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Intimate Relationships Marriages And Families 9th Ed by Nancy Stinnett – Test Bank

ch6

Student:
___________________________________________________________________________

Which of the following is NOT one of the four measures for successful marriage discussed in the
text?

A. unconditional love

1.
B. approximation of ideals

C. durability
D. fulfillment of needs

Which of the following was mentioned in the text as a caution regarding need fulfillment?

A. Successful marriage means partners can satisfy all of each other’s needs.

B. It is helpful if need fulfillment is mutual.

2.

Realistically, needs of only one of the partners have to be met in order to have a successful
C.
marriage.

D. Need fulfillment is a relatively unimportant measure of successful marriage.

Which of the following terms refers to the extent to which couples are content and fulfilled in their
relationships?

A. marital success

3.
B. marital satisfaction

C. commitment
D. nonconditional reinforcement

A successful marriage is defined as one that:

A. lasts forever

B. doesn’t require counseling

4.

C. fulfills both partners’ reasonable expectations

D. meets the definition of the researchers

The text points out that a marriage that is ______ is not necessarily successful.

A. durable

5.
B. ideal

C. satisfying
D. happy

According to the text, marriages are more successful if they are based on expectations that are:

A. idealistic

B. realistic

6.

C. based on research

D. culturally acceptable

Expecting one’s needs to be met in a successful marriage is:

A. too idealistic to work well

7.
B. possible only with counseling

C. possible to some degree


D. setting oneself up for disappointment

The term “marital satisfaction” refers to:

A. the way researchers measure a successful marriage

B. sexual fulfillment in a marriage

8.

C. a marriage that is working reasonably well

D. how happy both people are in a marriage

According to John Gottman, couples who are happy in their marriage are ______ to use negative
affect reciprocity.

A. very likely

9.
B. somewhat likely

C. unlikely
D. very unlikely

John and Mary have a happy marriage. John came in from work today in a grumpy mood.
According to John Gottman, how will Mary perceive his behavior?

A. He’s always grumpy. He can’t think about anybody but himself!

B. He’s so selfish. I’m tired, too.


10.

C. I better bring him a soda and a snack or he’ll get worse!

D. He must have had a hard day at work.

Which of the following have researchers found to be one of the processes that can predict
divorce?

A. misinterpretation of a person’s behavior

11.
B. anger

C. defensiveness
D. depression

Based on findings from a national study of over 21,000 couples, family life researcher David Olson
advises that a happy marriage requires:

A. accepting a decrease in romance

B. paying positive attention to the relationship


12.

C. agreeing rather than having conflict

D. being nice no matter what

Marriage researcher John Gottman concluded that in an unhappy marriage, if one partner says
something negative, the other partner tends to:

A. reciprocate negatively.

13.
B. reciprocate positively.

C. offer no immediate response.


D. interrupt.

The four processes that can predict divorce, called the “Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse” by John
Gottman, include all but:

A. selfishness

B. criticism.
14.

C. defensiveness.

D. stonewalling.

Studies have found that married people get older, their desire for physical closeness and affection:

A. decreases

15.
B. increases

C. continues to be a strong need


D. changes to a desire for companionship

Research shows that ______ couples typically have sex more frequently.

A. young

B. older

16.

C. cohabiting

D. remarried

The text uses the term intimacy to refer to:

A. sexual contact

17.
B. closeness

C. commitment
D. interaction

Researchers have found that women consider sexual ______ to be most important.

A. satisfaction

B. communication

18.

C. contact

D. intimacy

The text points out that many couples consider sex and feelings of intimacy to be:

A. inseparably linked together

19.
B. separate but equally important

C. separate with intimacy being more important


D. the same thing

Which of the following have NOT been established by researchers as true regarding the
relationship between sex and a happy marriage?

A. Happy marriages always result in sexual satisfaction.

For many individuals 60 and older, sexual expression remains an important part of their
B.
marriage relationship.
20.

C. Healthy sexuality contributes to marital satisfaction.

If partners disagree over the frequency of sex, it can significantly reduce relationship
D.
satisfaction.

Researchers point out that the ideal frequency of sexual intercourse for marital satisfaction is:

A. one to two times per month.

21.

B. one to two times per week.


C. daily.

D. variable, depending on the couple’s sexuality.

Typically, researchers find that most couples start out their marriage by engaging frequently in
intercourse, and the frequency:

A. increases over time until the couple settles into their own individual patterns.

B. decreases over time until the couple settles into their own individual patterns.
22.

C. usually stays at that level for the first two years of marriage.

D. usually stays at that level for the first five years of marriage.

According to research presented in the text, although both men and women place a high value on
sexual functioning, women place the highest value on

A. sexual intimacy.

23.

B. sexual satisfaction.
C. sexual commitment.

D. physical contact.

Researchers agree that _________ can be productive or destructive in relationships.

A. Communication

B. Intimacy

24.

C. Depression

D. Criticism

The text points out that if communication is to be productive, it should:

A. involve some criticism.

25.
B. involve complete honesty, even if hurtful.

C. be polite, even if that means being slightly dishonest.


D. be polite and tactful.

The text points out that which of the following is NOT a part of effective communication?

A. being critical

B. being polite

26.

C. being tactful

D. exchanging feelings

Researchers have concluded that happy couples are those who

A. meet each other’s needs for acceptance and appreciation.

27.
B. criticize each other to stimulate improvement.

C. are careful about giving compliments to avoid flattery.


D. both contribute equally to the finances.

Which of the following terms refers to unconditional positive regard?

A. noncontingent reinforcement

B. affective sensitivity

28.

C. selfism

D. empathy

The text points out that in successful marriages, spouses have mastered the art of:

A. losing themselves in their relationships.

29.
B. losing themselves in their relationships without losing their sense of self.

C. never losing themselves in their relationships.


D. maintaining their individual identities with little effort to achieve oneness as a couple.

What is the relationship between spirituality and marital adjustment, according to researchers?

A. There is no relationship.

B. There is a positive relationship.

30.

C. There is a negative relationship.

D. There is an inconsistent relationship.

According to your text, marital success is usually more attainable if the commitment is:

A. stronger in the partner who has the greater interest in having the marriage succeed.

31.
B. mutual.

C. defined formally.
D. loosely structured.

Research indicates that the strongest predictor of relationship persistence is:

A. satisfaction.

B. investment.

32.

C. commitment.

D. frequency of sexual intercourse.

Constraint commitment refers to:

forces that compel individuals to maintain relationships regardless of their personal dedication
A.
to them.

33.

the desire of an individual to maintain or improve the quality of the relationship for the joint
B.
benefit of the couple.
the desire of an individual to maintain or improve the quality of the relationship for the benefit
C.
of one individual.

D. maintaining autonomy.

Marital rituals are:

A. special times spent with the entire family.

B. special times that just one parent spends with the children.

34.

positive social interactions that are scheduled moments that are mutually decided on and
C.
repeated.

D. social interactions that the couple arrange with other couples.

Which of the following is true in relation to the expression of affection and successful marriage?

A. The greater the degree of expression of affection, the more successful the marriage.

35.

B. The greater the degree of physical expression of affection, the more successful the marriage.
C. The greater the degree of verbal expression of affection, the more successful the marriage.

D. The husband and wife need to agree on the expression of affection.

In dealing with crises and stress, successful couples:

A. try not to think about what is happening.

B. turn to each other for assistance and strength.

36.

C. believe that stress and problems are a sign of failure.

D. seldom feel that anything good comes from adversity.

To deal successfully with problems, the most important thing that couples need is:

A. outside help

37.
B. agreement on basic issues

C. compatibility
D. tolerance for frustration

Which of the following is NOT correlated with higher divorce rates?

A. high stress levels

B. nervousness and moodiness

38.

C. non-contingent reinforcement

D. depression

The text discusses the ways in which responsibility in a successful marriage involves:

A. providing for one’s family financially

39.
B. being accountable for one’s own behavior

C. having a good relationship with in-laws


D. determining who will choose birth control

Which of the following does the text state would be most beneficial to a happy marriage?

A. affective sensitivity

B. selfism

40.

C. constraint commitment

D. critical empathy

The text points out that persons who are _______ will not take responsibility for conflicts that
might arise in a marriage because they believe they are right.

A. empathic

41.
B. depressed

C. perfectionistic
D. immature

Relative to the division of household and child care responsibilities, marital dissatisfaction is
greatest when:

A. the wife is responsible for housework and the husband for breadwinning.

B. both the husband and wife are responsible for child care and housekeeping.

42.

the partners feel there is a fairly equal distribution of labor, and gender-role performance
C.
matches expectations.

D. one partner perceives unfairness in the performance of these chores.

What does research reveal regarding the division of housework in families?

A. The husband does more than the wife if she works outside of the home.

43.
The husband spends as much time doing housework as the wife when there are children in the
B.
family.
C. There is little evidence of egalitarianism in marriage.

D. The husband’s contribution changes after the couple has been married a while.

A personal value system that emphasizes self-gratification and narcissism as the way to find
happiness is termed:

A. autonomy.

B. perfectionism.
44.

C. misogyny.

D. selfism.

Which of the following is characteristic of selfism?

A. It lessens each partner’s responsibility for the success of the relationship.

45.

B. It increases the likelihood that the other partner’s needs will be fulfilled.
C. It increases marital stability.

D. It results in greater happiness through narcissistic love.

Kagan and Schneider term the ability to vicariously share the experiences of another person:

A. emulation.

B. affective sensitivity.

46.

C. affectation.

D. autonomy.

Which of the following is NOT one of the five steps in the development of empathy?

A. repeating

47.
B. perception

C. experiencing
D. labeling

According to the text, the most difficult partners to deal with in a marital context usually are

A. perfectionists.

B. masochists.

48.

C. those with low frustration levels.

D. irresponsible partners.

Family-of-origin factors play a(n) _____ role in predicting marital satisfaction for:

A. equal; males and females.

49.
B. greater; males than for females.

C. greater; females than for males.


D. unimportant; both males and females

Research has found that most of the differences between couples who stay married, but differed
in marital happiness:

A. developed after 13 years of marriage.

B. developed after 2 years of marriage.


50.

C. developed within the first 6 months of marriage.

D. existed at the outset of marriage.

Research has shown that _______ have the most impact on happiness in marriage.

A. social relationships (of each person)

51.
B. parental approval and interaction

C. parent-child relationships in the family of origin


D. the couple’s premarital interactions

Which of the following is LEAST important for parents to do to help their children have happy
marriages later?

A. have a happy marriage themselves

B. be involved in their children’s lives


52.

C. create a happy home environment

D. provide a good standard of living

______ is NOT necessarily a sign that a marriage is headed for trouble.

A. A decline in overt affection

53.
B. A decline in sexual activity

C. Believing that one’s spouse isn’t responsive


D. Mixed feelings about the relationship

A good marriage may be expected to fulfill every need.


54.
True False

Marital satisfaction can be present if only one of the partners is content with the relationship.
55.
True False

Negative affect reciprocity is a consistent characteristic of distressed couples.


56.
True False

If partners disagree over the frequency of sexual encounters, it doesn’t seem to hurt relationship
57. satisfaction as long as one of the partners is satisfied.

True False

Research indicates that in the most successful relationships, partners don’t hesitate to say
58. whatever is on their minds.

True False

Saying critical, hurtful things, even though they are honest, may worsen a relationship.
59.
True False
If communication is to be productive, politeness, tact, and consideration are required.
60.
True False

Marital problems usually arise when partners choose to have some separateness and do some
61. things with their own friends.

True False

Research indicates a lack of correlation between spirituality and marital satisfaction.


62.
True False

Commitment, rather than satisfaction or investment, is the strongest predictor of relationship


63. persistence.

True False

A component of commitment is referred to as intention to persist.


64.
True False

Constraint commitment refers to the desire of an individual to maintain the quality of the
65. relationship.

True False

Successful couples usually experience much less stress in marriage than unsuccessful ones.
66.
True False
Selfism in marriage lessens each partner’s responsibility for the success of the relationship.
67.
True False

Affective sensitivity is the vicarious sharing of the experiences of another person.


68.
True False

Of all the family-of-origin issues, the parent-child relationship is one of the most important.
69.
True False

What happens in the first two years of marriage is important in predicting marital satisfaction over
70. the long run.

True False

Researchers find that most of the differences between couples who stay, but differed in marital
71. happiness, developed within the first 2 years of the marriage.

True False

Discuss the four criteria of a successful marriage.

72.
Discuss the four needs under “fulfillment of needs,” as important criteria for marital success.

73.

Discuss negative affect reciprocity as it relates to unhappy couples.

74.

In a national study of over 21,000 married couples, researcher David Olson found that happy and
unhappy couples differ in five key areas. Name them.

75.

Discuss the gender differences in attitudes toward intimacy.

76.

77. What are the elements of effective communication?


What are some characteristics of those who are able to meet their partner’s needs for admiration
and respect?

78.

Explain the analogy of porcupines used to exemplify one of the 12 characteristics of successful
marriages.

79.

Discuss to whom and to what commitment is directed in marriage.

80.

Discuss the two conditions regarding division of responsibility that are reported to exist in
81.
marriages having a high degree of satisfaction.
List and briefly describe the five phases of empathy as presented by Kagan and Schneider.

82.

Describe the four different criteria that are sometimes used to define successful marriages.

83.

Discuss the differences between happy and unhappy couples.

84.

Several intervention principles can help practitioners work with couples to increase the likelihood
of having a high-quality marriage. These interventions can help people in five general ways.
85. Mention and discuss.
Discuss reasons why people might regret their choice of mate.

86.

ch6 Key

Which of the following is NOT one of the four measures for successful marriage discussed in
the text?

A. unconditional love

B. approximation of ideals
1.
(p. 146)

C. durability

D. fulfillment of needs
DeGenova – Chapter 06 #1

Which of the following was mentioned in the text as a caution regarding need fulfillment?

A. Successful marriage means partners can satisfy all of each other’s needs.

B. It is helpful if need fulfillment is mutual.

2.
(p. 147)

Realistically, needs of only one of the partners have to be met in order to have a
C.
successful marriage.

D. Need fulfillment is a relatively unimportant measure of successful marriage.

DeGenova – Chapter 06 #2

Which of the following terms refers to the extent to which couples are content and fulfilled in
their relationships?

A. marital success
3.
(p. 147)

B. marital satisfaction
C. commitment

D. nonconditional reinforcement

DeGenova – Chapter 06 #3

A successful marriage is defined as one that:

A. lasts forever

B. doesn’t require counseling


4.
(p. 146)

C. fulfills both partners’ reasonable expectations

D. meets the definition of the researchers

DeGenova – Chapter 06 #4
The text points out that a marriage that is ______ is not necessarily successful.

A. durable

B. ideal
5.
(p. 146)

C. satisfying

D. happy

DeGenova – Chapter 06 #5

According to the text, marriages are more successful if they are based on expectations that
are:

A. idealistic

6. B. realistic
(p. 147)

C. based on research
D. culturally acceptable

DeGenova – Chapter 06 #6

Expecting one’s needs to be met in a successful marriage is:

A. too idealistic to work well

B. possible only with counseling


7.
(p. 147)

C. possible to some degree

D. setting oneself up for disappointment

DeGenova – Chapter 06 #7

The term “marital satisfaction” refers to:

8. A. the way researchers measure a successful marriage


(p. 147)
B. sexual fulfillment in a marriage

C. a marriage that is working reasonably well

D. how happy both people are in a marriage

DeGenova – Chapter 06 #8

According to John Gottman, couples who are happy in their marriage are ______ to use
negative affect reciprocity.

A. very likely

B. somewhat likely
9.
(p. 147)

C. unlikely

D. very unlikely
DeGenova – Chapter 06 #9

John and Mary have a happy marriage. John came in from work today in a grumpy mood.
According to John Gottman, how will Mary perceive his behavior?

A. He’s always grumpy. He can’t think about anybody but himself!

B. He’s so selfish. I’m tired, too.


10.
(p. 148)

C. I better bring him a soda and a snack or he’ll get worse!

D. He must have had a hard day at work.

DeGenova – Chapter 06 #10

Which of the following have researchers found to be one of the processes that can predict
divorce?

A. misinterpretation of a person’s behavior


11.
(p. 148)

B. anger
C. defensiveness

D. depression

DeGenova – Chapter 06 #11

Based on findings from a national study of over 21,000 couples, family life researcher David
Olson advises that a happy marriage requires:

A. accepting a decrease in romance

B. paying positive attention to the relationship


12.
(p. 149)

C. agreeing rather than having conflict

D. being nice no matter what

DeGenova – Chapter 06 #12


Marriage researcher John Gottman concluded that in an unhappy marriage, if one partner says
something negative, the other partner tends to:

A. reciprocate negatively.

B. reciprocate positively.
13.
(p. 148)

C. offer no immediate response.

D. interrupt.

DeGenova – Chapter 06 #13

The four processes that can predict divorce, called the “Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse” by
John Gottman, include all but:

A. selfishness

14.
(p. 148)
B. criticism.

C. defensiveness.
D. stonewalling.

DeGenova – Chapter 06 #14

Studies have found that married people get older, their desire for physical closeness and
affection:

A. decreases

B. increases
15.
(p. 150)

C. continues to be a strong need

D. changes to a desire for companionship

DeGenova – Chapter 06 #15

16.
Research shows that ______ couples typically have sex more frequently.
(p. 150)
A. young

B. older

C. cohabiting

D. remarried

DeGenova – Chapter 06 #16

The text uses the term intimacy to refer to:

A. sexual contact

B. closeness
17.
(p. 154)

C. commitment

D. interaction
DeGenova – Chapter 06 #17

Researchers have found that women consider sexual ______ to be most important.

A. satisfaction

B. communication
18.
(p. 151)

C. contact

D. intimacy

DeGenova – Chapter 06 #18

The text points out that many couples consider sex and feelings of intimacy to be:

A. inseparably linked together


19.
(p. 150
– 151)

B. separate but equally important


C. separate with intimacy being more important

D. the same thing

DeGenova – Chapter 06 #19

Which of the following have NOT been established by researchers as true regarding the
relationship between sex and a happy marriage?

A. Happy marriages always result in sexual satisfaction.

For many individuals 60 and older, sexual expression remains an important part of their
B.
20. marriage relationship.
(p. 150
– 151)

C. Healthy sexuality contributes to marital satisfaction.

If partners disagree over the frequency of sex, it can significantly reduce relationship
D.
satisfaction.
DeGenova – Chapter 06 #20

Researchers point out that the ideal frequency of sexual intercourse for marital satisfaction is:

A. one to two times per month.

B. one to two times per week.


21.
(p. 150)

C. daily.

D. variable, depending on the couple’s sexuality.

DeGenova – Chapter 06 #21

Typically, researchers find that most couples start out their marriage by engaging frequently in
intercourse, and the frequency:

A. increases over time until the couple settles into their own individual patterns.

22.
(p. 150)

B. decreases over time until the couple settles into their own individual patterns.
C. usually stays at that level for the first two years of marriage.

D. usually stays at that level for the first five years of marriage.

DeGenova – Chapter 06 #22

According to research presented in the text, although both men and women place a high value
on sexual functioning, women place the highest value on

A. sexual intimacy.

B. sexual satisfaction.
23.
(p. 151)

C. sexual commitment.

D. physical contact.

DeGenova – Chapter 06 #23


Researchers agree that _________ can be productive or destructive in relationships.

A. Communication

B. Intimacy
24.
(p. 151)

C. Depression

D. Criticism

DeGenova – Chapter 06 #24

The text points out that if communication is to be productive, it should:

A. involve some criticism.

B. involve complete honesty, even if hurtful.


25.
(p. 151)

C. be polite, even if that means being slightly dishonest.

D. be polite and tactful.


DeGenova – Chapter 06 #25

The text points out that which of the following is NOT a part of effective communication?

A. being critical

B. being polite
26.
(p. 151)

C. being tactful

D. exchanging feelings

DeGenova – Chapter 06 #26

Researchers have concluded that happy couples are those who

A. meet each other’s needs for acceptance and appreciation.


27.
(p. 152)

B. criticize each other to stimulate improvement.


C. are careful about giving compliments to avoid flattery.

D. both contribute equally to the finances.

DeGenova – Chapter 06 #27

Which of the following terms refers to unconditional positive regard?

A. noncontingent reinforcement

B. affective sensitivity
28.
(p. 152)

C. selfism

D. empathy

DeGenova – Chapter 06 #28


The text points out that in successful marriages, spouses have mastered the art of:

A. losing themselves in their relationships.

B. losing themselves in their relationships without losing their sense of self.


29.
(p. 156)

C. never losing themselves in their relationships.

D. maintaining their individual identities with little effort to achieve oneness as a couple.

DeGenova – Chapter 06 #29

What is the relationship between spirituality and marital adjustment, according to


researchers?

A. There is no relationship.

30. B. There is a positive relationship.


(p. 154)

C. There is a negative relationship.


D. There is an inconsistent relationship.

DeGenova – Chapter 06 #30

According to your text, marital success is usually more attainable if the commitment is:

A. stronger in the partner who has the greater interest in having the marriage succeed.

B. mutual.
31.
(p. 155)

C. defined formally.

D. loosely structured.

DeGenova – Chapter 06 #31

Research indicates that the strongest predictor of relationship persistence is:


32. A. satisfaction.
(p. 154
– 155)
B. investment.

C. commitment.

D. frequency of sexual intercourse.

DeGenova – Chapter 06 #32

Constraint commitment refers to:

forces that compel individuals to maintain relationships regardless of their personal


A.
dedication to them.

the desire of an individual to maintain or improve the quality of the relationship for the
B.
joint benefit of the couple.
33.
(p. 155)

the desire of an individual to maintain or improve the quality of the relationship for the
C.
benefit of one individual.

D. maintaining autonomy.
DeGenova – Chapter 06 #33

Marital rituals are:

A. special times spent with the entire family.

B. special times that just one parent spends with the children.

34.
(p. 156)

positive social interactions that are scheduled moments that are mutually decided on and
C.
repeated.

D. social interactions that the couple arrange with other couples.

DeGenova – Chapter 06 #34

Which of the following is true in relation to the expression of affection and successful
marriage?

A. The greater the degree of expression of affection, the more successful the marriage.
35.
(p. 156)

The greater the degree of physical expression of affection, the more successful the
B.
marriage.
The greater the degree of verbal expression of affection, the more successful the
C.
marriage.

D. The husband and wife need to agree on the expression of affection.

DeGenova – Chapter 06 #35

In dealing with crises and stress, successful couples:

A. try not to think about what is happening.

B. turn to each other for assistance and strength.


36.
(p. 157)

C. believe that stress and problems are a sign of failure.

D. seldom feel that anything good comes from adversity.

DeGenova – Chapter 06 #36


To deal successfully with problems, the most important thing that couples need is:

A. outside help

B. agreement on basic issues


37.
(p. 157)

C. compatibility

D. tolerance for frustration

DeGenova – Chapter 06 #37

Which of the following is NOT correlated with higher divorce rates?

A. high stress levels

38. B. nervousness and moodiness


(p. 152)

C. non-contingent reinforcement
D. depression

DeGenova – Chapter 06 #38

The text discusses the ways in which responsibility in a successful marriage involves:

A. providing for one’s family financially

B. being accountable for one’s own behavior


39.
(p. 158)

C. having a good relationship with in-laws

D. determining who will choose birth control

DeGenova – Chapter 06 #39

Which of the following does the text state would be most beneficial to a happy marriage?

40. A. affective sensitivity


(p. 159)
B. selfism

C. constraint commitment

D. critical empathy

DeGenova – Chapter 06 #40

The text points out that persons who are _______ will not take responsibility for conflicts that
might arise in a marriage because they believe they are right.

A. empathic

B. depressed
41.
(p. 161)

C. perfectionistic

D. immature
DeGenova – Chapter 06 #41

Relative to the division of household and child care responsibilities, marital dissatisfaction is
greatest when:

A. the wife is responsible for housework and the husband for breadwinning.

B. both the husband and wife are responsible for child care and housekeeping.
42.
(p. 158)

the partners feel there is a fairly equal distribution of labor, and gender-role performance
C.
matches expectations.

D. one partner perceives unfairness in the performance of these chores.

DeGenova – Chapter 06 #42

What does research reveal regarding the division of housework in families?

A. The husband does more than the wife if she works outside of the home.

43.
(p. 158)

The husband spends as much time doing housework as the wife when there are children
B.
in the family.
C. There is little evidence of egalitarianism in marriage.

D. The husband’s contribution changes after the couple has been married a while.

DeGenova – Chapter 06 #43

A personal value system that emphasizes self-gratification and narcissism as the way to find
happiness is termed:

A. autonomy.

B. perfectionism.
44.
(p. 158)

C. misogyny.

D. selfism.

DeGenova – Chapter 06 #44


Which of the following is characteristic of selfism?

A. It lessens each partner’s responsibility for the success of the relationship.

B. It increases the likelihood that the other partner’s needs will be fulfilled.
45.
(p. 158)

C. It increases marital stability.

D. It results in greater happiness through narcissistic love.

DeGenova – Chapter 06 #45

Kagan and Schneider term the ability to vicariously share the experiences of another person:

A. emulation.

46. B. affective sensitivity.


(p. 159)

C. affectation.
D. autonomy.

DeGenova – Chapter 06 #46

Which of the following is NOT one of the five steps in the development of empathy?

A. repeating

B. perception
47.
(p. 159)

C. experiencing

D. labeling

DeGenova – Chapter 06 #47

According to the text, the most difficult partners to deal with in a marital context usually are

48. A. perfectionists.
(p. 161)
B. masochists.

C. those with low frustration levels.

D. irresponsible partners.

DeGenova – Chapter 06 #48

Family-of-origin factors play a(n) _____ role in predicting marital satisfaction for:

A. equal; males and females.

B. greater; males than for females.


49.
(p. 161)

C. greater; females than for males.

D. unimportant; both males and females

DeGenova – Chapter 06 #49


Research has found that most of the differences between couples who stay married, but
differed in marital happiness:

A. developed after 13 years of marriage.

B. developed after 2 years of marriage.


50.
(p. 162)

C. developed within the first 6 months of marriage.

D. existed at the outset of marriage.

DeGenova – Chapter 06 #50

Research has shown that _______ have the most impact on happiness in marriage.

A. social relationships (of each person)

51.
(p. 161) B. parental approval and interaction

C. parent-child relationships in the family of origin


D. the couple’s premarital interactions

DeGenova – Chapter 06 #51

Which of the following is LEAST important for parents to do to help their children have happy
marriages later?

A. have a happy marriage themselves

B. be involved in their children’s lives


52.
(p. 161)

C. create a happy home environment

D. provide a good standard of living

DeGenova – Chapter 06 #52

53.
______ is NOT necessarily a sign that a marriage is headed for trouble.
(p. 150)
A. A decline in overt affection

B. A decline in sexual activity

C. Believing that one’s spouse isn’t responsive

D. Mixed feelings about the relationship

DeGenova – Chapter 06 #53

54. A good marriage may be expected to fulfill every need.


(p. 147)
FALSE

DeGenova – Chapter 06 #54

55. Marital satisfaction can be present if only one of the partners is content with the relationship.
(p. 147)
FALSE
DeGenova – Chapter 06 #55

56. Negative affect reciprocity is a consistent characteristic of distressed couples.


(p. 147)
TRUE

DeGenova – Chapter 06 #56

If partners disagree over the frequency of sexual encounters, it doesn’t seem to hurt
57. relationship satisfaction as long as one of the partners is satisfied.
(p. 150)
FALSE

DeGenova – Chapter 06 #57

Research indicates that in the most successful relationships, partners don’t hesitate to say
58. whatever is on their minds.
(p. 151)
FALSE

DeGenova – Chapter 06 #58


59. Saying critical, hurtful things, even though they are honest, may worsen a relationship.
(p. 151)
TRUE

DeGenova – Chapter 06 #59

60. If communication is to be productive, politeness, tact, and consideration are required.


(p. 151)
TRUE

DeGenova – Chapter 06 #60

61. Marital problems usually arise when partners choose to have some separateness and do some
(p. 152 things with their own friends.
– 154)
FALSE

DeGenova – Chapter 06 #61

62. Research indicates a lack of correlation between spirituality and marital satisfaction.
(p. 155)
FALSE
DeGenova – Chapter 06 #62

Commitment, rather than satisfaction or investment, is the strongest predictor of relationship


63. persistence.
(p. 154)
TRUE

DeGenova – Chapter 06 #63

64. A component of commitment is referred to as intention to persist.


(p. 154)
TRUE

DeGenova – Chapter 06 #64

Constraint commitment refers to the desire of an individual to maintain the quality of the
65. relationship.
(p. 155)
FALSE

DeGenova – Chapter 06 #65


66. Successful couples usually experience much less stress in marriage than unsuccessful ones.
(p. 157)
FALSE

DeGenova – Chapter 06 #66

67. Selfism in marriage lessens each partner’s responsibility for the success of the relationship.
(p. 158)
TRUE

DeGenova – Chapter 06 #67

68. Affective sensitivity is the vicarious sharing of the experiences of another person.
(p. 159)
TRUE

DeGenova – Chapter 06 #68

69. Of all the family-of-origin issues, the parent-child relationship is one of the most important.
(p. 161)
TRUE

DeGenova – Chapter 06 #69


What happens in the first two years of marriage is important in predicting marital satisfaction
70. over the long run.
(p. 162)
TRUE

DeGenova – Chapter 06 #70

Researchers find that most of the differences between couples who stay, but differed in
71. marital happiness, developed within the first 2 years of the marriage.
(p. 162)
FALSE

DeGenova – Chapter 06 #71

Discuss the four criteria of a successful marriage.

Durability: Many would say that a marriage that lasts is more successful than the one
72. that is broken, but for many, marital success involves criteria more important than the
number of years a couple stays together. Approximation of Ideals: This refers to the
extent to which the marriage approximates a couple’s ideals or fulfills their expectations.
Fulfillment of Needs: Psychological, social, sexual and material. Satisfaction: The extent
to which couples are content and fulfilled in their relationship.

DeGenova – Chapter 06 #72


Discuss the four needs under “fulfillment of needs,” as important criteria for marital success.

73. Psychological—for love, affection, approval, and self-fulfillment; social—for friendship,


companionship, and new experiences; sexual—both physical and psychological needs
for sexual fulfillment; and material—”room and board” needs and physical maintenance
services.

DeGenova – Chapter 06 #73

Discuss negative affect reciprocity as it relates to unhappy couples.


74.
In unhappy couples, after one partner makes a negative statement, both partners continue
to reciprocate negatively. This is a consistent characteristic of distressed couples.

DeGenova – Chapter 06 #74

In a national study of over 21,000 married couples, researcher David Olson found that happy
and unhappy couples differ in five key areas. Name them.
75.
(1) How well partners communicate; (2) how flexible they are as a couple; (3) how
emotionally close they are; (4) how compatible their personalities are; (5) how they
handle conflict.

DeGenova – Chapter 06 #75

76. Discuss the gender differences in attitudes toward intimacy.


Women places more importance on sexual intimacy than do men. Men place more
importance on sexual satisfaction, sexual communication, positive attitudes toward sex,
and physical contact.

DeGenova – Chapter 06 #76

What are the elements of effective communication?

77. The ability to exchange ideas, facts, feelings, attitudes, and beliefs so that a message is
accurately heard and interpreted. It is also important to avoid saying hurtful, critical
things, to use politeness, tact, and consideration.

DeGenova – Chapter 06 #77

What are some characteristics of those who are able to meet their partner’s needs for
admiration and respect?

78. Are emotionally secure; don’t have to criticize another to build self up; express
appreciation and give compliments, nonconditional approval; don’t try to change spouse
but are able to accept him or her; voice complaints in private; not threatened by a
competent, high-achieving spouse; like themselves and each other; express approval in
word and deed.

DeGenova – Chapter 06 #78


Explain the analogy of porcupines used to exemplify one of the 12 characteristics of successful
marriages.
79.
Exemplifies companionship—if they get too close, they prick one another; too far apart,
they can’t achieve warmth

DeGenova – Chapter 06 #79

Discuss to whom and to what commitment is directed in marriage.


80.
Of the self, to the self; to each other; to the relationship; to the marriage and the family.

DeGenova – Chapter 06 #80

Discuss the two conditions regarding division of responsibility that are reported to exist in
marriages having a high degree of satisfaction.
81.
Fairly equal division of labor felt by partners; gender-role performance matches gender-
role expectations.

DeGenova – Chapter 06 #81

List and briefly describe the five phases of empathy as presented by Kagan and Schneider.
82.
(1) Perception—during contact and interaction; (2) experiencing—resonates to the
emotion of the other; (3) awareness—process of acknowledging perception and
resonation to oneself; (4) labeling—verbal acknowledgment of awareness and expression
of sensitivity; (5) stating—communication of perception.

DeGenova – Chapter 06 #82

Describe the four different criteria that are sometimes used to define successful marriages.
83.
Answer will vary

DeGenova – Chapter 06 #83

Discuss the differences between happy and unhappy couples.


84.
Answer will vary

DeGenova – Chapter 06 #84

Several intervention principles can help practitioners work with couples to increase the
likelihood of having a high-quality marriage. These interventions can help people in five general
85. ways. Mention and discuss.

Answer will vary


DeGenova – Chapter 06 #85

Discuss reasons why people might regret their choice of mate.


86.
Answer will vary

DeGenova – Chapter 06 #86

ch6 Summary

Category # of Questions

DeGenova – Chapter 06 86

ch7

Student:
___________________________________________________________________________

According to the text, couples’ personal happiness depends to a large degree on the _____ of their
marriage.

A. overall length
1.

B. general quality
C. stability

D. state

The family life cycle consists of phases over the life span which are determined by:

A. researchers who compile statistics

B. specific age cut-off points

2.

C. ages of children

D. major life changes

According to Census Bureau statistics, children are typically born _____ year(s) apart.

A. 1

3.

B. 2
C. 3

D. 4

According to Census Bureau statistics, on average, a couple waits about _____ year(s) before
having the first of _____ children.

A. 1; 2

B. 2; 2
4.

C. 3; 3

D. 4; 2

According to Census Bureau statistics, women tend to marry men who are ____ than/as they are.

A. about 2 years older

5.

B. about the same age


C. about 2 years younger

D. much older

According to Census Bureau statistics, the median age of first marriage for couples who later
divorce is:

A. 2 years younger than for couples who never divorce.

B. 2 years older than for couples who never divorce.


6.

C. 4 years younger than for couples who never divorce.

D. 4 years older than for couples who never divorce.

According to Census Bureau statistics, couples who divorce usually remarry when their children
are:

A. preschoolers
7.

B. early elementary age


C. middle school age

D. high school age

According to Census Bureau statistics, men tend to remarry within _____ years of divorce and
women tend to remarry within _____ years of divorce.

A. 2; 3

B. 3; 4
8.

C. 4; 3

D. 5; 4

According to Census Bureau statistics, men tend to remarry ______ after divorce than women.

A. sooner

9.

B. later
C. about the same number of years

According to Census Bureau statistics, fathers who divorce and remarry will most likely live with
their _____ children.

A. biological
10.

B. step

According to Census Bureau statistics, youngest children typically leave home when they are _____
years old.

A. 18

B. 19
11.

C. 20

D. 21
In the traditional family life cycle, what does the Census Bureau say are the average ages of the
mother and father when the youngest child leaves home?

A. woman is 45; man is 47

B. woman is 50; man is 51


12.

C. woman is 51; man is 53

D. woman is 54; man is 56

According to Census Bureau statistics, in _______ couples, women typically will spend more years
as a widow.

A. never divorced
13.

B. divorced and remarried

According to Census Bureau statistics, on the average, remarried women can expect to be widows
for about __________ years.

A. 4
14.

B. 5
C. 7

D. 10

Which of the following does NOT fit in with the text’s definition of “marital adjustment“?

A. the process of modifying individual and couple patterns of behavior

B. a means to an end

15.

C. becoming adjusted to each other but still being unhappy and dissatisfied with the relationship

D. a process that is completed early in marriage

Making adjustments to one’s partner in a marriage:

A. will always improve the marriage

16.

B. does not necessarily make partners happier


C. may provide the highest satisfaction possible under the circumstances

D. both B and C

E. none of these

Which of the following became less of a problem after marriage than had been true before
marriage – according to longitudinal research of couples?

A. money

B. communication

17.
C. religion

D. alcohol and drugs

E. both C and D
According to a longitudinal study of couples during three early stages of their relationship, _____
was the number one problem at all stages of the relationship.

A. jealousy

B. communication
18.

C. money

D. relatives

Research shows that one big problem before marriage that declines substantially after marriage is:

A. jealousy

B. communication

19.

C. money

D. relatives
_____ was a bigger problem after the first child was born than either before marriage or in the first
year.

A. religion

B. relatives
20.

C. communication

D. recreation

According to research studies, which of the following issues was as much a problem after the birth
of the first child as before marriage?

A. jealousy

B. friends
21.

C. relatives

D. religion
Which of the following problems became much more serious after the birth of the first child?

A. jealousy

B. communication

22.
C. religion

D. sex

E. both B and D

According to research, which of the following is NOT true regarding stress and parenthood?

The less stressful a couple’s marriage before parenthood, the more stressful parenthood
A.
becomes.

B. Part of the stress arises because couples are inadequately prepared for parenthood.
23.

C. Parenthood is more stressful if it is not planned.

D. Part of the stress arises because of the abrupt transition to parenthood.


The stress of new parenthood arises because of:

A. inadequate preparation for parenthood

B. abrupt transition to parenthood

24.
C. immaturity of the parents

D. all of these

E. A and C

Social support during the transition to parenthood is associated with:

A. positive parent-child interactions

B. more positive adaptations to parenthood


25.

C. more negative mental and physical health outcomes


D. all of these

E. A and B

Of the following positive contributions that fathers make to their children’s well-being, most
fathers tend to think that _____ is the most important feature of being a good father.

A. sharing child care responsibilities

B. being a provider
26.

C. being available to their children

D. teaching their children

Mexican American families, in comparison to European American families:

A. have more frequent social interactions

27.

B. show stronger levels of obligation


C. exchange more support

D. are less likely to share living arrangements with the elderly

E. A, B, and C

Which of the following is characteristic of Chinese American families?

A. great emphasis on the extended family as the most important unit

B. children have high sense of duty to parents

28.
C. emphasis on the importance of fulfilling individual needs

D. all of these

E. A and B

Research shows that children who receive support from their parents during childhood:
29.
A. have fewer psychological and physical problems
B. have lower levels of depressive symptoms

C. have lower levels of self-esteem

D. A and B

E. none of these correlates

In a multicultural study of fathering, most fathers reported _______ about fatherhood.

A. ambivalent feelings

B. feeling disappointed

30.

C. positive feelings

D. fears
The text points out that the most noticeable changes of midlife are

A. physical

B. emotional

31.

C. intellectual

D. social

According to your text, middle adulthood:

A. marks a stage of low life fulfillment for most individuals.

B. marks the prime of life in many ways.

32.

C. sees very few physical changes but many psychological changes.

D. is marked by rapid physical changes.

During which period of the family life cycle are most adults first confronted with their own
33.
mortality?
A. beginning marriage

B. after the first child is born

C. middle adulthood

D. late adulthood

Which period in the life cycle is the time of heaviest responsibilities at work and in the community,
often leading to considerable stress?

A. Single adulthood

B. Young adulthood
34.

C. Middle adulthood

D. Late adulthood

35. The generalized capacity for flexible and resourceful adaptation to stress is referred to as:
A. coping-skill

B. play-quotient

C. ego-resiliency

D. combating-depression

Middle-aged adults are sometimes called the __________ generation because they
carry both the care-giving responsibilities for their children and for their elderly parents.

A. flip-flop

B. sandwich
36.

C. reverse

D. upside-down

37. The post-parental years usually refer to:


the period between when children go away to college and then return to live at home for some
A.
time

B. the period between the last child’s leaving home and the parents’ retirement.

C. the period when middle aged adults take care of their elderly parents

D. a time of marital dissatisfaction

Because today’s generation of young adults may return home several different times to live, they
are referred to as the:

A. sandwich generation

B. upside-down generation
38.

C. good-bye kids

D. boomerang kids

39. The text points out that one result of the “boomerang kid” phenomenon is:
A. stronger extended family ties

B. the easing of financial pressure on middle-aged parents

C. increased conflict between parents and children

D. later retirement

Late adulthood is defined as the period of life in which adults:

A. are over 65

B. are over 75

40.

C. become grandparents

D. lose their independence

The text refers to the “young-old” as being between _____ years of age.
41.
A. 45-54
B. 55-64

C. 65-74

D. 75-84

Which of the following living arrangements is of great importance to older people?

A. living in their own home

B. living with their grown children

42.

C. living with a roommate

D. living in an extended care facility

Research findings indicate that as adults get older they tend to:
43.
A. prefer living alone
B. lose interest in pursuing friendships

C. take on different gender roles at home

D. resent their children’s concern about them

Research indicates that the majority of older people:

A. rent housing

B. live with adult children

44.

C. live in homes they own.

D. live in senior citizens’ communities

Research findings indicate that one of the most important predictors of life satisfaction for the
elderly is:
45.
A. retirement
B. home maintenance

C. high status and prestige

D. good health

According to the text, what happens to marital satisfaction during late adulthood?

A. It continues to decline.

B. It decreases after the children are launched.

46.

C. It increases after retirement.

D. It increases briefly, then decreases.

Research indicates that later-life parental divorce has a _______ effect on the relationships
between older adults and their grown children.
47.
A. generally positive
B. generally negative

C. devastating

D. strengthening

In research looking at relationships between parents and grown children, the grown children tend
to describe their relationship with their older parents in terms of:

A. the quality of the relationship

B. how much their parents need them


48.

C. how often they contact and help them

D. how available their parents are to them

Studies show that older adults generally feel ______ when their children give them extensive help
when they need it.
49.
A. resentful
B. encouraged

C. the need to give back

D. incapacitated

Which of the following has been shown by research NOT to be a key factor in the relationship
between older adults and their grown children?

A. emotional support

B. frequent contact
50.

C. reciprocated help

D. moderate level of support

According to census statistics, on average, about how many years will a woman be a widow in her
later years?
51.
A. 3
B. 4

C. 7

D. 10

Studies reveal that widows report that the biggest problem they have is:

A. low income

B. loneliness

52.

C. isolation from children

D. self-identity

How one deals with the challenges of widowhood depends on:


53.
A. physical factors
B. emotional factors

C. spiritual factors

D. all of these

E. A and B only

Which of the following was NOT cited by younger widows as a problem after their spouses died?

A. loneliness

B. home maintenance and car repair

54.

C. finances

D. increased independence
_____ is often a period of disillusionment and disenchantment for couples who have not realized
what marriage involves.

A. Early marriage

B. Parenthood
55.

C. Middle adulthood

D. Late adulthood

The text makes a strong point that during ______ a great deal of stress can occur because the
couple is inadequately prepared.

A. early marriage

B. parenthood
56.

C. middle adulthood

D. late adulthood
Studies show that during ______marital satisfaction is at its lowest point.

A. early marriage

B. middle adulthood

57.

C. retirement

D. post retirement

Research shows that stress arises in _____ because of the sudden transition to the stage.

A. early marriage

B. parenthood

58.

C. middle adulthood

D. late adulthood

59. In _____, the text suggests that a tired marriage may need to be revitalized.
A. early marriage

B. parenthood

C. middle adulthood

D. late adulthood

In _____, the text points out that there is significant loss of status and prestige.

A. early marriage

B. parenthood

60.

C. middle adulthood

D. late adulthood

The family life cycle can be said to consist of the phases, or stages, over the life span and to
61. describe changes in family structure during each stage.

True False
Typically, according to census figures, a woman remarries 3 years after her divorce.
62.
True False

Same sex couples have very little role flexibility.


63.
True False

Researchers have found that gay and lesbian families are very different in most respects than are
64. heterosexual families.

True False

The goal of marital adjustment is to eliminate conflict.


65.
True False

According to longitudinal research, jealousy is often a big problem after marriage, even though it
66. was not before the marriage.

True False

The more stressful a couple’s marriage prior to parenthood, the more likely they are to have
67. problems in adjusting to their first child.

True False

Couples who prepare for parenthood find greater satisfaction in being a parent than do those who
68.
do not prepare.
True False

Stress related to parenthood is greater if parents are young.


69.
True False

Ego resiliency refers to the generalized capacity to be flexible and resourceful in adapting to stress.
70.
True False

Parents today see their children leaving home at an earlier age than in past decades.
71.
True False

In looking at the population over age 45, the number of widows is about 4 times the number of
72. widowers.

True False

The chief psychological task of the final stage of life is the development of ego integrity –
73. contentment with one’s life as it is and has been.

True False

Discuss the traditional family life cycle of spouses in an intact marriage in the United States.

74.
What usually precipitates a midlife crisis?

75.

Describe the “sandwich generation.” To what does this term refer? Give some examples in your
answer.

76.

Unmarried children continue living with their parents for a longer period of time than they used to
for three basic reasons. Discuss them.

77.

What problems and stresses do widows face?

78.
Identify four of the nine categories of major adjustments facing elderly people that were discussed
in the chapter.

79.

Identify and give an example of five of the twelve marital adjustment tasks early in marriage as
discussed in the chapter.

80.

Why is parenthood often a period of stress?

81.

What did fathers report as the primary components of good fathering?

82.

83. Discuss the effects of people going through divorce during late adulthood.
What are the chief sources of stress in middle age?

84.

Identify and briefly discuss the six different types of long-term marriages described by Weishaus
and Field.

85.

Outline the basic stages of the family life cycle in an intact marriage and in a family in which there
has been divorce and remarriage.

86.

Discuss the differences and similarities of gay and lesbian families as compared to heterosexual
87.
marriages.
Summarize the major marital adjustment tasks early in marriage.

88.

Describe the relationship between marriage happiness and life satisfaction.

89.

Discuss the major adjustments people typically face during middle adulthood.

90.

Discuss the ramifications that the return of adult children to their parents’ home might have on the
parents, the adult children, and the grandchildren.
91.
Summarize the major adjustments typically necessary during late adulthood.

92.

Describe marriage and family relationships among the elderly.

93.

ch7 Key

According to the text, couples’ personal happiness depends to a large degree on the _____ of
their marriage.

A. overall length

1.
(p. 168)

B. general quality
C. stability

D. state

DeGenova – Chapter 07 #1

The family life cycle consists of phases over the life span which are determined by:

A. researchers who compile statistics

B. specific age cut-off points


2.
(p. 168)

C. ages of children

D. major life changes

DeGenova – Chapter 07 #2
According to Census Bureau statistics, children are typically born _____ year(s) apart.

A. 1

B. 2
3.
(p. 168)

C. 3

D. 4

DeGenova – Chapter 07 #3

According to Census Bureau statistics, on average, a couple waits about _____ year(s) before
having the first of _____ children.

A. 1; 2

4. B. 2; 2
(p. 168)

C. 3; 3
D. 4; 2

DeGenova – Chapter 07 #4

According to Census Bureau statistics, women tend to marry men who are ____ than/as they
are.

A. about 2 years older

B. about the same age


5.
(p. 168)

C. about 2 years younger

D. much older

DeGenova – Chapter 07 #5

According to Census Bureau statistics, the median age of first marriage for couples who later
6. divorce is:
(p. 169)
A. 2 years younger than for couples who never divorce.
B. 2 years older than for couples who never divorce.

C. 4 years younger than for couples who never divorce.

D. 4 years older than for couples who never divorce.

DeGenova – Chapter 07 #6

According to Census Bureau statistics, couples who divorce usually remarry when their children
are:

A. preschoolers

B. early elementary age


7.
(p. 169)

C. middle school age

D. high school age


DeGenova – Chapter 07 #7

According to Census Bureau statistics, men tend to remarry within _____ years of divorce and
women tend to remarry within _____ years of divorce.

A. 2; 3

B. 3; 4
8.
(p. 169)

C. 4; 3

D. 5; 4

DeGenova – Chapter 07 #8

According to Census Bureau statistics, men tend to remarry ______ after divorce than women.

A. sooner

9.
(p. 169)
B. later
C. about the same number of years

DeGenova – Chapter 07 #9

According to Census Bureau statistics, fathers who divorce and remarry will most likely live
with their _____ children.

A. biological
10.
(p. 169)

B. step

DeGenova – Chapter 07 #10

According to Census Bureau statistics, youngest children typically leave home when they are
_____ years old.

A. 18

11.
(p. 169)
B. 19

C. 20
D. 21

DeGenova – Chapter 07 #11

In the traditional family life cycle, what does the Census Bureau say are the average ages of the
mother and father when the youngest child leaves home?

A. woman is 45; man is 47

12. B. woman is 50; man is 51


(p. 168
– 169)

C. woman is 51; man is 53

D. woman is 54; man is 56

DeGenova – Chapter 07 #12

13. According to Census Bureau statistics, in _______ couples, women typically will spend more
(p. 169) years as a widow.
A. never divorced

B. divorced and remarried

DeGenova – Chapter 07 #13

According to Census Bureau statistics, on the average, remarried women can expect to be
widows for about __________ years.

A. 4

B. 5
14.
(p. 169)

C. 7

D. 10

DeGenova – Chapter 07 #14


Which of the following does NOT fit in with the text’s definition of “marital adjustment“?

A. the process of modifying individual and couple patterns of behavior

B. a means to an end

15.
(p. 172)

becoming adjusted to each other but still being unhappy and dissatisfied with the
C.
relationship

D. a process that is completed early in marriage

DeGenova – Chapter 07 #15

Making adjustments to one’s partner in a marriage:

A. will always improve the marriage

16. B. does not necessarily make partners happier


(p. 172)

C. may provide the highest satisfaction possible under the circumstances


D. both B and C

E. none of these

DeGenova – Chapter 07 #16

Which of the following became less of a problem after marriage than had been true before
marriage – according to longitudinal research of couples?

A. money

B. communication

17.
(p. 174
– 175) C. religion

D. alcohol and drugs

E. both C and D
DeGenova – Chapter 07 #17

According to a longitudinal study of couples during three early stages of their relationship,
_____ was the number one problem at all stages of the relationship.

A. jealousy

B. communication
18.
(p. 174)

C. money

D. relatives

DeGenova – Chapter 07 #18

Research shows that one big problem before marriage that declines substantially after marriage
is:

19. A. jealousy
(p. 174
– 175)

B. communication
C. money

D. relatives

DeGenova – Chapter 07 #19

_____ was a bigger problem after the first child was born than either before marriage or in the
first year.

A. religion

20. B. relatives
(p. 174
– 175)

C. communication

D. recreation

DeGenova – Chapter 07 #20


According to research studies, which of the following issues was as much a problem after the
birth of the first child as before marriage?

A. jealousy

21. B. friends
(p. 174
– 175)

C. relatives

D. religion

DeGenova – Chapter 07 #21

Which of the following problems became much more serious after the birth of the first child?

A. jealousy

22.
(p. 175) B. communication

C. religion
D. sex

E. both B and D

DeGenova – Chapter 07 #22

According to research, which of the following is NOT true regarding stress and parenthood?

The less stressful a couple’s marriage before parenthood, the more stressful parenthood
A.
becomes.

B. Part of the stress arises because couples are inadequately prepared for parenthood.
23.
(p. 178)

C. Parenthood is more stressful if it is not planned.

D. Part of the stress arises because of the abrupt transition to parenthood.

DeGenova – Chapter 07 #23


The stress of new parenthood arises because of:

A. inadequate preparation for parenthood

B. abrupt transition to parenthood

24.
(p. 175
– 176) C. immaturity of the parents

D. all of these

E. A and C

DeGenova – Chapter 07 #24

Social support during the transition to parenthood is associated with:

A. positive parent-child interactions

25.
(p. 176)
B. more positive adaptations to parenthood
C. more negative mental and physical health outcomes

D. all of these

E. A and B

DeGenova – Chapter 07 #25

Of the following positive contributions that fathers make to their children’s well-being, most
fathers tend to think that _____ is the most important feature of being a good father.

A. sharing child care responsibilities

B. being a provider
26.
(p. 177)

C. being available to their children

D. teaching their children


DeGenova – Chapter 07 #26

Mexican American families, in comparison to European American families:

A. have more frequent social interactions

B. show stronger levels of obligation

27.
(p. 176) C. exchange more support

D. are less likely to share living arrangements with the elderly

E. A, B, and C

DeGenova – Chapter 07 #27

Which of the following is characteristic of Chinese American families?

28. A. great emphasis on the extended family as the most important unit
(p. 177)
B. children have high sense of duty to parents

C. emphasis on the importance of fulfilling individual needs

D. all of these

E. A and B

DeGenova – Chapter 07 #28

Research shows that children who receive support from their parents during childhood:

A. have fewer psychological and physical problems

B. have lower levels of depressive symptoms


29.
(p. 176)

C. have lower levels of self-esteem

D. A and B
E. none of these correlates

DeGenova – Chapter 07 #29

In a multicultural study of fathering, most fathers reported _______ about fatherhood.

A. ambivalent feelings

B. feeling disappointed
30.
(p. 177)

C. positive feelings

D. fears

DeGenova – Chapter 07 #30

The text points out that the most noticeable changes of midlife are
31.
(p. 177) A. physical
B. emotional

C. intellectual

D. social

DeGenova – Chapter 07 #31

According to your text, middle adulthood:

A. marks a stage of low life fulfillment for most individuals.

B. marks the prime of life in many ways.


32.
(p. 178)

C. sees very few physical changes but many psychological changes.

D. is marked by rapid physical changes.


DeGenova – Chapter 07 #32

During which period of the family life cycle are most adults first confronted with their own
mortality?

A. beginning marriage

B. after the first child is born


33.
(p. 177)

C. middle adulthood

D. late adulthood

DeGenova – Chapter 07 #33

Which period in the life cycle is the time of heaviest responsibilities at work and in the
community, often leading to considerable stress?

A. Single adulthood
34.
(p. 178)

B. Young adulthood
C. Middle adulthood

D. Late adulthood

DeGenova – Chapter 07 #34

The generalized capacity for flexible and resourceful adaptation to stress is referred to as:

A. coping-skill

B. play-quotient
35.
(p. 178)

C. ego-resiliency

D. combating-depression

DeGenova – Chapter 07 #35


Middle-aged adults are sometimes called the __________ generation because they
carry both the care-giving responsibilities for their children and for their elderly parents.

A. flip-flop

B. sandwich
36.
(p. 179)

C. reverse

D. upside-down

DeGenova – Chapter 07 #36

The post-parental years usually refer to:

the period between when children go away to college and then return to live at home for
A.
some time

37. B. the period between the last child’s leaving home and the parents’ retirement.
(p. 179)

C. the period when middle aged adults take care of their elderly parents
D. a time of marital dissatisfaction

DeGenova – Chapter 07 #37

Because today’s generation of young adults may return home several different times to live,
they are referred to as the:

A. sandwich generation

B. upside-down generation
38.
(p. 180)

C. good-bye kids

D. boomerang kids

DeGenova – Chapter 07 #38

The text points out that one result of the “boomerang kid” phenomenon is:
39.
(p. 180) A. stronger extended family ties
B. the easing of financial pressure on middle-aged parents

C. increased conflict between parents and children

D. later retirement

DeGenova – Chapter 07 #39

Late adulthood is defined as the period of life in which adults:

A. are over 65

B. are over 75
40.
(p. 180)

C. become grandparents

D. lose their independence


DeGenova – Chapter 07 #40

The text refers to the “young-old” as being between _____ years of age.

A. 45-54

B. 55-64
41.
(p. 180)

C. 65-74

D. 75-84

DeGenova – Chapter 07 #41

Which of the following living arrangements is of great importance to older people?

A. living in their own home

42.
(p. 182)
B. living with their grown children
C. living with a roommate

D. living in an extended care facility

DeGenova – Chapter 07 #42

Research findings indicate that as adults get older they tend to:

A. prefer living alone

B. lose interest in pursuing friendships


43.
(p. 183)

C. take on different gender roles at home

D. resent their children’s concern about them

DeGenova – Chapter 07 #43


Research indicates that the majority of older people:

A. rent housing

B. live with adult children


44.
(p. 182)

C. live in homes they own.

D. live in senior citizens’ communities

DeGenova – Chapter 07 #44

Research findings indicate that one of the most important predictors of life satisfaction for the
elderly is:

A. retirement

45. B. home maintenance


(p. 180))

C. high status and prestige


D. good health

DeGenova – Chapter 07 #45

According to the text, what happens to marital satisfaction during late adulthood?

A. It continues to decline.

B. It decreases after the children are launched.


46.
(p. 183)

C. It increases after retirement.

D. It increases briefly, then decreases.

DeGenova – Chapter 07 #46

Research indicates that later-life parental divorce has a _______ effect on the relationships
47. between older adults and their grown children.
(p. 184)
A. generally positive
B. generally negative

C. devastating

D. strengthening

DeGenova – Chapter 07 #47

In research looking at relationships between parents and grown children, the grown children
tend to describe their relationship with their older parents in terms of:

A. the quality of the relationship

B. how much their parents need them


48.
(p. 184)

C. how often they contact and help them

D. how available their parents are to them


DeGenova – Chapter 07 #48

Studies show that older adults generally feel ______ when their children give them extensive
help when they need it.

A. resentful

B. encouraged
49.
(p. 185)

C. the need to give back

D. incapacitated

DeGenova – Chapter 07 #49

Which of the following has been shown by research NOT to be a key factor in the relationship
between older adults and their grown children?

A. emotional support
50.
(p. 185)

B. frequent contact
C. reciprocated help

D. moderate level of support

DeGenova – Chapter 07 #50

According to census statistics, on average, about how many years will a woman be a widow in
her later years?

A. 3

B. 4
51.
(p. 185)

C. 7

D. 10

DeGenova – Chapter 07 #51


Studies reveal that widows report that the biggest problem they have is:

A. low income

B. loneliness
52.
(p. 187)

C. isolation from children

D. self-identity

DeGenova – Chapter 07 #52

How one deals with the challenges of widowhood depends on:

A. physical factors

53. B. emotional factors


(p. 185)

C. spiritual factors
D. all of these

E. A and B only

DeGenova – Chapter 07 #53

Which of the following was NOT cited by younger widows as a problem after their spouses
died?

A. loneliness

B. home maintenance and car repair


54.
(p. 187)

C. finances

D. increased independence

DeGenova – Chapter 07 #54


_____ is often a period of disillusionment and disenchantment for couples who have not
realized what marriage involves.

A. Early marriage

B. Parenthood
55.
(p. 173)

C. Middle adulthood

D. Late adulthood

DeGenova – Chapter 07 #55

The text makes a strong point that during ______ a great deal of stress can occur because the
couple is inadequately prepared.

A. early marriage

56. B. parenthood
(p. 175)

C. middle adulthood
D. late adulthood

DeGenova – Chapter 07 #56

Studies show that during ______marital satisfaction is at its lowest point.

A. early marriage

B. middle adulthood
57.
(p. 178)

C. retirement

D. post retirement

DeGenova – Chapter 07 #57

Research shows that stress arises in _____ because of the sudden transition to the stage.

58. A. early marriage


(p. 176)
B. parenthood

C. middle adulthood

D. late adulthood

DeGenova – Chapter 07 #58

In _____, the text suggests that a tired marriage may need to be revitalized.

A. early marriage

B. parenthood
59.
(p. 178)

C. middle adulthood

D. late adulthood

DeGenova – Chapter 07 #59


In _____, the text points out that there is significant loss of status and prestige.

A. early marriage

B. parenthood
60.
(p. 182)

C. middle adulthood

D. late adulthood

DeGenova – Chapter 07 #60

The family life cycle can be said to consist of the phases, or stages, over the life span and to
61. describe changes in family structure during each stage.
(p. 168)
TRUE

DeGenova – Chapter 07 #61

62. Typically, according to census figures, a woman remarries 3 years after her divorce.
(p. 169)
TRUE
DeGenova – Chapter 07 #62

63. Same sex couples have very little role flexibility.


(p. 171)
FALSE

DeGenova – Chapter 07 #63

Researchers have found that gay and lesbian families are very different in most respects than
64. are heterosexual families.
(p. 170)
FALSE

DeGenova – Chapter 07 #64

65. The goal of marital adjustment is to eliminate conflict.


(p. 172)
FALSE

DeGenova – Chapter 07 #65


According to longitudinal research, jealousy is often a big problem after marriage, even though
66. it was not before the marriage.
(p. 174)
FALSE

DeGenova – Chapter 07 #66

The more stressful a couple’s marriage prior to parenthood, the more likely they are to have
67. problems in adjusting to their first child.
(p. 175)
TRUE

DeGenova – Chapter 07 #67

Couples who prepare for parenthood find greater satisfaction in being a parent than do those
68. who do not prepare.
(p. 175)
TRUE

DeGenova – Chapter 07 #68

69. Stress related to parenthood is greater if parents are young.


(p. 176)
TRUE
DeGenova – Chapter 07 #69

70. Ego resiliency refers to the generalized capacity to be flexible and resourceful in adapting to
(p. 178 stress.
– 179)
TRUE

DeGenova – Chapter 07 #70

71. Parents today see their children leaving home at an earlier age than in past decades.
(p. 180)
FALSE

DeGenova – Chapter 07 #71

In looking at the population over age 45, the number of widows is about 4 times the number of
72. widowers.
(p. 186)
TRUE

DeGenova – Chapter 07 #72


The chief psychological task of the final stage of life is the development of ego integrity –
73. contentment with one’s life as it is and has been.
(p. 186)
TRUE

DeGenova – Chapter 07 #73

Discuss the traditional family life cycle of spouses in an intact marriage in the United States.

74. Man is married at 28 and the woman at 26. They wait 2 years before having the first of
two children. The man is 52 and the woman 50 when the youngest child is 20 and leaves
home. The empty-nest years are from age 52-65 for men and 50-65 for women. The man
dies at age 75 and the woman at 80.

DeGenova – Chapter 07 #74

What usually precipitates a midlife crisis?

75. An awareness that one’s years are numbered, even as one is entering the prime of life,
the stage of fulfillment; this is the time when one personalizes mortality, realizes that
time is finite and that one has to hurry to accomplish all that one wants to achieve.

DeGenova – Chapter 07 #75

Describe the “sandwich generation.” To what does this term refer? Give some examples in your
76.
answer.
The “sandwich generation” refers to middle-aged adults who are caught between
caregiving responsibilities for their children and for their elderly parents. Many of these
middle-aged adults had counted on their parents and their own children to have sufficient
financial independence to care for themselves; they had planned on retiring and being
carefree. Instead, they now feel compelled to take on the responsibilities of
multigenerational caregiving.

DeGenova – Chapter 07 #76

Unmarried children continue living with their parents for a longer period of time than they used
77. to for three basic reasons. Discuss them.

(1) delay of marriage; (2) high divorce rates; (3) financial need

DeGenova – Chapter 07 #77

What problems and stresses do widows face?

78. Psychological stress of spousal loss and the need to reconstruct a new sense of self;
loneliness; sexual frustration; home maintenance and car repair; decision making;
financial management and child rearing if the widow is left with young children.

DeGenova – Chapter 07 #78

Identify four of the nine categories of major adjustments facing elderly people that were
79.
discussed in the chapter.
(1) Staying physically healthy and adjusting to limitations; (2) maintaining an adequate
income and means of support; (3) adjusting to revised work roles; (4) establishing
acceptable housing and living conditions, (5) maintaining identity and social status; (6)
finding companionship and friendship; (7) learning to use leisure time pleasurably; (8)
establishing new roles in the family; (9) achieving integrity through acceptance of one’s
life.

DeGenova – Chapter 07 #79

Identify and give an example of five of the twelve marital adjustment tasks early in marriage as
discussed in the chapter.

80. (1) Emotional fulfillment and support; (2) sexual adjustment; (3) personal habits; (4)
gender roles; (5) material concerns and finances; (6) work, employment, achievement;
(7) social life, friends, recreation; (8) family, relatives; (9) communication; (10) power,
decision making; (11) handling conflict, solving problems; (12) morals, values, ideology.

DeGenova – Chapter 07 #80

Why is parenthood often a period of stress?

81. Stressful if not planned, if couple is inadequately prepared, because transition is abrupt;
stress varies depending upon child’s temperament and the quality of the marriage before
parenthood; stress is greater if parents are young and immature; the economic status of
the family affects stress levels.

DeGenova – Chapter 07 #81


What did fathers report as the primary components of good fathering?
82.
“Being there” for their children; being a model, teacher, and moral guide; love

DeGenova – Chapter 07 #82

Discuss the effects of people going through divorce during late adulthood.

83. The proportion of unhappy divorced adults increases with age. Adults over 60 who
become divorced stand out as lower in morale and overall happiness. They exhibit more
symptoms of psychological disturbance and report they are troubled by the separation.

DeGenova – Chapter 07 #83

What are the chief sources of stress in middle age?


84.
Health concerns, identity issues, heaviest responsibilities at work and in the community,
marital issues, launching children.

DeGenova – Chapter 07 #84

Identify and briefly discuss the six different types of long-term marriages described by Weishaus
and Field.
85.
Stable/positive: stable but not static marriage, maintaining moderately high to high
satisfaction level. Stable/neutral: generally comfortable marriage based on motives other
than emotional closeness. Stable/negative: marriage marked with primary negative
emotions, such as hostility or indifference. Curvilinear: marriage with satisfaction level
that is high early on, lower during mid-years, and higher again after children are grown.
Continuous decline: marriage with continuous erosion of satisfaction level. Continuous
increase: marriage with continuous increase in satisfaction level.

DeGenova – Chapter 07 #85

Outline the basic stages of the family life cycle in an intact marriage and in a family in which
86. there has been divorce and remarriage.

Answer will vary

DeGenova – Chapter 07 #86

Discuss the differences and similarities of gay and lesbian families as compared to heterosexual
87. marriages.

Answer will vary

DeGenova – Chapter 07 #87

Summarize the major marital adjustment tasks early in marriage.


88.
Answer will vary
DeGenova – Chapter 07 #88

Describe the relationship between marriage happiness and life satisfaction.


89.
Answer will vary

DeGenova – Chapter 07 #89

Discuss the major adjustments people typically face during middle adulthood.
90.
Answer will vary

DeGenova – Chapter 07 #90

Discuss the ramifications that the return of adult children to their parents’ home might have on
91. the parents, the adult children, and the grandchildren.

Answer will vary

DeGenova – Chapter 07 #91

92. Summarize the major adjustments typically necessary during late adulthood.
Answer will vary

DeGenova – Chapter 07 #92

Describe marriage and family relationships among the elderly.


93.
Answer will vary

DeGenova – Chapter 07 #93

ch7 Summary

Category # of Questions

DeGenova – Chapter 07 93