1 views

Original Title: KDI,_Jurica_Kundrata.pdf

Uploaded by Fjgu Fkt

- Transients in D.C. Circuits
- AITS-1718-PT-II-JEE-ADV-Paper-2.pdf
- FACTS PPT
- The Three-Phase Common-Mode Inductor_Modeling and Design
- Electrical Load
- Chapter 13
- 15 ThreePhase Common Mode
- Paper 7
- Tutorial Sheet 2
- EE 221 Mutually Coupled Circuits
- Exam 2 ECET
- Instrument Mechanic
- Electrical Component (Passive)
- Ifm Catalogue Australia 2010
- Wireless Power Transmission for Mobile Charging
- TCSC
- 0402 Wire Wound Chip Ceramic Inductors
- IES - Electronics Engineering - Electronic Measurement and Instrumentation
- L.M.D. Waves in a Tesla Coil Revised
- electrical

You are on page 1of 6

Jurica Kundrata

University of Zagreb, Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Computing

Unska 3, 10000 Zagreb, Croatia

E-mail: jurica.kundrata@fer.hr

Abstract—This paper presents the design of a planar in- patterned in. Flexible foil application of the inductor implies

ductor for a DC-DC converter for flexible foil applications. a planar layout of the inductor as the multi-layered layouts

The design challenges related to the flexible foil structure and are unrealisable because of the limited total thickness of the

the DC-DC converter requirements are analysed. The main

design challenges are due to the constraints on the inductor foil. The physical constraint specific to this implementation

physical size, the proximity of a conductive plane to the is the limited available area for the placement of the planar

inductor and very high operating frequency of the DC-DC inductor. The OLED tile size ranges from 30 x 30 to 125

converter. The methodology of the inductor design is based x 35 mm2 and an inductor must be placed on the area of

primarily on EM simulations of the inductor structure and a single OLED tile. The area enveloped by an inductor is

on the evaluation of the simulation results in the context of

the resulting lumped-element electrical model. The simulations closely related to the maximally realizable inductance of

are verified by measurements of the inductors processed on the inductor thus the available area for the placement of the

the FR4 substrate which presently emulates the flexible foil inductor is an important design challenge.

substrate. The structure of the OLED tile and its application in

Index Terms—thick film inductor, electromagnetic modelling a flexible foil presents the next specific design challenge.

In the context of the inductor design the cathode of the

I. I NTRODUCTION OLED tile represents a uniform metal plane acting as a

ground plane. This ground plane is only separated from the

A. State of the art inductor by a thin foil. A ground plane in close proximity

The electronics on flexible foils is getting popular as it to the inductor presents a design challenge as the inductor

offers new innovative applications in the areas of wearable currents are mirrored over the ground plane. The mirrored

electronics, lightning devices and displays [1]–[4]. Such currents, i.e. eddy currents reduce the total magnetic flux

applications require power supplies embedded in the flexible induced by the inductor and consequentially the total self-

foil. Switching-mode power supplies are a de-facto standard inductance of the inductor.

in the present DC-DC power conversion applications [5]. The requirements of the DC-DC converter in the context

Switching-mode power supplies require an energy storage of the electrical characteristics of the inductor are the next

element to work properly and inductors are often used to important design challenge. The value of the inductance

fulfil the required function. In the case of the flexible foil of the inductor is vital to the operation of the DC-DC

applications this inductor has to be embedded on the foil converter. The resistance and the parasitic capacitance of the

as well. Usually, a planar inductor design based on spiral inductor directly affect the efficiency of power conversion.

geometry is used. Spiral planar inductors are modelled and The inductor has to preserve its inductive properties in

characterized quite well [6]–[9]. the frequency range that covers the switching frequency

Many conclusions based on the research of planar induc- of the converter as well as the first few higher harmonics

tors processed on the Si substrate in the integrated circuits of the driving PWM signal. It sets a requirement on the

can be applied on the inductors implemented in the flexible dynamic behaviour of the inductor, namely that the resonant

foil technology, but some specific power applications in the frequency of the inductor needs to be beyond that frequency

flexible foil can pose a set of unique design challenges. range. The planned DC-DC converter places the inductor

requirements that are shown in Table I. It should be noted

that the maximum resistance requirement will be treated

B. Design challenges as a requirement placed on the DC value of the inductor

The inductor is designed for a buck-type DC-DC con- resistance because the OLED tile behaves primarily as a

verter that drives an OLED tile realized on the flexible capacitive load thus stabilizing the current that runs through

foil. Numerous design challenges are related to designing the inductor and minimizing its ripple component.

an inductor for a flexible foil application.

The constraints placed on the physical size of the inductor II. M ATERIALS AND METHODS

are one of the design challenges. The most obvious physical

A. Electromagnetic simulations

constraint is the thickness of the metal layer the inductor is

The described flexible foil substrate requires a planar

This work was supported by the European Commision under the inductor structure because of its thin geometry. The thin in-

Seventh Framework Programme (FP7) through project IMOLA Intelligent

light management for OLED on foil applications (Grant Agreement No. ductor structure is simulated in the COMSOL Multiphysics.

288377). Its RF module is used as the 3D EM solver for this problem.

TABLE I TABLE II

THE INDUCTOR REQUIREMENTS OF THE DC-DC THE VALUES OF THE DESIGN PARAMETERS

CONVERTER

Design parameter Range value

Electrical characteristics Required value Track width, w 0.25 to 2 mm

Series inductance, Ls 3 to 5 µH Track spacing, s 0.25 to 1 mm

Series resistance, Rs <1Ω Number of turns, N 1 to max.

Parasitic capacitance, Cp < 50 pF Outer diameter, d 28 mm (const.)

Resonant frequency, fr > 50 MHz Track metal Cu

Track thickness 35 µm

Top/bottom dielectric thickness 200 µm

Fig. 2. The π-model of the inductor that accounts for the port and interport

capacitances and the skin effect.

B. Electrical model

Fig. 1. The geometry of the inductor model used in the electromagnetic

simulations. A lumped-element electrical model is developed to eval-

uate the electrical characteristics of the inductor in the

context of the requirements and to accurately describe the

The geometry of the model used in EM simulations is behaviour of the inductor in the frequency range relevant to

based on the smallest OLED tile dimensions as it represents the operation of the DC-DC converter.

the worst case scenario in the context of the inductor total In the analysis of the simulation and measurement results

area and thus its inductance. The inductor model is based a π-model was used and its topology is shown in Fig. 2.

on a spiral rectangular geometry and it is shown in Fig. 1. The π-model consists of the port capacitances C1 and C2 ,

The geometry is determined by the outer diameter of the the interport capacitance C3 , the interport inductance L1

rectangular spiral d, the track width w, the track spacing and the ladder network R1 -R2 -L2 . The capacitances C1 ,

s and the number of turns of the spiral N . The positions C2 and C3 account for different resonances of the inductor

of the ports P1 and P2 are also marked in the figure. The while the ladder network R1 -R2 -L2 describes the frequency

simulated substrate has two dielectric layers and three metal dependant resistance of the inductor, i.e. the skin effect

layers. The inductor is wound in M1 (top metal) and the exit present at the operating frequency of the DC-DC converter

towards the port P2 is performed in M2 layer. The bottom [10].

metal M3 serves as the ground plane if it is used. Physically, the capacitances C1 and C2 represent the ca-

The operating frequency of the DC-DC converter deter- pacitances of the inductor tracks towards the ground plane.

mines the frequency range of interest that is analysed in As the geometry of the inductor tracks is asymmetrical in

EM simulations. The inductor is driven by a PWM signal the context of its ports, it is expected that the capacitances

from the DC-DC converter which is essentially a rectan- C1 and C2 are not equal. The capacitance C3 represents the

gular waveform. The analysed frequency range includes interwinding capacitance of the inductor.

the switching frequency of the converter and its higher The parameters of the electrical model are extracted

harmonics and it is determined by the frequency from 1 using a developed algorithm implemented in MATLAB. The

to 200 MHz. The upper frequency limit is set to include algorithm is described by the flowchart shown in Fig. 3.

the resonant behaviour of the inductor in the analysis. The algorithm is based on three steps. In the first step the

The electromagnetic simulations are primarily used to inductance L1 is calculated from the interport impedance.

investigate the influence of the different design parameters In the following step the capacitances C1 , C2 and C3 are

on the electrical characteristics of the inductor. The design calculated from the resonant and antiresonant frequencies.

parameters are swept in different ranges. The values of the The third step is based on fitting the ladder network R1 -

design parameters are shown in the Table II. R2 -L2 .

Fig. 5. The amplitude frequency characteristics of the Z11 and Z12

Fig. 3. The algorithm used in the extraction of the electrical model parameters for the simulated data.

parameters.

Fig. 4. The layout of the inductor matrix used for verification of the Fig. 6. The amplitude frequency characteristics of the Z11 and Z22

electromagnetic simulations. parameters for the simulated data with marked resonant frequencies.

fied by measurements of the inductors. The inductors are The frequency characteristics of the inductor are analysed

processed on the FR4 substrate. The FR4 substrate has two on the inductor example determined by the following set of

200 µm thick dielectric layers and can be considered a good design parameters w = 1 mm, s = 1 mm, N = 7. The results

emulation of a flexible foil substrate. of the electromagnetic simulations in the context of its Z-

Multiple inductors with varied track width and spacing parameters are presented in Figs. 5 and 6.

are processed in the form of a matrix. The track widths are In Fig. 5 the frequency characteristics of the Z11 and Z12

0.5 mm, 1 mm and 2 mm and the track spacing 0.25 mm, parameters are presented. Several resonant frequencies can

0.5 mm and 1 mm. Both variations are made simultaneously be identified in these characteristics. The frequency charac-

thus accounting for 9 unique inductor designs, as shown in teristics of the interport impedance Z12 has a single local

Fig. 4. The same layout is processed in two versions. The maximum that can be identified as antiresonant behaviour.

first version is realized as a PCB with a single FR4 layer and This implies a parallel LC network between the ports of

two layers of metallization, while the second version was the inductor which is presented in the electrical model

realized with an additional FR4 layer with a metal sheet. with the interport capacitance C3 (Fig. 2). The frequency

This metal sheet acted as the ground plane. characteristic of the port impedance Z11 has two local

The measurements are made using a vector network extremes. One extreme is a local maximum and matches

analyser. The ports used in the layout are designed to the previously identified antiresonant behaviour of Z12 and

allow their de-embedding at the reference plane ∆-∆0 the second extreme is a local minimum. This local minimum

shown for the top-left inductor in Fig. 4. A separate layout can be identified as resonant behaviour and implies the

was developed and used for the Short-Open-Load-Through existence of the port capacitances. These port capacitances

(SOLT) calibration of the vector network analyser. are presented in the inductor model by the capacitances C1

Fig. 7. The dependence of the port capacitances C1 and C2 on the track Fig. 8. The dependence of the port capacitances C1 in the context of the

width with total turn spacing s + w = 1.25 mm and N = 11. track width and the number of turns of the inductor with total turn spacing

s + w = 1.25 mm.

and C2 .

The frequency characteristics of the Z11 and Z22 port

impedances are compared in Fig. 6. The identified reso-

nant and antiresonant behaviour is emphasized by separate

markers. It is to be noted that the antiresonant frequency fa

is identical for both ports, but the resonant frequencies fr1

and fr2 are slightly different. This was expected as the port

capacitances C1 and C2 are also slightly different because

of the asymmetrical inductor structure.

In the context of the DC-DC converter requirements the

resonant behaviour of this inductor design example is well

above the required frequency limit of 50 MHz.

B. Design parameter sweeps

The design parameter sweeps are the primary method of

exploring different inductor designs. The parameter sweeps

described in the methodology of this work yield a large Fig. 9. The dependence of the interport capacitances C3 in the context

database of simulation results. The analysis of this database of the track spacing and the number of turns of the inductor with total

turn spacing s + w = 1.25 mm.

is presented in a series of figures that represent only a

selection of simulation results and are later used for defining

a set of design guidelines for the planar inductors.

Figs. 7, 8 and 9 show the dependences of the electrical is expanded with the dependence on the number of turns.

model capacitances C1 , C2 and C3 w.r.t. different design The dependence of the port capacitance on the number

parameters, while Fig. 10 shows such a dependence of the of turns is expected because increasing the number of

series inductance Ls . turns increases the total track area as well. This effectively

The port capacitance dependence on the track width and increases the plate area of the capacitor that represents the

the interrelationship of the port capacitances C1 and C2 port capacitance in conjunction with the ground plane.

is shown in Fig. 7. Two observations of the results are The interport capacitance C3 dependence on the track

made. The first observation is that the port capacitances spacing and the number of turns is shown in Fig. 9.

are not equal. This asymmetry of the port capacitances is Two observations are made based on this figure. The first

in accordance to the asymmetric inductor structure. The observation is that the interport capacitance is inversely

second observation is that the value of the port capacitances proportional to the track spacing. The interport capacitance

is proportional to the track width. As the total spacing of is based primarily on the capacitance between neighbouring

the turns (s + w) and the number of turns are kept constant, inductor turns. It is expected that, if the space between the

the track width in this figure can be directly correlated with tracks is increased while maintaining the same track length,

the total track area. This observation is expected because the capacitance is decreased. The second observation is sim-

the capacitance of a capacitor is directly proportional to the ilar to the observation of the port capacitance dependence on

area of its plates. the number of turns. The interport capacitance is increased

The port capacitance C1 dependence on the track width as the number of turns is increased and thus the length of the

and the number of turns is shown in Fig. 8. In this figure the tracks is increased. It should be noted that the dependence of

observation concerning the port capacitance dependence on the interport capacitance on the number of turns is nonlinear

the track width from Fig. 7 is confirmed. This observation because the dependence of the track length on the number of

Fig. 10. The dependence of the series inductance Ls in the context of the Fig. 11. The correlation between the measured and simulated data in the

track width and the track spacing while maintaining the series resistance context of the extracted inductance of the inductor.

constant Rs = 1 Ω.

spiral contribute the least to the track length.

The dependence of the series inductance Ls on the track

width and the track spacing is shown in Fig. 10. These

simulation results are made in the context of the DC-

DC converter requirements for the series resistance of the

inductor. The required number of turns to achieve the upper

resistance limit for each combination of the track width and

track spacing was calculated and used in the simulations. An

observation is made based on these results. The inductance

achievable in the context of the resistance requirement is at

the maximum for the combination of minimal track width

and minimal track spacing. When the track width and/or

the track spacing increase, the inductance of the inductor

decreases. This observation is interpreted by understanding Fig. 12. The correlation between the measured and the simulated data in

that a narrower turn with minimal spacing can envelope a the context of the resonant frequency of the inductor.

greater area and thus produce greater inductivity. Another

effect should be considered; while the wider turns can

support a greater number of turns in the context of limited by a factor of 5 because of the mirroring of the inductor

inductor resistance, the number of turns in the case of currents and reduction of the magnetic flux.

a planar inductor suffers from the effect of diminishing The correlation of the resonant frequency fa is shown in

returns. The inner turns are contributing the least to the Fig. 12. The simulated resonant frequency correlates with

total inductance of the planar inductor. the measured resonant frequency rather well with a slight

In the context of the DC-DC converter requirements the offset. The probable cause to the offset is the uncertainty of

capacitances of the inductor are significantly lower than the processed substrate thickness compared to the one used

the required maximum capacitance, while the inductance in the simulations.

is below the required range of values. In the context of the DC-DC converter requirements the

inductance of a few inductor designs without the metal

C. Physical verification plane falls within the required range of values. With the

The results of the electromagnetic simulations are verified introduction of the metal plane in the substrate design, none

by measuring a set of inductors with different design param- of the design cases conform to the requirements, i.e. the

eters. The results of the physical verification are presented inductor is too small.

in Figs. 11 and 12. These figures show the correlations IV. D ISCUSSION

between the measured and simulated data.

The correlation of the extracted inductance L of the A. Design guidelines

inductor is given in Fig. 11. The simulated inductance Based on the observations made on the results of the sim-

correlates with the measured inductance well. ulations several guidelines for designing a planar inductor

The effect of the metal plane on the inductance and the can be set. Each guideline corresponds to a single design

resonant frequency can be observed in these results. As parameter of the inductor.

expected introducing the metal plane in the substrate of the The first design guideline corresponds to the track width.

designed inductors decreases its inductance approximately Based on the observations of the results the track width

should be minimized. This guideline minimizes the value the electrical model parameters is presented. The electro-

of the port capacitances and maximizes the value of the magnetic simulations are physically verified by measuring

inductance in the context of the required inductor resistance. the inductor designs processed on the FR4 substrate. Based

The second guideline is related to the track spacing. The on the analysis of the results a set of design guidelines is

observations of the results imply that the track spacing presented. The design guidelines recommend minimizing

should be optimized between the requirements on the reso- the track width and the track spacing while adapting the

nant frequency and the requirements on the inductance. The number of turns to the resistance requirement to achieve

resonant frequency of the inductor is closely related to the the maximal inductance. The degrading effect of the ground

value of the interport capacitance. If the requirements on plane on the inductance of the inductor is analysed. The so-

the resonant frequency are more relaxed, then the general lutions using the patterned ground shields or ferrite polymer

guideline is to minimize the track spacing in order to composite are proposed.

maximize the inductance of the inductor.

The third guideline is based on the number of turns. R EFERENCES

The results have shown that the increased number of turns [1] I. Manunza, A. Sulis, A. Bonfiglio, ”Organic semiconductor field

effect transistors for unconventional applications: flexible sensors and

increases the parasitic capacitances of the inductor thus a wearable devices,” Proc. Int. Work. Wearable and Implantable Body

smaller number of turns of the inductor is more desirable. Sensor Networks, 2006, International Workshop on BSN 2006, pp.

In the context of the resistance requirement, narrower tracks 3-5, April 2006.

[2] C. D. Kim, J. S. Yoo, J. K. Lee, S. Y. Yoon, Y. I. Park, I. B. Kang; I.

with smaller spacing have a smaller number of turns than the J. Chung, ”Full color flexible displays on thin metal foil with reduced

wider tracks with greater spacing. Coincidently the narrower bending radius,” Proc. Flexible Electronics and Displays Conference

turns with smaller spacing are more desirable in the context and Exhibition, 2009, pp. 1-4, Feb. 2009.

[3] J.-S. Yoo, S.-H. Jung, Y.-C. Kim, S.-C. Byun, J.-M. Kim, N.-B. Choi,

of the inductance. S.-Y. Yoon, C.-D. Kim, Y.-K. Hwang, I.-J. Chung, ”Highly Flexible

To sum up, the number of turns should be minimized AM-OLED Display With Integrated Gate Driver Using Amorphous

which can be indirectly achieved by minimizing the track Silicon TFT on Ultrathin Metal Foil,” J. Display Technology, vol. 6,

no. 11, pp. 565-570, Nov. 2010.

spacing and the track width while respecting the resistance [4] E.C.W. de Jong, B.J.A. Ferreira, P. Bauer, ”Toward the Next Level

requirement. of PCB Usage in Power Electronic Converters,” IEEE Trans. Power

Electronics, vol. 23, no. 6, pp. 3151-3163, Nov. 2008.

B. Further development [5] Q. Li, M. Lim; J. Sun, A. Ball, Y. Ying, F. Lee, K.D.T., ”Technology

The results have shown that the metal plane in close road map for high frequency integrated DC-DC converter,” IEEE Proc.

Applied Power Electronics Conference and Exposition (APEC), 2010,

proximity to the inductor severely degrades its inductance. pp. 533-539, Feb. 2010.

This ground plane effect is due to the inductor currents [6] M. Zolog, D. Pitica, O. Pop, ”Characterization of Spiral Planar

mirrored in the metal plane. There are several possible ways Inductors Built on Printed Circuit Boards,” Proc. Int. Electronics

Technology, Spring Seminar, pp. 308-313, May 2007.

to shield the inductor from the metal plane and its degrading [7] H.-H. Lee, J.-Y. Park, ”Characterization of Fully Embedded RF Induc-

effects. tors in Organic SOP Technology,” IEEE Trans. Advanced Packaging,

One possible solution is the application of patterned vol. 32, no. 2, pp. 491-496, May 2009.

[8] J. Olivo, S. Carrara, G. De Micheli, ”Modeling of printed spiral induc-

ground shields (PGS) [11]–[13]. These shields are an addi- tors for remote powering of implantable biosensors,” Proc. Int. Symp.

tional conductive layer between the inductor and the metal Medical Information and Communication Technology (ISMICT), 2011,

plane which is patterned in such a way that the path of the pp. 29-32, March 2011.

[9] Y. Cao, R.A. Groves, X. Huang, N.D. Zamdmer, J.-O. Plouchart, R.

induced eddy currents is effectively broken. A. Wachnik, T.-J. King, C. Hu, ”Frequency-independent equivalent-

Another possible solution to the ground plane effect circuit model for on-chip spiral inductors,” IEEE J. Solid-State Cir-

problem is the application of the ferrite polymer composite cuits, vol. 38, no. 3, pp. 419-426, Mar 2003.

(FPC) layer between the inductor and the metal plane [14]– [10] X. Sun, G. Carchon, W. De Raedt, ”An optimized model of skin

effect for on-chip spiral inductors,” IEEE Proc. Radio Frequency

[16]. This FPC layer, because of its significant permeability, Integrated Circuits (RFIC) Symposium, pp. 445-448, June 2004

literally shields the inductor from the metal plane. [11] C. P. Yue, S. S. Wong, ”On-chip spiral inductors with patterned

The described solutions have the potential to restore ground shields for Si-based RF IC’s”, IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits,

vol. 33, no. 5, pp. 743-752, 1998.

the inductance of the inductor to the values present in [12] S.-M. Yim , T. Chen, K. K. O, ”The effects of a ground shield

the substrate cases without the metal ground plane below on the characteristics and performance of spiral inductors”, IEEE J.

inductor. Further inductance enhancement can be achieved Solid-State Circuits, vol. 37, no. 2, pp. 237-244, 2002.

[13] J. Ko, K. Kim, J. Byun, H. Kim, ”Parameter extraction and optimal

by applying an additional FPC layer above the inductor design of spiral inductor using evolution strategy and sensitivity”,

structure thereby creating a well-defined magnetic path for IEEE Trans. Magnetics, vol. 46, no. 8, pp. 28312834, 2010.

the magnetic flux induced by the inductor. [14] E. J. Brandon, E. E. Wesseling, V. Chang and W. B. Kuhn, ”Printed

microinductors on flexible substrate for power applications”, IEEE

V. C ONCLUSIONS Trans. Compon. Packag. Technol., vol. 26, p. 517, 2003.

[15] I. Kowase, T. Sato , K. Yamasawa, Y. Miura, ”A planar inductor

The design of the planar inductor for DC-DC converter using Mn-Zn ferrite/polyimide composite thick film for low-Voltage

applications is presented. The design is primarily based and large-current DC-DC converter”, IEEE Trans. Magn., vol. 41, no.

10, pp. 3991-3993, 2005.

on investigating the design parameters by electromagnetic [16] Z. Pengli, W. Yanmin, S. Rong, ”Synthesis and magnetic properties of

simulations. An electrical model is used to analyse the Ni-Zn ferrite @polyaniline/epoxy composites for embedded inductor

results of the simulations. An algorithm used to extract applications,” Proc. Int. Symp. Advanced Packaging Materials (APM),

2011, pp. 16-19, Oct. 2011.

- Transients in D.C. CircuitsUploaded bySen Dhiran
- AITS-1718-PT-II-JEE-ADV-Paper-2.pdfUploaded byAman Kumar
- FACTS PPTUploaded byAnonymous DbmKEDx
- The Three-Phase Common-Mode Inductor_Modeling and DesignUploaded byOmid Dayalborzi
- Electrical LoadUploaded byakshat
- Chapter 13Uploaded bySahil Jain
- 15 ThreePhase Common ModeUploaded byEzeldeen Agory
- Paper 7Uploaded bywalidghoneim1970
- Tutorial Sheet 2Uploaded byUtkarsh Bansal
- EE 221 Mutually Coupled CircuitsUploaded byaswak
- Exam 2 ECETUploaded byThomas Maxwell
- Instrument MechanicUploaded byTapan jena
- Electrical Component (Passive)Uploaded byfmtt
- Ifm Catalogue Australia 2010Uploaded byhoekda
- Wireless Power Transmission for Mobile ChargingUploaded byIRJET Journal
- TCSCUploaded bysabarish0801
- 0402 Wire Wound Chip Ceramic InductorsUploaded bypzcoil
- IES - Electronics Engineering - Electronic Measurement and InstrumentationUploaded byUsha Rani
- L.M.D. Waves in a Tesla Coil RevisedUploaded bytchillywilly2889
- electricalUploaded byMeltz Njoroge
- GBPPR 'Zine - Issue #66Uploaded byGBPPR
- Electrical Circuits Analysis 4Uploaded by29viswa12
- InductorUploaded byjoeyjb
- Flyback Bias Winding and Transformer LeakageUploaded byThanhha Nguyen
- PUTTING MEMORY IN CIRCUITS: MEMDEVICESUploaded byvivek gangwar
- 17_4Uploaded byNirmal mehta
- Automatic Generation Control of an Interconnected Power System with Capacitive Energy StorageUploaded byRajeshJosephAbrahamEdasseriathu
- Tutorial 12003Uploaded byue06037
- Circuit Theory ReviseUploaded bychenthiltr
- Ballistic GalvanometerUploaded byPhysics Instruments

- Engineer Civil ParkingUploaded byFjgu Fkt
- 20160421-UniZg_IC_EMC_Lab_Baric_research.pdfUploaded byFjgu Fkt
- Awc Dca62012 Deckguide 1405Uploaded byflatfender
- WFCM 2015 Guide (Guide to Wood Frame Construction in High Wind Areas for One and Two Family Dwellings).pdfUploaded byAdam Jones
- Thermoelectric CoolingUploaded byFjgu Fkt
- ICEMClab_Inductor-design-and-modelling.pdfUploaded byFjgu Fkt
- ICEMClab_Inductor-design-and-modelling.pdfUploaded byFjgu Fkt
- Sensors 13 06492 ZigbeeUploaded byFjgu Fkt
- AWC-NDS2015-ViewOnly-1411.pdfUploaded byAltin Cero
- Solar Electricity Handbook 2017 EditionUploaded byandreipopa84
- Low Level Measurements handbookUploaded byprueba12345678910
- isl81601.pdfUploaded byFjgu Fkt
- Synchronous Low EMI LED DriverUploaded byFjgu Fkt
- sensors-13-14438Uploaded byFjgu Fkt
- sensors-13-14438Uploaded byFjgu Fkt
- prEN 13201-6_2015.pdfUploaded byFjgu Fkt
- prEN 13201-6_2015.pdfUploaded byFjgu Fkt
- MS 825 2008part2 Tunnel LightingUploaded byFjgu Fkt
- Saso Iec 61646-Ed2 0-EnUploaded byFjgu Fkt
- Saso Iec 61646-Ed2 0-EnUploaded byFjgu Fkt
- Sensors 13 06492 ZigbeeUploaded byFjgu Fkt
- SASO-IEC-62056-7-5-2017-E.pdfUploaded byFjgu Fkt
- SASO-IEC-62056-7-5-2017-E.pdfUploaded byFjgu Fkt
- EN13201-2015 the New Standard for Road Lighting-Rv01 210316Uploaded byFjgu Fkt
- EN13201-2015 the New Standard for Road Lighting-Rv01 210316Uploaded byIBRAHIM ESMAIL
- Sensors 16 00597 ZigbeeUploaded byFjgu Fkt
- ISO 9001-2015Uploaded byFjgu Fkt
- MS-825-2008part2_tunnel lighting.pdfUploaded byFjgu Fkt
- UL 746D-2012Uploaded byFjgu Fkt

- sensors-17-00546-v2Uploaded byCarlos Alfredo Pizarro León
- Electricity - Wikipedia, The Free EncyclopediaUploaded bydonodoni0008
- Samsung d74b Mustang Chassis Ps50q7hdx Sm [ET]Uploaded byGisela Anastasia
- Analiza Quarz i Pierce Oscillator-AUploaded byMirko Kovacevic
- syllUploaded bySmridh Sethi
- TM 11-5820-510-35P an-PRC-41A Radio Set (Parts and Tools) (1964) WWUploaded bypatrick8167
- 1_716554253262411655Uploaded byNilesh Mistry
- A Method to Determine the Dielectric Constant ValueUploaded bySultan Çalışkan
- megger S1568-S11068-S11568_ug_en_V02Uploaded byCesar Gonzalo Vitali Dinamarca
- Ph.D. Dissertation Huai WangUploaded byhuihuigg
- AV-20FD24_part.pdfUploaded byalberto500
- IEEE C37-66Uploaded byIng Jesus Salazar
- Kenwood DM-81 GDOUploaded bytonykoral
- 2704-paperUploaded byAlapan Ray
- 35N60C3 MOS.pdfUploaded byHưng HQ
- Reactive Power Managment SolutionUploaded byVijay Ananth
- informe 17 05 rec con.docxUploaded byJose Coronacion
- 8__Chitapon_TR winding buckling_paper.pdfUploaded bybcqbao
- A Fast-Acting DC-Link Voltage Controller for Three-Phase DSTATCOM to Compensate AC and DC LoadsUploaded bySanthosh Guduru
- JEE Advanced 2014 Solution Paper IUploaded byanand
- TLP351_datasheet_en_20170808Uploaded byValantis Vkellinaras
- UNIT II EDSUploaded bySai Nikhil
- Msm 6722Uploaded bydetroit_me2553
- Capacitors for Aircraft High Power (Parker, RD. 1980)Uploaded byPlaton Apergis
- anaq=Uploaded byAhmed Al-häbâshñeh
- UM8-40MAN(2)Uploaded byDaniel Martínez
- MAX9750-MAX9755Uploaded bydaoud70
- Alstom P44x en T H75Uploaded bybasil
- KA 01-01-12-02 Catalogue Buchholz RelayUploaded byReza Sara Thoga
- lm3524Uploaded byImamFadili