Consolidation

© All Rights Reserved

0 views

01 Syllabus Timetable 2017-18

Consolidation

© All Rights Reserved

- Shear Strength
- 361-Sl10 Settlement of Soils
- elastic_theory
- CV...Mohamed Abdo
- Column Design Study
- Data
- Eulerian Flow Modeling
- Design of Bioreactor Landfill for Allahabad City
- SMS Assignment 2.1
- Construction Small
- End Sem Q paper
- 335 Algasism Fd
- MSME Certificate SEC
- CE 632 Soil Mechanics Review.pps
- 1
- 10.1.1.622.8073
- PROCESS_ok B5 UD-1
- m6l36 (1)
- Final Exam Mec630
- Park 2011

You are on page 1of 21

Dr Dariusz Wanatowski

School of Civil Engineering

The University of Nottingham

(February 2008)

4 Consolidation Geotechnics 3

Outline of Unit 4

6.2 Process of consolidation settlement

6.3 Consolidation settlement calculation

6.4 One-dimensional consolidation theory

6.5 Solution of the 1-D consolidation equation

6.6 Determination of cv from laboratory tests

6.7 Secondary compression

6.8 Summary and example problems

4 Consolidation Geotechnics 3

1

Lecture 6

(Consolidation 2)

Tomorrow at 2pm

MAPH B-13

4 Consolidation Geotechnics 3

Introduction

effective stress in the ground σz’ increases.

vertical strain, εz in the soil, and thus causes the

ground surface to move downward.

settlement.

4 Consolidation Geotechnics 3

2

Introduction

corresponding settlement, δ.

engineer is not if settlement will occur, but rather

2) The time rate of settlement

4 Consolidation Geotechnics 3

Case studies

Kansai Airport

to settle 11.5 m

over 50 years

4 Consolidation Geotechnics 3

3

Kansai Airport

The rate of sinking has fallen from

50 cm during 1994 to 9 cm in 2006

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kansai_International_Airport

4 Consolidation Geotechnics 3

Case studies

Pisa

1990 → the top was 5.6 m

(in 1990

off plumb)

4 Consolidation Geotechnics 3

4

4.1 Components of settlement

4 Consolidation Geotechnics 3

δ = δc + δ s + δi

Consolidation Immediate

settlement Secondary settlement

compression

settlement

Today we are going to learn how to calculate consolidation settlements

4 Consolidation Geotechnics 3

5

6.1 Components of settlement

δc)

1. Consolidation settlement (δ

decrease in the volume of the voids as pore water is squeezed out

of the soil

occurs slowly according to the permeability

significant in clays and silts

δs)

2. Secondary compression settlement (δ

due to particle reorientation, creep, and decomposition of organic

materials

occurs very slowly, long after primary consolidation is completed

most significant in soft clays and organic soils

δi)

3. Immediate (distortion) settlement (δ

elastic deformation with no change in water content

occurs rapidly during the application of load

quite small quantity in dense sands/gravels and stiff/hard clays

4 Consolidation Geotechnics 3

settlement

4 Consolidation Geotechnics 3

6

4.2 Process of consolidation settlement

changes in the vertical effective stress.

Initially, there is an initial vertical effective

stress, σz0’, in the soil.

When external loads (e.g. placement of a

fill) are applied, a change in the vertical

effective stress will be induced.

4 Consolidation Geotechnics 3

due to fill

large extend, the vertical stress increment

in the underlying soil can be calculated as:

∆σz’ = γfillHfill

4 Consolidation Geotechnics 3

7

4.2 Process of consolidation settlement

water table variation

increase when the ground water table

is lowered.

Thus, lowering of ground water table

(e.g. pumping from wells) will cause

ground settlement, a common

problem in many cities (e.g. Mexico

City).

4 Consolidation Geotechnics 3

Physical process

The compressibility

of water and solids

is negligible.

For a saturated soil,

consolidation

settlement is caused

∆V = ∆eVs by the dissipation of

water.

∆H ∆V ∆eVs ∆e ∆e

εz = = = = ≈

H V eVs + Vs 1 + e 1 + e0

4 Consolidation Geotechnics 3

8

4.2 Process of consolidation settlement

σz0, uh

u=uh+ue

∆σz ~ ∆P

Fill

ue

σz0, uh

Excess PWP

4 Consolidation Geotechnics 3

sustained

initially by

water. When

u=uh+ue

pore water

dissipates, the

load is gradually

transferred from

water to the

spring (the soil

skeleton).

The

consolidation

process is a load

transferring

process.

9

4.2 Process of consolidation settlement

initial steady-state groundwater

conditions. soft clay

is undrained: the pore pressure in

the soil increases, seepage flow

and therefore volume changes

commences.

settlement occurs, and continues at

a decreasing rate until steady-state

conditions are regained.

4 Consolidation Geotechnics 3

1) Before the 5 m fill is placed:

= 136 kPa

uA0 = 10*(2+4.8) = 68 kPa

σA0’ = 136 – 68 = 68 kPa

(98)

σA = 136 + 19.5 *5 = 234 kPa

Initially (end of construction):

uAi = 68 + 98 = 166 kPa

σΑi’ = 234 – 166 = 68 kPa

End of consolidation:

uf = 68 kPa

σAf’ = 234 – 68 = 166 kPa

or: = 68 + 98 = 166 kPa

4 Consolidation Geotechnics 3

10

4.2 Process of consolidation settlement

Processes in

the field -

example

Changes in total

stress, pore water

pressure, and

effective stress at

Point A due to the

placement of the 5

m fill.

4 Consolidation Geotechnics 3

calculations

4 Consolidation Geotechnics 3

11

Consolidation settlement calculation

∆σz = q = 50 kPa

H=4 m A

σp’=?, Cc=?, eo=?, γ=?

ultimate settlement (δc)ult ?

4 Consolidation Geotechnics 3

σvo’=?

Water table

H=4 m A

effective vertical stress at the middle of the clay layer:

σvo’ = 2*15 - 2*10 = 10 kPa

4 Consolidation Geotechnics 3

12

Settlement calculation – NC soil

σvo’= σp’= 10 kPa q=50 kPa

σvo’

e H=4 m σp’=10 kPa

A

Water table

Cc

Cc=1.2, eo=1.5, γ=15 kN/m3

10 60

∆Η = log

log σv’ 1+1.5 10

Cc = ∆e/[log(σ

σvo’+q)-log σvo’] = 1.48 m

∆eH CcH

∆Η = εvΗ = = σvo’+q)-log σvo’]

[log(σ

1+eo 1+eo

4 Consolidation Geotechnics 3

σvo’= 10 kPa

q=15 kPa

Cr σp’= 30 kPa

σvo’

e H=4 m σp’=30 kPa

A

Water table

0.2*4 25

q=15 kPa ∆Η = log

1+1.5 10

10 25

log σv’

= 0.13 m

Cr = ∆e/[log(σ

σvo’+q)-log σv0’]

CrH

∆Η = σv0’+q)-log σvo’]

[log(σ

1+eo

4 Consolidation Geotechnics 3

13

Settlement calculation – OC soil (case 2)

σvo’= 10 kPa q=50 kPa

σp’= 30 kPa

Cr

σvo’

e Cc H=4 m σp’=30 kPa

A

Water table

0.2*4 30

q=50 kPa ∆Η = log

1+1.5 10

10 60

log σv’ 1.2*4 10 + 50

Cr = ∆e/[log σp’-log σvo’] + log

1+1.5 30

Cc = ∆e/[log(σ

σvo’+q)-log σp’]

= 0.12 + 0.56 = 0.68 m

CrH CcH

∆Η = σp’-log σvo’] +

[logσ σvo’+q)-log σp’]

[log(σ

1+eo 1+eo

4 Consolidation Geotechnics 3

Example - NC clay

Surcharge by fill ∆σz = 19.2*3 = 57.6 kPa

δc = 0.174 + 0.141 + 0.154 = 0.469 m

Layer 1: σz’ = 56.4 kPa

3m Fill, γ = 19.2 kN/m3

1.5 m γ = 18.5 kN/m3 σz0’= σp’= 56.4 kPa

2m γ = 19.5 kN/m3

3m Cc = ∆e/[log(σ

σz0’+q)-

* e log σz0’]

Cc

10 m γ = 16.0

* kN/m3 3m

* 4m q=57.6 kPa

56.4 114

Dense sand and gravel log σv’

0.4*3 114

Cc = 0.4, Cr = 0.08, e0 = 1.10, ∆Η1 = log

NC clay 1+1.1 56.4

γw = 9.8 kN/m3

4 Consolidation = 0.174 m Geotechnics 3

14

Example – NC clay

Layer

(m) σz0’ σzf’ = σz0’+ q Cc/(1+e0) (m)

1 3 56.4 114.0 0.19 0.174

0.469m

σz0’ = 56.4 + 3*16 – 3*9.8 = 75.0 kPa

σzf’ = σz0’ + q = 75.0 + 57.6 = 132.6 kPa

∆H3 = 0.19*3*log (132.6/75.0) = 0.141 m

4 Consolidation Geotechnics 3

Example - OC clay

placed over the soil profile shown in

the figure. Consolidation tests on

samples from points A and B

produced the following results:

Cc 0.25 0.20

Cr 0.08 0.06

e0 0.66 0.45

σp’ 101 kPa 510 kPa

consolidation settlement at the

top of stiff clay due to the weight Glacial till

of this fill.

4 Consolidation Geotechnics 3

15

Example - OC clay

Sample A

σz0’ = 18.3*2.0 + 19*2.0 – 9.8*2.0 = 55.0 kPa

σzf’ = σz0’ + ∆σz = 55.0 + 20.3*8.5 = 55.0 + 172.6 = 227.6 kPa

σz0’ = 55 kPa < σp’ = 101 kPa < σzf’ = 227.6 kPa OC case 2

Sample B

σz0’ = 18.3*2.0 + 19*7.0 – 9.8*2.0 + 19.5*10.0 – 9.8*17.0 =

= 198.0 kPa

σzf’ = σz0’ + ∆σz = 198.0 + 172.6 = 370.6 kPa

σz0’ = 198 kPa < σzf’ = 370.6 kPa < σp’ = 510 kPa OC case 1

4 Consolidation Geotechnics 3

Example - OC clay

Layer A – stiff silty clay

H σ ' H σ '+ ∆σ z

(δc ) ult = Cr log p + Cc log z0

1+ e0 σ p '

σ z0' 1+ e0

σp’

H σ ' + ∆σ z

(δc ) ult = Cr log z0

1+ e0 σ z0 '

4 Consolidation Geotechnics 3

16

Example - OC clay

A midpoint of layer Cr Cc

H (δc)ult

Layer 1+e0 1+e0

(m) σz0’ σzf’ = σz0’+ ∆σz σ p’ (m)

2 3 50.4 223.0 101 0.05 0.15 0.133

3 4 82.6 255.2 101 0.05 0.15 0.130

4 4 120.4 293.0 510 0.04 0.14 0.062

5 4 159.2 331.8 510 0.04 0.14 0.051

6 5 202.8 375.4 510 0.04 0.14 0.053

7 5 251.4 424.0 510 0.04 0.14 0.045

0.631

4 Consolidation Geotechnics 3

Summary -1

Ground settlement consists of 3

components:

δ = δc + δs + δi

settlement is caused by the dissipation

of the excess pore water pressure.

4 Consolidation Geotechnics 3

17

Summary -2

The compressibility of soil can be

measured by the oedometer test.

In order to calculate the ultimate

consolidation settlement of soil, the

compression indices, Cc and Cr, and the

preconsolidation stress, σp’ have to be

determined from an e – log σv’ curve.

4 Consolidation Geotechnics 3

Summary -3

σp’ represents the greatest vertical

effective stress that the soil has ever

experienced.

of the soil. When OCR =1, the soil is said

to be NC. When OCR >1, the soil is OC.

4 Consolidation Geotechnics 3

18

Consolidation settlement calculation - 1

NC Clay

(σz0’ = σp’ )

H

(δc ) ult = Cc [log σ zf '- log σ z0']

1+ e0

σz0’ + ∆σz

q=∆σz

= σp’

(log scale)

H σ ' + ∆σ z

(δc ) ult = Cc log z0

1+ e0 σ z0 '

4 Consolidation Geotechnics 3

OC Clay - Case 1

(σz0’ < σzf’ ≤ σp’)

H

(δc ) ult = Cr [log σ zf '- log σ z0']

1+ e0

σz0’ + ∆σz

q=∆σz

σp’

H σ ' + ∆σ z

(δc ) ult = Cr log z0

1+ e0 σ z0 '

4 Consolidation Geotechnics 3

19

Consolidation settlement calculation - 3

OC Clay - Case 2

(σz0’ < σp’ ≤ σzf’)

H

(δc ) ult = C r [log σ p '- log σ z0 ']

1+ e0

H

+ Cc [log σ zf '- log σ p ']

1+ e0

q=∆σz

σz0’ + ∆σz

σp’

H σ' H σ '+ ∆σ z

(δc ) ult = Cr log p + Cc log z0

1+ e0 σ p '

σ z0' 1+ e0

4 Consolidation Geotechnics 3

Lecture 6

(Consolidation 2)

Tomorrow at 2pm

MAPH B-13

4 Consolidation Geotechnics 3

20

4 Consolidation Geotechnics 3

21

- Shear StrengthUploaded byNahusenay
- 361-Sl10 Settlement of SoilsUploaded byGeorge Ogutu
- elastic_theoryUploaded byUsamah Haristsuddin
- CV...Mohamed AbdoUploaded byboba_089
- DataUploaded byKantharaj Chinnappa
- Column Design StudyUploaded byHellboyRBJ
- Eulerian Flow ModelingUploaded byromdhan88
- Design of Bioreactor Landfill for Allahabad CityUploaded bynnsdell
- SMS Assignment 2.1Uploaded byAu Jin Cheng
- Construction SmallUploaded byV.vinay Kumar Gupta
- End Sem Q paperUploaded bysantkabir
- 335 Algasism FdUploaded byjcunha4740
- MSME Certificate SECUploaded bySURAJIT
- CE 632 Soil Mechanics Review.ppsUploaded byAbdul Kabasy
- 1Uploaded bySrinivas Thadoju
- 10.1.1.622.8073Uploaded byindah
- PROCESS_ok B5 UD-1Uploaded bySultan Al Shafian
- m6l36 (1)Uploaded byBishwajit Chowdhury
- Final Exam Mec630Uploaded byaimanazuddin
- Park 2011Uploaded byLuchin Lopez Merino
- Market area.pdfUploaded byluke
- heritage survey rodrigo gUploaded byapi-442891157
- FEEDMILL BUILDING_2_ROOF_DETAILS.pdfUploaded byiculasi
- 2014 Groundimprovementbyvacuumconsolidation-Areview ICEGroundImprovementUploaded byDante
- The Deep Mixing Method Kitazume.pdfUploaded byphoton
- QuestionUploaded byNitrogenn Gass
- Compressibility of Some Peats and Organic SoilsUploaded byGerald Tan
- KWA Duties and ResponsibilitiesUploaded byUnni Krishnan S.P
- 2018_ENGR2832 WK1 OverviewUploaded bychantaiman
- AAABCUploaded bydongngo

- Agent-20181119T144201.pdfUploaded byJake Blogger
- 1-Structural-Design 2012 Yield LineUploaded byJake Blogger
- 01 Syllabus Timetable 2017-18Uploaded byJake Blogger
- Green Roofs moffUploaded byJake Blogger
- 2 - Green Roofs.pdfUploaded byJake Blogger
- integral deliveryUploaded byJake Blogger
- Lecture 4Uploaded byYen Ling Ng
- UN_PMT_RCPTUploaded byJake Blogger
- 3.2 university of glasgow geotechnical exam question examples.pdfUploaded byAbera Mamo
- 02 Unit 1 BasicsUploaded byJake Blogger
- H23G13 Question 14-15Uploaded byJake Blogger
- 7 - BIM Based CollaborationUploaded byJake Blogger
- 4 - Process ModellingUploaded byJake Blogger
- interoperability of BIMUploaded byJake Blogger
- Oversea Exam - Autumn 2019 Copy 2Uploaded byJake Blogger
- Urban drainage design systemUploaded byJake Blogger
- Part 4- In Situ Testing and Settlement on Sand(1)Uploaded byJake Blogger
- Deep FoundationsUploaded byJake Blogger
- Environmental ImpactsUploaded byJake Blogger
- Std Copy SCD Chapter 6 Frame AnalysisUploaded byJake Blogger
- Shuttle Bus Schedule Academic Yr 2017-2018 (Updated as at 13th October 2017) 20171013Uploaded byKam Shi Khai
- Hydraulics Coursework 4Uploaded byJake Blogger
- SCD Chapter 10A Foundations - FootingUploaded byJake Blogger

- Seismic-2-FundamentalConcepts-in-SeismicEngineering.pdfUploaded bymrnaeem
- Oceanos Del Mundo Ingles y EspañolUploaded byMiguel Ortega
- MV100Ah-12VUploaded byJossuarmm
- manufacture of cumeneUploaded byG Vamsee Krishna
- Multiple English ExerciseUploaded byThaoanh Nguyen
- 01HindalcoIndustriesLimitedHirakudSmelterSambalpurOrissaUploaded bymrinalsen69
- Hydrogen Pathway- Cost AnalysisUploaded byKroya Hun
- measurement-101.pdfUploaded byhelder.santos1114
- Lecture 1Uploaded byImtiyaaz Malick
- Problem Set PhysicsUploaded byMackiiEe GuLa
- weather in the movies - projectUploaded byapi-436808704
- CBSE Class 11 Chemistry Notes _ Chemical Bonding and Molecular Structure _ AglaSem SchoolsUploaded byAswar Shailesh
- New Project PlanUploaded byKhalid Hussain
- 8 AdsorptionUploaded byRon Kevin Meren
- Std05-III-MSSS-EM-3Uploaded byKiran Kumar
- Solar Panel Orientation and Positioning of Solar Panel22222Uploaded byKameshPatil
- 1.1-1.2 Introduction to PhysicsUploaded byyelbonifacio
- GEA31424A Goldmeer ASL Crude Oil Paper_12!08!14_LRUploaded bySofianeLeksir
- Ea-612 Radiog Rad Safety ModuleUploaded byHari Gupta
- 1-s2.0-S1364032117306822-mainUploaded bymayalasan1
- Introduction to Petroleum & ExplorationUploaded byNitin Patil
- Prosedur Kerja, Kesimpulan, Disukusi Gerak BakteriUploaded byhilda
- r 2008 Chemical SyllabusUploaded bysreenivasMtechdis
- 1-s2.0-S0017931015314885-main_R38Uploaded byAnonymous 7BQxlt8c
- MechUploaded byOlojo Oluwasegun Emmanuel
- Polycrystalline SiliconUploaded byBiswajit Mohanty
- The Ecological Footprint Atlas - 2008 (Global Footprint Network)Uploaded bygeografia e ensino de geografia
- 3Index.pdfUploaded bydada jamdar
- ME 530 HW 2Uploaded bynomitav119806
- Franklin FranceUploaded bykrcdewanew

## Much more than documents.

Discover everything Scribd has to offer, including books and audiobooks from major publishers.

Cancel anytime.