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# H23HG3: Hydraulics and Geotechnics 3

Dr Dariusz Wanatowski
School of Civil Engineering
The University of Nottingham
(February 2008)
4 Consolidation Geotechnics 3

Outline of Unit 4

## 6.1 Components of settlement

6.2 Process of consolidation settlement
6.3 Consolidation settlement calculation
6.4 One-dimensional consolidation theory
6.5 Solution of the 1-D consolidation equation
6.6 Determination of cv from laboratory tests
6.7 Secondary compression
6.8 Summary and example problems

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Lecture 6
(Consolidation 2)
Tomorrow at 2pm
MAPH B-13
4 Consolidation Geotechnics 3

Introduction

## • When a soil is subjected to a load the vertical

effective stress in the ground σz’ increases.

## • The increase in vertical effective stress induces

vertical strain, εz in the soil, and thus causes the
ground surface to move downward.

## • The downward movement of the soil is called

settlement.

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Introduction

## • Whenever σz’ increases, there always will be a

corresponding settlement, δ.

## • Therefore, the issue facing geotechnical

engineer is not if settlement will occur, but rather

## 1) The magnitude of settlement

2) The time rate of settlement

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Case studies

Kansai Airport
to settle 11.5 m
over 50 years

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Kansai Airport
The rate of sinking has fallen from
50 cm during 1994 to 9 cm in 2006

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kansai_International_Airport
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Case studies

## The Leaning Tower of Pis

Pisa
1990 → the top was 5.6 m
(in 1990
off plumb)

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4.1 Components of settlement

4 Consolidation Geotechnics 3

## Ground settlement consists of 3 components:

δ = δc + δ s + δi

Consolidation Immediate
settlement Secondary settlement
compression
settlement
Today we are going to learn how to calculate consolidation settlements
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6.1 Components of settlement
δc)
1. Consolidation settlement (δ
 decrease in the volume of the voids as pore water is squeezed out
of the soil
 occurs slowly according to the permeability
 significant in clays and silts

δs)
2. Secondary compression settlement (δ
 due to particle reorientation, creep, and decomposition of organic
materials
 occurs very slowly, long after primary consolidation is completed
 most significant in soft clays and organic soils

δi)
3. Immediate (distortion) settlement (δ
 elastic deformation with no change in water content
 occurs rapidly during the application of load
 quite small quantity in dense sands/gravels and stiff/hard clays
4 Consolidation Geotechnics 3

## 6.2 Process of consolidation

settlement

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4.2 Process of consolidation settlement

##  Consolidation settlement δc is due to

changes in the vertical effective stress.
 Initially, there is an initial vertical effective
stress, σz0’, in the soil.
 When external loads (e.g. placement of a
fill) are applied, a change in the vertical
effective stress will be induced.

4 Consolidation Geotechnics 3

due to fill

## When a fill is placed on the ground over a

large extend, the vertical stress increment
in the underlying soil can be calculated as:
∆σz’ = γfillHfill

## σz0’ σz0’ + ∆σz’

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4.2 Process of consolidation settlement

## Change in vertical effective stress due to

water table variation

##  The effective stress in soil can also

increase when the ground water table
is lowered.
 Thus, lowering of ground water table
(e.g. pumping from wells) will cause
ground settlement, a common
problem in many cities (e.g. Mexico
City).
4 Consolidation Geotechnics 3

## 4.2 Process of consolidation settlement

Physical process
The compressibility
of water and solids
is negligible.
For a saturated soil,
consolidation
settlement is caused
∆V = ∆eVs by the dissipation of
water.

∆H ∆V ∆eVs ∆e ∆e
εz = = = = ≈
H V eVs + Vs 1 + e 1 + e0

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4.2 Process of consolidation settlement

σz0, uh
u=uh+ue

∆σz ~ ∆P
Fill

ue
σz0, uh

Excess PWP

## After Coduto (1999)

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## The load, ∆P, is

sustained
initially by
water. When
u=uh+ue
pore water
dissipates, the
transferred from
water to the
spring (the soil
skeleton).
The
consolidation
process is a load
transferring
process.

## 4 Consolidation After Coduto (1999) Geotechnics 3

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4.2 Process of consolidation settlement

## Consider a site on soft clay soil with

conditions. soft clay

## An embankment is built, the loading

is undrained: the pore pressure in
the soil increases, seepage flow
and therefore volume changes
commences.

## As consolidation takes place,

settlement occurs, and continues at
a decreasing rate until steady-state
conditions are regained.

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## Process in the field - example

1) Before the 5 m fill is placed:

## σA0 = 18.7*1 + 19*2 + 16.5*4.8

= 136 kPa
uA0 = 10*(2+4.8) = 68 kPa
σA0’ = 136 – 68 = 68 kPa

## 2) After the 5 m fill is placed:

(98)
σA = 136 + 19.5 *5 = 234 kPa
Initially (end of construction):
uAi = 68 + 98 = 166 kPa
σΑi’ = 234 – 166 = 68 kPa
End of consolidation:
uf = 68 kPa
σAf’ = 234 – 68 = 166 kPa
or: = 68 + 98 = 166 kPa
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4.2 Process of consolidation settlement

Processes in
the field -
example

Changes in total
stress, pore water
pressure, and
effective stress at
Point A due to the
placement of the 5
m fill.

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## 4.3 Consolidation settlement

calculations

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Consolidation settlement calculation

∆σz = q = 50 kPa

## σvo’=? Water table

H=4 m A
σp’=?, Cc=?, eo=?, γ=?

## When q is applied, what is the

ultimate settlement (δc)ult ?

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σvo’=?
Water table
H=4 m A

## σvo’ (or σzo’ ) is the effective overburden stress, i.e., the

effective vertical stress at the middle of the clay layer:
σvo’ = 2*15 - 2*10 = 10 kPa

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Settlement calculation – NC soil
σvo’= σp’= 10 kPa q=50 kPa

σvo’
e H=4 m σp’=10 kPa
A
Water table
Cc
Cc=1.2, eo=1.5, γ=15 kN/m3

## q=50 kPa 1.2*4 10+50

10 60
∆Η = log
log σv’ 1+1.5 10

Cc = ∆e/[log(σ
σvo’+q)-log σvo’] = 1.48 m

∆eH CcH
∆Η = εvΗ = = σvo’+q)-log σvo’]
[log(σ
1+eo 1+eo
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## Settlement calculation – OC soil (case 1)

σvo’= 10 kPa
q=15 kPa
Cr σp’= 30 kPa
σvo’
e H=4 m σp’=30 kPa
A
Water table

## Cc=1.2, Cr=0.2, eo=1.5, γ=15 kN/m3

0.2*4 25
q=15 kPa ∆Η = log
1+1.5 10
10 25
log σv’
= 0.13 m
Cr = ∆e/[log(σ
σvo’+q)-log σv0’]

CrH
∆Η = σv0’+q)-log σvo’]
[log(σ
1+eo
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Settlement calculation – OC soil (case 2)
σvo’= 10 kPa q=50 kPa
σp’= 30 kPa
Cr
σvo’
e Cc H=4 m σp’=30 kPa
A
Water table

## Cc=1.2, Cr=0.2, eo=1.5, γ=15 kN/m3

0.2*4 30
q=50 kPa ∆Η = log
1+1.5 10
10 60
log σv’ 1.2*4 10 + 50
Cr = ∆e/[log σp’-log σvo’] + log
1+1.5 30
Cc = ∆e/[log(σ
σvo’+q)-log σp’]
= 0.12 + 0.56 = 0.68 m
CrH CcH
∆Η = σp’-log σvo’] +
[logσ σvo’+q)-log σp’]
[log(σ
1+eo 1+eo
4 Consolidation Geotechnics 3

Example - NC clay
Surcharge by fill ∆σz = 19.2*3 = 57.6 kPa
δc = 0.174 + 0.141 + 0.154 = 0.469 m
Layer 1: σz’ = 56.4 kPa
3m Fill, γ = 19.2 kN/m3
1.5 m γ = 18.5 kN/m3 σz0’= σp’= 56.4 kPa
2m γ = 19.5 kN/m3

3m Cc = ∆e/[log(σ
σz0’+q)-
* e log σz0’]
Cc
10 m γ = 16.0
* kN/m3 3m

* 4m q=57.6 kPa
56.4 114
Dense sand and gravel log σv’
0.4*3 114
Cc = 0.4, Cr = 0.08, e0 = 1.10, ∆Η1 = log
NC clay 1+1.1 56.4
γw = 9.8 kN/m3
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Example – NC clay

## H A midpoint of layer (δc)ult

Layer
(m) σz0’ σzf’ = σz0’+ q Cc/(1+e0) (m)
1 3 56.4 114.0 0.19 0.174

## 3 4 96.7 154.3 0.19 0.154

0.469m
σz0’ = 56.4 + 3*16 – 3*9.8 = 75.0 kPa
σzf’ = σz0’ + q = 75.0 + 57.6 = 132.6 kPa
∆H3 = 0.19*3*log (132.6/75.0) = 0.141 m

4 Consolidation Geotechnics 3

Example - OC clay

## An 8.5 m deep compacted fill is to be

placed over the soil profile shown in
the figure. Consolidation tests on
samples from points A and B
produced the following results:

## Property Sample A Sample B

Cc 0.25 0.20
Cr 0.08 0.06
e0 0.66 0.45
σp’ 101 kPa 510 kPa

## Calculate the ultimate

consolidation settlement at the
top of stiff clay due to the weight Glacial till

of this fill.
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Example - OC clay

Sample A
σz0’ = 18.3*2.0 + 19*2.0 – 9.8*2.0 = 55.0 kPa
σzf’ = σz0’ + ∆σz = 55.0 + 20.3*8.5 = 55.0 + 172.6 = 227.6 kPa
σz0’ = 55 kPa < σp’ = 101 kPa < σzf’ = 227.6 kPa OC case 2

Sample B
σz0’ = 18.3*2.0 + 19*7.0 – 9.8*2.0 + 19.5*10.0 – 9.8*17.0 =
= 198.0 kPa
σzf’ = σz0’ + ∆σz = 198.0 + 172.6 = 370.6 kPa
σz0’ = 198 kPa < σzf’ = 370.6 kPa < σp’ = 510 kPa OC case 1

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Example - OC clay
Layer A – stiff silty clay

H σ ' H  σ '+ ∆σ z 
(δc ) ult = Cr log  p  + Cc log  z0 
1+ e0  σ p ' 
 σ z0'  1+ e0 

## Layer B – very stiff clay q=∆σz

σp’

H  σ ' + ∆σ z 
(δc ) ult = Cr log  z0 
1+ e0  σ z0 ' 

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Example - OC clay
A midpoint of layer Cr Cc
H (δc)ult
Layer 1+e0 1+e0
(m) σz0’ σzf’ = σz0’+ ∆σz σ p’ (m)

## 1 2 18.3 190.9 101 0.05 0.15 0.157

2 3 50.4 223.0 101 0.05 0.15 0.133
3 4 82.6 255.2 101 0.05 0.15 0.130
4 4 120.4 293.0 510 0.04 0.14 0.062
5 4 159.2 331.8 510 0.04 0.14 0.051
6 5 202.8 375.4 510 0.04 0.14 0.053
7 5 251.4 424.0 510 0.04 0.14 0.045
0.631
4 Consolidation Geotechnics 3

Summary -1
 Ground settlement consists of 3
components:
δ = δc + δs + δi

##  For a saturated soil, consolidation

settlement is caused by the dissipation
of the excess pore water pressure.

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Summary -2
 The compressibility of soil can be
measured by the oedometer test.
 In order to calculate the ultimate
consolidation settlement of soil, the
compression indices, Cc and Cr, and the
preconsolidation stress, σp’ have to be
determined from an e – log σv’ curve.

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Summary -3
 σp’ represents the greatest vertical
effective stress that the soil has ever
experienced.

##  OCR = σp’/ σv0’ signifies the stress history

of the soil. When OCR =1, the soil is said
to be NC. When OCR >1, the soil is OC.

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Consolidation settlement calculation - 1

NC Clay
(σz0’ = σp’ )

H
(δc ) ult = Cc [log σ zf '- log σ z0']
1+ e0

σz0’ + ∆σz
q=∆σz

= σp’
(log scale)
H  σ ' + ∆σ z 
(δc ) ult = Cc log  z0 
1+ e0  σ z0 ' 
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## Consolidation settlement calculation - 2

OC Clay - Case 1
(σz0’ < σzf’ ≤ σp’)

H
(δc ) ult = Cr [log σ zf '- log σ z0']
1+ e0

σz0’ + ∆σz
q=∆σz

σp’
H  σ ' + ∆σ z 
(δc ) ult = Cr log  z0 
1+ e0  σ z0 ' 
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Consolidation settlement calculation - 3

OC Clay - Case 2
(σz0’ < σp’ ≤ σzf’)

H
(δc ) ult = C r [log σ p '- log σ z0 ']
1+ e0
H
+ Cc [log σ zf '- log σ p ']
1+ e0
q=∆σz

σz0’ + ∆σz
σp’

H σ' H  σ '+ ∆σ z 
(δc ) ult = Cr log  p  + Cc log  z0 
1+ e0  σ p ' 
 σ z0'  1+ e0 
4 Consolidation Geotechnics 3

Lecture 6
(Consolidation 2)
Tomorrow at 2pm
MAPH B-13
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