, the minimum temperature change that can be recorded
using this sensor is:

140  F 
= 0.55 F
256 values

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12.39)

GIVEN: Air at 55ºF enters a heating coil and comes out at 75ºF. You measure
the relative humidity with a hand-held probe and find an inlet relative
humidity of 59% and an outlet relative humidity of 31%.

FIND: If there is no moisture added to the airstream, do these numbers make


sense?

SOLUTION:

Since no water is being added or removed, the humidity ratio of the inlet air
and the outlet air should be equal. From the “Psychrometric Scratch Sheet”,
we see that they are not:

Inlet: W = 0.0054 lbwater/lbdryair

Outlet: W = 0.0057 lbwater/lbdryair

With a 0.0054 lbwater/lbdryair humidity ratio, at 75ºF, the exit humidity should
read, 29%. However, when considering the accuracy of hand-held humidity
probes (±2-5%), the readings of the sensor make sense.

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12.40)

GIVEN: Air economizer mode attempts to mix outside air and building return air
to minimize the amount of energy needed to condition the resulting
mixed air stream to match the desired supply air conditions. Suppose
the conditions are outside air at 90ºF and 40% relative humidity, the
return air is at 80ºF and 70% relative humidity, and the supply air
setpoint is 55ºF and 80% relative humidity.

FIND: Should the economizer control use mostly outside air or mostly building
return air?

SOLUTION:

From the “Psychrometric Scratch Sheet”:

Outside air: h = 27.13 Btu/lb

Return air: h = 28.35 Btu/lb

Supply air: h = 13.46 Btu/lb

The economizer control should use mostly outside air, because it has a
lower enthalpy than the return air.

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12.41)

GIVEN: A heating coil with a throttling range of 20ºF is controlled using


proportional-only control. The inlet temperature is 40ºF, the setpoint is
55ºF, and the controller gain is 0.1.

FIND: The steady-state error. What if the gain is 1.0? 10.0?

SOLUTION:

The controller output is the product of the gain and the error,

u = Kp · e

The error is the difference between the setpoint and the measured value, in
this case the coil outlet temperature,

e = 55ºF – Tout

The coil outlet temperature is a function of the inlet air temperature, the
throttling range, and the controller output,

Tout = 40°F + u · 20°F

Combining these equations together gives

e = 55°F – (40°F + u · 20°F)


= 55°F – (40°F + Kp · e · 20°F)

Rearranging for e,

e = 15°F / (1 + 20 · Kp)

So at a gain of Kp = 0.1 the steady-state error is 5°F.

At a gain of Kp = 1.0 the steady-state error is 0.7°F.

At a gain of Kp = 10 the steady-state error is 0.07°F.

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12.42)

GIVEN: The hot water coil on an air-handling unit has 120ºF inlet water
temperature, 110ºF outlet water temperature, and a water flow rate of
30 GPM. 10,000 CFM of air enters this coil at 57ºF and leaves at 73ºF.
The temperature sensors are accurate to within ±1ºF.

FIND: Does it appear that energy is conserved in this coil?

ASSUMPTIONS: The flow rates of air and water are measured without error.

SOLUTION:

Air side:
Q = 1.1 ⋅ CFM ⋅ (Tout − Tin )
Q = 1.1 ⋅ 10,000 ⋅ (73 − 57)
Q = 176,000 Btu / hr
However, the rate of heat transfer could be much lower, when considering the
accuracy of the temperature measurements:
Q min = 1.1 ⋅ 10,000 ⋅ (72 − 58)
Q = 154,000 Btu / hr
min

Water side:
Q = 500 ⋅ GPM ⋅ (Tout − Tin )
Q = 500 ⋅ 30 ⋅ (120 − 110)
Q = 150,000 Btu / hr
However, the rate of heat transfer could be much higher, when considering
the accuracy of the temperature measurements:
Q max = 500 ⋅ 30 ⋅ (121 − 109)
Qmax = 180,000 Btu / hr

Therefore, it appears that energy is conserved in this coil.

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12.44)

GIVEN: Airflow measurements are often made at several points across the face
of an airstream so that the average airflow rate can be determined. A
pitot tube is often used for these kinds of measurements. The dynamic
pressure measurements at five points are 0.23, 0.20, 0.18, 0.25, 0.20
(all in equivalent inches of water).

FIND: The average velocity of the airstream.

ASSUMPTIONS: Standard air in steady flow, ρ = 0.075 lbm/ft3

SOLUTION:

The velocity is given as

2∆p
v=
ρ

where ∆p is the dynamic pressure (difference between total and static) and ρ
is the air density. Since one in W.G. is 5.2 lbf/ft2, the first measurement gives

∆p = 0.23 in W.G. · 5.2 lbf/ft2 · in W.G. = 1.2 lbf/ft2

and the velocity is

2 ⋅ 1.2 lb f / ft 2
v= = 32.1 ft/s
(0.075 lb m / ft 3 ) /[32.2 lb m ⋅ ft /(lb f ⋅ s 2 )]

Repeating this for the other measurements gives velocities of 29.9, 28.3,
33.4, and 29.9 ft/s. The average velocity is therefore 30.7 ft/s

Note that this is not the same as taking the average pressure difference and
then calculating the resulting velocity. You must first calculate the velocity at
each point because the square relationship between pressure and velocity.

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Chapter 13

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13.7)

GIVEN: A compact fluorescent bulb can be used to replace a standard


incandescent bulb. A particular task requires 200 lumens. A 50 W
fluorescent light bulb has a life of 7500 hours and an efficacy of 70
lm/W while a 50 W incandescent bulb has a life of 1000 hours and an
efficacy of 15 lm/W. The compact fluorescent bulb costs $20, the
incandescent bulb costs $1, and electricity costs 8¢ per kWh.

FIND: If it makes sense over the long run to use the compact fluorescent.

SOLUTION:

Light output of 1 bulb:

Fluorescent: 50 W ⋅ 70 lm / W = 3500 lm
Incandescent: 50 W ⋅ 15 lm / W = 750 lm

Cost of light for 7500 hrs:

Fluorescent: 0.050 kW ⋅ 7500 hrs ⋅ $0.08 / kWh + $20 = $50


Incandescent:
7500 hrs
0.050 kW ⋅ 7500 hrs ⋅ $0.08 / kWh + ⋅ $1 / bulb = $37.50
1000 hrs / bulb

Therefore, in this case, it does not make sense to used compact fluorescents
over the long run. However, in this case, the fluorescent bulb is providing
many more lumens than necessary. CFL’s would be cost effective if a lower
wattage fluorescent bulb could be used.

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13.10)

GIVEN: Conditions of problems 13.8 and 13.9.

FIND: The glazing that will minimize the cooling load among the types listed in
Table 6.6.

SOLUTION:

The glazing that provides the most visible light with the least amount of
transmitted daylight is the best glazing to choose. The quantity, Ke (= τv /
SC) is proportional to the luminous efficacy of transmitted daylight.
Therefore, the best glazing will be the one with the highest Ke. This is
glazing #9 in Table 6.6, Low-ε double glazing, green.

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Chapter 14

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14.12)

GIVEN: House in Washington D.C., Ktot = 389 Btu/hr-ºF, Ti = 68ºF, average


internal gains of 3400 Btu/hr. Natural gas costs $6/GJ and electricity
costs 8¢/kWh.

FIND: Compare the annual energy costs of heating this house with the following
three options:
• A conventional natural gas furnace (η = 75%)
• A conventional natural gas furnace (η = 93%)
• A heat pump with these characteristics:
COP = 2.6 for To > 50ºF
COP = 2.2 for 30ºF < To < 50ºF
COP = 1.7 for 15ºF < To < 30ºF
COP = 1.0 for To < 15ºF

SOLUTION:
Q gain 3400 Btu / hr
Tbal = Ti − = 68  F − = 59.3 F
K tot 389 Btu / hr ⋅ F


Create a spreadsheet with bins below 60ºF, using the following equations:
K (T − T )
¦ Q heat ,bin = totη bal o ⋅ N hours
furnace

Q
¦ Q furnace,bin = η heat ,bin
furnace

¦ W heatpump = COP ⋅ Q ¦ heat ,bin


Ti = 68 deg F Natural Gas Cost = 6 $/GJ
Ktot = 389 Btu/hr-F Electricity Cost = 0.08 $/kWh
Tbal = 59.3 deg F
ηlow = 75%
ηhigh = 93%

Energy
Needed Low- High- Work into Electricity
Avg. for Efficiency Efficiency Heat into Heat
Outdoor Hours in Heating Furnace Furnace Pump Pump
Temp Bin (MBtu) (MBtu) (MBtu) COP (MBtu) (kWh)
57 673 0.60 0.80 0.65 2.6 0.23 68
52 690 1.96 2.61 2.11 2.6 0.75 221
47 684 3.27 4.36 3.52 2.2 1.49 436
42 790 5.32 7.09 5.72 2.2 2.42 708
37 744 6.45 8.61 6.94 2.2 2.93 860
32 542 5.76 7.67 6.19 2.2 2.62 767
27 254 3.19 4.26 3.43 1.7 1.88 550
22 138 2.00 2.67 2.15 1.7 1.18 345
17 54 0.89 1.18 0.96 1.7 0.52 153
12 17 0.31 0.42 0.34 1.0 0.31 92
7 2 0.04 0.05 0.04 1.0 0.04 12
Σ= 39.73 32.04 Σ= 4212
Σ (in GJ) = 41.91 33.80 Annual Cost = $337
Annual Cost = $251 $203

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14.13)

GIVEN: Occupant of house in problem 14.12 installs a $100 thermostat that


automatically reduces the setpoint temperature from 68ºF to 60ºF
during the hours of 8 PM through 8 AM. Conventional (low efficiency
furnace).

FIND: The simple payback.

ASSUMPTIONS: The hours in each bin are equally split between the nighttime
period of 8 PM to 8 AM and the daytime period of 8AM to 8
PM. Neglect any transient behavior of the heating system or
any thermal storage effects in the house.

SOLUTION:
Q gain 3400 Btu / hr
Tbal , day = Ti ,day − = 68 F − = 59.3 F
K tot 389 Btu / hr ⋅ F
Q gain 3400 Btu / hr
Tbal , night = Ti , night − = 60  F − = 51.3 F
K tot 389 Btu / hr ⋅ F


Create a spreadsheet dividing day and nighttime energy use for each data
bin:
Ti,day = 68 deg F
Ti,night = 60 deg F
Ktot = 389 Btu/hr-F
Tbal,day = 59.3 deg F
Tbal,night = 51.3 deg F
ηlow = 75%
Natural Gas Cost = 6 $/GJ

Without
Setback With Setback
Nighttime/D Typical Daytime Nighttime
Avg. aytime Energy Use Energy Use Energy Use
Outdoor Hours in Hours in by Furnace by Furnace by Furnace
Temp Bin Bin (MBtu) (MBtu) (MBtu)
57 673 337 0.80 0.40 --
52 690 345 2.61 1.31 --
47 684 342 4.36 2.18 0.76
42 790 395 7.09 3.54 1.91
37 744 372 8.61 4.30 2.76
32 542 271 7.67 3.84 2.71
27 254 127 4.26 2.13 1.60
22 138 69 2.67 1.33 1.05
17 54 27 1.18 0.59 0.48
12 17 9 0.42 0.21 0.17
7 2 1 0.05 0.03 0.02
Σ= 39.73 19.86 11.47
Σ (in GJ) = 41.91 20.96 12.10
Annual Cost = $251 $126 $73

Annual savings = $251-($126+$73) = $52/yr


Simple Payback = $100 / $52/yr = 1.92 yrs

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319