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Original Title: NM030 Achieving Delay Diversity in Asynchronous Underwater Cooperative Comm. System

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NM030 Achieving Delay Diversity in Asynchronous Underwater Cooperative Comm. System

NM030 Achieving Delay Diversity in Asynchronous Underwater Cooperative Comm. System

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the WiFi-offloading ratio on the per-user throughput. The proposed An Efficient Blind Estimation of Carrier

network-assisted user-centric WiFi-offloading model utilizes the net- Frequency Offset in OFDM Systems

work information while offloading more traffic into WiFi networks

and achieves the maximum per-user throughput. The proposed model Said Lmai, Student Member, IEEE, Arnaud Bourré,

outperforms the other existing models with 20% higher per-user and Christophe Laot, Senior Member, IEEE, and

network throughput in a dense traffic environment. Sebastien Houcke, Member, IEEE

For further work, we will investigate the impact of power con-

sumption and mobility on WiFi-offloading models in a heterogeneous

network. Abstract—In this paper, we propose a low-complexity blind car-

rier frequency offset (CFO) estimation scheme for constant mod-

ulus (CM)-signaling-based orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing

(OFDM) systems. Provided that the channel can be assumed to be slowly

R EFERENCES time-varying, subcarriers having the same indexes in two consecutive

[1] Cisco, Cisco Visual Networking Index: Global Mobile Data Traffic Fore- OFDM symbols will experience nearly the same channel effect. This

cast Update, White Paper, Feb. 2012. assumption enables us to derive a cost function that is determined by the

[2] CTIA, The Wireless Association Semi-Annual Survey Shows Significant sum of the products of the signal amplitudes on each pair of equivalent sub-

Demand by Americans for Wireless Broadband, Apr. 2012. [Online]. carriers from two successive OFDM symbols. The maximization process

Available: http://www.fiercewireless.com/press-releases/ctia-wireless- of this cost function makes it possible to find an appropriate estimate of

association-semi-annual-survey-shows-significant-demand-ameri the CFO. Over frequency-selective Rayleigh fading channels, the proposed

[3] N. Ristanovic, J. L. Boudec, A. Chaintreau, and V. Erramilli, “Energy CFO estimation method provides improved performance over existing

efficient offloading of 3G networks,” in Proc. 8th Int. IEEE Conf. MASS, techniques. Moreover, in the context of narrow-band noise and signal gain

Oct. 2011, pp. 202–211. variations, the simulations demonstrate the robustness and immunity of

[4] A. Aijaz, O. Holland, P. Pangalos, and H. Aghvami, “Energy savings for our scheme.

cellular access network through Wi-Fi offloading,” in Proc. IEEE ICC,

Jun. 2012, pp. 4369–4373. Index Terms—Blind estimation, carrier frequency offset (CFO), con-

[5] K. Lee, I. Rhee, J. Lee, S. Chong, and Y. Yi, “Mobile data offloading: stant modulus (CM), narrow-band noise, orthogonal frequency-division

How much can WiFi deliver?” in Proc. ACM SIGCOMM, Nov. 2010, multiplexing (OFDM).

pp. 425–426.

[6] X. Zhuo, W. Gao, G. Cao, and S. Hua, “An incentive framework for

cellular traffic offloading,” IEEE Trans. Mobile Comput., accepted for I. I NTRODUCTION

publication.

[7] S. Dimatteo, P. Hui, B. Han, and V. Li, “Cellular traffic offloading through The multicarrier modulation technique in the form of orthogo-

WiFi networks,” in Proc. IEEE MASS, Oct. 2011, pp. 192–201. nal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM) is an efficient scheme

[8] D. S. Deif, H. El-Badawy, and H. El-Hennawy, “Topology based modeling adopted in several standards for systems demanding a high data rate.

and simulation of UMTS-WLAN wireless heterogeneous network,” in In addition to its simple implementation when using a fast Fourier

Proc. IEEE Wireless Opt. Comm. Netw., Sep. 2010, pp. 1–5.

[9] A. Balasubramanian, R. Mahajan, and A. Venkataramani, “Augmenting transform algorithm for discrete Fourier transform (DFT), the OFDM

mobile 3G using WiFi,” Proc. MobiSys, pp. 209–222, Jun. 2010. system is also known for its relatively low sensitivity to time synchro-

[10] J. Kim, N. Song, B. H. Jung, H. Leem, and D. K. Sung, “Placement of nization errors. However, in the presence of carrier frequency offset

WiFi access points for efficient WiFi offloading in an overlay network,” (CFO), the orthogonality between subcarriers is quickly destroyed,

in Proc. IEEE PIMRC, Sep. 2013, pp. 3081–3085.

and intercarrier interference (ICI) arises, resulting in bit-error-rate

[11] A. B. Pontes, D. P. Silva, J. Jailton, Jr., O. Rodrigues, Jr., and

K. L. Dias, “Handover management in integrated WLAN and mobile performance loss. CFO is mostly due to transmitter–receiver relative

WiMAX networks,” IEEE Trans. Wireless Commun., vol. 15, no. 5, movement, channel variability, and the imperfect alignment between

pp. 86–95, Oct. 2008. local transmitter and receiver oscillators.

[12] “Access Network Discovery and Selection Function (ANDSF) Manage- Several CFO estimation techniques have been proposed in the

ment Object,” 3GPP, Sophia-Antipolis, France, Tech. Rep. TS 24.312,

Dec. 2012. literature. They are either data aided [1]–[4] or simply blind [5]–[10].

[13] M. Ismail and W. Zhuang, “A distributed multi-service resource allocation This second category, which is also referred to as non-data aided,

algorithm in heterogeneous wireless access medium,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas may rely on inserting null subcarriers (e.g., [5] and references therein)

Commun., vol. 30, no. 2, pp. 425–432, Feb. 2012. and is then power efficient or can be bandwidth efficient in the case

[14] K. Duffy, D. Malone, and D. Leith, “Modeling the 802.11 distributed

when the OFDM system is fully loaded. Additionally, in [11]–[15],

coordination function in non-saturated conditions,” IEEE Commun. Lett.,

vol. 9, no. 8, pp. 715–717, Aug. 2005. estimators operating over a post-DFT signal have been proposed. In

[15] P. Chatzimisios, V. Vitsas, and A. C. Boucouvalas, “Throughput and delay [12], it is assumed that the channel response on two adjacent sub-

analysis of IEEE 802.11 protocol,” in Proc. IEEE Int. Workshop Netw. carriers remains practically unchanged. Therefore, over each OFDM

Appliances, Oct. 2002, pp. 168–174. symbol, the authors proceed by using the power difference minimiza-

[16] J. Z. Zhang and C. X. Xu, “Trust region dogleg path algorithms for

unconstrained minimization,” Annals Oper. Res., vol. 87, no. 10, pp. 407– tion between two neighboring subcarriers to develop an estimator

418, Apr. 1999. adapted to constant modulus (CM) signaling. In [13], another estimator

[17] X. Yang, “Designing traffic profiles for bursty Internet traffic,” in Proc. is introduced, which exploits the slow channel changes in the time

IEEE GLOBECOM, Nov. 2002, pp. 2149–2154.

Manuscript received March 29, 2013; revised July 14, 2013; accepted

September 18, 2013 Date of publication October 11, 2013; date of current

version May 8, 2014. This work was supported in part by Fonds Unique

Interministériel, France, through the COMET Project. The review of this paper

was coordinated by Dr. A. J. Al-Dweik.

The authors are with the Telecom Bretagne, Institut Mines-Télécom, Brest

29238, France (e-mail: said.lmai@telecom-bretagne.eu).

Color versions of one or more of the figures in this paper are available online

at http://ieeexplore.ieee.org.

Digital Object Identifier 10.1109/TVT.2013.2285479

0018-9545 © 2013 IEEE. Personal use is permitted, but republication/redistribution requires IEEE permission.

See http://www.ieee.org/publications_standards/publications/rights/index.html for more information.

1946 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON VEHICULAR TECHNOLOGY, VOL. 63, NO. 4, MAY 2014

domain over two consecutive OFDM symbols. The differential OFDM where W is the N ×√N normalized I-DFT matrix, whose ele-

system was the context of use discussed in [13]. The same estimator is ments are Wm,n = (1/ N ) exp(j2πmn/N ) by the mth row and

proposed in [15] with further developments and without the constraint the nth column along with m, n = 0, 1, . . . , N − 1. Afterward,

of differential modulation. As reported in [16], let a power difference the signal so far constructed passes through the multipath fad-

estimator in the frequency domain (PDE-F) and its analog in the time ing channel, having the corresponding frequency response Hl =

domain (PDE-T) denote the CFO estimators proposed in [12] and diag([Hl0 , Hl1 , . . . , HlN −1 ]). Let denote the introduced CFO,

[15], respectively. By minimizing the power difference between all which is normalized with respect to the subcarrier spacing (in this

pairs of subcarriers, on one hand adjacent subcarriers in each OFDM case, (1/Tu )). Thus, ∈ (−0.5, 0.5), and the resulting accumulated

symbol (PDE-F), or having the same indexes in two successive OFDM phase shift on the OFDM symbol time-domain samples is depicted

symbols (PDE-T) on the other hand, estimation functions are derived. by C() = diag([ej2π N ×0 , ej2π N ×1 , . . . , ej2π N ×(N −1) ]). Remov-

In this paper, we propose a novel and efficient blind CFO estimator ing the CP is the first operation performed at reception, and the

for fully loaded CM-OFDM systems. The basic assumption used to retained signal is yl = [yl0 , yl1 , . . . , ylN −1 ]T . This received OFDM

derive the cost function is always that the channel taps slowly change symbol might be described as

in the time domain. Provided that the channel response remains almost

constant over two successive OFDM symbols, we initially assume yl = ej2π N (l−1)(N +Ncp ) C()WHl dl + vl (3)

the minimization of the difference in post-DFT signal amplitudes

between all pairs of subcarriers having the same indexes. Analogous to where vl = [vl0 , vl1 , . . . , vlN −1 ]T is the vector of white Gaussian

PDE-F and PDE-T, let us use ADE-T to refer to the proposed estimator, noise with zero mean and variance σv2 . Note that the resulting

although it stands for an amplitude difference estimator in the time common phase shift relative to the lth OFDM symbol is given by

domain. Using the exhaustive search method, we show that PDE-F, ej2π(/N )(l−1)(N +Ncp ) . In the case of perfect time synchronization,

PDE-T, and ADE-T performance achievements are almost identical. CFO is estimated and then compensated before conducting the DFT

Likewise, the cost function obtained for ADE-T has quasi-regular operation. In other words, is first estimated by ˆ and after that,

shape and is simple to implement. It can be closely approximated yl is multiplied by C(ˆ )∗ for CFO compensation and by WH for

by a sinusoid with a global maximum corresponding to the desired the DFT process. As a result, we get vector sl = [s0l , s1l , . . . , slN −1 ]T

CFO estimate value. The low-complexity curve-fitting method, as defined by

introduced in [11] and used in [12] and [15], can be efficiently

employed. Compared with PDE-F and PDE-T, ADE-T performance is ) ∗ yl

sl = WH C(ˆ (4)

identified over frequency-selective fading channels. The realized gain

indicates the reliability of the estimate while applying an appropriate

and the kth element is

tradeoff between performance and complexity. Moreover, ADE-T is

less sensitive to noise and insensitive to gain fluctuations, as discussed

1 m −j2π m (ˆ+k)

N −1

in the Section III. skl = √ yl e N , k = 0, 1, . . . , N − 1 (5)

The remainder of the paper is structured as follows. Section II is N m=0

devoted to describing the system model, including the CFO problem

formulation. In Section III, we present the proposed CFO estima- where

tion technique. Simulation results are given in Section IV. Finally,

ej2π N (l−1)(N +Ncp ) n n j2π n+ m

Section V concludes this paper. Throughout this paper, we denote N −1

(·)T for complex transposition, (·)∗ for complex conjugation, (·)H for ylm = √ d l Hl e N + vlm ,

complex conjugate transposition, | · | for complex modulus or absolute N n=0

value (of a real), IN for the N × N identity matrix, diag(·) for the m = 0, 1, . . . , N − 1. (6)

diagonal matrix whose entries are the elements of (·), and := for equal

by definition.

As in [12] and [15], developments hereinafter are made under the

noise-free assumption.

II. S YSTEM M ODEL

Let us consider a conventional OFDM transmission system with III. P ROPOSED C ARRIER F REQUENCY

N orthogonal subcarriers. The lth OFDM symbol carries off N O FFSET E STIMATION S CHEME

information symbols gathered as follows dl = [d0l , d1l , . . . , dlN −1 ]T ,

At reception, a proper CFO compensation allows us to have an

after being drawn uniformly from a CM constellation. Then, the

ICI-free signal after the DFT operation. In terms of literary formu-

modulation of vector dl is performed, and the inverse DFT (I-DFT)

)∗ C() = C()∗ C() = WH W = IN ,

lation, if ˆ = and since C(ˆ

operation output is ul = [u0l , u1l , . . . , ulN −1 ]T . By inserting the Tcp

the resulting sequence after the DFT process is

(Ncp ) duration (number of samples) cyclic prefix (CP), the total dura-

tion of the obtained OFDM symbol for transmission is Tt = Tu + Tcp sl[ˆ=] = Hl dl . (7)

(Nt = N + Ncp ) for a useful part of Tu length and a sampling interval

of Ts = (Tu /N ). Thus, the N useful samples of the lth baseband In the case of CM signaling, i.e., |dkl | = 1, and by trying to focus on

OFDM symbol are the amplitudes, the elements of vector sl will be expressed as

k k

1 n j2π n k

N −1

s l = Hl , k = 0, 1, . . . , N − 1. (8)

ukl = √ dl e N , k = 0, 1, . . . , N − 1 (1)

N n=0

If we assume that the channel response is slowly time-varying and

obtained from therefore |Hlk | and |Hl+1

k

| are almost equal, i.e.,

k

ul = Wdl , l = 1, 2, . . . (2) sl−1 ≈ skl [ˆ=] (9)

=]

[ˆ

IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON VEHICULAR TECHNOLOGY, VOL. 63, NO. 4, MAY 2014 1947

function:

M N −1

k k 2

Ji (˜

) = sl − sl−1 . (10)

l=1 k=0

symbols, and Ji (˜ ) should be minimized with respect to parameter ˜,

which is the trial value of . Thereby

ˆ = arg min Ji (˜

). (11)

˜∈(−0.5, 0.5)

N −1 N −1

However, the two terms k=0

|skl |2 and k=0

|skl−1 |2 are inde-

pendent of ˜ and (see Appendix A for the proof). Consequently,

minimizing (10) is reduced to maximizing the following final cost

function with respect to ˜:

M N −1

k k

Jf (˜

) = sl sl−1 (12) Fig. 1. Jf versus ζ in the case of N = 64.

l=1 k=0

If we take a = −1/4, b = 1/4, and c = 0 in particular, (15) becomes

so that we can deduce the CFO estimate value ˆ.

simpler.

ItNis−1worth noting that, if we assume the OFDM symbol energy In comparison with [14], for implementation, we use the curve-

( k=0 |skl |2 ) to be almost insensitive to the Doppler effect, maximiz-

fitting method, which is simple without any parameters to set, unlike

ing (12) could be seen as the maximization of the SINR, as introduced

the early–late-gate recovery loop implemented in [14].

in [14]. Indeed, to estimate the CFO, it is proposed that a frequency-

The PDE (PDE-F and PDE-T) cost functions consist of terms where

oriented SINR estimate should be maximized. However, our proposed

the signal amplitude is raised to the fourth power. Therefore, the

scheme is based on a new approach exploiting channel coherence

impact of narrow-band noise on one subcarrier, or even more, would

in time, appropriately. The optimization operation of (12) might be

have a significant paralyzing effect. Concerned subcarriers’ terms will

realized using several techniques. As the use of the gradient descent

drastically reduce the contribution of the other subcarriers’ terms in the

is not possible because the function is not differentiable, exhaustive

sum. Thus, the value obtained by the estimation process will be con-

search on a discrete set of values can be employed. However, it should

siderably different from the real value. In contrast, (12) will experience

be noted that the exhaustive search would require more computation

much less degradation in case of narrow-band noise. This is due to the

time and complexity, thus making it impractical. Therefore, while

low power of all the elements of the sum. Furthermore, the gain control

seeking simplicity of implementation and using the basic assumption

in digital communication systems is an inevitable process. Inappropri-

(9), we come up with a quasi-regular function, which is a good

ate increase or decrease in gain over one OFDM symbol period could

approximation of Jf (˜ ), namely

often occur. In such a case, the ADE-T performance isN −1

not affected.

) ≈ α · cos [2π( − ˜)] + β Indeed, the desired parameter when maximizing |skl skl−1 |

Jf (˜ (13) N −1 k k k=0

(12) or k=0 ρ|sl sl−1 | is exactly the same, where ρ is a (nonzero)

where α and β are constants and, above all, independent of and ˜. positive real number that corresponds to the gain variation on the

They have positive real values and depend only on the frequency lth OFDM symbol, and k = 0, 1, . . . , N − 1. Thus, the cost func-

channel response and the sequence of information symbols. Through tion used is gain variation independent, unlike the function em-

simulations, we always obtain a quasi-sinusoidal shape for Jf (ζ), ployed in [15].

where ζ = − ˜. The channel coefficients used are independent com-

plex Gaussian random variables with zero mean and any power delay

profile. In Fig. 1, we have considered Ts -spaced ten-discrete-path IV. S IMULATION R ESULTS

fading channel, which has normally distributed random taps with a

We consider a conventional quadrature phase-shift keying OFDM

decaying power delay profile. Furthermore, in Appendix B, we prove

system having N = 64 subcarriers with a CP length of Ncp = 16.

that the function Jf is 1-periodic and also even. Aiming to perform

Monte Carlo simulations were conducted on a multipath Rayleigh

straightforward maximization operation with less computing time,

fading channel using 106 OFDM symbols on each simulation run.

we decided to make use of the curve-fitting process [11]. Similar

The channel varies every sampling period Ts = (Tu /N ), and Jakes’

to the method description in [15], we first evaluate function (12) at

model [17] is used to generate the fading channel coefficients. is

three distinctive points: ˜ = a, b, and c. Then, we compute the two

assumed to be uniformly distributed in the range (− 0.5, 0.5) and

intermediate parameters γ and δ defined as

⎧ is kept constant over two consecutive OFDM symbols (M = 1). It

⎪ γ := [Jf (˜ = a) − Jf (˜

= c)] · [sin(2πb) − sin(2πc)] changes randomly from one pair of OFDM symbols to the next. The

⎪

⎪

⎨ + [Jf (˜ = c) − Jf (˜

= b)] · [sin(2πa) − sin(2πc)] channel model used is identified by five path delays [0 Ts 2 · Ts 6 ·

(14) Ts 11 · Ts ] with average power gains [0.34 0.28 0.23 0.11 0.04].

⎪

⎪ δ := [J (˜

= b) − J (˜

= c)] · [cos(2πa) − cos(2πc)]

⎪

⎩

f f The normalized Doppler frequency fd Tt is set to different values,

= c) − Jf (˜

+ [Jf (˜ = a)] · [cos(2πb) − cos(2πc)] . where fd designates the Doppler frequency. The underlying OFDM

system operates at a central carrier frequency of 2.6 GHz, whereas

Finally, the CFO estimate is given by the subcarriers’ data rate is 16.68 kb/s. The regular MSE is used to

1 assess the ADE-T performance with respect to that of PDE-F and

ˆ = · arg (γ + j · δ). (15) PDE-T.

2π

1948 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON VEHICULAR TECHNOLOGY, VOL. 63, NO. 4, MAY 2014

Fig. 2. MSE versus SNR using the exhaustive search method over a Fig. 4. MSE versus SNBNR over a frequency-selective channel for fd Tt =

frequency-selective channel for fd Tt = 0.030 and 0.042. 0.024 and 0.042.

over the entire range of SNRs. The gain achieved with respect to

PDE-T is less significant than that with respect to PDE-F. In the

following, the curve-fitting method will be used.

Scenarios of Interest

Let us now consider the potential contribution of the proposed

method in another important context. Narrow-band noise is an inter-

esting case from a practical perspective (cognitive radio, underwater

acoustic communications, etc.). The phenomenon is even more severe

when the operating frequencies of interferers are constantly changing.

We evaluate the performance of the three schemes over a multipath

fading channel introducing narrow-band noise. Results are given using

MSE versus the signal-to-narrow-band-noise ratio (SNBNR), which

is the mean power of emerging narrow-band interferer signal at the

receiver. Two values of the normalized Doppler frequency are used:

Fig. 3. MSE versus SNR using the curve-fitting method over a frequency- fd Tt = 0.024 and 0.042. Performance levels obtained are shown in

selective channel for fd Tt = 0.030 and 0.042. Fig. 4, and we can see clearly that the ADE-T achievement is much

greater than the other estimators.

A. General Estimator Performance Analysis The third scenario investigated implies operations of driving the

First, we perform the maximization process using the exhaustive automatic gain control, where the amplitude of the received signal

search method with a precision value of 10−3 by testing 1000 equally varies over the duration of one OFDM symbol. As indicated earlier,

spaced ˜ candidates over the range (−0.5, 0.5). We are interested one can identify the proposed estimator insentivity to gain changes,

in this optimization method to get an idea about achievement limits which is not the case for PDE-T. To pinpoint this issue, we have

as a benchmark for the three schemes in question. Fig. 2 shows conducted simulations wherein we vary the gain in the range (−3,

the results from simulations conducted over a frequency-selective +3 dB). To compare the performance in such situations, the metric

Rayleigh fading channel with fd Tt = 0.030 and 0.042. These values used is MSE versus the gain variation occurred in decibels. As demon-

correspond to vehicle speeds greater than 100 km/h. One can notice strated in Fig. 5, where SNR = 15 dB, PDE-F and ADE-T are com-

that the three estimators display very similar levels of performance. pletely independent of the gain variation, unlike PDE-T, which suffers

However, the exhaustive search method requires important memory from penalizing sensitivity. Additionally, it is obvious that ADE-T

resources and is very time-consuming to be practical for real-time outperforms PDE-F even if it is insensitive to gain fluctuations. For the

wireless communication applications. same normalized Doppler frequencies fd Tt = 0.030 and 0.042, and in

Being a good tradeoff between performance and complexity, the the case of SNR = 20 dB, the MSE performance presented in Fig. 6

curve-fitting method described in (14) and (15) is employed since confirms the behaviors of the estimators.

the three functions targeted for optimization could be approximated

by classic sine curves. Note that the exhaustive search method has V. C ONCLUSION

involved at least 333 times more operations than curve fitting. Fig. 3

shows the simulation results when the curve-fitting method is used In this paper, we have presented a new method for blind CFO

for the three schemes. The first general observation to make is that, estimation in fully loaded CM-signaling-based OFDM systems. It has

compared with the exhaustive search results, there is a performance been proven through numerical simulation results that the proposed

loss of approximately one decade in terms of MSE. Nevertheless, low-complexity technique outperforms prominent existing estimators

ADE-T outperforms PDE-F and PDE-T for both values of fd Tt and in various situations. In harsh time-varying propagation environments,

IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON VEHICULAR TECHNOLOGY, VOL. 63, NO. 4, MAY 2014 1949

N −1

k N, if p = 0

e−j2π N p = (18)

0, otherwise

k=0

(16) becomes

2

N −1

N −1

N −1

skl = 1 šn 1 n2 ∗

l šl

2π

ej N mq (19)

N

k=0 n1 ,n2 =0 m=0

N −1

where q = n1 − n2 and m1 = m2 = m. Accordingly, k=0

|skl |2 is

completely independent of ˜ and .

A PPENDIX B

−1 N −1

Fig. 5. MSE versus gain variation occurred on an OFDM symbol of two k N

consecutive ones with SNR = 15 dB and for fd Tt = 0.030 and 0.042.

N sl = n

šl j2π m

e N (n+ζ−k)

. (20)

n=0 m=0

Therefore

N −1 N −1

N −1
m1

N 2 skl sk∗

l−1 = šn 1 n2 ∗

l šl−1

2π

ej N (n1 +ζ−k)

n1 =0 n2 =0 m1 =0

N −1
m2

−j 2π

× e N (n 2 +ζ−k)

. (21)

m =0

2

Now, since

N −1

2π

m1 1

ej N (n1 +ζ−k) = (−1)n1 −k eπζ (1− N )

m1 =0

sin(πζ)

π

1

× ejπ(n1 −k)(1− N ) (22)

sin N (n1 + ζ − k)

Fig. 6. MSE versus gain variation occurred on an OFDM symbol of two and ejπ(n1 −n2 ) = ejπ(n1 +n2 ) = (−1)n1 +n2 = (−1)n1 −n2 , (21) can

consecutive ones with SNR = 20 dB and for fd Tt = 0.030 and 0.042. be expressed as

modeled using a frequency-selective Rayleigh fading channel with k k∗ N

−1 N −1

n1 −n2

N sl sl−1 =

2

šn 1 n2 ∗ jπ

l šl−1 e

N

Doppler shift, in a narrow-band noise context and in a situation n =0 n =0

involving fluctuating signal gain, the estimator introduced achieves 1 2

very solid levels of performance. The efficiency carried out is due to

.

sin2 (πζ)

the judicious manipulation of the received signal amplitudes to derive × π π (23)

sin N (n1 + ζ − k) sin N (n2 + ζ − k)

the appropriate cost function.

Hence, for M = 1, (12) might be formulated as

A PPENDIX A −1 N −1

−1 N

N −1

1

N

n1 n2 ∗

Jf (ζ) = sl sl−1 =

k k

šl šl−1

In the noise-free case, substituting (6) in (5) gives N 2

k=0 k=0 n1 =0 n2 =0

ej2π N (l−1)(N +Ncp ) n j2π m (n+ζ−k)

N −1 N −1

.

skl = šl e N (16) n1 −n2 sin2 (πζ)

N × ejπ N π π (24)

n=0 m=0 sin N (n1 + ζ −k) sin N (n2 +ζ − k)

where ζ = − ˜, and šn n n

l := dl Hl . Since we are interested in the Now, let us show that Jf (ζ) is periodic with period 1. From (24),

signal amplitude, we obtain we have

2

N −1

N −1

N−1 N−1 N−1

skl = 1 šn 1 n2 ∗ 1 n1 n2 ∗ jπ n1−n2

2 l šl Jf (ζ +1) = 2 šl šl−1 e N

N N

k=0 n1 ,n2 =0

k=0 n1 =0 n2 =0

N −1

N −1

.

ζ 2π (m n −m n ) k

−j2π N sin2 (πζ +π)

× e j2π N p j

e N 1 1 2 2

e p

(17) × π π (25)

m1 ,m2 =0 k=0

sin N

(n1 +ζ −(k−1)) sin N (n2 +ζ −(k−1))

1950 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON VEHICULAR TECHNOLOGY, VOL. 63, NO. 4, MAY 2014

which can be expressed otherwise, when k = k − 1, as N

n1 n2 ∗ j Nπ (n1 −n2 +N N +1 )

−1 N −1

= šl šl−1 e

Jf (ζ +1)

n1 =0 n2 =0

N −2 N −1 N −1

1 n1 n2 ∗ jπ n1 −n2 π

sin2 (πζ)

π

= 2 šl šl−1 e N × (31)

N sin N (n1 + ζ − k) sin N (n2 + ζ − k)

k =0 n1 =0 n2 =0

where n1 − n2 + N N +1 ≈ N N +1 and |ejπN

N +1 N

| = |ejπN | = 1.

sin2 (πζ)

× π π We can conclude that Jf (−ζ) ≈ Jf (ζ).

sin N (n1 +ζ −k ) sin N (n2 + ζ − k )

N −1 N −1

R EFERENCES

1 n −n2

n2 ∗ jπ 1

+ 2 l × šl−1 e

šn 1 N

[1] T. Schmidl and D. Cox, “Robust frequency and timing synchronization

N for OFDM,” IEEE Trans. Commun., vol. 45, no. 12, pp. 1613–1621,

n1 =0 n2 =0

Dec. 1997.

[2] M. Morelli and U. Mengali, “An improved frequency offset estimator

. (26)

sin2 (πζ)

× π π for OFDM applications,” IEEE Commun. Lett., vol. 3, no. 3, pp. 75–77,

sin N (n1 + ζ + 1) sin N (n2 + ζ + 1) Mar. 1999.

[3] H. Minn, V. Bhargava, and K. Letaief, “A robust timing and frequency

synchronization for OFDM systems,” IEEE Trans. Wireless Commun.,

Since vol. 2, no. 4, pp. 822–839, Jul. 2003.

π π [4] G. Ren, Y. Chang, H. Zhang, and H. Zhang, “An efficient frequency offset

sin (n1 + ζ + 1) sin (n2 + ζ + 1) estimation method with a large range for wireless OFDM systems,” IEEE

N N Trans. Veh. Technol., vol. 56, no. 4, pp. 1892–1895, Jul. 2007.

π [5] S. Attallah, Y. Wu, and J. Bergmans, “Low complexity blind estimation

= sin (n1 + ζ − (N − 1)) of residual carrier offset in orthogonal frequency division multiplexing

N based wireless local area network systems,” IET Commun., vol. 1, no. 4,

π pp. 604–611, Aug. 2007.

× sin (n2 + ζ − (N − 1)) . (27) [6] B. Park, H. Cheon, E. Ko, C. Kang, and D. Hong, “A blind OFDM syn-

N chronization algorithm based on cyclic correlation,” IEEE Signal Process.

Lett., vol. 11, no. 2, pp. 83–85, Feb. 2004.

We obtain [7] M. Shi, Y. Bar-Ness, and W. Su, “Revisiting the timing and frequency

N −1 N −1 N −1

offset estimation based on cyclostationarity with new improved method,”

1 n1 n2 ∗ jπ n1 −n2 IEEE Commun. Lett., vol. 13, no. 7, pp. 537–539, Jul. 2009.

Jf (ζ + 1) = 2 šl šl−1 e N [8] M. Tanda, “Blind symbol-timing and frequency-offset estimation in

N OFDM systems with real data symbols,” IEEE Trans. Commun., vol. 52,

k =0 n1 =0 n2 =0

no. 10, pp. 1609–1612, Oct. 2004.

[9] W.-L. Chin, “ML estimation of timing and frequency offsets using

sin2 (πζ)

× π π (28) distinctive correlation characteristics of OFDM signals over dispersive

sin N (n1 + ζ − k ) sin N (n2 + ζ − k ) fading channels,” IEEE Trans. Veh. Technol., vol. 60, no. 2, pp. 444–456,

Feb. 2011.

[10] H. T. Hsieh and W. R. Wu, “Maximum likelihood timing and carrier

and therefore, Jf (ζ + 1) = Jf (ζ). Moreover, let us prove that Jf (ζ) frequency offset estimation for OFDM systems with periodic pream-

is even. Still from (24), we get bles,” IEEE Trans. Veh. Technol., vol. 58, no. 8, pp. 4224–4237,

Oct. 2009.

N −1 N −1 N −1 [11] Y. Yao and G. Giannakis, “Blind carrier frequency offset estimation in

1 n1 n2 ∗ jπ n1 −n2 SISO, MIMO, and multiuser OFDM systems,” IEEE Trans. Commun.,

Jf (−ζ) = 2 šl šl−1 e N

N k=0 n1 =0 n2 =0

vol. 53, no. 1, pp. 173–183, Jan. 2005.

[12] X. Zeng and A. Ghrayeb, “A blind carrier frequency offset estimation

scheme for OFDM systems with constant modulus signaling,” IEEE

sin2 (πζ) Trans. Commun., vol. 56, no. 7, pp. 1032–1037, Jul. 2008.

× π π (29) [13] X. Zeng and A. Ghrayeb, “CFO estimation schemes for differential

sin N (−n1 + ζ + k) sin N (−n2 + ζ + k) OFDM systems,” IEEE Trans. Wireless Commun., vol. 8, no. 1, pp. 124–

129, Jan. 2009.

knowing that [14] W. Chin and S. Chen, “A blind synchronizer for OFDM systems based

on SINR maximization in multipath fading channels,” IEEE Trans. Veh.

π π Technol., vol. 58, no. 2, pp. 625–635, Feb. 2009.

sin (−n1 + ζ + k) sin (−n2 + ζ + k) [15] A. Al-Dweik, A. Hazmi, S. Younis, B. Sharif, and C. Tsimenidis,

N N “Carrier frequency offset estimation for OFDM systems over mobile

π π radio channels,” IEEE Trans. Veh. Technol., vol. 59, no. 2, pp. 974–979,

= sin (n1 + ζ − k ) sin (n2 + ζ − k ) (30) Feb. 2010.

N N [16] S. Younis, A. Al-Dweik, C. Tsimenidis, B. Sharif, and A. Hazmi, “The

effect of timing errors on frequency offset estimation in OFDM systems,”

where n1 = N − 1 − n1 , n2 = N − 1 − n2 , and k = N − 1 − k. in Proc. 11th IEEE Int. Symp. Signal Process. Inf. Technol., Bilbao, Spain,

The term ejπ((n1 −n2 )/N ) in (24) and (29) does not have any significant Dec. 2011, pp. 202–206.

weight at all since we can, for instance, take in the following equalities: [17] T. S. Rappaport, Wireless Communications: Principles and Practice.

Englewood Cliffs, NJ, USA: Prentice-Hall, 2002.

N −1 N −1

1 n2 ∗ jπ

n1 −n2

šn

l šl−1 e

N

n1 =0 n2 =0

sin2 (πζ)

× π π

sin N (n1 + ζ − k) sin N (n2 + ζ − k)

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