Theories of Emotion

Emotion

♦ James-Lange & Cannon-Bard

♦ cognition & emotion ♦ Schacter’s two-factor theory of emotion

♦ Two dimensions of emotion

The physiology of emotion

♦ Arousal ♦ specific physiological states
♦ lie detection Expressing Emotion

♦ nonverbal communication
• gender & nonverbal behavior

detecting & computing emotion

♦ culture and emotional expression

♦ the effects of facial expressions

do-good subjective well-being the adaptation-level principle • relative deprivation • predictors of happiness .Experiencing Emotion ♦ fear • learning fear • the biology of fear ♦ anger • catharsis ♦ happiness • • • feel-good.

3) Discuss evidence suggesting that some emotional reactions involve no conscious thought. 2) Contrast and critique the James-Lange and Cannon-Bard theories of emotion. noting the relationship between arousal and performance. 7) Discuss the effectiveness of the polygraph in detecting lies.Emotion 1) Identify the three components of emotion. and describe the two dimensions of emotion. 4) Describe two problems that Walter cannon identified with the James-Lange theory. and describe Schacter’s two-factor theory of emotion. . 5) Describe the physiological changes that occur during emotional arousal. 6) Discuss the research findings on the relationship between body states and specific emotions.Study Questions / Review .

13) Identify some potential causes and consequences of happiness. 11) Discuss the significance of environmental and biological factors in the acquisition of fear. 10) Discuss whether nonverbal expressions of emotions are universally understood. 14) Explain why some researchers think that some fears are biologically predisposed. and discuss reasons for the relativity of happiness. and describe people’s varying abilities to detect deceit.8) Explain the relationship between performance and arousal. 15) Identify some potential problems with expressing anger. . 9) Discuss gender and personality differences in nonverbal communication. 12) Discuss the catharsis hypothesis and identify some of the advantages and disadvantages of openly expressing anger. and describe the effects of facial expressions on emotion.

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An inexperienced pilot prepares for an emergency landing after her singleengine plane loses power. b) James-Lange theory. When her movie viewing was interrupted by a phone call from her boyfriend. increased c) largely unchanged. c) adaptation-level principle. Astrid was emotionally aroused by a TV horror movie. e) two-factor theory. c) catharsis hypothesis. e) happiness can'last forever. decrease b) higher. she was ecstatic. she took the car for granted and it gave her little sense of emotional excitement. e) relative deprivation principle. increased d) largely unchanged. b) catharsis hypothesis. decrease d) lower. Van Dyke first acquired a new luxury car. Astrid' emotional reactivity to her brother s and her boyfriend is best explained by the: a) catharsis hypothesis. e) Cannon-Bard theory. People' longterm feelings of life satisfaction are typically ________ by a tragic event and ________ by a dramatically positive event. She became extremely angry when her younger brother momentarily blocked her view of the screen. s 6. This change in her feelings can best be explained in terms of the: a) adaptation-level principle. Her increasing level of emotional arousal is likely to be accompanied by: a) a decreased respiration rate. guilty b) decrease. increase 5. largely unchanged b) decreased. b) s s things are never quite as bad as they could be. innocent d) decrease. Hanson to take a(n) ________ test. a) increase. He has denied the allegation. d) James-Lange theory. guilty c) increase. d) two-factor theory. The suggestion that “a happy face creates a merry soul” is most consistent with the: a) Cannon-Bard theory. Hohmann discovered that the ________ an individual' spinal cord injury. however. c) increases in her blood sugar level. d) increased salivation. e) all of the above.Practice Test 1. b) constriction of her pupils. a) higher. Hanson is strongly suspected of embezzling money from his employer. largely unchanged 7. c) one is worse off than those with whom one compares oneself. 9. c) adaptation-level principle. Mr. b) relative deprivation principle. the more feelings of anger tended to ________ in intensity following the injury. a) electrocardiograph b) electroencephalograph c) polygraph d) myograph e) tomograph 3. however. d) JamesLange theory. innocent 8. investigators are most likely to invite Mr. increase c) lower. The concept of relative deprivation refers to the perception that: a) yesterday' luxuries are today' necessities. To determine whether he is lying. she experienced unusually intense romantic feelings. 2. When Mrs. s 4. After several months. d) happiness is simply a state of mind. t . The assumption underlying the use of the polygraph in criminal investigations is that denial of involvement in a crime is most likely to ________ arousal in suspects who are actually ________. a) decreased.

e) pupil contraction and dilation. 13. b) relative deprivation principle. e) adaptation-level principle. their feelings of anger will be greater than those of people who have been similarly provoked but were not previously aroused. c) 19. typically b) guilty. two police investigators knew that the actual murder weapon was a letter opener. the investigators asked him if he typically used a letter opener on his mail. The James-Lange theory is most consistent with the suggestion that: a) big fish are happiest in small ponds. d) facial muscles.10. Researchers have found that people experience cartoons as more amusing while holding a pen with their teeth than while holding it with their lips. e) feel-good. This is best explained by the: a) relative deprivation principle. This best illustrates the: a) catharsis hypothesis. Which of the following is not one of the basic components of emotion identified in the text? b) pupil contraction c) conscious experience d) expressive behavior 15. b) 11. Which of the following emotional reactions is most likely to precede any conscious thinking? fear d) happiness a) physiological arousal a) guilt b) love c) a) hypothalamus 16. 18. b) adaptation-level phenomenon. ________ suspects are ________ judged guilty by polygraph examiners. c) spendable income of Americans (adjusted for inflation) has been decreasing over the last 40 years. Research on the well-being of Americans indicates that the: a) vast majority of Americans currently declare themselves to be very happy. always c) guilty. c) genetic or environmental factors are more important in shaping our emotions. c) relative deprivation principle. Zajonc and Lazarus disagree on whether: a) cognition must precede emotion. c) expressing angry feelings reduces rage. 20. e) catharsis hypothesis. hand gestures. d) guilty knowledge test. While carefully monitoring the changes in heart rate and perspiration level of a prime suspect. d) two-factor theory. e) going through the motions eliminates emotions. d) adaptation-level phenomenon. Who suggested that the physiological reactions associated with a variety of different emotions were much the same? a) William James b) Walter Cannon c) Robert Zajonc d) Charles Darwin 23. c) “facial feedback” effect. b) personal happiness of Americans has been increasing over the last 40 years. In their dispute over the nature of emotion. Which brain structure has been found to be especially important in learning to fear specific objects? b) amygdala c) corpus callosum d) hippocampus e) thalamus 17. b) daydreaming. The most unambiguous nonverbal clue to our specific emotional state is provided by our: a) respiration rate. d) engaged in challenging activities. Although newspapers reported that a murder victim had been stabbed with a knife. seldom 21. c) catharsis hypothesis. b) behind dark clouds the sun still shines. b) Cannon-Bard theory. d) increase in the personal income of Americans over the past 40 years has provided no apparent boost to Americans' personal happiness. 14. d) intensity and valence are the basic dimensions of our emotional experience. a) eating. do-good phenomenon. . The investigators were making use of the: a) two-factor theory. b) the physiological states underlying specific emotions are distinguishable. a) innocent. Research suggests that people experience the most happiness when they are: highly self-aware. When guilty knowledge tests are used in criminal investigations. d) a gloomy face saddens the soul. If people who have just been aroused by watching rock videos are insulted. seldom d) innocent. 12. c) body posture. Which theory suggests that you would not experience intense anger unless you were first aware of your racing heart or of other symptoms of physiological arousal? a) the relative deprivation theory b) the James-Lange theory c) the adaptation-level theory d) the Cannon-Bard theory 22.

c) James-Lange theory. e) guilty knowledge test. 34. Julie will be competing in a basketball free throw contest. mouth 30. 32. very low b) best. . b) adaptationlevel phenomenon. 35. b) relative deprivation principle. do-good phenomenon. d) hippocampus. Who would have been most likely to suggest that the facial expression of disgust is an inherited behavioral trait that enables us to quickly eject foul-tasting and harmful food from our mouths? a) Richard Lazarus b) Stanley Schachter c) Charles Darwin d) Walter Cannon 31. c) cognitive appraisals. This best illustrates the: a) two-factor theory. b) James-Lange theory. mouth b) mouth. c) adaptation-level phenomenon. moderate e) mediocre. s This is best explained in terms of the: a) catharsis hypothesis. decreases c) increases. d) genetic predispositions. when he heard a colleague recently had three different research articles accepted for publication. e) feel-good. 26. eyes d) mouth. however. c) James-Lange theory. c) pituitary gland. very high c) best. Her performance is likely to be ________ if her physiological arousal during the performance is ________. increases a) increases. His feelings of joy quickly dissipated. The importance of autonomic nervous system arousal to our subjective experience of emotion is most clearly minimized by the: a) two-factor theory. d) catharsis hypothesis. A lie detector machine is used to monitor people' s: d) respiration.24. Mr. Luciano believes that the best way to get over the anger he feels toward one of his high school teachers is to scream shameful profanities while hitting a punching bag. 27. The instantaneous and automatic fear response experienced when unexpectedly stumbling upon a snake illustrates the importance of the: a) amygdala. 36. a) insulin levels. This best illustrates that emotions are influenced by: a) physical arousal. a) overestimate. underestimate 33. Activation of the sympathetic nervous system ________ salivation and ________ blood pressure. underestimate b) underestimate. do-good phenomenon. c) catharsis hypothesis. d) feel-good. 25. e) Cannon-Bard theory. Whether we feel angry or depressed in response to a low exam grade depends on whether we attribute the poor grade to an unfair test or to our own lack of academic ability. After receiving exciting news about the birth of a healthy grandson. d) relative deprivation principle. c) James-Lange theory. People who were exposed to different parts of emotion-laden faces detected anger mostly from the ________ and happiness mostly from the ________. b) hypothalamus. 29. d) Cannon-Bard theory. you probably will feel increasing empathy for that person. b) stomach contraction. b) relative deprivation principle. His belief best illustrates the: a) relative deprivation principle. a) eyes. moderate 28. d) adaptation-level phenomenon. overestimate d) underestimate. decreases d) decreases. e) catharsis hypothesis. do-good phenomenon. moderate d) worst. Who suggested that we can stimulate the subjective experience of cheerfulness simply by acting as if we are already cheerful? a) William James b) Walter Cannon c) Stanley Schachter d) Richard Lazarus 37. His declining emotional satisfaction is best explained in terms of the: a) “facial feedback” effect. If you mimic another person' facial expressions of emotion. Haney was easily persuaded to contribute a generous sum of money to a neighborhood church. c) brain activity. b) relative deprivation. overestimate c) overestimate. People ________ the long-term emotional impact of sustaining a paralyzing physical injury and they ________ the long-term emotional impact of acquiring wealth. eyes c) eyes. increases b) decreases. b) feel-good. a) best. Professor Crane was ecstatic when he learned that one of his research studies had been approved for publication.

a) s 44. His emotional suffering is best understood in terms of the: a) catharsis hypothesis. e) relative deprivation principle. d) catharsis hypothesis. e) relative deprivation principle. Exuberant infants and alert. shorter a) more. e) guilty knowledge test. longer c) more. The physiological arousal of parents who momentarily lose their young child in a large shopping mall can actually heighten their feelings of elation shortly thereafter when the child is found. This best illustrates the: a) Cannon-Bard theory. b) Cannon-Bard theory. has just recently joined her high school debate team. Shondra. b) sensory cortex. 48. an experienced member of her high school swimming team. c) catharsis hypothesis. c) adaptation-level principle. c) feel-good. Morgan began to misinterpret his harmless symptoms of autonomic nervous system arousal as indicative of an impending heart attack. Her belief is most clearly inconsistent with the: a) adaptation-level principle. Antonio' car stalls in the middle of a railroad crossing just as a train is rapidly approaching. When Mr. c) contraction of the arteries. Ariana believes that yelling at her husband serves to calm her angry feelings toward him. 39. 42. b) James-Lange theory. they are likely to experience an increasingly intense emotional aversion to the food. good health b) 50. Asians are ________ likely to display feelings of anger and ________ likely to display feelings of shame. d) James-Lange theory. b) catharsis hypothesis. do-good phenomenon.38. self-control c) happiness. disrupt 43. c) relative deprivation principle. d) left frontal lobe. do-good phenomenon. 45. less 47. d) relative deprivation principle. Evidence that emotion precedes physiological arousal would be most inconsistent with the _______. more d) more. longer d) less. . energetic adults are especially likely to show high levels of brain activity in the: limbic system. disrupt c) disrupt. His emotional arousal is s likely to be accompanied by: a) a decreased blood sugar level. a) less. If people wrinkle their nose in disgust when presented with a strange-looking food. a) relative deprivation principle. relative deprivation principle c) James-Lange theory. d) adaptation-level phenomenon. Yet with each success. interpersonal conflict a) optimism. helpfulness d) empathy. mood. Evidence that emotion precedes mentally labeling our physiological arousal would be most inconsistent with the ________. Compared to North Americans. b) James-Lange theory. 49. e) “facial feedback” effect. James-Lange theory 41. a) enhance. The feel-good. A high level of physiological arousal during team competition is likely to ________ her swimming performance and ________ her debate performance. 40. enhance b) enhance. shorter 46. d) dilation of his pupils. enhance d) disrupt. he suffered an unusually intense level of fear. d) feel-good. less b) more. A celebrity actress experiences ever-increasing levels of professional acclaim following each successful movie role. An approach to lie detection that assesses a suspect' physiological response to details of a crime known only to police investigators is called the: a) relative deprivation principle. This is best explained by the: a) catharsis hypothesis. do-good phenomenon refers to the impact of ________ on ________. b) an increased respiration rate. b) relative deprivation principle. e) two-factor principle. This is best explained in terms of the: a) catharsis hypothesis. more c) less. two-factor theory d) two-factor theory. b) James-Lange theory. adaptation-level principle b) adaptation-level principle. b) less. she experiences no more than a temporary surge of subjective well-being. c) two-factor theory. c) two-factor theory. c) cerebellum. d) adaptationlevel principle. Feigned smiles are initiated ________ abruptly and last for a ________ time than genuine smiles.

d largely unchanged.Answer Key 1. c polygraph 3. 12. 4. increases 27. largely unchanged 7. 14. c cognitive appraisals. c “facial feedback” effect. b amygdala 17. b pupil contraction 15. 24. a increase. c one is worse off than those with whom one compares oneself. 19. c fear 16. b Walter Cannon 23. d facial muscles. seldom 21. 6. d a gloomy face saddens the soul. d increase in the personal income of Americans over the past 40 years has provided no apparent boost to Americans' personal happiness. 18. d two-factor theory. d guilty knowledge test. a adaptation-level principle. d engaged in challenging activities. 2. d decreases. a amygdala. 10. 13. 11. d two-factor theory. 20. a higher. c increases in her blood sugar level. b the James-Lange theory 22. 26. d innocent. decrease 5. guilty 8. a cognition must precede emotion. c . 25. d James-Lange theory. 9.

35. 42. b an increased respiration rate. e feel-good. disrupt 43. e two-factor principle. overestimate 33. 36. 49. b enhance. mouth 30. b relative deprivation principle. a eyes. helpfulness 50. 45. c James-Lange theory. e “facial feedback” effect. do-good phenomenon. d Cannon-Bard theory. d respiration. a William James 37. 32. b James-Lange theory. 48. 44. c overestimate. 39. d left frontal lobe. 34. c less. more 47. c James-Lange theory. d adaptation-level phenomenon. 40. d catharsis hypothesis. e guilty knowledge test. c more. moderate 28. longer 46. c two-factor theory. 29. . c Charles Darwin 31.best. 38. two-factor theory 41. c happiness.

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