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H23HG3: Hydraulics and Geotechnics 3

Dr Dariusz Wanatowski
School of Civil Engineering
The University of Nottingham
(February 2008)
4 Consolidation Geotechnics 3

Outline of Unit 4

6.1 Components of settlement


6.2 Process of consolidation settlement
6.3 Consolidation settlement calculation
6.4 One-dimensional consolidation theory
6.5 Solution of the 1-D consolidation equation
6.6 Determination of cv from laboratory tests
6.7 Secondary compression
6.8 Summary and example problems

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Lecture 6
(Consolidation 2)
Tomorrow at 2pm
MAPH B-13
4 Consolidation Geotechnics 3

Introduction

• When a soil is subjected to a load the vertical


effective stress in the ground σz’ increases.

• The increase in vertical effective stress induces


vertical strain, εz in the soil, and thus causes the
ground surface to move downward.

• The downward movement of the soil is called


settlement.

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Introduction

• Whenever σz’ increases, there always will be a


corresponding settlement, δ.

• Therefore, the issue facing geotechnical


engineer is not if settlement will occur, but rather

1) The magnitude of settlement


2) The time rate of settlement

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Case studies

Kansai Airport
to settle 11.5 m
over 50 years

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Kansai Airport
The rate of sinking has fallen from
50 cm during 1994 to 9 cm in 2006

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kansai_International_Airport
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Case studies

The Leaning Tower of Pis


Pisa
1990 → the top was 5.6 m
(in 1990
off plumb)

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4.1 Components of settlement

4 Consolidation Geotechnics 3

4.1 Components of settlement

Ground settlement consists of 3 components:

δ = δc + δ s + δi

Consolidation Immediate
settlement Secondary settlement
compression
settlement
Today we are going to learn how to calculate consolidation settlements
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6.1 Components of settlement
δc)
1. Consolidation settlement (δ
 decrease in the volume of the voids as pore water is squeezed out
of the soil
 occurs slowly according to the permeability
 significant in clays and silts

δs)
2. Secondary compression settlement (δ
 due to particle reorientation, creep, and decomposition of organic
materials
 occurs very slowly, long after primary consolidation is completed
 most significant in soft clays and organic soils

δi)
3. Immediate (distortion) settlement (δ
 elastic deformation with no change in water content
 occurs rapidly during the application of load
 quite small quantity in dense sands/gravels and stiff/hard clays
4 Consolidation Geotechnics 3

6.2 Process of consolidation


settlement

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4.2 Process of consolidation settlement

Change in vertical effective stress

 Consolidation settlement δc is due to


changes in the vertical effective stress.
 Initially, there is an initial vertical effective
stress, σz0’, in the soil.
 When external loads (e.g. placement of a
fill) are applied, a change in the vertical
effective stress will be induced.

4 Consolidation Geotechnics 3

4.2 Process of consolidation settlement

Change in vertical effective stress


due to fill

When a fill is placed on the ground over a


large extend, the vertical stress increment
in the underlying soil can be calculated as:
∆σz’ = γfillHfill

Fill, γfill Hfill

σz0’ σz0’ + ∆σz’

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4.2 Process of consolidation settlement

Change in vertical effective stress due to


water table variation

 The effective stress in soil can also


increase when the ground water table
is lowered.
 Thus, lowering of ground water table
(e.g. pumping from wells) will cause
ground settlement, a common
problem in many cities (e.g. Mexico
City).
4 Consolidation Geotechnics 3

4.2 Process of consolidation settlement

Physical process
The compressibility
of water and solids
is negligible.
For a saturated soil,
consolidation
settlement is caused
∆V = ∆eVs by the dissipation of
water.

∆H ∆V ∆eVs ∆e ∆e
εz = = = = ≈
H V eVs + Vs 1 + e 1 + e0

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4.2 Process of consolidation settlement

Piston and spring analogy

σz0, uh
u=uh+ue

Initial stress & PWP

∆σz ~ ∆P
Fill

ue
σz0, uh

Excess PWP

After Coduto (1999)


4 Consolidation Geotechnics 3

4.2 Process of consolidation settlement

Piston and spring analogy

The load, ∆P, is


sustained
initially by
water. When
u=uh+ue
pore water
dissipates, the
load is gradually
transferred from
water to the
spring (the soil
skeleton).
The
consolidation
process is a load
transferring
process.

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4.2 Process of consolidation settlement

Process in the field

Consider a site on soft clay soil with


initial steady-state groundwater
conditions. soft clay

An embankment is built, the loading


is undrained: the pore pressure in
the soil increases, seepage flow
and therefore volume changes
commences.

As consolidation takes place,


settlement occurs, and continues at
a decreasing rate until steady-state
conditions are regained.

4 Consolidation Geotechnics 3

4.2 Process of consolidation settlement

Process in the field - example


1) Before the 5 m fill is placed:

σA0 = 18.7*1 + 19*2 + 16.5*4.8


= 136 kPa
uA0 = 10*(2+4.8) = 68 kPa
σA0’ = 136 – 68 = 68 kPa

2) After the 5 m fill is placed:


(98)
σA = 136 + 19.5 *5 = 234 kPa
Initially (end of construction):
uAi = 68 + 98 = 166 kPa
σΑi’ = 234 – 166 = 68 kPa
End of consolidation:
uf = 68 kPa
σAf’ = 234 – 68 = 166 kPa
or: = 68 + 98 = 166 kPa
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4.2 Process of consolidation settlement

Processes in
the field -
example

Changes in total
stress, pore water
pressure, and
effective stress at
Point A due to the
placement of the 5
m fill.

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4.3 Consolidation settlement


calculations

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Consolidation settlement calculation

∆σz = q = 50 kPa

σvo’=? Water table


H=4 m A
σp’=?, Cc=?, eo=?, γ=?

When q is applied, what is the


ultimate settlement (δc)ult ?

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Consolidation settlement calculation

∆σz = ∆σv = q = 50 kPa

σvo’=?
Water table
H=4 m A

Cc= 1.2, σp’ = 10 kPa, eo = 1.5, γ = 15 kN/m3

σvo’ (or σzo’ ) is the effective overburden stress, i.e., the


effective vertical stress at the middle of the clay layer:
σvo’ = 2*15 - 2*10 = 10 kPa

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Settlement calculation – NC soil
σvo’= σp’= 10 kPa q=50 kPa

σvo’
e H=4 m σp’=10 kPa
A
Water table
Cc
Cc=1.2, eo=1.5, γ=15 kN/m3

q=50 kPa 1.2*4 10+50


10 60
∆Η = log
log σv’ 1+1.5 10

Cc = ∆e/[log(σ
σvo’+q)-log σvo’] = 1.48 m

∆eH CcH
∆Η = εvΗ = = σvo’+q)-log σvo’]
[log(σ
1+eo 1+eo
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Settlement calculation – OC soil (case 1)


σvo’= 10 kPa
q=15 kPa
Cr σp’= 30 kPa
σvo’
e H=4 m σp’=30 kPa
A
Water table

Cc=1.2, Cr=0.2, eo=1.5, γ=15 kN/m3

0.2*4 25
q=15 kPa ∆Η = log
1+1.5 10
10 25
log σv’
= 0.13 m
Cr = ∆e/[log(σ
σvo’+q)-log σv0’]

CrH
∆Η = σv0’+q)-log σvo’]
[log(σ
1+eo
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Settlement calculation – OC soil (case 2)
σvo’= 10 kPa q=50 kPa
σp’= 30 kPa
Cr
σvo’
e Cc H=4 m σp’=30 kPa
A
Water table

Cc=1.2, Cr=0.2, eo=1.5, γ=15 kN/m3

0.2*4 30
q=50 kPa ∆Η = log
1+1.5 10
10 60
log σv’ 1.2*4 10 + 50
Cr = ∆e/[log σp’-log σvo’] + log
1+1.5 30
Cc = ∆e/[log(σ
σvo’+q)-log σp’]
= 0.12 + 0.56 = 0.68 m
CrH CcH
∆Η = σp’-log σvo’] +
[logσ σvo’+q)-log σp’]
[log(σ
1+eo 1+eo
4 Consolidation Geotechnics 3

Example - NC clay
Surcharge by fill ∆σz = 19.2*3 = 57.6 kPa
δc = 0.174 + 0.141 + 0.154 = 0.469 m
Layer 1: σz’ = 56.4 kPa
3m Fill, γ = 19.2 kN/m3
1.5 m γ = 18.5 kN/m3 σz0’= σp’= 56.4 kPa
2m γ = 19.5 kN/m3

3m Cc = ∆e/[log(σ
σz0’+q)-
* e log σz0’]
Cc
10 m γ = 16.0
* kN/m3 3m

* 4m q=57.6 kPa
56.4 114
Dense sand and gravel log σv’
0.4*3 114
Cc = 0.4, Cr = 0.08, e0 = 1.10, ∆Η1 = log
NC clay 1+1.1 56.4
γw = 9.8 kN/m3
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Example – NC clay

H A midpoint of layer (δc)ult


Layer
(m) σz0’ σzf’ = σz0’+ q Cc/(1+e0) (m)
1 3 56.4 114.0 0.19 0.174

2 3 75.0 132.6 0.19 0.141

3 4 96.7 154.3 0.19 0.154


0.469m
σz0’ = 56.4 + 3*16 – 3*9.8 = 75.0 kPa
σzf’ = σz0’ + q = 75.0 + 57.6 = 132.6 kPa
∆H3 = 0.19*3*log (132.6/75.0) = 0.141 m

4 Consolidation Geotechnics 3

Example - OC clay

An 8.5 m deep compacted fill is to be


placed over the soil profile shown in
the figure. Consolidation tests on
samples from points A and B
produced the following results:

Property Sample A Sample B


Cc 0.25 0.20
Cr 0.08 0.06
e0 0.66 0.45
σp’ 101 kPa 510 kPa

Calculate the ultimate


consolidation settlement at the
top of stiff clay due to the weight Glacial till

of this fill.
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Example - OC clay

Sample A
σz0’ = 18.3*2.0 + 19*2.0 – 9.8*2.0 = 55.0 kPa
σzf’ = σz0’ + ∆σz = 55.0 + 20.3*8.5 = 55.0 + 172.6 = 227.6 kPa
σz0’ = 55 kPa < σp’ = 101 kPa < σzf’ = 227.6 kPa OC case 2

Sample B
σz0’ = 18.3*2.0 + 19*7.0 – 9.8*2.0 + 19.5*10.0 – 9.8*17.0 =
= 198.0 kPa
σzf’ = σz0’ + ∆σz = 198.0 + 172.6 = 370.6 kPa
σz0’ = 198 kPa < σzf’ = 370.6 kPa < σp’ = 510 kPa OC case 1

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Example - OC clay
Layer A – stiff silty clay

H σ ' H  σ '+ ∆σ z 
(δc ) ult = Cr log  p  + Cc log  z0 
1+ e0  σ p ' 
 σ z0'  1+ e0 

Layer B – very stiff clay q=∆σz

σp’

H  σ ' + ∆σ z 
(δc ) ult = Cr log  z0 
1+ e0  σ z0 ' 

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Example - OC clay
A midpoint of layer Cr Cc
H (δc)ult
Layer 1+e0 1+e0
(m) σz0’ σzf’ = σz0’+ ∆σz σ p’ (m)

1 2 18.3 190.9 101 0.05 0.15 0.157


2 3 50.4 223.0 101 0.05 0.15 0.133
3 4 82.6 255.2 101 0.05 0.15 0.130
4 4 120.4 293.0 510 0.04 0.14 0.062
5 4 159.2 331.8 510 0.04 0.14 0.051
6 5 202.8 375.4 510 0.04 0.14 0.053
7 5 251.4 424.0 510 0.04 0.14 0.045
0.631
4 Consolidation Geotechnics 3

Summary -1
 Ground settlement consists of 3
components:
δ = δc + δs + δi

 For a saturated soil, consolidation


settlement is caused by the dissipation
of the excess pore water pressure.

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Summary -2
 The compressibility of soil can be
measured by the oedometer test.
 In order to calculate the ultimate
consolidation settlement of soil, the
compression indices, Cc and Cr, and the
preconsolidation stress, σp’ have to be
determined from an e – log σv’ curve.

4 Consolidation Geotechnics 3

Summary -3
 σp’ represents the greatest vertical
effective stress that the soil has ever
experienced.

 OCR = σp’/ σv0’ signifies the stress history


of the soil. When OCR =1, the soil is said
to be NC. When OCR >1, the soil is OC.

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Consolidation settlement calculation - 1

NC Clay
(σz0’ = σp’ )

H
(δc ) ult = Cc [log σ zf '- log σ z0']
1+ e0

σz0’ + ∆σz
q=∆σz

= σp’
(log scale)
H  σ ' + ∆σ z 
(δc ) ult = Cc log  z0 
1+ e0  σ z0 ' 
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Consolidation settlement calculation - 2

OC Clay - Case 1
(σz0’ < σzf’ ≤ σp’)

H
(δc ) ult = Cr [log σ zf '- log σ z0']
1+ e0

σz0’ + ∆σz
q=∆σz

σp’
H  σ ' + ∆σ z 
(δc ) ult = Cr log  z0 
1+ e0  σ z0 ' 
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Consolidation settlement calculation - 3

OC Clay - Case 2
(σz0’ < σp’ ≤ σzf’)

H
(δc ) ult = C r [log σ p '- log σ z0 ']
1+ e0
H
+ Cc [log σ zf '- log σ p ']
1+ e0
q=∆σz

σz0’ + ∆σz
σp’

H σ' H  σ '+ ∆σ z 
(δc ) ult = Cr log  p  + Cc log  z0 
1+ e0  σ p ' 
 σ z0'  1+ e0 
4 Consolidation Geotechnics 3

Lecture 6
(Consolidation 2)
Tomorrow at 2pm
MAPH B-13
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