You are on page 1of 7

SHREYA PHIRKE

17BEM0061
SLOT: L55+L56
FACULTY: PROF. SREEKANTH M.S.

EXPERIMENT NO. 9: Tensile test on the given sample


Aim:
To conduct the tensile test on the given samples and to estimate the
tensile properties of the given sample using electronic tensometer.
Materials required:
ASTM Standard sample – Mild steel or Al or polymer, Vernier
caliper
Instrument used:
Extensometer with digital display
Procedure:
1. The given sample is held in the extensometer grippers.
2. A constant load is applied at one end of the specimen gripper.
3. At certain time, the material exhibits elastic property. When it
crosses the elastic limit, the plastic deformation limit begins.
4. At that time, the load in the specimen material is noted.
5. One can able to notice the gradual reduction in diameter of the
specimen (or increase in the length of the specimen)
6. The load cell measures the displacement values at every instance
7. Once the load reaches the maximum point, it will not go beyond
the value and tend to decrease. This is referred to be ultimate
tensile strength.
8. Load value at UTS region is noted again.
9. Finally it reaches the fracture point were the material losses its life
and fracturing of specimen results. Fracture load is to be noted.
Formulae:
Engineering stress = Load / Original C.S area
Engineering strain = Change in length / Original length
True stress = Load/Instantaneous area
True strain = {Sum of all the instantaneous strains}
Ductility = %Elongation in length
Yield strength = Load at the yielding region / original C.S area
Ultimate Tensile strength = Max. Load (Po) / original C.S area
Precautions:
1. Correct alignment of the grips and the specimen, when clamped in
the grippers, is important. Offsets in alignment will create bending
and lower tensile stress readings. It may even cause the specimen
to fracture outside the gauge length.
2. Most ASTM or similar test methods require a shaped specimen
that will concentrate the stress within the gauge length. If the
specimen is incorrectly machined, fracture could occur outside the
gauge length and result in strain errors. Incorrect reading of
specimen dimension will create stress measurement errors.
3. Worn micrometers or calipers should be replaced and care should
be taken when recording specimen dimensions.
Tabulation:

Engineering Stress Engineering Strain True Stress True Strain


0.0015 5.49 0.0057 12.55
0.0049 10.98 0.0138 31.38
0.0147 32.95 0.0232 57.73
0.0277 71.89 0.0319 93.25
0.0319 90.37 0.0415 140.92
0.0402 129.31 0.0496 180.79
0.0494 171.25 0.0564 213.08
0.0560 200.7 0.0647 227.51
0.0643 213.19 0.0696 233.9
0.0743 222.17 0.0775 241.55
0.0866 223.67 0.0864 244.08
0.0894 221.67 0.0915 239.78
0.0994 208.69 0.1 229.56
0.01083 190.22 0.1085 211.41
0.1151 174.24 0.1138 197.96
0.1258 143.29 0.1290 149.94

GRAPH:
1. Load vs Displacement
5000

4500

4000

3500

3000
Load In N

2500

2000

1500

1000

500

0
0.00 1.23 2.46 3.69 4.92
Displacement In mm
2. Engineering stress vs engineering strain:

250

200
Eng Stress In N / Sq mm

150

100

50

0
0.0000 0.0274 0.0547 Strain 0.0821 0.1094

3. TRUE STRESS vs TRUE STRAIN


300

250
True Stress In N / Sq mm

200

150

100

50

0
0.0000 0.0274 0.0547 0.0821 0.1094

Strain
INFERENCE:
From above test, we can infer that the given sample is ductile, because
elastic limit it does not fracture immediately like a brittle sample would.
Some elongation is observed beyond the elastic region, i.e. the plastic
region, till it reaches fracture point.
b.) Tensile test subjects a sample to uniaxial tension until it fails.
By pulling on something, you will very quickly determine how the
material will react to forces being applied in tension. As the material is
being pulled, you will find its strength along with how much it will
elongate.
• Element tensile testing capabilities include: wedge tensile testing, axial
tensile testing,
weld tensile testing, castings tensile testing, elevated temperature tensile,
tensile testing
for machined specimens, full-size tensile testing and yield tensile, plus
heat treatment
capabilities.
• Properties can be retrieved from both elastic and plastic limit
Equations

P
(Eq1) σ= engineering stress
A0

P
(Eq2) σt = true stress
A

δ
(Eq3) ε= engineering strain
L0

L
(Eq4) εt = ln true strain
L0

Relation between engineering strain ε and true strain εT :

ε = Li/Lo -1 => Li/Lo = ε + 1


ln (Li/Lo) = ln (ε + 1) => εT = ln (ε + 1)

Relation between engineering stress σ and true stress σT :

Assuming that there is no volume change during deformation AoLo = AiLi


Ai = Ao (Lo/Li) so that
σT = F/Ai = (F×Li)/(Ao×Lo) and therefore
σT = σ(ε + 1)
True stress continues to increase after necking because, although
the load required decreases, the area decreases even more.
Result:
Thus the tensile test is being carried out on the given sample using
electronic extensometer and the following results are observed:
• Yield Strength (N/mm2) =207.5
• Ultimate Tensile Strength (N/mm2) =226.17
• Breaking strength (N/mm2) =33.447
• Modulus of Resilience =6.172(taking yield
strength in N/mm^2)
• Ductility =13.62