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Presentation heading here

2nd line if needed © Tim Haye © Tim Haye

Progress in
Research on the Use of Asian Parasitoids Against Drosophila suzukii
M. Lukas Seehausen & many partners
KNOWLEDGE
KNOWLEDGEFOR
FORLIFE
LIFE
Drosophila suzukii
The Spotted Wing Drosophila
● Introduced to Europe and the Americas from Asia
● 100+ host species (crop, ornamental & wild fruits)
© McEvey 2017

● Attacks fresh fruits
● High fecundity
● Many generations per year

Asplen et al. 2015

KNOWLEDGE FOR LIFE
Drosophila suzukii
The Spotted Wing Drosophila
● Many control strategies have been proposed and tested
● Problem: Re-infestation from natural surroundings
 An area-wide control strategy is needed!

© UNIPD © M. Kenis

KNOWLEDGE FOR LIFE
Drosophila suzukii
Natural enemies (predators, parasitoids and diseases)
● Few natural enemies have been found in the invasion range
● Some generalist pupal parasitoids and predators

© T. Haye © T. Colin © Fera © Fera

KNOWLEDGE FOR LIFE
Drosophila suzukii
Natural enemies (predators, parasitoids and diseases)
● Few natural enemies have been found in the invasion range
● Some generalist pupal parasitoids and predators
● D. suzukii has a very high haemocyte load that allows it to encapsulate and kill
the eggs of some parasitoids

KNOWLEDGE FOR LIFE
Drosophila suzukii
Biological control
● Native natural enemies are on the marked as biocontrol agents
● E.g., the pupal parasitoid Trichopria drosophilae

© BIOPLANET

KNOWLEDGE FOR LIFE
Drosophila suzukii
Classical biological control
Intentional introduction of an exotic, usually co-evolved, biological control agent
for permanent establishment and long-term pest control.

Asplen et al. 2015

KNOWLEDGE FOR LIFE
Classical biocontrol of Drosophila suzukii
Importation of larval parasitoids from Asia in 2015-2017

KNOWLEDGE FOR LIFE
Classical biocontrol of Drosophila suzukii
Parasitism in Asia
● About 19,000 Drosophila spp. were collected at more than 50 sites
● D. suzukii is less frequent in Asia than in Europe
● Fresh fruits contained D. suzukii but also 2 other fruit pests
D. pulchrella and D. subpulchrella
● Larval parasitism rate in Asia varied between 0 - 76%
● At least eight parasitoid species were obtained

Girod et al. (2018) Scientific Reports.

KNOWLEDGE FOR LIFE
Classical biocontrol of Drosophila suzukii
Parasitism in Asia
The most frequented parasitoids were:

Asobara japonica
(up to 29% parasitism)

Leptopilina japonica
(up to 35% parasitism)

Ganaspis cf. brasiliensis
(up to 76% parasitism)

Girod et al. (2018) Scientific Reports.

KNOWLEDGE FOR LIFE
Classical biocontrol of Drosophila suzukii
Studies in quarantine
● Importation and study of parasitoids from Asia in quarantine in CH and F
● At least three species and many populations from China and Japan

KNOWLEDGE FOR LIFE
Classical biocontrol of Drosophila suzukii
Studies in quarantine
General biology
● All were successfully reared on D. suzukii larvae in blueberry and artificial diet
● All lay eggs in young D. suzukii larvae and kill the pupae
● All have a short pre-oviposition period (1 day)

© Tim Haye
Girod et al. (2018) Journal of Applied Entomology

KNOWLEDGE FOR LIFE
Classical biocontrol of Drosophila suzukii
Studies in quarantine
General biology
● Ganaspis cf. brasiliensis rarely attacks D. suzukii feeding on artificial diet

© Tim Haye © Tim Haye

Girod et al. (2018) Journal of Applied Entomology

KNOWLEDGE FOR LIFE
Classical biocontrol of Drosophila suzukii
Studies in quarantine
Host specificity: No-choice tests
● On D. suzukii and 6 European flies to assess potential non target effects

D. suzukii D. melanogaster D. subobscura D. immigrans D. busckii D. hydei Ceratitis capitata

Girod et al. (2018) Journal of Pest Science

KNOWLEDGE FOR LIFE
Classical biocontrol of Drosophila suzukii
Studies in quarantine
Host specificity: No-choice tests
● Ganaspis cf. brasiliensis is the most specific
● But different biotypes (or cryptic species)
exist with different specificity

© Tim Haye

Girod et al. (2018) Journal of Pest Science

KNOWLEDGE FOR LIFE
Classical biocontrol of Drosophila suzukii
Studies in quarantine

Percentage parasitism
Host specificity: No-choice tests
● Ganaspis cf. brasiliensis is the most specific
● But different biotypes (or cryptic species)
exist with different specificity

Girod et al. (2018) Journal of Pest Science

KNOWLEDGE FOR LIFE
Classical biocontrol of Drosophila suzukii
Studies in quarantine
Host specificity: No-choice tests

Japan China
CABI (unpublished)

KNOWLEDGE FOR LIFE
Classical biocontrol of Drosophila suzukii
Studies in quarantine
Host specificity: Choice test

CABI (unpublished)

KNOWLEDGE FOR LIFE
Classical biocontrol of Drosophila suzukii
Studies in quarantine
Substrate specificity: Different fruits

CABI (unpublished)

KNOWLEDGE FOR LIFE
Classical biocontrol of Drosophila suzukii
Studies in quarantine
Substrate specificity: Olfactometry

CABI (unpublished)

KNOWLEDGE FOR LIFE
Classical biocontrol of Drosophila suzukii
Studies in quarantine
Substrate specificity: Behaviour

Population Diet Blueberry
Hasuike
Tokyo
Dali
Kunming
Ximing
(Preliminary results)

© Koïchi Beltrando © Koïchi Beltrando

~10 min on each substrate
CABI (unpublished)

KNOWLEDGE FOR LIFE
Classical biocontrol of Drosophila suzukii
Outlook
● Preliminary molecular studies suggest that host specificity is genetically
defined
● Ongoing: crossing experiments between specific and non specific populations
● We hope to sort out the taxonomic status of the species (are there cryptic
species?)

KNOWLEDGE FOR LIFE
Classical biocontrol of Drosophila suzukii
Conclusions
● Classical biological control represents one of the few solutions for long term
and area-wide control.
● Surveys in Asia showed that parasitism is at least partly responsible for the
lower occurrence of D. suzukii in Asia.
● Ganaspis cf. brasiliensis is the most promising candidate for introduction in
Europe because it is the most abundant and the most specific parasitoid.
● The main issue to be solved before releases is the taxonomic status and its
relation to host specificity.
● Other potential issue: climatic requirements of the parasitoid.
● We are close to a recommendation for the release of a specific parasitoid to
control D. suzukii in Europe!

KNOWLEDGE FOR LIFE
‫جزيال‬
ありがとう
‫شكرا‬merci शुक्रिया
zikomo xie-xie obrigado
efharistó
danke
thank
kiitos
urakoze you
ke itumetse
terima kasih
tak
gracias zikomo

dhanyawaad
asante

Mark Kenis Pierre Girod Laetitia Driss Koïchi Beltrando

CABI is an international intergovernmental organisation, and we gratefully acknowledge
the core financial support from our member countries (and lead agencies) including:
Ministry of Agriculture,
People’s Republic of China

KNOWLEDGE FOR LIFE