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TEER-BY-WIRE (SbW) tremendous impact on ments posed on their
systems are candidates to engine efficiency with the man- dependability.
replace the conventional agement of the combustion process, on In today’s vehicles, the hand-
steering equipment in the vehicle stability with the control of the wheel is connected to the steered
new generation of vehicles. longitudinal and lateral behaviors, and wheels by a link that can be mechani-
The task of an SbW system on driver assistance and comfort with cal, hydraulic, or a combination of
is two-fold: turning the the introduction of plenty of systems both. The introduction of SbW systems
steered wheels by tracking the hand- easing the driving maneuvers and mak- would eliminate such a link while carry-
wheel rotation and providing the driver ing the cruise more pleasant [1]. More ing out the peculiar tasks of steering
with a feeling of the steering effort. In recently, interest has grown on the equipment, namely turning of the
this article, the issues of designing and replacement of the conventional appa- steered wheels by tracking the hand-
testing the control scheme for an SbW ratus utilized to drive the vehicles with wheel rotation and providing the driver
system are discussed. Two schemes all-electric systems such as throttle-, with a reaction torque representative of
are considered: the first one is derived brake-, and SbW systems [2]. Throttle- the steering effort. To this aim, the
from the model of the conventional by-wire systems have been installed for steering command is converted into an
steering equipment, while the second a few years now and have greatly con- electronic form by a sensor located on
one exploits the capabilities of an SbW tributed to both increased fuel econo- the handwheel, is executed by an actu-
system to cope with the interaction of my and reduced gas emissions. ator made up of an electric drive cou-
the steered wheels to the road surface. Brake-by-wire systems are soon to be pled directly or through mechanical
Implementation of the schemes on a installed, propelled on one hand by the limbs to the steered wheels, and is
test vehicle is described and experi- improvement in the vehicle control transmitted from the sensor to the
mental results are reported to show the achievable with individual wheel brak- actuator by a communication network;
features of the schemes. ing and on the other hand by the multi- another electric drive is coupled to the
redundant setup that does not suffer handwheel and applies the reaction
Overview from a fault in one wheel unit. SbW sys- torque to the driver.
During the last decades, use of embed- tems constitute the most advanced The vehicles will benefit noticeably
ded electronic circuits and power challenge in the assembly of an all by- by the adoption of SbW systems in
devices has deeply innovat- wire vehicle because of the critical role terms of active and passive driving
ed the vehicular tech- played by the steering maneuver and safety, driving ergonomics, and envi-
nology, producing a the consequent very stringent require- ronment safeguards. Active driving


safety is achieved thanks to the avail- ergonomics is enhanced on account of apparatus as well as the relevant, highly
ability of the steering command in elec- the larger spaces within the driver com- polluting fluids. These and other advan-
tronic form that enables its conditioning partment and the possibility of shaping tages of an SbW system are extensively
in accordance with the driving maneu- the handwheel more conveniently. Envi- discussed in [3].
vers, the environment conditions, and ronmental safeguards are achieved in The development of SbW systems
the vehicle status. Passive driving safe- vehicles, such as in many industrial opens new research topics on the sys-
ty is increased because of the removal trucks, currently steered by means of a tem components (sensors, actuators,
of the steering column, which is a hydraulic apparatus by eliminating this communication network, electronic
potentially unsafe element in case units) that must be tailored to the auto-
of an accident. Driving motive context for size, reliability,


and costs; the system hardware and the shaft, the pinion, the rack, the tie ment torque. Other quantities in Figure
software that must tolerate a fault rods, the arms, and the steered wheels, 2 are the driver torque τd , which is the
according to the dependability require- as illustrated in Figure 1. torque exerted by the driver on the
ments; and the system control that A workable model of the equipment handwheel; the steering torque τs ,
must reproduce or even outperform the is shown in Figure 2 [10]. In the model which is the torque exerted by the shaft
behavior of conventional steering the elements of the kinematic chain are on the steered-wheel side elements; the
equipment [4]. grouped into two rigid bodies with an reaction torque τr , which is the torque
The control topic has received con- in-between elastic element constituted exerted by the shaft on the handwheel
siderable attention in the literature. The by the shaft. The elements on the hand- side elements; the steering and hand-
majority of the papers have faced the wheel side and those on the steered- wheel angles θs and θh , which are
problem of avoiding an abnormal wheel side are represented by their respectively the direction of the steered
behavior of the SbW systems that could total moments of inertia (designated wheels and the rotation of the hand-
result from the elimination of the with Jh and Js , respectively) and vis- wheel; the torque ratio 1/Nτh , which is
mechanical link. A key point is the ratio between τr and τs ;
the synthesis of an appropri- and the angle ratio 1/Nθh ,
ate reaction torque. In [5] it is which is the ratio between θs
obtained by matching the SbW Handwheel and θh . Of course, the two
system with a suitable model Column ratios 1/Nτh and 1/Nθh have
of the steering equipment. In an equal value, determined by
[6] two sensors, one of torque the rack-and-pinion coupling
located on the handwheel and and the tie rod and arm lever-
the other one of force located age. Due to the structure of the
on the rack, determine the kinematic chain, the ratios are
reaction torque. In [7] an Tie Rod Rack Pinion a nonlinear function of the
extensive vehicle model is steered-wheel direction. The
used to estimate the lateral nonlinearity is inherent to the
forces acting on the tires and Arm structure of the steering equip-
to reconstruct from them the ment and is compensated for
reaction torque. Other papers Steered Wheel by the driver that adjusts the
have focused on algorithms handwheel position to give the
intended to alter the steering vehicle the desired trajectory.
command with the aim of FIGURE 1 — Conventional steering equipment. Regarding τe, two situations
improving either the maneu- can be envisaged. When the
verability of a vehicle [8] or its vehicle is stationary and the
Steered-Wheel Side
lateral stability [9]. driver starts rotating the hand-
Despite the numerous τ e 1 1 ϑs wheel, the contact patches of
− Bs + sJs s
papers, the arrangement of + the tires do not turn because
simple but effective control τs the stiction torque opposes the
schemes for the SbW systems − steering torque; now τe is equal
is still open. Furthermore, Kf + sCf to the stiction torque and is
there is a lack of experimen- + transferred to the steered-
1 1
tal analysis of the various Nτh Nϑh
wheel side elements through
proposals since nearly all of the elastic twisting of the tires.
them report simulations or τr As the driver continues rotat-
hardware-in-the-loop up- − ing the handwheel, the steering
τd 1 1 ϑh
shots. In an attempt to con- + Bh + sJh s torque exceeds the stiction
tribute to the matter, this torque and the steered wheels
Handwheel Side
article discusses the designs begin to turn through a stick-
and experiments of two con- slip motion, if any; subsequent-
FIGURE 2 — Conventional steering system model.
trol schemes that accomplish ly, τe settles down to the dry
in a simple way the tasks required by cous friction coefficients (designated friction torque. When the vehicle is
the steering maneuver. with Bh and Bs, respectively). The shaft moving, another component of τe arises,
is represented by its torsional stiffness given by a self-aligning moment that
Conventional Steering Equipment Kf and damping coefficient C f , while thrusts the steered wheels toward the
Conventional steering equipment is a the interaction of the steered wheels to center position. This moment depends
kinematic chain composed by several the road surface is represented by the on the steering geometry (i.e., caster
elements: the handwheel, the column, torque τe , commonly termed environ- angle) and increases with the vehicle


speed and the steering angle, roughly with DRs and DRr , receive the torque its value can be suitably adjusted to
resembling an elastic torque. references τr,ref and τs,ref by individual adapt the torque reaction level to the
Despite the elasticity of the tires PD position regulators, denoted with driver demands.
and shaft, the conventional steering PRs and PRr . The resultant control
equipment shows a smoothed behav- scheme is termed the torque scheme Speed Scheme
ior because of the damping inherent in because PRs delivers the torque refer- The torque τe disturbs the control of
the shaft and of the friction in the cou- ence to the steering drive. In contrast the steered wheel. At low cruising
plings between elements and with the to the conventional steering equip- speeds, τe has a value comparable with
vehicle chassis. ment, here the position loops are inde- the steering torque and hence its effect
Figure 2 points out that the shaft acts pendent and the gains of the PD on the scheme performance is appre-
as a proportional derivative (PD) regula- regulators can be freely chosen, with ciable. For instance, when the vehicle
tor that closes two position is stationary, the difference εθ
loops, one on the steered- between the position of the
wheel side and the other one Steered-Wheel Side handwheel and that of the
on the handwheel side. The τe 1 ϑs steered wheels can be conspic-
− Bs + sJs s
output position of one loop + uous before they begin to turn.
enters as the reference input τs To overcome this inconven-
for the other loop, and this τs,ref ience, a closed loop of speed is
forces the handwheel and the εϑ − built up inner to the position
steered wheels to assume an τr,ref + loop on the steered-wheel side
identical angular position. DRr PRr as outlined in Figure 4. The
The gains of the PD regulator 1 resultant control scheme is
are given by the mechanical SbW System Nϑh termed the speed scheme
parameters of the shaft so τr − because PRs delivers the
that the responsiveness of τd 1 1 ϑ h speed reference ωs,ref to the
conventional steering equip- + Bh + sJh s steering drive.
ment is not modifiable. Handwheel Side The speed loop is con-
trolled by a proportional-inte-
SbW System FIGURE 3 — Torque scheme. gral (PI) regulator (denoted
Control Schemes with SR in Figure 4) that com-
In an SbW system the shaft pensates for τe , thus relieving
of the conventional steering Steered-Wheel Side the position loop from this
equipment is substituted by τe 1 ωs 1 ϑ s task and making it capable of

two electric drives. One of + Bs + sJs s tracking the handwheel posi-
the drives, termed the steer- −
tion closely. A similar result
τs,ref ωs,ref
ing drive, is coupled to the DRs SR PRs could have been obtained
+ εϑ −
rack and exerts the steering τr,ref with the torque scheme by
PR +
torque, while the other one, DRr Nτh r including an integral action in
termed the reaction drive, is SbW System 1 the regulator PRs , but at the
coupled to the handwheel expenses of a potential insta-
and exerts the reaction τd − 1 ωh ϑh bility of the SbW system due
torque. This section pres- + Bh + sJh Handwheel Side s to the presence of two inte-
ents two control schemes grators and one real pole in
for an SbW system. The first FIGURE 4 — Speed scheme. the same loop.
scheme, designated with
the torque scheme, is derived from the the only constraints being for the con- Experimental Setup
model of the conventional steering trol scheme to meet the specifications. A photo of the test vehicle used in
equipment, while the second one, des- The ratios 1/Nτh and 1/Nθh are this article is shown in Figure 5(a). It
ignated with the speed scheme, copes also by-choice parameters and can be is a lift truck produced by Cesab Com-
with the interaction of the steered adapted dynamically to the driving pany and arranged to accommodate
wheels to the road surface. conditions of the vehicle; as an exam- an SbW system. The truck comes with
ple, 1/Nθh can be decreased at low a hydraulic steering apparatus that
Torque Scheme speeds to ease the steering maneuver turns the rear wheels and consists of
If a shaft-like operation is maintained in narrow spaces; 1/Nτh , in turn, can 1) a distribution valve activated by
for the SbW system, the control scheme be set at a value lower than 1/Nθh to the handwheel, 2) a hydraulic jack fed
becomes one as in Figure 3, where the assist the driver in the same way as a by the distribution valve and connect-
steering and reaction drives, denoted power steering system does; moreover, ed to the rear wheels, playing the


same function as the rack in the con- The control scheme implemented the steered wheels, the steering drive
ventional steering equipment, and 3) in the SbW system has the general does 32 revolutions. Then the angle
a pump that pressurizes the hydraulic structure of Figure 6. It differs from the ratio 1/Nθ s has an average value of
fluid. The rear-axle geometry of the conceptual schemes of Figures 3 and 4 64, with its actual value a function of
lift truck is such that there is no self- in the following points: θs . The steering angle θs utilized in
aligning component of τe . ■ the steering drive is not directly the implemented scheme is calculat-
Installation of the SbW system coupled to the steered wheels; thus ed by multiplying θm by the constant
has required the removal of the dis- a torque ratio 1/Nτ s exists between quantity Nθs , fixed at 1/64; this entails
tribution valve and the hydraulic τs and the torque τm developed by that the variation of 1/Nθ s does not
jack. On the steered-wheel side, a the steering drive, and, conse- affect the control. The correction of
ball screw has been mounted in quently, an angle ratio 1/Nθ s (equal the difference between the actual
place of the hydraulic jack and an ac to 1/Nτ s ) exists between the angu- steered-wheel direction θs and θs is
brushless drive has been fitted, with lar position θm of the steering drive left to the driver as with the conven-
the motor coupled to the ball screw and θs tional steering equipment. Moreover,
through a gear; on the handwheel ■ the angular position sensed on the some backlash exists in the elements
side, another ac brushless drive has steered-wheel side is θm instead of θs linking the steering drive with the
been fitted, with the motor directly ■ in the speed scheme the angular steered wheels; however, it does not
coupled to the handwheel axle. Each speed ωm of the steering drive is influence the position loop in the
motor is endowed with a 12-b used as feedback instead of that of implemented scheme since the loop
encoder, the output of which is the steered wheels (ωs ). is closed around θm and the backlash
employed both to control the drive The angular range of the steered is external to it.
and to close the position loops of the wheels is of 180◦ . In the control algo- The gains of the position regulators
SbW system. The SbW arrangement rithm the angle ratio 1/Nθh has been are chosen in order to fulfill the
for the steering axle and the hand- set at 1/4; then, two rotations of the requirements of an average driver.
wheel of the lift truck are shown in handwheel turn the steered wheels They are to direct the steered wheels
Figure 5(b) and (c). fully. To cover the angular range of from an end position to the other one



Motor Kingpin
Tie Rod

Ball Screw



FIGURE 5 — (a) Test vehicle, (b) steering axle top view, and (c) handwheel front view of the test vehicle with an SbW system.


within 1 s and to assure a critically uploads up to four variables at the same is about 1/128 of that applied to the
damped behavior of both the hand- time with a maximum number of 1,024 steered wheels. Regarding the direc-
wheel and the steered wheels. samples for each variable. tion, the reaction torque as applied to
The control algorithms within the the handwheel (i.e., –τr ) is the opposite
rectangle of Figure 6, labeled “μP Experimental Results of τm so that, according to the driving
board,” are executed by a 16-bit The control schemes assessed above standard, it tends to rotate the hand-
microprocessor with a sampling peri- have been subjected to a series of wheel counter to the steered wheels.
od of 1 ms. The driver torque τd is experiments to analyze their features. Figure 8 reports the steering and
applied to the handwheel with no The results of a significant experi- handwheel angles. To make easier the
human assistance by help of the μP ment are reported below; the experi- comparison of the two responses, the
board and the reaction drive. For this ment consisted of the application of a steering angle is referred to the hand-
purpose, the microprocessor is pro- square-wave driver torque with peak- wheel by multiplying θm by the prod-
grammed to command the reaction to-peak amplitude of 0.18 Nm and uct N θ s Nθh . This angle is designated
drive with a torque request formed period of 0.5 s. The aim of the experi- with θsh  . The plots of Figure 8 indicate

by the difference between the driver ment was to characterize the SbW that the application of a square-wave
torque reference τd,ref and the torque system and therefore the handwheel driver torque causes the handwheel to
reference τr,ref . position loop was not closed by any move in a nearly sinusoidal way; θsh  ,

The microprocessor communicates driver model. instead, has a trapezoidal shape,

with the drives via a controller area net- which is evidence of the fact that the
work (CAN) bus working at a bit rate of Torque Scheme steered wheels do not track the hand-
1 Mb/s, and with a PC via an RS232 con- The torque responses of the drives and wheel position accurately. The differ-
nection. The CAN bus is used to the opposite of the reaction torque ref- ence in the motion is more evident in
exchange the torque and speed refer- erence are shown in Figure 7. The con- Figure 9 where the angular speed ωh of
ences, the steering drive and handwheel tributions of τr and τd to the torque the handwheel and that of the steered
positions, and the supply currents of developed by the reaction drive can be wheels referred to the handwheel
the two drives. From the latter vari- easily recognized from the plot of (ωsh ) are traced. The two speeds have

ables, the microprocessor calculates the (τd –τr ) since the first contribution been obtained by calculating the time
torques developed by the drives. The matches very well with its reference rate of the respective angular posi-
PC connection is used for parameteriza- while the second one has a square- tions and by smoothing the resultant
tion and monitoring purposes. Through wave form. The experimental results signals with a 50-Hz low-pass filter.
a suitable software interface, at start-up show that τr is proportional to τm , thus Inspection of Figures 7, 8, and 9 gives a
PC downloads the control parameters reproducing the steering torque exact- broad hint on the operation of the
to the μP board while during the SbW ly. Regarding the magnitude, τr is about torque scheme. When the difference
system operation it uploads some one half τm but, due to the torque ratio εθ (not reported in Figure 6) between
process variables. In particular, it Nτ s , the torque returned to the driver  and θ is small, as it occurs for
θsh h

Steered-Wheel Side 0.3

τe 1 ωs 1 ϑs
− + Bs + sJs s
τm,ref ωm 0.1
τm ϑm −
DRs SR s

ϑ′sh ω′sh 0
Nϑh s
τm,ref ωm,ref
PRs εϑ − −0.2
τd − τr − τr,ref 1 +
+ Nτh 1
τd,ref Nϑh −0.3
SbW System μP Board 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1
Time (s)
1 1
Bh + sJh s ϑh
Handwheel Side FIGURE 7 — Steering drive torque τm (blue), torque (τd − τr )
developed by the reaction drive (red), and reaction torque refer-
FIGURE 6 — Implemented SbW control scheme. ence –τr,ref (green).


instance in the time interval same frequency as the driver
from 0.23 s to 0.35 s, the steer- 0.1 torque but, compared to the
ing drive develops a torque that 0.08 torque scheme, has a lower
is not enough to overcome the 0.06 harmonic content.
stiction torque; therefore, the By comparing τr with the fil-
drive is practically at a stand- tered version of τm , it clearly
still and the steering angle appears that, different from the

remains constant. At about 0.35 0 torque scheme, the two vari-
s, the sign of εθ changes and −0.02 ables are not more proportion-
the steering drive begins rotat- al. The reason is that in steady
ing at positive speed, followed state the speed loop causes the
by the steered wheels. Their position error to vanish irre-
motion is originated by the elas- −0.08 spectively from τe ; consequent-
tic torque of the tire twisting, as −0.1 ly, in this state τr,ref is zero and
it can be realized from the plot 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 no reaction torque is exerted.
of the steered-wheel speed that Time [s] During steering transients, on
t > 0.4 s continues increasing FIGURE 8 — Handwheel angle θh (red) and handwheel-referred the contrary, a certain reaction

although the torque developed steering angle θsh (blue). torque is applied to the hand-
by the steering drive decreases. wheel. This behavior can be
At about 0.45 s, εθ becomes recognized from Figure 11,
again small and the operation where –τr,ref reaches its maxi-
of the torque scheme repeats in mum around the falling edges
a periodic way. of τm and then slowly decreas-
The plots of Figures 7 and 8 es although τm does not change
show that the torque scheme or even increases.
has a faithful torque reaction 0.5 Figure 12 reports the speed

but does not exert an accurate reference ωm,ref and the actual
control of the steered-wheel 0 speed ωm of the steering drive.
direction. Again, ωm has been obtained
−0.5 by calculating the time rate of
Speed Scheme θm and by smoothing the
The plots of θsh  and θ in −1 resultant signal with a 50-Hz
response to the square-wave low-pass filter. The plots of
driver torque are traced in Fig- −1.5 Figure 12 indicate that the
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1
ure 10 and show that θsh  tracks dynamics of the speed loop
Time [s]
θh closely, apart from a phase are accurate enough to not
delay that does not differ too FIGURE 9 — Handwheel speed ωh (red) and handwheel-referred influence the performance of

steered-wheel speed ωsh (blue).
much from that of the torque the speed scheme.
scheme in Figure 8 if only the The plots of Figures 10 and
stiction effect is removed. 0.1 11 show that the speed scheme
The torque responses of the exhibits a superior control of
drives and the opposite of the 0.08 the steered-wheel direction but
reaction torque reference are 0.06 fails in providing a faithful
traced in Figure 11, where again torque reaction.
the contributions of τr and τd
to the torque developed by the 0.02 Conclusions

reaction drive can be easily rec- 0

The article has presented two
ognized. Figure 11 reveals that schemes, termed torque and
τm is somewhat noisy on −0.02 speed schemes, for the con-
account of the high gains used −0.04 trol of an SbW system and has
in the speed regulator to com- documented their features
pensate for τe . The filtered ver- through experiments. The
sion of τm , obtained with a −0.08 torque scheme has the merit of
50-Hz low-pass filter, is also 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 a reaction torque that repli-
Time [s]
traced in the figure to highlight cates the steering torque,
its basic pattern. Unlike τm , τr FIGURE 10 — Handwheel angle θh (red) and handwheel-referred including the torque existing

is quite smooth; it varies at the steering angle θsh (blue). between the steered wheels


and the road surface. This implies assistant professor in the Scientific His main research fields are modeling
that, when the handwheel is rotated Discipline Group of electric convert- and control of dc and ac electric drives.
without turning the steered wheel and ers, machines, and drives. He is cur- Recently, he has participated in a
then released, the handwheel moves rently involved in the analysis and research project, supported by the Ital-
back toward the initial position in the design of control systems and com- ian Ministry of University, on the devel-
same way as in conventional steering munication networks for automotive opment of advanced by-wire systems
equipment. Conversely, the torque by-wire systems. for industrial vehicles.
scheme has the inconvenience that Giuseppe Buja received the Laurea
the steered wheels do not track the degree in electronic engineering with
handwheel rotation accurately. The honors from the University of Padova, References
[1] R. Bosch, Bosch Automotive Handbook.
speed scheme, instead, is free from Italy, in 1970. He is a full professor of Cambridge, MA: Bentley, 2000.
this inconvenience; however, it pro- power electronics and the head of the [2] E.A. Bretz, “By-wire cars turn the corner,” IEEE
Spectrum Mag., vol. 38, no. 4, pp. 60–73, Apr. 2001.
vides a reaction torque that does not Industrial Automation Laboratory at [3] N. Kelling and P. Leteinturier, “X-by-wire: Opportu-
replicate the steering one. This the Department of Electrical Engineer- nities, challenges and trends,” in Proc. SAE Int.
Congress, Detroit, MI, paper 01-0113, pp. 1–10,
implies that the driver is not aware of ing of the University of Padova. His Mar. 2003.
the steering effort, especially after the research interests range from power [4] M. Bertoluzzo, P. Bolognesi, O. Bruno, G. Buja, A.
Landi, and A. Zuccollo, “Drive-by-wire systems for
alignment of the steered wheels along electronics to industrial automation. He ground vehicles,” in Proc. IEEE Int. Symp. Industrial
the handwheel. has authored or co-authored more than Electronics, May 2004, pp. 711–716.
[5] D. Odenthal, T. Bünte, H.D. Heitzer, and C. Eicker,
Improvement of the control schemes, 150 scientific papers and has recently “How to make steer-by-wire feel like power steer-
such as a combination of the two directed a research project, supported ing,” in Proc. 15h IFAC World Congress on Automat-
ic Control, Barcelona, Spain, 2002. pp. 1–6.
schemes presented here, should give by the Italian Ministry of University, on [6] S. Amberkar, F. Bolourchi, J. Demerly, and S.
the SbW system good overall perform- the development of advanced by-wire Millsap, “A control system methodology for steer
by wire systems,” in Proc. SAE World Congress,
ance, both in directing the steered systems for industrial vehicles. Dr. Buja Detroit, MI, paper 2004-01-1106, Mar. 2004, pp. 1–6.
wheels and returning the steering is a recipient of IEEE Industrial Elec- [7] L. Verhoeff, R. Verschuren, and J. Zuurbier, “Tyre
effort to the driver. tronics Society Eugene Mittelmann force estimation for improved steering feel in
EPAS and steer-by-wire,” in Proc. FISITA World
Achievement Award (2006). Automotive Congress, Barcelona, Spain, paper
Biographies Roberto Menis received the Laurea F2004F323, May 2004, pp.1–10.
[8] P. Yih and J.C. Gerdes, “Modification of vehicle
Manuele Bertoluzzo received the degree in electronic engineering from handling characteristics via steer-by-wire,” IEEE
M.S. in electronic engineering and the the University of Trieste, Italy, in 1982. Trans. Contr. Syst. Technol., vol. 13, pp. 965–976,
Nov. 2005.
Ph.D. in industrial electronics and In 1984, he joined the Department of [9] S. Oh, W. Sunf, C. Han. H. Jo, S. Yun, and J. Hwang,
computer science from the University Electrotechnics, Electronics, and Com- “Design of the controller for the SBW system to
improve steering feel and vehicle stability,” in
of Padova, Italy, in 1993 and 1997, puter Science of the University of Tri- Proc. ATA, paper 04A6032, 2004, pp. 1–10.
respectively. In 2000, he joined the este, where he is currently an associate [10] M. Bertoluzzo, G. Buja, R. Menis, and G. Sulligoi,
“An approach to steer-by-wire system design,” in
Department of Electrical Engineering professor of electric drives and the Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. Industrial Technology, Hong
of the University of Padova as an head of the Electric Drives Laboratory. Kong, Dec. 2005, pp. 443–447.

0.4 15





−0.2 −10

−0.3 −15
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1
Time (s) Time [s]

FIGURE 11 — Steering drive torque τm (cyan), filtered steering drive

torque (blue), torque (τd − τr ) developed by the reaction drive (red), and FIGURE 12 — Speed reference ωm,ref (red) and actual speed ωm of the
reaction torque reference –τr,ref (green). steering drive (blue).