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INTRODUCTION TO BUSINESS

STATISTICS 7TH EDITION BY RONALD


WEIERS – TEST BANK
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INTRODUCTION TO BUSINESS STATISTICS 7TH EDITION BY RONALD WEIERS – TEST BANK

Chapter 6: Discrete Probability Distributions

Student:
___________________________________________________________________________

1. True or False
The number of life insurance policy holders is an example of a discrete random variable.
True False

2. True or False
The driving time between Big Rapids and Grand Rapids is an example of a discrete random
variable.
True False
3. True or False
The number of hungry people in Ethiopia is an example of a discrete random variable.
True False

4. True or False
One characteristic of a discrete probability distribution is that values of x are exhaustive.
True False

5. True or False
One characteristic of a discrete probability distribution is that the sum of the probabilities for all
the possible values for x must be between 0 and 1.
True False

6. True or False
A characteristic of a Bernoulli process is that the trials are statistically dependent; that is, the
outcome in any trial is affected by the outcomes of earlier trials, and it does affect the outcomes
of later trials.
True False

7. True or False
A characteristic of a Bernoulli process is that the probability of success remains the same from
one trial to the next.
True False

8. True or False
The hypergeometric distribution is similar to the binomial distribution in that successive trials
are considered to be independent of one another.
True False

9. True or False
The binomial distribution requires that the probability of a success for each trial remains
constant.
True False
10. True or False
Theoretically, the number of successes in a binomial distribution has no limit.
True False

11. True or False


The probability of success in a hypergeometric distribution does not remain constant from one
trial to another.
True False

12. True or False


The binomial distribution is best used to describe the number of customers arriving at a service
point during a given period of time.
True False

13. True or False


Theoretically, the number of times an event can occur over the given time span in a Poisson
distribution has no limit.
True False

14. True or False


For a Bernoulli process in which the number of trials is large and the probability of success on
any given trial is very small, the Poisson distribution can be used as an approximation to the
binomial distribution.
True False

15. Which of the following is a discrete random variable?


A. The average daily consumption of water in a U.S. household.
B. The weight of football players in the NFL.
C. The number of three-point shots completed in a college basketball game.
D. The time required to drive from Dallas to Denver.
E. The average daily temperature in the world.

16. Which of the following is not a characteristic of a discrete probability distribution?


A. The sum of the probabilities is one.
B. The values of x are exhaustive.
C. The value for the probability of any given x ranges from 0 to 1.
D. The values of x are mutually exclusive.
E. The sum of the probabilities for all possible values of x must be between 0 and 1.

17. Which of the following most likely represents a discrete random variable?
A. Length of time between calls to an 800 number.
B. The number of years completed in the military services.
C. The S & P Industrial average of stock prices.
D. The amount of retail sales on a given day.
E. Length of time for which an apartment in a large complex remains vacant.

18. A table, formula, or graph that shows all possible values a random variable can assume, together
with their associated probabilities is referred to as:
A. Discrete probability distribution
B. Continuous probability distribution
C. Mixed probability distribution
D. Contaminated probability distribution

19. A new car salesperson knows that he sells cars to one customer out of 20 who enter the
showroom. The probability that he will sell a car to exactly two of the next three customers is:
A. 0.9939
B. 0.0075
C. 0.0071
D. 0.0851
E. 0.1354

20. Approximately 84% of persons age 70 to 84 live in their own household and are income-
qualified for home purchases. If four persons are randomly selected from this population, the
probability that exactly two of the four live in their own household and are income-qualified is:
A. 0.8916
B. 0.4182
C. 0.0138
D. 0.5404
E. 0.1084

21. Approximately 14 percent of the population of Arizona is 65 years or older. A random sample of
five persons from this population is taken. The probability that less than 2 of the 5 are 65 years
or older is:
A. 0.8533
B. 0.1467
C. 0.4704
D. 0.3829
E. None of these.

22. A barbershop requires appointments for perms and hair cuts. Ten percent of those making
appointments cancel or simply fail to show up. Next week’s appointment calendar has 64
appointments. Let x be the number of missed appointments out of the 64. The probability that
more than 3 cancellations and/or no-shows will occur during the next week is:
A. 0.3784
B. 0.8937
C. 0.7795
D. 0.9611
E. 0.1063

23. A Company manufactures women’s hosiery. The company sells slightly irregular panty hose
through a mail-order catalog service. If the company produces 300,000 pairs of hose per day and
the probability of a pair not being irregular is 0.92, the average number that will be available for
the catalog order department is:
A. 22080
B. 148.59
C. 24000
D. 154.92
E. 15.49

24. A survey of college students taking the professional exam to be certified as public school
teachers shows that 15 percent fail. On a national exam day, 12,000 students take the test. Let x
denote the number who fail. The mean and standard deviation of the random variable x are,
respectively:
A. 1800; 1530
B. 1800; 39.11
C. 10,200; 1530
D. 10,200; 39.11
E. 1200; 35.71

25. Brendalee and Mohammed go to a coffee shop during their lunch break and toss a coin to see
who will pay. The probability that Brendalee will pay three days in a row is:
A. 0.2500
B. 0.5000
C. 0.1250
D. 0.0150
E. none of these.

26. Which of the following is not a characteristic of the hypergeometric distribution?


A. The hypergeometric distribution is similar to the binomial distribution in focusing on the
number of successes in a given number of consecutive trials.
B. The hypergeometric distribution is similar to the binomial distribution in the fact that the
probability of success remains constant from one trail to the rest.
C. The hypergeometric distribution relies on sampling without replacement.
D. The hypergeometric distribution, the consecutive trials are not independent.
E. All of the above are characteristics of the hypergeometric distribution.

27. Which probability distribution is appropriate when sampling is performed without replacement
from a relatively small population?
A. Binomial distribution
B. Poisson distribution
C. Hypergeometric distribution
D. Normal distribution
E. Exponential distribution

28. The expected value, E(x), of a binomial probability distribution is:


A. n +
B. n(1 – )
C. n
D. n + – 1

29. Which of the following is not a characteristic of a binomial experiment?


A. There is a sequence of identical trials.
B. Each trial results in two or more outcomes.
C. The trials are independent of each other.
D. Probability of success p is the same from one trial to another.

30. The variance of a binomial distribution for which n = 75 and = 0.20 is:
A. 375.
B. 75.
C. 15.
D. 12.

31. The likelihood that someone who logs onto a particular site in a “shopping mall” on the Internet
will purchase an item is 0.05 and follows the binomial distribution. If the site has 35 people
accessing it in the next hour, what is the expected number of successes during this hour?
A. 1.75
B. 2.5
C. 0.05
D. 12
E. 35

32. Which of the following statements are true?


A. For the Poisson distribution = 3.2, the mean and standard deviation are both equal to 3.2.
B. For the Poisson distribution = 3.2, the mean and variance are both equal to 3.2.
C. For the Poisson distribution = 3.2, the mean is 3.2 and the standard deviation is 1.79.
D. Both B and C are correct.
E. All of these are correct.

33. Tornadoes for January in Kansas average 3.2 per month. The probability that in the next January
Kansas will experience exactly 2 tornadoes is:
A. 0.7913.
B. 0.4076.
C. 0.2087.
D. 0.1304.
E. 0.2226.

34. Tornadoes for January in Kansas average 3.2 per month. The probability that in the next January
there will be between 1 and 3 tornadoes (inclusive) is:
A. 0.2087.
B. 0.5617.
C. 0.4383.
D. 0.4076.
E. 0.5924.
35. Tornadoes for January in Kansas average 3.2 per month. The probability that in the next January
at least 2 tornadoes will occur is:
A. 0.9592.
B. 0.0408.
C. 0.8288.
D. 0.1712.
E. none of these.

36. A local police station receives an average 8.1 emergency telephone calls per hour. These calls
are Poisson distributed.

The probability that the station will get nine calls in an hour is:
A. 0.1256.
B. 0.8744.
C. 0.0408.
D. 0.6918.
E. 0.3082.

37. A local police station receives an average 8.1 emergency telephone calls per hour. These calls
are Poisson distributed.

The probability that the station will get five to seven calls in an hour is:
A. 0.5924.
B. 0.5617.
C. 0.4383.
D. 0.4076.
E. 0.3451.

38. A local police station receives an average 8.1 emergency telephone calls per hour. These calls
are Poisson distributed.

The probability that the station will get at least 4 calls in an hour is:
A. 0.0397.
B. 0.0941.
C. 0.9059.
D. 0.9603.
E. 0.9630.
39. A cashier at Carter’s cafeteria can total an average of 2.2 trays per minute. The probability that
the cashier will total exactly four trays in a minute is:
A. 0.9275.
B. 0.8918.
C. 0.1082.
D. 0.0992.
E. 0.1169.

40. A cashier at Carter’s cafeteria can total an average of 2.2 trays per minute. The probability that
the cashier will total between four and ten trays in a minute is:
A. 0.9281.
B. 0.8193.
C. 0.1807.
D. 0.3772.
E. 0.0724.

41. A cashier at Carter’s cafeteria can total an average of 2.2 trays per minute. The probability that
the cashier will total no more than three trays in a minute is:
A. 0.1966.
B. 0.6227.
C. 0.9275.
D. 0.8193.

42. As a rule of thumb, a binomial distribution for which the number of trials n is large can well be
approximated by a Poisson distribution when the probability of success, , is:
A. larger than 0.95.
B. larger than 0.50.
C. between 0.50 and 0.95.
D. smaller than .05.

43. The Poisson random variable is a:


A. discrete random variable with infinitely many possible values.
B. discrete random variable with finite number of possible values.
C. continuous random variable with infinitely many possible values.
D. continuous random variable with finite number of possible values.
44. Which of the following events is best described using a hypergeometric distribution?
A. The number of customers entering a store during the next hour.
B. The number of accidents at a particular intersection during the next month.
C. The number of male jurors selected from a group of 25 individuals.
D. The number of correct responses in a multiple choice exam.
E. The number of heads after tossing a fair coin 10 times.

45. A box of chocolates contains 18 pieces, 10 of which have nuts while the remaining 8 do not.
Four pieces are chosen at random.

What is the probability that exactly 2 pieces have nuts?


A. 0.412
B. 0.564
C. 0.681
D. 0.750
E. 0.833

46. A box of chocolates contains 18 pieces, 10 of which have nuts while the remaining 8 do not.
Four pieces are chosen at random.

What is the probability that no more than one piece has nuts?
A. 0.116
B. 0.206
C. 0.289
D. 0.444
E. 0.517

47. A box of chocolates contains 18 pieces, 10 of which have nuts while the remaining 8 do not.
Four pieces are chosen at random.

What is the probability that at least 3 pieces have nuts?


A. 0.051
B. 0.118
C. 0.169
D. 0.242
E. 0.382

48. The number of vacancies at a Gulf Shore resort motel on a day during weekends through the
tourist season has the following probability distribution:
If the mean is 2.07, compute the variance of this distribution.
________________________________________

49. Let x represent the number of children in an Egyptian household. The probability distribution of
x is as follows:

What is the probability that a randomly selected Egyptian household will have more than
2 children?
________________________________________

50. Let x represent the number of children in an Egyptian household. The probability distribution of
x is as follows:

What is the probability that a randomly selected Egyptian household will have between 2
and 4 children?
________________________________________

51. Let x represent the number of children in an Egyptian household. The probability distribution of
x is as follows:

What is the probability that a randomly selected Egyptian household will have fewer than
4 children?
________________________________________

52. Let x represent the number of children in an Egyptian household. The probability distribution of
x is as follows:

Find the expected number of children in a randomly selected Egyptian household.


________________________________________

53. Let x represent the number of children in an Egyptian household. The probability distribution of
x is as follows:

Find the standard deviation of the number of children in an Egyptian household.


________________________________________
54. A high school play has five roles to fill with students. Seven girls and nine boys have expressed
an interest in the play. What is the probability that exactly 3 girls will be selected?
________________________________________

55. A high school play has five roles to fill with students. Seven girls and nine boys have expressed
an interest in the play. What is the probability that exactly 0 girls will be selected?
________________________________________

56. A committee of eight politicians needs to be chosen from 11 Democrats and 15 Republicans.
What is the probability that exactly 2 Democrats will be selected for the committee?
________________________________________

57. A committee of eight politicians needs to be chosen from 11 Democrats and 15 Republicans.
What is the probability that at least 5 Democrats will be selected for the committee?
________________________________________

58. The MBI Company found that at the end of each month, 2% of its two million accounting entries
contained errors. Today, one operator has made 50 computer entries.

What is the probability that at most two errors were made?


________________________________________

59. An urn contains 5 red marbles and 5 green ones. Two marbles are selected without
replacement. What is the probability that both marbles are red?
________________________________________

60. An urn contains 5 red marbles and 5 green ones. Two marbles are selected without
replacement. What is the probability that at least one marble is red?
________________________________________
61. A business office has purchased five new electric pencil sharpeners. The manufacturer of these
pencil sharpeners states that twenty in one hundred of their sharpeners will require some
maintenance or repair work during the first year’s use. Find the probability that at least 3 of
these sharpeners will need repair during the first year.
________________________________________

62. A fast food hamburger restaurant manager is interviewing high school persons age sixteen for
possible employment. Persons age sixteen who apply for jobs in the area have no prior work-
for-pay experience ninety percent of the time. Let x be the number of the four high school
persons age sixteen who have no prior work-for-pay experience. If the manager plans to hire
four, what is the probability that two of the four will have work experience?
________________________________________

63. Twenty percent of the automobiles inspected at a state inspection station required repairs to
meet the inspection standard. Three drivers arrive for auto inspections. Let x be the number of
automobiles requiring repairs and find the probability that all three automobiles will require
repair.
________________________________________

64. An attorney representing a client in an injury suit surveys the jury panel and finds that 30% of
the potential jurors have experienced some type of job related injury. The attorney is hopeful
that he will have six of the twelve jurors from this group. What is the probability that at least 6
jurors will have experienced a job-related injury?
________________________________________

65. A Motor Company has purchased steel parts from a supplier for several years and has found
that 10% of the parts must be returned because they are defective. An order of 25 parts is
received.

What is the probability that no more than three of these parts are defective?
________________________________________

66. A small appliance store has 10 VCR’s in stock. Four of the VCR’s were damaged in shipment. The
owner of the store gives his daughter and his son each a VCR for a birthday present.

What is the probability that both the gift VCR’s will be defective?
________________________________________
67. Ninety-five percent of the stockholders of an electric utility company own stock in other
companies. If three stockholders are selected at random, what is the probability that exactly one
has stock in another company?
________________________________________

68. The listed occupations of stockholders of a regional electric utility company included 9 percent
who were homemakers. Six of these stockholders are randomly selected.

What is the probability that no stockholders are homemakers?


________________________________________

69. The listed occupations of stockholders of a regional electric utility company included 9 percent
who were homemakers. Six of these stockholders are randomly selected.

What is the probability that exactly three are homemakers?


________________________________________

70. The listed occupations of stockholders of a regional electric utility company included 9 percent
who were homemakers. Six of these stockholders are randomly selected.

What is the probability that at least one is a homemaker?


________________________________________

71. In an intermediate level economics class there are 18 students. Nine of these are economics
majors. For class discussion purposes three students are randomly selected. What is the
probability that at least one is an economics major?
________________________________________

72. A local chamber of commerce is backing a plan for a new convention center. The chamber states
that 60 percent of the voters favor the plan, which would raise tourism business and taxes for
the residents. Four of the registered voters in the community are called at random. X is the
number of voters called who say they favor the plan.

Find the probability that exactly 2 voters sampled favor the plan.
________________________________________
73. A local chamber of commerce is backing a plan for a new convention center. The chamber states
that 60 percent of the voters favor the plan, which would raise tourism business and taxes for
the residents. Four of the registered voters in the community are called at random. X is the
number of voters called who say they favor the plan.

Find the probability that no one says they favor the plan.
________________________________________

74. New York City is estimated to have 21 percent of the homes with T.V. sets served by cable T.V. If
a random sample of four is taken from these homes find the probability distribution of x where x
is the number of T.V. homes in the sample having cable T.V.

What is the probability that all four T.V. homes in the sample are served by cable?
________________________________________

75. New York City is estimated to have 21 percent of the homes with T.V. sets served by cable T.V. If
a random sample of four is taken from these homes find the probability distribution of x where x
is the number of T.V. homes in the sample having cable T.V.

What is the probability that at least one T.V. home in the sample is served by cable?
________________________________________

76. A canoe club sponsor has taken canoeing groups through a particularly rough section of white
water on a mountain river. Past trips and experience of the sponsor lead her to believe that fifty
percent of the canoeists who attempt to paddle their way through this section will overturn. At
the present time, there are five canoes approaching this treacherous section. Assume that the
sponsor’s estimate of the probability of a canoe overturning in this section of water is accurate.

What is the probability that none of the five canoes will capsize?
________________________________________

77. A canoe club sponsor has taken canoeing groups through a particularly rough section of white
water on a mountain river. Past trips and experience of the sponsor lead her to believe that fifty
percent of the canoeists who attempt to paddle their way through this section will overturn. At
the present time, there are five canoes approaching this treacherous section. Assume that the
sponsor’s estimate of the probability of a canoe overturning in this section of water is accurate.
What is the probability that only one of the five canoes will capsize?
________________________________________

78. A canoe club sponsor has taken canoeing groups through a particularly rough section of white
water on a mountain river. Past trips and experience of the sponsor lead her to believe that fifty
percent of the canoeists who attempt to paddle their way through this section will overturn. At
the present time, there are five canoes approaching this treacherous section. Assume that the
sponsor’s estimate of the probability of a canoe overturning in this section of water is accurate.

What is the probability that two of the five canoes will capsize?
________________________________________

79. A canoe club sponsor has taken canoeing groups through a particularly rough section of white
water on a mountain river. Past trips and experience of the sponsor lead her to believe that fifty
percent of the canoeists who attempt to paddle their way through this section will overturn. At
the present time, there are five canoes approaching this treacherous section. Assume that the
sponsor’s estimate of the probability of a canoe overturning in this section of water is accurate.

What is the probability that three of the five canoes will capsize?
________________________________________

80. A canoe club sponsor has taken canoeing groups through a particularly rough section of white
water on a mountain river. Past trips and experience of the sponsor lead her to believe that fifty
percent of the canoeists who attempt to paddle their way through this section will overturn. At
the present time, there are five canoes approaching this treacherous section. Assume that the
sponsor’s estimate of the probability of a canoe overturning in this section of water is accurate.

What is the probability that four of the five canoes will capsize?
________________________________________

81. A canoe club sponsor has taken canoeing groups through a particularly rough section of white
water on a mountain river. Past trips and experience of the sponsor lead her to believe that fifty
percent of the canoeists who attempt to paddle their way through this section will overturn. At
the present time, there are five canoes approaching this treacherous section. Assume that the
sponsor’s estimate of the probability of a canoe overturning in this section of water is accurate.

What is the probability that all five canoes will capsize?


________________________________________
82. A canoe club sponsor has taken canoeing groups through a particularly rough section of white
water on a mountain river. Past trips and experience of the sponsor lead her to believe that fifty
percent of the canoeists who attempt to paddle their way through this section will overturn. At
the present time, there are five canoes approaching this treacherous section. Assume that the
sponsor’s estimate of the probability of a canoe overturning in this section of water is accurate.

What is the probability that less than two of the five canoes will capsize?
________________________________________

83. A game show contestant is shown 20 suitcases, 3 of which have a prize inside. They have 3
opportunities to choose a suitcase.

What is the probability that at least two of these suitcases has a prize?
________________________________________

84. A game show contestant is shown 20 suitcases, 3 of which have a prize inside. They have 3
opportunities to choose a suitcase.

What is the probability that none of these suitcases has a prize?


________________________________________

85. Fans arriving on a given Saturday night for a non-conference home basketball game average
0.25 per second. Let x represent the number of fans arriving at a specified time period.

What is the probability that from 10 to 12 fans arrive between 7:15 and 7:16 P.M.?
________________________________________

86. Fans arriving on a given Saturday night for a non-conference home basketball game average
0.25 per second. Let x represent the number of fans arriving at a specified time period.

What is the probability that from 13 to 15 fans arrive between 7:15 and 7:16 P.M.?
________________________________________

87. Fans arriving on a given Saturday night for a non-conference home basketball game average
0.25 per second. Let x represent the number of fans arriving at a specified time period.
What is the probability that thirty or more fans arrive between 7:15 and 7:16 P.M.?
________________________________________

88. A machine wraps and twists the ends of a wrapper for peppermint candy at a rate of 100 per
minute. However, the machine malfunctions on the average of 1 per minute. Assume that the
malfunctions are a Poisson distribution and let x denote the number of candies which are not
wrapped due to the malfunction. What is the probability that between zero and four candies
will be unwrapped in a given minute?
________________________________________

89. An EMS service averages 5.2 calls per 8-hour shift. During a shift in which 8 or more calls occur,
the EMS crew receives one extra hour pay. If the hourly wage is $15 for each 8-hour day, and
taking into account the extra-effort days, what is the average wage for an 8-hour day?
________________________________________

90. A manufacturer of daisy wheel print heads for typewriters and printers knows that 1.5% of the
print heads manufactured have a defect. If a production run is 120 print heads.

Determine the probability that exactly three print heads are defective.
________________________________________

91. A manufacturer of daisy wheel print heads for typewriters and printers knows that 1.5% of the
print heads manufactured have a defect. If a production run is 120 print heads.

Determine the probability that at most one is defective.


________________________________________

92. In response to a major competitor, a local pizza company begins to pay $5 to customers whose
home delivered pizza did not arrive within 30 minutes after the order was placed. Assuming that
the probability of a randomly selected customer having to wait more than 30 minutes is 0.01
and that 1000 customers are served tomorrow, what is the probability that the total amount
paid out tomorrow will be $100 or more?
________________________________________
93. During the peak fishing months, a marina at a large man-made reservoir noted that boats were
arriving at the average of 3.2 boats every twenty minutes to use the boat ramp. Let x be the
number of boats arriving during the next twenty minutes.

What is the probability that during the next twenty minutes the number of boats arriving
to load or unload is exactly three?
________________________________________

94. During the peak fishing months, a marina at a large man-made reservoir noted that boats were
arriving at the average of 3.2 boats every twenty minutes to use the boat ramp. Let x be the
number of boats arriving during the next twenty minutes.

What is the probability that during the next twenty minutes the number of boats arriving
to load or unload is at least one?
________________________________________

95. During the peak fishing months, a marina at a large man-made reservoir noted that boats were
arriving at the average of 3.2 boats every twenty minutes to use the boat ramp. Let x be the
number of boats arriving during the next twenty minutes.

What is the probability that during the next twenty minutes the number of boats arriving
to load or unload is from two to four?
________________________________________

96. Students use the university mainframe computer log-on during their designated time periods.
Assume that the number of students logging on each five-minute interval is 12.5, and these log-
on attempts are Poisson distributed.

Find the probability that exactly 9 students will log-in during the next 5-minute interval.
________________________________________

97. Students use the university mainframe computer log-on during their designated time periods.
Assume that the number of students logging on each five-minute interval is 12.5, and these log-
on attempts are Poisson distributed.

Find the probability that fewer than 9 students will log-in during the next 5-minute
interval.
________________________________________
98. Students use the university mainframe computer log-on during their designated time periods.
Assume that the number of students logging on each five-minute interval is 12.5, and these log-
on attempts are Poisson distributed.

Find the probability that more than 6 students will log-in during the next 5-minute
interval.
________________________________________

99. Students use the university mainframe computer log-on during their designated time periods.
Assume that the number of students logging on each five-minute interval is 12.5, and these log-
on attempts are Poisson distributed.

Find the probability that between 8 and 10 (inclusive) students will log-in during the next
5-minute interval.
________________________________________

100. A plywood manufacturer produces an exterior grade of plywood for which 0.3 percent
fails to meet the industry standard. One thousand sheets are purchased by a lumberyard for
retail sale. Use the Poisson distribution to approximate the binomial distribution.

What is the probability that none of the sheets sold are sub-standard?
________________________________________

101. A plywood manufacturer produces an exterior grade of plywood for which 0.3 percent
fails to meet the industry standard. One thousand sheets are purchased by a lumberyard for
retail sale. Use the Poisson distribution to approximate the binomial distribution.

What is the probability that more than five sheets are sub-standard?
________________________________________

102. A plywood manufacturer produces an exterior grade of plywood for which 0.3 percent
fails to meet the industry standard. One thousand sheets are purchased by a lumberyard for
retail sale. Use the Poisson distribution to approximate the binomial distribution.

What is the probability that fewer than three sheets are sub-standard?
________________________________________
103. One half of one percent of the checks received by an oil company are returned due to
insufficient funds. Yesterday 500 checks were received in the mail. Let x equal the number of
these checks which will be returned due to insufficient funds.

Use the Poisson distribution to compute the binomial probability that none of the checks
are returned.
________________________________________

104. One half of one percent of the checks received by an oil company are returned due to
insufficient funds. Yesterday 500 checks were received in the mail. Let x equal the number of
these checks which will be returned due to insufficient funds.

Use the Poisson distribution to compute the binomial probability that one or more checks
are returned.
________________________________________

105. One half of one percent of the checks received by an oil company are returned due to
insufficient funds. Yesterday 500 checks were received in the mail. Let x equal the number of
these checks which will be returned due to insufficient funds.

Use the Poisson distribution to compute the binomial probability that less than three
checks are returned.
________________________________________

106. In general, we can define a ____________________ as the relative frequency


distribution that should theoretically occur for observations from a given population.
________________________________________

107. A random variable that can take on only certain values along an interval, with the
possible values having gaps between them, is referred to as a ____________________.
________________________________________

108. A random variable that can take on a value at any point along an interval is referred to
as a ____________________.
________________________________________
109. Since any value of x in a discrete probability distribution can occur only once for a given
experiment, the values of x are said to be ____________________.
________________________________________

110. The binomial distribution deals with ____________________ trials, each of which has
____________________ possible outcomes.
________________________________________

111. The Poisson distribution is applied to events for which the probability of occurrence
over a given span of time, space, or distance is ____________________.
________________________________________

112. The binomial distribution samples ____________________ replacement while the


hypergeometric distribution samples ____________________ replacement.
________________________________________

113. The ____________________ probability distribution deals with consecutive trials with
only two outcomes that are not statistically independent.
________________________________________

114. The ____________________ for a discrete random variable lists all possible values the
variable can assume, along with their respective probabilities of occurrence.
________________________________________

115. The ____________________ probability distribution deals with consecutive trials that
are statistically independent, each of which has only two possible outcomes, generally referred
to as success or failure.
________________________________________
116. The ____________________ applies to events for which the probability of occurrence
over a given span of time, space, or distance is extremely small.
________________________________________

117. The probability distribution of a discrete random variable x is shown below.

Find the expected value, the variance, and the standard deviation of x.

E(x) = ____________________.

Variance = ____________________.

SD = ____________________.

118. The probability distribution of a discrete random variable x is shown below.

Find the following probabilities:


a. P(X > 1)
b. P(X £ 2)
c. P(1£ X £ 2)
d. P(0 <X < 1)
e. P(1£ X £ 3)
119. The MBI Company found that at the end of each month, 2% of its two million accounting
entries contained errors. Today, one operator has made 50 computer entries.

Determine the mean and standard deviation of errors in accounting entries.

Mean = ____________________

SD = ____________________

120. A Motor Company has purchased steel parts from a supplier for several years and has
found that 10% of the parts must be returned because they are defective. An order of 25 parts is
received.

What are the mean and standard deviation of the defective parts?

Mean = ____________________

SD = ____________________

121. A small appliance store has 10 VCR’s in stock. Four of the VCR’s were damaged in
shipment. The owner of the store gives his daughter and his son each a VCR for a birthday
present.

What distribution is appropriate to determine the probability of a given number of


defects? Explain why you selected your choice.
122. In the following equation, what do n, x, and represent?

n = __________________________________________

x = __________________________________________

= __________________________________________

123. What are the parameters of a random variable described by the binomial distribution?

124. The listed occupations of stockholders of a regional electric utility company included 9
percent who were homemakers. If we randomly select six stockholders, compute the mean and
standard deviation of the number of stockholders who are homemakers in the sample.

Mean = ____________________
SD = ____________________

125. New York City is estimated to have 21 percent of the homes with T.V. sets served by
cable T.V. If a random sample of four is taken from these homes find the probability distribution
of x where x is the number of T.V. homes in the sample having cable T.V.

Compute the mean and standard deviation of the number of T.V. homes with cable
service in the sample.

Mean = ____________________

Standard deviation = ____________________

126. A canoe club sponsor has taken canoeing groups through a particularly rough section of
white water on a mountain river. Past trips and experience of the sponsor lead her to believe
that fifty percent of the canoeists who attempt to paddle their way through this section will
overturn. At the present time, there are five canoes approaching this treacherous section.
Assume that the sponsor’s estimate of the probability of a canoe overturning in this section of
water is accurate.

Develop the probability distribution of the number of canoes that will capsize.
127. A canoe club sponsor has taken canoeing groups through a particularly rough section of
white water on a mountain river. Past trips and experience of the sponsor lead her to believe
that fifty percent of the canoeists who attempt to paddle their way through this section will
overturn. At the present time, there are five canoes approaching this treacherous section.
Assume that the sponsor’s estimate of the probability of a canoe overturning in this section of
water is accurate.

What is the expected number of canoes that will capsize?

128. A canoe club sponsor has taken canoeing groups through a particularly rough section of
white water on a mountain river. Past trips and experience of the sponsor lead her to believe
that fifty percent of the canoeists who attempt to paddle their way through this section will
overturn. At the present time, there are five canoes approaching this treacherous section.
Assume that the sponsor’s estimate of the probability of a canoe overturning in this section of
water is accurate.

What is the standard deviation of the number of canoes that will capsize?

129. Given a binomial random variable with n = 15 and p = 0.4, find the following
probabilities using the binomial table.
a. P(x £ 12)
b. P(x ³ 10)
c. P(x = 8)
d. P(9 £ x < 12)
e. P(6 < x < 10)

130. A recent survey in Michigan revealed that 60% of the vehicles traveling on highways,
where speed limits are posted at 70 miles per hour, were exceeding the limit. Suppose you
randomly record the speeds of ten vehicles traveling on US 131 where the speed limit is 70 miles
per hour. Let x denote the number vehicles that were exceeding the limit. Find the following
probabilities:
a. P(x = 10)
b. P(4 < x < 9)
c. P(3 £ x £ 10)

131. Compute the following probabilities (to 4 decimal places) using the Poisson formula:

A) P(x = 3), if = 2.5

B) P(x 1), if = 2.0

C) P(x 2), if = 3.0


132. Let x be a Poisson random variable with = 6. Use the table of Poisson probabilities to
find:

A) P(x 8)

B) P(x = 8)

C) P(x 5)

D) P(6 x 10)

133. Let x be a Poisson random variable with = 8. Use the table of Poisson probabilities to
find:

A) P(x 6)

B) P(x = 4)

C) P(x 3)

D) P(9 x 14)
134. Phone calls arrive at the rate of 30 per hour at the reservation desk for a hotel.

A) Find the probability of receiving three calls in a five-minute interval of time.

B) Find the probability of receiving exactly seven calls in 15 minutes.

If no calls are currently being processed, what is the probability that the desk employee can take
C)
ten minutes break without being interrupted?

135. An advertising executive receives an average of 10 telephone calls each afternoon


between 2 and 4 pm. The calls occur randomly and independently of one another.

Find the probability that the executive will receive 12 calls between 2 and 4 pm on a particular
A) afternoon.

Find the probability that the executive will receive eight calls between 2 and 3 pm on a
B)
particular afternoon.

Find the probability that the executive will receive at least six calls between 2 and 4 pm on a
C)
particular afternoon.
136. Stabbings of inmates by other inmates at a state prison unit have averaged 2.6 per
month over the past year. Let x be the number of inmate stabbings per month. Assume a
Poisson distribution. Find the mean and standard deviation of x.

Mean = ____________________

SD = ____________________

137. Identify and complete this equation: ______________________________ = E(x)

138. List the four characteristics of a Bernoulli process.


139. In response to a major competitor, a local pizza company begins to pay $5 to customers
whose home delivered pizza did not arrive within 30 minutes after the order was placed. Explain
why you applied that specific distribution to answer the preceding question.

140. Assume that you used Minitab statistical package to generate the individual binomial
probabilities when n = 100 and = .042, and then generate the individual Poisson probabilities
for = 4.2. Do you expect the probabilities obtained in both cases to be similar or different?

Explain.

Chapter 6: Discrete Probability Distributions Key

1. True or False
The number of life insurance policy holders is an example of a discrete random variable.
TRUE
2. True or False
The driving time between Big Rapids and Grand Rapids is an example of a discrete random
variable.
FALSE

3. True or False
The number of hungry people in Ethiopia is an example of a discrete random variable.
TRUE

4. True or False
One characteristic of a discrete probability distribution is that values of x are exhaustive.
TRUE

5. True or False
One characteristic of a discrete probability distribution is that the sum of the probabilities for all
the possible values for x must be between 0 and 1.
FALSE

6. True or False
A characteristic of a Bernoulli process is that the trials are statistically dependent; that is, the
outcome in any trial is affected by the outcomes of earlier trials, and it does affect the outcomes
of later trials.
FALSE

7. True or False
A characteristic of a Bernoulli process is that the probability of success remains the same from
one trial to the next.
TRUE

8. True or False
The hypergeometric distribution is similar to the binomial distribution in that successive trials
are considered to be independent of one another.
FALSE
9. True or False
The binomial distribution requires that the probability of a success for each trial remains
constant.
TRUE

10. True or False


Theoretically, the number of successes in a binomial distribution has no limit.
FALSE

11. True or False


The probability of success in a hypergeometric distribution does not remain constant from one
trial to another.
TRUE

12. True or False


The binomial distribution is best used to describe the number of customers arriving at a service
point during a given period of time.
FALSE

13. True or False


Theoretically, the number of times an event can occur over the given time span in a Poisson
distribution has no limit.
TRUE

14. True or False


For a Bernoulli process in which the number of trials is large and the probability of success on
any given trial is very small, the Poisson distribution can be used as an approximation to the
binomial distribution.
TRUE

15. Which of the following is a discrete random variable?


A.The average daily consumption of water in a U.S. household.
B. The weight of football players in the NFL.
C. The number of three-point shots completed in a college basketball game.
D. The time required to drive from Dallas to Denver.
E. The average daily temperature in the world.

16. Which of the following is not a characteristic of a discrete probability distribution?


A.The sum of the probabilities is one.
B. The values of x are exhaustive.
C. The value for the probability of any given x ranges from 0 to 1.
D. The values of x are mutually exclusive.
E. The sum of the probabilities for all possible values of x must be between 0 and 1.

17. Which of the following most likely represents a discrete random variable?
A.Length of time between calls to an 800 number.
B. The number of years completed in the military services.
C. The S & P Industrial average of stock prices.
D. The amount of retail sales on a given day.
E. Length of time for which an apartment in a large complex remains vacant.

18. A table, formula, or graph that shows all possible values a random variable can assume, together
with their associated probabilities is referred to as:
A.Discrete probability distribution
B. Continuous probability distribution
C. Mixed probability distribution
D. Contaminated probability distribution

19. A new car salesperson knows that he sells cars to one customer out of 20 who enter the
showroom. The probability that he will sell a car to exactly two of the next three customers is:
A.0.9939
B. 0.0075
C. 0.0071
D. 0.0851
E. 0.1354

20. Approximately 84% of persons age 70 to 84 live in their own household and are income-
qualified for home purchases. If four persons are randomly selected from this population, the
probability that exactly two of the four live in their own household and are income-qualified is:
A.0.8916
B. 0.4182
C. 0.0138
D. 0.5404
E. 0.1084

21. Approximately 14 percent of the population of Arizona is 65 years or older. A random sample of
five persons from this population is taken. The probability that less than 2 of the 5 are 65 years
or older is:
A.0.8533
B. 0.1467
C. 0.4704
D. 0.3829
E. None of these.

22. A barbershop requires appointments for perms and hair cuts. Ten percent of those making
appointments cancel or simply fail to show up. Next week’s appointment calendar has 64
appointments. Let x be the number of missed appointments out of the 64. The probability that
more than 3 cancellations and/or no-shows will occur during the next week is:
A.0.3784
B. 0.8937
C. 0.7795
D. 0.9611
E. 0.1063

23. A Company manufactures women’s hosiery. The company sells slightly irregular panty hose
through a mail-order catalog service. If the company produces 300,000 pairs of hose per day and
the probability of a pair not being irregular is 0.92, the average number that will be available for
the catalog order department is:
A.22080
B. 148.59
C. 24000
D. 154.92
E. 15.49

24. A survey of college students taking the professional exam to be certified as public school
teachers shows that 15 percent fail. On a national exam day, 12,000 students take the test. Let x
denote the number who fail. The mean and standard deviation of the random variable x are,
respectively:
A.1800; 1530
B. 1800; 39.11
C. 10,200; 1530
D. 10,200; 39.11
E. 1200; 35.71

25. Brendalee and Mohammed go to a coffee shop during their lunch break and toss a coin to see
who will pay. The probability that Brendalee will pay three days in a row is:
A.0.2500
B. 0.5000
C. 0.1250
D. 0.0150
E. none of these.

26. Which of the following is not a characteristic of the hypergeometric distribution?


A.The hypergeometric distribution is similar to the binomial distribution in focusing on the
number of successes in a given number of consecutive trials.
B. The hypergeometric distribution is similar to the binomial distribution in the fact that the
probability of success remains constant from one trail to the rest.
C. The hypergeometric distribution relies on sampling without replacement.
D. The hypergeometric distribution, the consecutive trials are not independent.
E. All of the above are characteristics of the hypergeometric distribution.

27. Which probability distribution is appropriate when sampling is performed without replacement
from a relatively small population?
A.Binomial distribution
B. Poisson distribution
C. Hypergeometric distribution
D. Normal distribution
E. Exponential distribution

28. The expected value, E(x), of a binomial probability distribution is:


A.n +
B. n(1 – )
C. n
D. n + – 1

29. Which of the following is not a characteristic of a binomial experiment?


A.There is a sequence of identical trials.
B. Each trial results in two or more outcomes.
C. The trials are independent of each other.
D. Probability of success p is the same from one trial to another.

30. The variance of a binomial distribution for which n = 75 and = 0.20 is:
A. 375.
B. 75.
C. 15.
D. 12.

31. The likelihood that someone who logs onto a particular site in a “shopping mall” on the Internet
will purchase an item is 0.05 and follows the binomial distribution. If the site has 35 people
accessing it in the next hour, what is the expected number of successes during this hour?
A.1.75
B. 2.5
C. 0.05
D. 12
E. 35

32. Which of the following statements are true?


A.For the Poisson distribution = 3.2, the mean and standard deviation are both equal to 3.2.
B. For the Poisson distribution = 3.2, the mean and variance are both equal to 3.2.
C. For the Poisson distribution = 3.2, the mean is 3.2 and the standard deviation is 1.79.
D. Both B and C are correct.
E. All of these are correct.

33. Tornadoes for January in Kansas average 3.2 per month. The probability that in the next January
Kansas will experience exactly 2 tornadoes is:
A.0.7913.
B. 0.4076.
C. 0.2087.
D. 0.1304.
E. 0.2226.

34. Tornadoes for January in Kansas average 3.2 per month. The probability that in the next January
there will be between 1 and 3 tornadoes (inclusive) is:
A.0.2087.
B. 0.5617.
C. 0.4383.
D. 0.4076.
E. 0.5924.

35. Tornadoes for January in Kansas average 3.2 per month. The probability that in the next January
at least 2 tornadoes will occur is:
A.0.9592.
B. 0.0408.
C. 0.8288.
D. 0.1712.
E. none of these.

36. A local police station receives an average 8.1 emergency telephone calls per hour. These calls
are Poisson distributed.

The probability that the station will get nine calls in an hour is:
A. 0.1256.
B. 0.8744.
C. 0.0408.
D. 0.6918.
E. 0.3082.

37. A local police station receives an average 8.1 emergency telephone calls per hour. These calls
are Poisson distributed.

The probability that the station will get five to seven calls in an hour is:
A. 0.5924.
B. 0.5617.
C. 0.4383.
D. 0.4076.
E. 0.3451.

38. A local police station receives an average 8.1 emergency telephone calls per hour. These calls
are Poisson distributed.

The probability that the station will get at least 4 calls in an hour is:
A. 0.0397.
B. 0.0941.
C. 0.9059.
D. 0.9603.
E. 0.9630.

39. A cashier at Carter’s cafeteria can total an average of 2.2 trays per minute. The probability that
the cashier will total exactly four trays in a minute is:
A.0.9275.
B. 0.8918.
C. 0.1082.
D. 0.0992.
E. 0.1169.

40. A cashier at Carter’s cafeteria can total an average of 2.2 trays per minute. The probability that
the cashier will total between four and ten trays in a minute is:
A.0.9281.
B. 0.8193.
C. 0.1807.
D. 0.3772.
E. 0.0724.

41. A cashier at Carter’s cafeteria can total an average of 2.2 trays per minute. The probability that
the cashier will total no more than three trays in a minute is:
A.0.1966.
B. 0.6227.
C. 0.9275.
D. 0.8193.

42. As a rule of thumb, a binomial distribution for which the number of trials n is large can well be
approximated by a Poisson distribution when the probability of success, , is:
A.larger than 0.95.
B. larger than 0.50.
C. between 0.50 and 0.95.
D. smaller than .05.

43. The Poisson random variable is a:


A.discrete random variable with infinitely many possible values.
B. discrete random variable with finite number of possible values.
C. continuous random variable with infinitely many possible values.
D. continuous random variable with finite number of possible values.

44. Which of the following events is best described using a hypergeometric distribution?
A.The number of customers entering a store during the next hour.
B. The number of accidents at a particular intersection during the next month.
C. The number of male jurors selected from a group of 25 individuals.
D. The number of correct responses in a multiple choice exam.
E. The number of heads after tossing a fair coin 10 times.

45. A box of chocolates contains 18 pieces, 10 of which have nuts while the remaining 8 do not.
Four pieces are chosen at random.

What is the probability that exactly 2 pieces have nuts?


A. 0.412
B. 0.564
C. 0.681
D. 0.750
E. 0.833

46. A box of chocolates contains 18 pieces, 10 of which have nuts while the remaining 8 do not.
Four pieces are chosen at random.

What is the probability that no more than one piece has nuts?
A. 0.116
B. 0.206
C. 0.289
D. 0.444
E. 0.517

47. A box of chocolates contains 18 pieces, 10 of which have nuts while the remaining 8 do not.
Four pieces are chosen at random.

What is the probability that at least 3 pieces have nuts?


A. 0.051
B. 0.118
C. 0.169
D. 0.242
E. 0.382
48. The number of vacancies at a Gulf Shore resort motel on a day during weekends through the
tourist season has the following probability distribution:

If the mean is 2.07, compute the variance of this distribution.


3.5851

49. Let x represent the number of children in an Egyptian household. The probability distribution of
x is as follows:

What is the probability that a randomly selected Egyptian household will have more than
2 children?
0.42

50. Let x represent the number of children in an Egyptian household. The probability distribution of
x is as follows:

What is the probability that a randomly selected Egyptian household will have between 2
and 4 children?
0.65

51. Let x represent the number of children in an Egyptian household. The probability distribution of
x is as follows:

What is the probability that a randomly selected Egyptian household will have fewer than
4 children?
0.75

52. Let x represent the number of children in an Egyptian household. The probability distribution of
x is as follows:

Find the expected number of children in a randomly selected Egyptian household.


2.52

53. Let x represent the number of children in an Egyptian household. The probability distribution of
x is as follows:
Find the standard deviation of the number of children in an Egyptian household.
1.2844

54. A high school play has five roles to fill with students. Seven girls and nine boys have expressed
an interest in the play. What is the probability that exactly 3 girls will be selected?
0.288

55. A high school play has five roles to fill with students. Seven girls and nine boys have expressed
an interest in the play. What is the probability that exactly 0 girls will be selected?
0.029

56. A committee of eight politicians needs to be chosen from 11 Democrats and 15 Republicans.
What is the probability that exactly 2 Democrats will be selected for the committee?
0.176

57. A committee of eight politicians needs to be chosen from 11 Democrats and 15 Republicans.
What is the probability that at least 5 Democrats will be selected for the committee?
0.169

58. The MBI Company found that at the end of each month, 2% of its two million accounting entries
contained errors. Today, one operator has made 50 computer entries.

What is the probability that at most two errors were made?


0.9216

59. An urn contains 5 red marbles and 5 green ones. Two marbles are selected without
replacement. What is the probability that both marbles are red?
0.222

60. An urn contains 5 red marbles and 5 green ones. Two marbles are selected without
replacement. What is the probability that at least one marble is red?
0.778
61. A business office has purchased five new electric pencil sharpeners. The manufacturer of these
pencil sharpeners states that twenty in one hundred of their sharpeners will require some
maintenance or repair work during the first year’s use. Find the probability that at least 3 of
these sharpeners will need repair during the first year.
0.0579

62. A fast food hamburger restaurant manager is interviewing high school persons age sixteen for
possible employment. Persons age sixteen who apply for jobs in the area have no prior work-
for-pay experience ninety percent of the time. Let x be the number of the four high school
persons age sixteen who have no prior work-for-pay experience. If the manager plans to hire
four, what is the probability that two of the four will have work experience?
0.0486

63. Twenty percent of the automobiles inspected at a state inspection station required repairs to
meet the inspection standard. Three drivers arrive for auto inspections. Let x be the number of
automobiles requiring repairs and find the probability that all three automobiles will require
repair.
0.008

64. An attorney representing a client in an injury suit surveys the jury panel and finds that 30% of
the potential jurors have experienced some type of job related injury. The attorney is hopeful
that he will have six of the twelve jurors from this group. What is the probability that at least 6
jurors will have experienced a job-related injury?
0.1178

65. A Motor Company has purchased steel parts from a supplier for several years and has found
that 10% of the parts must be returned because they are defective. An order of 25 parts is
received.

What is the probability that no more than three of these parts are defective?
0.7636

66. A small appliance store has 10 VCR’s in stock. Four of the VCR’s were damaged in shipment. The
owner of the store gives his daughter and his son each a VCR for a birthday present.
What is the probability that both the gift VCR’s will be defective?
0.1209

67. Ninety-five percent of the stockholders of an electric utility company own stock in other
companies. If three stockholders are selected at random, what is the probability that exactly one
has stock in another company?
0.007125

68. The listed occupations of stockholders of a regional electric utility company included 9 percent
who were homemakers. Six of these stockholders are randomly selected.

What is the probability that no stockholders are homemakers?


0.5679

69. The listed occupations of stockholders of a regional electric utility company included 9 percent
who were homemakers. Six of these stockholders are randomly selected.

What is the probability that exactly three are homemakers?


0.0110

70. The listed occupations of stockholders of a regional electric utility company included 9 percent
who were homemakers. Six of these stockholders are randomly selected.

What is the probability that at least one is a homemaker?


0.4321

71. In an intermediate level economics class there are 18 students. Nine of these are economics
majors. For class discussion purposes three students are randomly selected. What is the
probability that at least one is an economics major?
0.8971

72. A local chamber of commerce is backing a plan for a new convention center. The chamber states
that 60 percent of the voters favor the plan, which would raise tourism business and taxes for
the residents. Four of the registered voters in the community are called at random. X is the
number of voters called who say they favor the plan.
Find the probability that exactly 2 voters sampled favor the plan.
0.3456

73. A local chamber of commerce is backing a plan for a new convention center. The chamber states
that 60 percent of the voters favor the plan, which would raise tourism business and taxes for
the residents. Four of the registered voters in the community are called at random. X is the
number of voters called who say they favor the plan.

Find the probability that no one says they favor the plan.
0.0256

74. New York City is estimated to have 21 percent of the homes with T.V. sets served by cable T.V. If
a random sample of four is taken from these homes find the probability distribution of x where x
is the number of T.V. homes in the sample having cable T.V.

What is the probability that all four T.V. homes in the sample are served by cable?
0.0019

75. New York City is estimated to have 21 percent of the homes with T.V. sets served by cable T.V. If
a random sample of four is taken from these homes find the probability distribution of x where x
is the number of T.V. homes in the sample having cable T.V.

What is the probability that at least one T.V. home in the sample is served by cable?
0.3895

76. A canoe club sponsor has taken canoeing groups through a particularly rough section of white
water on a mountain river. Past trips and experience of the sponsor lead her to believe that fifty
percent of the canoeists who attempt to paddle their way through this section will overturn. At
the present time, there are five canoes approaching this treacherous section. Assume that the
sponsor’s estimate of the probability of a canoe overturning in this section of water is accurate.

What is the probability that none of the five canoes will capsize?
0.0313

77. A canoe club sponsor has taken canoeing groups through a particularly rough section of white
water on a mountain river. Past trips and experience of the sponsor lead her to believe that fifty
percent of the canoeists who attempt to paddle their way through this section will overturn. At
the present time, there are five canoes approaching this treacherous section. Assume that the
sponsor’s estimate of the probability of a canoe overturning in this section of water is accurate.

What is the probability that only one of the five canoes will capsize?
0.1562

78. A canoe club sponsor has taken canoeing groups through a particularly rough section of white
water on a mountain river. Past trips and experience of the sponsor lead her to believe that fifty
percent of the canoeists who attempt to paddle their way through this section will overturn. At
the present time, there are five canoes approaching this treacherous section. Assume that the
sponsor’s estimate of the probability of a canoe overturning in this section of water is accurate.

What is the probability that two of the five canoes will capsize?
0.3125

79. A canoe club sponsor has taken canoeing groups through a particularly rough section of white
water on a mountain river. Past trips and experience of the sponsor lead her to believe that fifty
percent of the canoeists who attempt to paddle their way through this section will overturn. At
the present time, there are five canoes approaching this treacherous section. Assume that the
sponsor’s estimate of the probability of a canoe overturning in this section of water is accurate.

What is the probability that three of the five canoes will capsize?
0.3125

80. A canoe club sponsor has taken canoeing groups through a particularly rough section of white
water on a mountain river. Past trips and experience of the sponsor lead her to believe that fifty
percent of the canoeists who attempt to paddle their way through this section will overturn. At
the present time, there are five canoes approaching this treacherous section. Assume that the
sponsor’s estimate of the probability of a canoe overturning in this section of water is accurate.

What is the probability that four of the five canoes will capsize?
0.1562

81. A canoe club sponsor has taken canoeing groups through a particularly rough section of white
water on a mountain river. Past trips and experience of the sponsor lead her to believe that fifty
percent of the canoeists who attempt to paddle their way through this section will overturn. At
the present time, there are five canoes approaching this treacherous section. Assume that the
sponsor’s estimate of the probability of a canoe overturning in this section of water is accurate.
What is the probability that all five canoes will capsize?
0.0313

82. A canoe club sponsor has taken canoeing groups through a particularly rough section of white
water on a mountain river. Past trips and experience of the sponsor lead her to believe that fifty
percent of the canoeists who attempt to paddle their way through this section will overturn. At
the present time, there are five canoes approaching this treacherous section. Assume that the
sponsor’s estimate of the probability of a canoe overturning in this section of water is accurate.

What is the probability that less than two of the five canoes will capsize?
0.1875

83. A game show contestant is shown 20 suitcases, 3 of which have a prize inside. They have 3
opportunities to choose a suitcase.

What is the probability that at least two of these suitcases has a prize?
0.046

84. A game show contestant is shown 20 suitcases, 3 of which have a prize inside. They have 3
opportunities to choose a suitcase.

What is the probability that none of these suitcases has a prize?


0.596

85. Fans arriving on a given Saturday night for a non-conference home basketball game average
0.25 per second. Let x represent the number of fans arriving at a specified time period.

What is the probability that from 10 to 12 fans arrive between 7:15 and 7:16 P.M.?
0.1978

86. Fans arriving on a given Saturday night for a non-conference home basketball game average
0.25 per second. Let x represent the number of fans arriving at a specified time period.

What is the probability that from 13 to 15 fans arrive between 7:15 and 7:16 P.M.?
0.3004
87. Fans arriving on a given Saturday night for a non-conference home basketball game average
0.25 per second. Let x represent the number of fans arriving at a specified time period.

What is the probability that thirty or more fans arrive between 7:15 and 7:16 P.M.?
0.0004

88. A machine wraps and twists the ends of a wrapper for peppermint candy at a rate of 100 per
minute. However, the machine malfunctions on the average of 1 per minute. Assume that the
malfunctions are a Poisson distribution and let x denote the number of candies which are not
wrapped due to the malfunction. What is the probability that between zero and four candies
will be unwrapped in a given minute?
0.6131

89. An EMS service averages 5.2 calls per 8-hour shift. During a shift in which 8 or more calls occur,
the EMS crew receives one extra hour pay. If the hourly wage is $15 for each 8-hour day, and
taking into account the extra-effort days, what is the average wage for an 8-hour day?
$122.33

90. A manufacturer of daisy wheel print heads for typewriters and printers knows that 1.5% of the
print heads manufactured have a defect. If a production run is 120 print heads.

Determine the probability that exactly three print heads are defective.
0.1607

91. A manufacturer of daisy wheel print heads for typewriters and printers knows that 1.5% of the
print heads manufactured have a defect. If a production run is 120 print heads.

Determine the probability that at most one is defective.


0.4628

92. In response to a major competitor, a local pizza company begins to pay $5 to customers whose
home delivered pizza did not arrive within 30 minutes after the order was placed. Assuming that
the probability of a randomly selected customer having to wait more than 30 minutes is 0.01
and that 1000 customers are served tomorrow, what is the probability that the total amount
paid out tomorrow will be $100 or more?
0.0035
93. During the peak fishing months, a marina at a large man-made reservoir noted that boats were
arriving at the average of 3.2 boats every twenty minutes to use the boat ramp. Let x be the
number of boats arriving during the next twenty minutes.

What is the probability that during the next twenty minutes the number of boats arriving
to load or unload is exactly three?
0.2226

94. During the peak fishing months, a marina at a large man-made reservoir noted that boats were
arriving at the average of 3.2 boats every twenty minutes to use the boat ramp. Let x be the
number of boats arriving during the next twenty minutes.

What is the probability that during the next twenty minutes the number of boats arriving
to load or unload is at least one?
0.9592

95. During the peak fishing months, a marina at a large man-made reservoir noted that boats were
arriving at the average of 3.2 boats every twenty minutes to use the boat ramp. Let x be the
number of boats arriving during the next twenty minutes.

What is the probability that during the next twenty minutes the number of boats arriving
to load or unload is from two to four?
0.6094

96. Students use the university mainframe computer log-on during their designated time periods.
Assume that the number of students logging on each five-minute interval is 12.5, and these log-
on attempts are Poisson distributed.

Find the probability that exactly 9 students will log-in during the next 5-minute interval.
0.077

97. Students use the university mainframe computer log-on during their designated time periods.
Assume that the number of students logging on each five-minute interval is 12.5, and these log-
on attempts are Poisson distributed.
Find the probability that fewer than 9 students will log-in during the next 5-minute
interval.
0.125

98. Students use the university mainframe computer log-on during their designated time periods.
Assume that the number of students logging on each five-minute interval is 12.5, and these log-
on attempts are Poisson distributed.

Find the probability that more than 6 students will log-in during the next 5-minute
interval.
0.965

99. Students use the university mainframe computer log-on during their designated time periods.
Assume that the number of students logging on each five-minute interval is 12.5, and these log-
on attempts are Poisson distributed.

Find the probability that between 8 and 10 (inclusive) students will log-in during the next
5-minute interval.
0.227

100. A plywood manufacturer produces an exterior grade of plywood for which 0.3 percent
fails to meet the industry standard. One thousand sheets are purchased by a lumberyard for
retail sale. Use the Poisson distribution to approximate the binomial distribution.

What is the probability that none of the sheets sold are sub-standard?
0.0498

101. A plywood manufacturer produces an exterior grade of plywood for which 0.3 percent
fails to meet the industry standard. One thousand sheets are purchased by a lumberyard for
retail sale. Use the Poisson distribution to approximate the binomial distribution.

What is the probability that more than five sheets are sub-standard?
0.0840

102. A plywood manufacturer produces an exterior grade of plywood for which 0.3 percent
fails to meet the industry standard. One thousand sheets are purchased by a lumberyard for
retail sale. Use the Poisson distribution to approximate the binomial distribution.
What is the probability that fewer than three sheets are sub-standard?
0.4232

103. One half of one percent of the checks received by an oil company are returned due to
insufficient funds. Yesterday 500 checks were received in the mail. Let x equal the number of
these checks which will be returned due to insufficient funds.

Use the Poisson distribution to compute the binomial probability that none of the checks
are returned.
0.0821

104. One half of one percent of the checks received by an oil company are returned due to
insufficient funds. Yesterday 500 checks were received in the mail. Let x equal the number of
these checks which will be returned due to insufficient funds.

Use the Poisson distribution to compute the binomial probability that one or more checks
are returned.
0.9179

105. One half of one percent of the checks received by an oil company are returned due to
insufficient funds. Yesterday 500 checks were received in the mail. Let x equal the number of
these checks which will be returned due to insufficient funds.

Use the Poisson distribution to compute the binomial probability that less than three
checks are returned.
0.5438

106. In general, we can define a ____________________ as the relative frequency


distribution that should theoretically occur for observations from a given population.
probability distribution

107. A random variable that can take on only certain values along an interval, with the
possible values having gaps between them, is referred to as a ____________________.
discrete random variable
108. A random variable that can take on a value at any point along an interval is referred to
as a ____________________.
continuous random variable

109. Since any value of x in a discrete probability distribution can occur only once for a given
experiment, the values of x are said to be ____________________.
mutually exclusive

110. The binomial distribution deals with ____________________ trials, each of which has
____________________ possible outcomes.
consecutive; twoor
consecutive, 2

111. The Poisson distribution is applied to events for which the probability of occurrence
over a given span of time, space, or distance is ____________________.
extremely small

112. The binomial distribution samples ____________________ replacement while the


hypergeometric distribution samples ____________________ replacement.
with, without

113. The ____________________ probability distribution deals with consecutive trials with
only two outcomes that are not statistically independent.
hypergeometric

114. The ____________________ for a discrete random variable lists all possible values the
variable can assume, along with their respective probabilities of occurrence.
probability distribution

115. The ____________________ probability distribution deals with consecutive trials that
are statistically independent, each of which has only two possible outcomes, generally referred
to as success or failure.
binomial
116. The ____________________ applies to events for which the probability of occurrence
over a given span of time, space, or distance is extremely small.
Poisson distribution

117. The probability distribution of a discrete random variable x is shown below.

Find the expected value, the variance, and the standard deviation of x.

E(x) = ____________________.

Variance = ____________________.

SD = ____________________.

1.25; 0.9875; 0.9937

118. The probability distribution of a discrete random variable x is shown below.

Find the following probabilities:


a. P(X > 1)
b. P(X £ 2)
c. P(1£ X £ 2)
d. P(0 <X < 1)
e. P(1£ X £ 3)

0.35, 0.85, 0.60, 0.00, 0.75

119. The MBI Company found that at the end of each month, 2% of its two million accounting
entries contained errors. Today, one operator has made 50 computer entries.

Determine the mean and standard deviation of errors in accounting entries.

Mean = ____________________

SD = ____________________

1; 0.9899
120. A Motor Company has purchased steel parts from a supplier for several years and has
found that 10% of the parts must be returned because they are defective. An order of 25 parts is
received.

What are the mean and standard deviation of the defective parts?

Mean = ____________________

SD = ____________________

2.5; 1.5

121. A small appliance store has 10 VCR’s in stock. Four of the VCR’s were damaged in
shipment. The owner of the store gives his daughter and his son each a VCR for a birthday
present.

What distribution is appropriate to determine the probability of a given number of


defects? Explain why you selected your choice.

Binomial. This is a Bernouilli process with two possible outcomes in consecutive and mutually
exclusive events.

122. In the following equation, what do n, x, and represent?

n = __________________________________________

x = __________________________________________

= __________________________________________

number of trials; number of successes in n trials; the probability of success in any given trial

123. What are the parameters of a random variable described by the binomial distribution?

The parameters are: n; the number of trials, and the probability of success in any given trial.
124. The listed occupations of stockholders of a regional electric utility company included 9
percent who were homemakers. If we randomly select six stockholders, compute the mean and
standard deviation of the number of stockholders who are homemakers in the sample.

Mean = ____________________

SD = ____________________

0.54; 0.7010

125. New York City is estimated to have 21 percent of the homes with T.V. sets served by
cable T.V. If a random sample of four is taken from these homes find the probability distribution
of x where x is the number of T.V. homes in the sample having cable T.V.

Compute the mean and standard deviation of the number of T.V. homes with cable
service in the sample.

Mean = ____________________

Standard deviation = ____________________

0.84; 0.8146

126. A canoe club sponsor has taken canoeing groups through a particularly rough section of
white water on a mountain river. Past trips and experience of the sponsor lead her to believe
that fifty percent of the canoeists who attempt to paddle their way through this section will
overturn. At the present time, there are five canoes approaching this treacherous section.
Assume that the sponsor’s estimate of the probability of a canoe overturning in this section of
water is accurate.

Develop the probability distribution of the number of canoes that will capsize.

x P(x)

0 0.0313

1 0.1562

2 0.3125
3 0.3125

4 0.1562

5 0.0313

127. A canoe club sponsor has taken canoeing groups through a particularly rough section of
white water on a mountain river. Past trips and experience of the sponsor lead her to believe
that fifty percent of the canoeists who attempt to paddle their way through this section will
overturn. At the present time, there are five canoes approaching this treacherous section.
Assume that the sponsor’s estimate of the probability of a canoe overturning in this section of
water is accurate.

What is the expected number of canoes that will capsize?

128. A canoe club sponsor has taken canoeing groups through a particularly rough section of
white water on a mountain river. Past trips and experience of the sponsor lead her to believe
that fifty percent of the canoeists who attempt to paddle their way through this section will
overturn. At the present time, there are five canoes approaching this treacherous section.
Assume that the sponsor’s estimate of the probability of a canoe overturning in this section of
water is accurate.

What is the standard deviation of the number of canoes that will capsize?

129. Given a binomial random variable with n = 15 and p = 0.4, find the following
probabilities using the binomial table.
a. P(x £ 12)
b. P(x ³ 10)
c. P(x = 8)
d. P(9 £ x < 12)
e. P(6 < x < 10)

0.9997, 0.0338, 0.1181, 0.0931, 0.3564

130. A recent survey in Michigan revealed that 60% of the vehicles traveling on highways,
where speed limits are posted at 70 miles per hour, were exceeding the limit. Suppose you
randomly record the speeds of ten vehicles traveling on US 131 where the speed limit is 70 miles
per hour. Let x denote the number vehicles that were exceeding the limit. Find the following
probabilities:
a. P(x = 10)
b. P(4 < x < 9)
c. P(3 £ x £ 10)

0.006, 0.787, 0.988

131. Compute the following probabilities (to 4 decimal places) using the Poisson formula:

A) P(x = 3), if = 2.5

B) P(x 1), if = 2.0

C) P(x 2), if = 3.0

0.2138; 0.4060; 0.8009

132. Let x be a Poisson random variable with = 6. Use the table of Poisson probabilities to
find:

A) P(x 8)

B) P(x = 8)

C) P(x 5)

D) P(6 x 10)

0.8472; 0.1033; 0.7149; 0.5117

133. Let x be a Poisson random variable with = 8. Use the table of Poisson probabilities to
find:

A) P(x 6)

B) P(x = 4)

C) P(x 3)
D) P(9 x 14)

0.3134; 0.0573; 0.9862; 0.3902

134. Phone calls arrive at the rate of 30 per hour at the reservation desk for a hotel.

A) Find the probability of receiving three calls in a five-minute interval of time.

B) Find the probability of receiving exactly seven calls in 15 minutes.

If no calls are currently being processed, what is the probability that the desk employee can take
C)
ten minutes break without being interrupted?

0.2138; 0.1465; 0.0067

135. An advertising executive receives an average of 10 telephone calls each afternoon


between 2 and 4 pm. The calls occur randomly and independently of one another.

Find the probability that the executive will receive 12 calls between 2 and 4 pm on a particular
A) afternoon.

Find the probability that the executive will receive eight calls between 2 and 3 pm on a
B)
particular afternoon.

Find the probability that the executive will receive at least six calls between 2 and 4 pm on a
C)
particular afternoon.
0.0948; 0.0653; 0.9329

136. Stabbings of inmates by other inmates at a state prison unit have averaged 2.6 per
month over the past year. Let x be the number of inmate stabbings per month. Assume a
Poisson distribution. Find the mean and standard deviation of x.

Mean = ____________________

SD = ____________________

2.6; 1.61

137. Identify and complete this equation: ______________________________ = E(x)

= E(x); Mean of a discrete probability distribution

138. List the four characteristics of a Bernoulli process.

(1) There are two or more consecutive trials; (2) in each trial there are just two possible
outcomes, usually denoted as success or failure; (3) The trials are statistically independent; (4)
The probability of a success remains the same from one trial to the next.

139. In response to a major competitor, a local pizza company begins to pay $5 to customers
whose home delivered pizza did not arrive within 30 minutes after the order was placed. Explain
why you applied that specific distribution to answer the preceding question.

The Poisson distribution is a discrete probability distribution for an event occurring over time
with a low probability of success.

140. Assume that you used Minitab statistical package to generate the individual binomial
probabilities when n = 100 and = .042, and then generate the individual Poisson probabilities
for = 4.2. Do you expect the probabilities obtained in both cases to be similar or different?

Explain.
It is expected that the respective probabilities obtained in both cases to be slightly different, but
close to each other. In general, for a given value of , the Poisson approximation to the binomial
distribution becomes closer for longer values of n.

Chapter 7: Continuous Probability Distributions

Student:
___________________________________________________________________________

1. True or False
In any normal distribution, the mean, median, mode, and standard deviation are all at the same
position on the horizontal axis.
True False

2. True or False
In the normal distribution, the curve is asymptotic but never intercepts the horizontal axis either
to the left or right.
True False

3. True or False
In the normal distribution, the total area beneath the curve represents the probability for all
possible outcomes for a given event.
True False

4. True or False
Under certain conditions, the normal distribution can be used to approximate the binomial
distribution.
True False

5. True or False
There exists a different normal curve for every possible pair of and .
True False
6. True or False
The standard deviation of the binomial distribution with n = 25 and = .50 is 6.25.
True False

7. True or False
The mean of the exponential distribution is the inverse of that of the normal distribution.
True False

8. True or False
If Excel and Minitab packages are both used to generate its own sample of 10,000 observations
from a theoretical continuous distribution, the two sets of observations are expected to be
identical.
True False

9. True or False
According to the law of large numbers, frequency distributions generated by statistical packages
will more closely approach the theoretical distribution from which they were drawn whenever
the number of observations becomes larger.
True False

10. True or False


Continuous probability distributions describe probabilities associated with random variables
that can take on any value along a given range or continuum and for which there are no gaps
between these possible values.
True False

11. True or False


For any specified interval of values, the probability that a continuous random variable x will
assume a value within the interval is the area beneath the curve between the two points
describing the interval.
True False

12. True or False


Any normal distribution is a symmetrical, bell-shaped curve, with mean = 0.0 and standard
deviation = 1.0.
True False

13. True or False


Regardless of the shape of a particular normal curve, about 75% of the area is within the interval
, where and are the mean and the standard deviation, respectively.
True False

14. True or False


The standard normal distribution has a mean of 0.0 and standard deviation of 1.0.
True False

15. True or False


The exponential distribution is a family of discrete distributions, all of which are negatively
skewed.
True False

16. True or False


Computer statistical packages, such as Excel and Minitab, can determine the exact area beneath
a specified portion of the continuous distribution curve, or probability density function, and
eliminate the need for calculations or table references.
True False

17. A continuous probability distribution represents a random variable:


A. having outcomes, which occur in counting numbers.
B. having an infinite number of outcomes which may assume any number of values within an
interval.
C. which is best described in a histogram.
D. which has a definite probability for the occurrence of a given integer.
E. None of these is correct.

18. Which of the following are not correct concerning the probability distribution for any continuous
random variable?
A. The vertical coordinate is the probability density function.
B. The range of the random variable is found on the y-axis.
C. The total area represented under the curve will be equal to 1.00.
D. The probability that x will take on a value between a and b will be the area under the curve
between points a and b.
E. The area under the curve represents the sum of probabilities for all possible outcomes.

19. In a continuous probability distribution, the probability that x will take on an exact value:
A. is equal to the height of the curve at that value.
B. is calculated using the probability density.
C. is always equal to 0.
D. is always greater than 0.
E. None of these is correct.

20. Which of the following statements are true regarding the areas beneath any normal curve?
A. About 68.3% of the area is in the interval to .
B. About 95.5% of the area is in the interval to .
C. Nearly all of the area (about 99.7%) is in the interval to
D. All of these are true.
E. None of these is true.

21. Which of the following is not a characteristic for a normal distribution?


A. It is symmetrical distribution
B. The mean is always zero
C. The mean, median, and mode are all equal
D. It is a bell-shaped distribution
E. The area under the curve always equals 1.0

22. A videotape store has an average weekly gross of $1,158 with a standard deviation of $120. Let
x be the store’s gross during a randomly selected week. If this is a normally distributed random
variable, then the number of standard deviations from $1,158 to $1,360 is:
A. 0.4535.
B. 0.0465.
C. 20.98.
D. 1.683.
E. none of these.

23. Using the standard normal table, the total area between z = -0.75 and z = 1.21 is:
A. 0.2734
B. 0.3869
C. 0.3397
D. 0.2266
E. 0.6603

24. Let z1 be a z score that is unknown but identifiable by position and area. If the area to the right
of z1 is 0.8413, then the value of z1 must be:
A. 1.00.
B. -1.00.
C. 0.00.
D. 0.41.
E. -0.41.

25. Using the standard normal table, the total area between z = -1.82 and z = -1.38 is:
A. 0.0494
B. 0.4656
C. 0.1554
D. 0.4162
E. 0.1005

26. If the area to the right of a positive z1 is 0.0869, then the value of z1 must be:
A. -1.36.
B. 1.36.
C. 1.71.
D. 1.80.
E. 0.22.

27. The z-score representing the 10th percentile of the standard normal distribution is:
A. 0.255.
B. -0.255.
C. -1.645.
D. 1.28.
E. -1.28.

28. The z-score representing the 75th percentile of the standard normal distribution is:
A. 0.67.
B. -0.67.
C. 1.28.
D. -1.28.
E. 1.645.

29. The z-score representing the 90th percentile of the standard normal distribution is:
A. 1.28.
B. -1.28.
C. 0.67.
D. -0.67.
E. 1.645.

30. For a normal curve, if the mean is 20 minutes and the standard deviation is 5 minutes, then the
area between 22 and 25 minutes is:
A. 0.3413.
B. 0.1554.
C. 0.4967.
D. 0.1859.
E. 0.2248.

31. For a normal curve, if the mean is 20 minutes and the standard deviation is 5 minutes, then the
area between 11 and 19 minutes is:
A. 0.4641.
B. 0.0359.
C. 0.3848.
D. 0.8848.
E. 0.9641.

32. A bakery firm finds that its average weight of the most popular package of cookies is 32.06
ounces with a standard deviation of 0.1 ounces. What portion of cookie packages will weigh less
than 31.9 ounces or more than 32.3 ounces?
A. 0.8000
B. 0.4452
C. 0.4918
D. 0.9370
E. 0.0630
33. A retailer finds that the demand for a very popular board game averages 100 per week with a
standard deviation of 20. If the seller wishes to have adequate stock 95% of the time, how many
of the games must she keep on hand?
A. 139.2
B. 100.0
C. 132.9
D. 195.0
E. 125.6

34. A manufacturer of tow chains finds that the average breaking point is at 3,500 pounds and the
standard deviation is 250 pounds. If you pull a weight of at least 4200 pounds with this tow
chain, what percentage of the time would you expect the chain to break?
A. 2.8%
B. 0.26%
C. 49.74%
D. 99.74%
E. 50%

35. The average labor time to sew a pair of denim jeans is 4.2 hours with a standard deviation of 30
minutes. If the distribution is normal, then the probability of a worker finishing a pair of jeans in
less than 3.5 hours is:
A. 0.0808.
B. 0.4192.
C. 0.5808.
D. 0.9192.
E. 0.9808.

36. A salesman who uses his car extensively finds that his gasoline bills average $125.32 per month
with a standard deviation of $49.51. The probability that his bill will be less than $50 a month or
more than $150 for a single month is:
A. 0.4357.
B. 0.1915.
C. 0.6272.
D. 0.3728.
E. 0.6915.

37. Given that z is a standard normal random variable and that the area to the right of z is 0.1949,
then the value of z must be:
A. 0.51.
B. -0.51.
C. 0.86.
D. -0.86.

38. Using the standard normal table, the total area between z = 0.45 and z = 1.05 is:
A. 0.1736
B. 0.3531
C. 0.3264
D. 0.6469
E. 0.1795

39. Given that z is a standard normal random variable, a negative value of z indicates that:
A. The value z is to the left of the mean.
B. The value z is to the right of the median.
C. The standard deviation of z is negative.
D. The area between zero and z is negative.
E. The probability associated with z is negative.

40. Given that z is a standard normal random variable, and that the area to the right of z is 0.9066,
then the value of z must be:
A. 1.32.
B. -1.32.
C. 0.66.
D. -0.66.

41. The proportion of the data from a standard normal distribution that falls within two standard
deviations from the mean is:
A. 0.3413.
B. 0.4772.
C. 0.6826.
D. 0.9544

42. If the z-value for a given value x of the random variable x is z = 1.96, and the distribution of x is
normally distributed with a mean of 60 and a standard deviation of 6, then the x-value that this
z-value corresponds to is:
A. 71.76.
B. 67.96.
C. 61.96.
D. 48.24.

43. Your high school graduating class had 564 members. Thirty-three percent of these are expected
to attend college. If the number of students who attend college follows the normal distribution,
the probability that less than 160 will attend college is:
A. 0.3610.
B. 0.4900.
C. 0.0090.
D. 0.0832.
E. 0.2500

44. A large mail house which mails such items as catalogues, magazines, and other bulk mailings
guarantees that there will be no more than a 3% error rate on its mailing labels. A customer who
contracted a mailing to 190,000 individuals experienced a return of 5,900 items, which had
incorrect addresses. Which of the following statements is true?
A. There is a 3% chance of an incorrect return.
B. There is a 0.0054 probability that a return of 5900 or more incorrect addresses could occur if
the true error rate is 3%.
C. There is a 0.4964 probability that a return of 5900 or more incorrect addresses could occur if
the true error rate is 3%.
D. There is a 2.69 percent possibility that a return of 5900 incorrect addresses could occur if the
true error rate is 3%.
E. None of these statements are correct.

45. In your college campus, 30% of the students use tobacco in some form. In your statistics class of
40 students, the probability of finding at least 15 students who use tobacco is:
A. 0.3051.
B. 0.1949.
C. 0.8051.
D. 0.1515.
E. 0.3485.

46. A zipper manufacturer has found that 1.5% of its zippers are defective. The company averages
4982 zippers per day. The probability of finding between 90 and 100 defects in a given day is:
A. 0.4981.
B. 0.0310.
C. 0.0360.
D. 0.5310.
E. 0.4671.

47. Which of the following is not a correct statement?


A. The exponential distribution describes the Poisson process as a continuous random variable.
B. The exponential distribution is a family of curves, which are completely described by the
mean.
C. The mean of the exponential distribution is the complement of the mean of the Poisson.
D. The Poisson is a probability distribution or a discrete random variable while the exponential
distribution is continuous.
E. All of these are correct.

48. A local radio station maintains a very popular phone service, which provides callers with current
weather reports. The incoming calls have a Poisson distribution with an average of 5 calls for
each 15 minute-period. If x = time between calls, then the probability of receiving four or fewer
calls in the next 15 minutes is:
A. 0.2341.
B. 0.7659.
C. 0.2636.
D. 0.7364.
E. 0.9502.

49. A dispatcher for an airport shuttle averages sending a van to the airport 2 times every 60
minutes. The distribution is Poisson, and the driver must take a 15-minute lunch break. The
probability that he can finish lunch before getting a call is:
A. 0.1350.
B. 0.6065.
C. 0.3935.
D. 1.6490.
E. 0.8650.

50. A very large logging operation has serious problems keeping their skidders operating properly.
The equipment fails at the rate of 3 breakdowns every 48 hours. Assume that x is time between
breakdowns and is exponentially distributed. The probability of two or less breakdowns in the
next 48-hour period is:
A. 0.9672.
B. 0.0307.
C. 0.2231.
D. 0.7769.
51. If the mean of an exponential distribution is 2, then the value of the parameter is:
A. 4.0.
B. 2.2.
C. 1.0.
D. 0.5.

52. If the random variable x is exponentially distributed with parameter = 4, then P(x 0.25), up to 4
decimal places, is:
A. 0.6321.
B. 0.3679.
C. 0.2500.
D. 0.5000.

53. If the random variable x is exponentially distributed with parameter = 1.5, then P(2 x 4), up to 4
decimal places, is:
A. 0.6667.
B. 0.0473.
C. 0.5000.
D. 0.2500.

54. Which of the following is not true for an exponential distribution with parameter ?
A. Mean = .
B. Standard deviation = .
C. The distribution is completely determined once the value of is known.
D. The distribution is a two-parameter distribution since the mean and standard deviation are
equal.

55. Like the normal distribution, the exponential density function f(x):
A. is bell-shaped.
B. is symmetrical.
C. approaches infinity as x approaches zero.
D. approaches zero as x approaches infinity.

56. Which of the following distributions is suitable to model the length of time that elapses before
the first telephone call is received by a switchboard?
A. Exponential
B. Normal
C. Poisson
D. Binomial
E. Hypergeometric

57. The mean of the exponential distribution equals the mean of the Poisson distribution only when
the former distribution has a mean equals:
A. 1.00.
B. 0.50.
C. 0.25.
D. 2.00.

58. Which of the following distributions is appropriate to measure the length of time between
arrivals at a grocery checkout counter?
A. Binomial
B. Normal
C. Exponential
D. Poisson
E. Hypergeometric

59. Which of the following statements are true regarding the normal distribution curve?
A. It is symmetrical.
B. It is bell-shaped.
C. It is asymptotic in that each end approaches the horizontal axis, but never reaches it.
D. Its mean, median, and mode are located at the same position.
E. All of these statements are true.

60. Assume x is normally distributed with mean = 15 and standard deviation = 3. Use the
approximate areas beneath the normal curve, as discussed in this section, to find P(x 15).
________________________________________

61. Assume x is normally distributed with mean = 15 and standard deviation = 3. Use the
approximate areas beneath the normal curve, as discussed in this section, to find P(12 x 18).
________________________________________
62. Assume x is normally distributed with mean = 15 and standard deviation = 3. Use the
approximate areas beneath the normal curve, as discussed in this section, to find P(x 9).
________________________________________

63. Assume x is normally distributed with mean = 15 and standard deviation = 3. Use the
approximate areas beneath the normal curve, as discussed in this section, to find P(x = 20).
________________________________________

64. Assume x is normally distributed with mean = 15 and standard deviation = 3. Use the
approximate areas beneath the normal curve, as discussed in this section, to find P(9 x 21).
________________________________________

65. Assume x is normally distributed with mean = 15 and standard deviation = 3. Use the
approximate areas beneath the normal curve, as discussed in this section, to find P(x 12).
________________________________________

66. In 2000, the average charge of tax preparation was $95. Assuming a normal distribution and a
standard deviation of $10, use the approximate areas beneath the normal curve, as discussed in
this section, to answer: What proportion of tax preparation fees were more than $95?
________________________________________

67. In 2000, the average charge of tax preparation was $95. Assuming a normal distribution and a
standard deviation of $10, use the approximate areas beneath the normal curve, as discussed in
this section, to answer: What proportion of tax preparation fees were between $75 and $115?
________________________________________

68. In 2000, the average charge of tax preparation was $95. Assuming a normal distribution and a
standard deviation of $10, use the approximate areas beneath the normal curve, as discussed in
this section, to answer: What proportion of tax preparation fees were between $85 and $105?
________________________________________

69. In 2000, the average charge of tax preparation was $95. Assuming a normal distribution and a
standard deviation of $10, use the approximate areas beneath the normal curve, as discussed in
this section, to answer: What proportion of tax preparation fees were more than $115?
________________________________________

70. In 2000, the average charge of tax preparation was $95. Assuming a normal distribution and a
standard deviation of $10, use the approximate areas beneath the normal curve, as discussed in
this section, to answer: What proportion of tax preparation fees were between $80 and $90?
________________________________________

71. Using the standard normal curve, find the area to the left of z = -2.26.
________________________________________

72. Using the standard normal curve, find the area between z = 0 and z = 3.3.

____________________.
________________________________________

73. Determine P(z 1.58) for the standard normal curve.


________________________________________

74. For the standard normal curve, determine the area to the right of z = 0.34.
________________________________________

75. Assuming a standard normal distribution, determine P(z -0.75).


________________________________________

76. Determine P(-2.45 z 1.69), assuming a standard normal distribution.


________________________________________

77. Determine P(-2.45 z 0), assuming a standard normal distribution.


________________________________________
78. Assume the standard normal curve and determine the probability or area between z = -1.28 and
z = 1.28.
________________________________________

79. Find z1 if the area to the left of a positive z1 is 0.9131.


________________________________________

80. Find the z-score that determines that the area to the left of z is 0.9292.
________________________________________

81. Find the z-score that determines that the area to the right of z is 0.8264.
________________________________________

82. A continuous random variable x is normally distributed with a mean of 120 grams and a
standard deviation of 30 grams. Convert x = 106 into its corresponding z-score.
________________________________________

83. A continuous random variable x is normally distributed with a mean of $250 and a standard
deviation of $50. Find the z-score for x = 175.
________________________________________

84. A continuous random variable x is normally distributed with a mean of $250 and a standard
deviation of $50. Find the z-score for x = 285.
________________________________________

85. For a normal curve, if the mean is 20 minutes and the standard deviation is 5 minutes, find the
area to the left of 10 minutes.
________________________________________
86. For a normal curve, if the mean is 20 minutes and the standard deviation is 5 minutes, find the
area to the right of 12 minutes.
________________________________________

87. The age of customers for a particular retail store follows a normal distribution with a mean of
37.5 years and a standard deviation of 7.6 years. What is the probability that the next customer
who enters the store will be more than 31 years old?
________________________________________

88. The age of customers for a particular retail store follows a normal distribution with a mean of
37.5 years and a standard deviation of 7.6 years. What is the probability that the next customer
who enters the store will be less than 42 years old?
________________________________________

89. The age of customers for a particular retail store follows a normal distribution with a mean of
37.5 years and a standard deviation of 7.6 years. What is the probability that the next customer
who enters the store will be between 40 and 45 years old?
________________________________________

90. The average waiting time at the checkout counter for a large grocery chain is 2.45 minutes with
a standard deviation of 24 seconds (0.40 minutes). Assume that the distribution of waiting time
is normal. What is the probability that a customer must wait more than 3 minutes for check out?
________________________________________

91. The average waiting time at the checkout counter for a large grocery chain is 2.45 minutes with
a standard deviation of 24 seconds (0.40 minutes). Assume that the distribution of waiting time
is normal. What proportion of the customers are served in between 1 minute and 2.5 minutes?
________________________________________

92. Suppose the monthly demand for automobile tires at a tire dealer is normally distributed with a
mean of 250 tires and a standard deviation of 50 tires. How many tires must the store have in
inventory at the beginning of each month in order to meet demand 95 percent of the time?
________________________________________
93. A company sells toothpaste in a tube advertised to contain 8 ounces. The tube filling process is
set with a mean of 8.21 ounces. In this continuous production process, the amount of
toothpaste put in a tube is normally distributed with a mean of 8.21 ounces and a standard
deviation of 0.09 ounces. If the actual capacity of the tubes used is 8.45 ounces, what
proportion of the tubes will be filled beyond capacity?
________________________________________

94. A manufacturer of nails packages 16-penny nails in 25-pound boxes. Filling of the boxes is
automated with the dispenser set to an average of 25.1 pounds with a standard deviation of
0.25 pounds. One 25-pound box of 16-penny nails is included in the estimate for a remodeling
contract by a local builder. What is the probability that the box purchased will have less than the
required 25 pounds?
________________________________________

95. The Independent Bank surveyed the status of student accounts and found that the average
overdraft was $21.22 with a standard deviation of $5.49. If the distribution is normal, find the
probability of a student being overdrawn by more than $18.75.
________________________________________

96. A circus performer who gets shot from a cannon is supposed to land in a safety net positioned at
the other end of the arena. The distance he travels is normally distributed with a mean of 175
feet and a standard deviation of 15 feet. His landing net is 50 feet long and the mid-point of the
net is positioned 175 feet from the cannon. What is the probability that the performer will hit
the net on a given night?
________________________________________

97. A circus performer who gets shot from a cannon is supposed to land in a safety net positioned at
the other end of the arena. The distance he travels is normally distributed with a mean of 175
feet and a standard deviation of 15 feet. His landing net is 50 feet long and the mid-point of the
net is positioned 175 feet from the cannon. What is the probability that the performer will miss
the net on a given night?
________________________________________

98. The recent average starting salary for new college graduates in computer information systems is
$47,500. Assume salaries are normally distributed with a standard deviation of $4,500. What is
the probability of a new graduate receiving a salary between $45,000 and $50,000?
________________________________________
99. The speed of cars passing through a checkpoint follows a normal distribution with a mean of
62.6 miles per hour and a standard deviation of 3.7 miles per hour. What is the probability that
the next car passing by will be exceeding 65.5 miles per hour?
________________________________________

100. The speed of cars passing through a checkpoint follows a normal distribution with a
mean of 62.6 miles per hour and a standard deviation of 3.7 miles per hour. What is the
probability that the next car passing by will be exceeding 58.1 miles per hour?
________________________________________

101. The speed of cars passing through a checkpoint follows a normal distribution with a
mean of 62.6 miles per hour and a standard deviation of 3.7 miles per hour. What is the
probability that the next car passing by will be traveling between 61 and 70 miles per hour?
________________________________________

102. The recent average starting salary for new college graduates in computer information
systems is $47,500. Assume salaries are normally distributed with a standard deviation of
$4,500. What is the probability of a new graduate receiving a salary between $45,000 and
$50,000?
________________________________________

103. A manufacturer of washing machines has experienced a 2% repair rate. In a city where
120,000 of its machines are located, the company plans to open its own repair service and
needs to determine the number of repair workers to hire. Each worker can handle calls for 1000
machine repairs. If the company wants to cover calls 90% of the time, how many workers must
it hire for the new repair facility?
________________________________________

104. An elementary school teacher learned that 40 percent of school age children have at
least 3 cavities. The teacher has 30 students in his class. How many students would he expect in
his class to have at least three cavities?
________________________________________
105. An elementary school teacher learned that 40 percent of school age children have at
least 3 cavities. The teacher has 30 students in his class. What is the standard deviation for the
number of school age children that have at least 3 cavities?
________________________________________

106. The selling price of various homes in a community follows the normal distribution with a
mean of $176,000 and a standard deviation of $22,300. What is the probability that the next
house will sell for less than $190,000?
________________________________________

107. The selling price of various homes in a community follows the normal distribution with a
mean of $176,000 and a standard deviation of $22,300. What is the probability that the next
house will sell for less than $158,000?
________________________________________

108. The selling price of various homes in a community follows the normal distribution with a
mean of $176,000 and a standard deviation of $22,300. What is the probability that the next
house will sell for between $150,000 and $168,000?
________________________________________

109. An elementary school teacher learned that 40 percent of school age children have at
least 3 cavities. The teacher has 30 students in his class. What is the probability that 10 students
from this class have at least 3 cavities?
________________________________________

110. Suppose that x is a binomial random variable with n = 100 and = 0.18. Employ the
normal approximation to find P(15 x 21).
________________________________________

111. Let x be a binomial random variable. Find P(x 40) if n = 100 and = 0.32.
________________________________________
112. Women make up 58% of the U. S. civilian workforce of 124 million. The U. S.
Department of Commerce randomly selects 100 workers for a conference on national health
care. What is the probability that more than 20 of these workers are female?
________________________________________

113. Women make up 58% of the U. S. civilian workforce of 124 million. The U. S.
Department of Commerce randomly selects 100 workers for a conference on national health
care. If there are fewer than 45 or more than 65 females invited, severe political ramifications
are possible. What is the probability that the conference planners will be criticized for the
representation by women at the conference?
________________________________________

114. A coin is flipped 14 times. Using the normal distribution, calculate the probability of
observing either 4, 5, or 6 heads.
________________________________________

115. An efficiency expert makes periodic checks for weighting errors for a long distance
shipping firm. The expert inspects for errors in weighing, in recording weights, and errors in
processing the bills of lading. Based on past records, the number of weekly errors for all
shipments averages 5.30 with a standard deviation of 1.23, and the frequency histogram
approximates a normal distribution. Suppose x is the number of weighing errors that will occur
next week. Compute the approximate probability for (x = 6).
________________________________________

116. A statistics class is composed of 60 percent females. If 15 students are selected


randomly, what is the probability that this group will include either 8, 9, 10, or 11 females? Use
the normal distribution.
________________________________________

117. An efficiency expert makes periodic checks for weighting errors for a long distance
shipping firm. The expert inspects for errors in weighing, in recording weights, and errors in
processing the bills of lading. Based on past records, the number of weekly errors for all
shipments averages 5.30 with a standard deviation of 1.23, and the frequency histogram
approximates a normal distribution. Suppose x is the number of weighing errors that will occur
next week.
Compute the approximate probability for (4 x 7).
________________________________________

118. An efficiency expert makes periodic checks for weighting errors for a long distance
shipping firm. The expert inspects for errors in weighing, in recording weights, and errors in
processing the bills of lading. Based on past records, the number of weekly errors for all
shipments averages 5.30 with a standard deviation of 1.23, and the frequency histogram
approximates a normal distribution. Suppose x is the number of weighing errors that will occur
next week.

Compute the approximate probability for (x 2).


________________________________________

119. In a paper mill, which produces newsprint from Southern Pine, the production manager
finds a flaw for each 1000 feet of newsprint. He knows that the outcome is a Poisson process
with a continuous distribution. If x = feet between flaws, what is the probability of finding 600 or
more feet between the next two flaws?
________________________________________

120. In a paper mill, which produces newsprint from Southern Pine, the production manager
finds a flaw for each 1000 feet of newsprint. He knows that the outcome is a Poisson process
with a continuous distribution. A group of visitors is touring the plant. After arriving at the final
stage of production, if they remain long enough to observe 330 feet of newsprint produced,
what is the probability that they will miss seeing the next defect?
________________________________________

121. In 1997, private planes had 1.5 fatal crashes per 100 thousand flying hours. For a
continuous random variable with an exponential distribution: What is the probability that the
time between the next two crashes will fall between 50 and 70 thousands hours, i.e. P(50 x 70);
x = thousands of flying hours between fatal crashes.
________________________________________

122. In 1997, private planes had 1.5 fatal crashes per 100 thousand flying hours. Assume a
continuous random variable with a exponential distribution. A national association of private
plane owners has 560 members who fly 1.5 million miles each year. The mileage crash rate has
been estimated to be 20 per 100 million miles of air travel. What is the probability that the next
crash by a member of the association will not occur until more than one year from now?
________________________________________

123. Grades for a statistics exam for a certain class follow the normal probability distribution
with a mean of 82 and a standard deviation of 12. What percentage of the students in the class
had a grade 81 or more?
________________________________________

124. Grades for a statistics exam for a certain class follow the normal probability distribution
with a mean of 82 and a standard deviation of 12. What percentage of the students in the class
earned a C grade (70-79)?
________________________________________

125. Grades for a statistics exam for a certain class follow the normal probability distribution
with a mean of 82 and a standard deviation of 12. What percentage of the students in the class
earned a B grade (80-89)?
________________________________________

126. The time it takes a technician to fix a computer problem is exponentially distributed
with a mean of 15 minutes. What is the probability that it will take a technician less than 10
minutes to fix a computer problem?
________________________________________

127. The time it takes a technician to fix a computer problem is exponentially distributed
with a mean of 15 minutes. What is the probability that it will take a technician between 10 to
15 minutes to fix a computer problem?
________________________________________

128. A manufacturer produces Walkman tap players/radios. The electronic components are
positioned in the outer case after the case has been given an epoxy finish. The production
manager must time the drying process with the total assembly line and therefore must
determine the appropriate drying time. An intensive cost analysis indicated that a risk of just
0.3% of the cases being wet and therefore smudged was acceptable. If drying times are normally
distributed with a mean of 3.6 minutes and a standard deviation of 0.6 minutes, what time
setting should the production manager set for the automatic timer which controls the
production line?

____________________ minutes
________________________________________

129. The time it takes a technician to fix a computer problem is exponentially distributed
with a mean of 15 minutes. What is the variance of the time it takes a technician to fix a
computer problem?

____________________ minutes
________________________________________

130. The total area beneath the curve of any continuous distribution is
____________________.
________________________________________

131. The probability that any continuous random variable x will take on any specific value
along an interval is ____________________.
________________________________________

132. In the normal distribution, the total area under the curve is equal to
____________________.
________________________________________

133. In the normal distribution, the right half of the curve is a mirror image of the
_________________________, since the distribution is ____________________.
________________________________________

134. If we ____________________ the normal curve, we express the original x values in


terms of their number of standard deviations away from the mean.
________________________________________
135. The binomial distribution is symmetrical whenever the population proportion is
____________________, and approaches symmetry for values that are close to
____________________.
________________________________________

136. For a Poisson process, the ____________________ distribution describes the


continuous random variable x, where x is the amount of time, space, or distance between
occurrences of these rare events.
________________________________________

137. In 2000, the average charge of tax preparation was $95. Assuming a normal distribution
and a standard deviation of $10, use the approximate areas beneath the normal curve, as
discussed in this section, to answer: What proportion of tax preparation fees were exactly $100?

138. If z is a standard normal random variable, find the value z1 for which:

A) P(0 zz1) = 0 .276

B) P(zz1) = 0.341

C) P(zz1) = 0.819

D) P(-z1 Zz1) = 0.785


139. If x is a normal random variable with a mean of 100 and a standard deviation of 10, find
the following probabilities:

A) P(x 128)

B) P(x 113)

C) P(87 x 98)

140. A computer statistical package has simulated 1000 random observations from a normal
distribution with mean m = 50 and standard deviation s = 10. Sketch the approximate box-and-
whisker plot for the resulting data.

141. If a computer statistical package were to simulate 500 random observations from a
normal distribution with mean = 100 and standard deviation = 50, what percentage of these
observations would you expect to have a value of 200 or more? Do you think the actual number
in the ” 200″ range would equal the expected number in this range? If so, why? If not, why not?
142. Scores of high school students on a national mathematics exam in Egypt were normally
distributed with a mean of 86 and a standard deviation of 4.

A) What is the probability that a randomly selected student will have a score of 80 or
higher?
B) If there were 97,680 students with scores higher than 91, how many students took the
test?

____________________ (Remove all commas from your answer before submitting).

143. The time it takes a technician to fix a computer problem is exponentially distributed
with a mean of 15 minutes. What is the probability density function for the time it takes a
technician to fix a computer problem?

144. What are the mean and standard deviation of a normally distributed random variable,
which has been “standardized”?

Mean = ____________________

SD = ____________________
145. A certain brand of flood lamps has a lifetime that is normally distributed with a mean of
3,750 hours and a standard deviation of 300 hours.

A). What proportion of these lamps will last for more than 4,000 hours?

What lifetime should the manufacturer advertise for these lamps in order that only 2% of the
B).
lamps will burn out before the advertised lifetime?

____________________ hours (Remove all commas from your answer before submitting).

146. The normal distribution is a very good approximation to the binomial distribution
whenever ____________________ and ____________________ are 5.

147. Complete the following table indicating which procedure to use in calculating binomial
probabilities:

n p Procedure
Large 0.2 £ p £ 0.8

Large 0.0 £ p £ 0.1

Large 0.9 £ p £ 1.0

Small 0.0 £ p £ 1.0

148. Although the binomial distribution is discrete and the normal distribution is continuous,
the normal distribution is a good approximation to the binomial whenever both
____________________ and ____________________ are 5, where n = number of trials, and =
the probability of success in any given trial, are the parameters of the binomial distribution.

149. Regardless of the shape of a particular normal curve, about what percentage of the area
is within m ± 3s, respectively, where m is the mean and s is the standard deviation.
150. What are continuous probability distributions?

151. Why is the probability that a continuous random variable takes on any specific value
equal to zero?

152. Explain why the total area beneath a probability density function is equal to 1.0.

153. Identify the distribution shown in the following graph. Indicate the approximate areas
that will lie beneath the curve for the intervals shown.
154. What does it mean when we say a random variable is standardized?

155. Explain what we mean by saying a random variable is approximately normally


distributed.

156. Express in your own words the procedure for finding the area under the standard
normal curve between z = 0 and z = 1.53.
157. Describe the method of finding the area under the standard normal curve between z = 0
and z =- 1.33.

158. Use the properties of the standard normal curve to describe the method of finding the
area to the right of z = 1.42.

159. For a value of z = -1.59, explain the steps needed to find the area to the left of this
value.

160. Why is it important to use the correction for continuity when approximating binomial
probabilities with the normal distribution?
161. A continuous random variable x has the following probability density function:

f(x) = 2e-2x , x 0

What is the distribution of the random variable x?

Chapter 7: Continuous Probability Distributions Key

1. True or False
In any normal distribution, the mean, median, mode, and standard deviation are all at the same
position on the horizontal axis.
FALSE

2. True or False
In the normal distribution, the curve is asymptotic but never intercepts the horizontal axis either
to the left or right.
TRUE

3. True or False
In the normal distribution, the total area beneath the curve represents the probability for all
possible outcomes for a given event.
TRUE
4. True or False
Under certain conditions, the normal distribution can be used to approximate the binomial
distribution.
TRUE

5. True or False
There exists a different normal curve for every possible pair of and .
TRUE

6. True or False
The standard deviation of the binomial distribution with n = 25 and = .50 is 6.25.
FALSE

7. True or False
The mean of the exponential distribution is the inverse of that of the normal distribution.
FALSE

8. True or False
If Excel and Minitab packages are both used to generate its own sample of 10,000 observations
from a theoretical continuous distribution, the two sets of observations are expected to be
identical.
FALSE

9. True or False
According to the law of large numbers, frequency distributions generated by statistical packages
will more closely approach the theoretical distribution from which they were drawn whenever
the number of observations becomes larger.
TRUE

10. True or False


Continuous probability distributions describe probabilities associated with random variables
that can take on any value along a given range or continuum and for which there are no gaps
between these possible values.
TRUE
11. True or False
For any specified interval of values, the probability that a continuous random variable x will
assume a value within the interval is the area beneath the curve between the two points
describing the interval.
TRUE

12. True or False


Any normal distribution is a symmetrical, bell-shaped curve, with mean = 0.0 and standard
deviation = 1.0.
FALSE

13. True or False


Regardless of the shape of a particular normal curve, about 75% of the area is within the interval
, where and are the mean and the standard deviation, respectively.
FALSE

14. True or False


The standard normal distribution has a mean of 0.0 and standard deviation of 1.0.
TRUE

15. True or False


The exponential distribution is a family of discrete distributions, all of which are negatively
skewed.
FALSE

16. True or False


Computer statistical packages, such as Excel and Minitab, can determine the exact area beneath
a specified portion of the continuous distribution curve, or probability density function, and
eliminate the need for calculations or table references.
TRUE

17. A continuous probability distribution represents a random variable:


A.having outcomes, which occur in counting numbers.
B. having an infinite number of outcomes which may assume any number of values within an
interval.
C. which is best described in a histogram.
D. which has a definite probability for the occurrence of a given integer.
E. None of these is correct.

18. Which of the following are not correct concerning the probability distribution for any continuous
random variable?
A.The vertical coordinate is the probability density function.
B. The range of the random variable is found on the y-axis.
C. The total area represented under the curve will be equal to 1.00.
D. The probability that x will take on a value between a and b will be the area under the curve
between points a and b.
E. The area under the curve represents the sum of probabilities for all possible outcomes.

19. In a continuous probability distribution, the probability that x will take on an exact value:
A.is equal to the height of the curve at that value.
B. is calculated using the probability density.
C. is always equal to 0.
D. is always greater than 0.
E. None of these is correct.

20. Which of the following statements are true regarding the areas beneath any normal curve?
A.About 68.3% of the area is in the interval to .
B. About 95.5% of the area is in the interval to .
C. Nearly all of the area (about 99.7%) is in the interval to
D. All of these are true.
E. None of these is true.

21. Which of the following is not a characteristic for a normal distribution?


A.It is symmetrical distribution
B. The mean is always zero
C. The mean, median, and mode are all equal
D. It is a bell-shaped distribution
E. The area under the curve always equals 1.0
22. A videotape store has an average weekly gross of $1,158 with a standard deviation of $120. Let
x be the store’s gross during a randomly selected week. If this is a normally distributed random
variable, then the number of standard deviations from $1,158 to $1,360 is:
A.0.4535.
B. 0.0465.
C. 20.98.
D. 1.683.
E. none of these.

23. Using the standard normal table, the total area between z = -0.75 and z = 1.21 is:
A.0.2734
B. 0.3869
C. 0.3397
D. 0.2266
E. 0.6603

24. Let z1 be a z score that is unknown but identifiable by position and area. If the area to the right
of z1 is 0.8413, then the value of z1 must be:
A.1.00.
B. -1.00.
C. 0.00.
D. 0.41.
E. -0.41.

25. Using the standard normal table, the total area between z = -1.82 and z = -1.38 is:
A.0.0494
B. 0.4656
C. 0.1554
D. 0.4162
E. 0.1005

26. If the area to the right of a positive z1 is 0.0869, then the value of z1 must be:
A.-1.36.
B. 1.36.
C. 1.71.
D. 1.80.
E. 0.22.
27. The z-score representing the 10th percentile of the standard normal distribution is:
A.0.255.
B. -0.255.
C. -1.645.
D. 1.28.
E. -1.28.

28. The z-score representing the 75th percentile of the standard normal distribution is:
A.0.67.
B. -0.67.
C. 1.28.
D. -1.28.
E. 1.645.

29. The z-score representing the 90th percentile of the standard normal distribution is:
A.1.28.
B. -1.28.
C. 0.67.
D. -0.67.
E. 1.645.

30. For a normal curve, if the mean is 20 minutes and the standard deviation is 5 minutes, then the
area between 22 and 25 minutes is:
A.0.3413.
B. 0.1554.
C. 0.4967.
D. 0.1859.
E. 0.2248.

31. For a normal curve, if the mean is 20 minutes and the standard deviation is 5 minutes, then the
area between 11 and 19 minutes is:
A.0.4641.
B. 0.0359.
C. 0.3848.
D. 0.8848.
E. 0.9641.
32. A bakery firm finds that its average weight of the most popular package of cookies is 32.06
ounces with a standard deviation of 0.1 ounces. What portion of cookie packages will weigh less
than 31.9 ounces or more than 32.3 ounces?
A.0.8000
B. 0.4452
C. 0.4918
D. 0.9370
E. 0.0630

33. A retailer finds that the demand for a very popular board game averages 100 per week with a
standard deviation of 20. If the seller wishes to have adequate stock 95% of the time, how many
of the games must she keep on hand?
A.139.2
B. 100.0
C. 132.9
D. 195.0
E. 125.6

34. A manufacturer of tow chains finds that the average breaking point is at 3,500 pounds and the
standard deviation is 250 pounds. If you pull a weight of at least 4200 pounds with this tow
chain, what percentage of the time would you expect the chain to break?
A.2.8%
B. 0.26%
C. 49.74%
D. 99.74%
E. 50%

35. The average labor time to sew a pair of denim jeans is 4.2 hours with a standard deviation of 30
minutes. If the distribution is normal, then the probability of a worker finishing a pair of jeans in
less than 3.5 hours is:
A.0.0808.
B. 0.4192.
C. 0.5808.
D. 0.9192.
E. 0.9808.

36. A salesman who uses his car extensively finds that his gasoline bills average $125.32 per month
with a standard deviation of $49.51. The probability that his bill will be less than $50 a month or
more than $150 for a single month is:
A.0.4357.
B. 0.1915.
C. 0.6272.
D. 0.3728.
E. 0.6915.

37. Given that z is a standard normal random variable and that the area to the right of z is 0.1949,
then the value of z must be:
A.0.51.
B. -0.51.
C. 0.86.
D. -0.86.

38. Using the standard normal table, the total area between z = 0.45 and z = 1.05 is:
A.0.1736
B. 0.3531
C. 0.3264
D. 0.6469
E. 0.1795

39. Given that z is a standard normal random variable, a negative value of z indicates that:
A.The value z is to the left of the mean.
B. The value z is to the right of the median.
C. The standard deviation of z is negative.
D. The area between zero and z is negative.
E. The probability associated with z is negative.

40. Given that z is a standard normal random variable, and that the area to the right of z is 0.9066,
then the value of z must be:
A.1.32.
B. -1.32.
C. 0.66.
D. -0.66.

41. The proportion of the data from a standard normal distribution that falls within two standard
deviations from the mean is:
A.0.3413.
B. 0.4772.
C. 0.6826.
D. 0.9544

42. If the z-value for a given value x of the random variable x is z = 1.96, and the distribution of x is
normally distributed with a mean of 60 and a standard deviation of 6, then the x-value that this
z-value corresponds to is:
A.71.76.
B. 67.96.
C. 61.96.
D. 48.24.

43. Your high school graduating class had 564 members. Thirty-three percent of these are expected
to attend college. If the number of students who attend college follows the normal distribution,
the probability that less than 160 will attend college is:
A.0.3610.
B. 0.4900.
C. 0.0090.
D. 0.0832.
E. 0.2500

44. A large mail house which mails such items as catalogues, magazines, and other bulk mailings
guarantees that there will be no more than a 3% error rate on its mailing labels. A customer who
contracted a mailing to 190,000 individuals experienced a return of 5,900 items, which had
incorrect addresses. Which of the following statements is true?
A.There is a 3% chance of an incorrect return.
B. There is a 0.0054 probability that a return of 5900 or more incorrect addresses could occur if
the true error rate is 3%.
C. There is a 0.4964 probability that a return of 5900 or more incorrect addresses could occur if
the true error rate is 3%.
D. There is a 2.69 percent possibility that a return of 5900 incorrect addresses could occur if the
true error rate is 3%.
E. None of these statements are correct.

45. In your college campus, 30% of the students use tobacco in some form. In your statistics class of
40 students, the probability of finding at least 15 students who use tobacco is:
A.0.3051.
B. 0.1949.
C. 0.8051.
D. 0.1515.
E. 0.3485.

46. A zipper manufacturer has found that 1.5% of its zippers are defective. The company averages
4982 zippers per day. The probability of finding between 90 and 100 defects in a given day is:
A.0.4981.
B. 0.0310.
C. 0.0360.
D. 0.5310.
E. 0.4671.

47. Which of the following is not a correct statement?


A.The exponential distribution describes the Poisson process as a continuous random variable.
B. The exponential distribution is a family of curves, which are completely described by the
mean.
C. The mean of the exponential distribution is the complement of the mean of the Poisson.
D. The Poisson is a probability distribution or a discrete random variable while the exponential
distribution is continuous.
E. All of these are correct.

48. A local radio station maintains a very popular phone service, which provides callers with current
weather reports. The incoming calls have a Poisson distribution with an average of 5 calls for
each 15 minute-period. If x = time between calls, then the probability of receiving four or fewer
calls in the next 15 minutes is:
A.0.2341.
B. 0.7659.
C. 0.2636.
D. 0.7364.
E. 0.9502.

49. A dispatcher for an airport shuttle averages sending a van to the airport 2 times every 60
minutes. The distribution is Poisson, and the driver must take a 15-minute lunch break. The
probability that he can finish lunch before getting a call is:
A.0.1350.
B. 0.6065.
C. 0.3935.
D. 1.6490.
E. 0.8650.
50. A very large logging operation has serious problems keeping their skidders operating properly.
The equipment fails at the rate of 3 breakdowns every 48 hours. Assume that x is time between
breakdowns and is exponentially distributed. The probability of two or less breakdowns in the
next 48-hour period is:
A.0.9672.
B. 0.0307.
C. 0.2231.
D. 0.7769.

51. If the mean of an exponential distribution is 2, then the value of the parameter is:
A. 4.0.
B. 2.2.
C. 1.0.
D. 0.5.

52. If the random variable x is exponentially distributed with parameter = 4, then P(x 0.25), up to 4
decimal places, is:
A. 0.6321.
B. 0.3679.
C. 0.2500.
D. 0.5000.

53. If the random variable x is exponentially distributed with parameter = 1.5, then P(2 x 4), up to 4
decimal places, is:
A. 0.6667.
B. 0.0473.
C. 0.5000.
D. 0.2500.

54. Which of the following is not true for an exponential distribution with parameter ?
A.Mean = .
B. Standard deviation = .
C. The distribution is completely determined once the value of is known.
D. The distribution is a two-parameter distribution since the mean and standard deviation are
equal.
55. Like the normal distribution, the exponential density function f(x):
A.is bell-shaped.
B. is symmetrical.
C. approaches infinity as x approaches zero.
D. approaches zero as x approaches infinity.

56. Which of the following distributions is suitable to model the length of time that elapses before
the first telephone call is received by a switchboard?
A.Exponential
B. Normal
C. Poisson
D. Binomial
E. Hypergeometric

57. The mean of the exponential distribution equals the mean of the Poisson distribution only when
the former distribution has a mean equals:
A.1.00.
B. 0.50.
C. 0.25.
D. 2.00.

58. Which of the following distributions is appropriate to measure the length of time between
arrivals at a grocery checkout counter?
A.Binomial
B. Normal
C. Exponential
D. Poisson
E. Hypergeometric

59. Which of the following statements are true regarding the normal distribution curve?
A.It is symmetrical.
B. It is bell-shaped.
C. It is asymptotic in that each end approaches the horizontal axis, but never reaches it.
D. Its mean, median, and mode are located at the same position.
E. All of these statements are true.
60. Assume x is normally distributed with mean = 15 and standard deviation = 3. Use the
approximate areas beneath the normal curve, as discussed in this section, to find P(x 15).
0.50

61. Assume x is normally distributed with mean = 15 and standard deviation = 3. Use the
approximate areas beneath the normal curve, as discussed in this section, to find P(12 x 18).
0.683

62. Assume x is normally distributed with mean = 15 and standard deviation = 3. Use the
approximate areas beneath the normal curve, as discussed in this section, to find P(x 9).
0.0225

63. Assume x is normally distributed with mean = 15 and standard deviation = 3. Use the
approximate areas beneath the normal curve, as discussed in this section, to find P(x = 20).
0

64. Assume x is normally distributed with mean = 15 and standard deviation = 3. Use the
approximate areas beneath the normal curve, as discussed in this section, to find P(9 x 21).
0.955

65. Assume x is normally distributed with mean = 15 and standard deviation = 3. Use the
approximate areas beneath the normal curve, as discussed in this section, to find P(x 12).
0.8415

66. In 2000, the average charge of tax preparation was $95. Assuming a normal distribution and a
standard deviation of $10, use the approximate areas beneath the normal curve, as discussed in
this section, to answer: What proportion of tax preparation fees were more than $95?
0.50

67. In 2000, the average charge of tax preparation was $95. Assuming a normal distribution and a
standard deviation of $10, use the approximate areas beneath the normal curve, as discussed in
this section, to answer: What proportion of tax preparation fees were between $75 and $115?
0.955
68. In 2000, the average charge of tax preparation was $95. Assuming a normal distribution and a
standard deviation of $10, use the approximate areas beneath the normal curve, as discussed in
this section, to answer: What proportion of tax preparation fees were between $85 and $105?
0.683

69. In 2000, the average charge of tax preparation was $95. Assuming a normal distribution and a
standard deviation of $10, use the approximate areas beneath the normal curve, as discussed in
this section, to answer: What proportion of tax preparation fees were more than $115?
0.0225

70. In 2000, the average charge of tax preparation was $95. Assuming a normal distribution and a
standard deviation of $10, use the approximate areas beneath the normal curve, as discussed in
this section, to answer: What proportion of tax preparation fees were between $80 and $90?
0.2417

71. Using the standard normal curve, find the area to the left of z = -2.26.
0.0119

72. Using the standard normal curve, find the area between z = 0 and z = 3.3.

____________________.
0.50

73. Determine P(z 1.58) for the standard normal curve.


0.0571

74. For the standard normal curve, determine the area to the right of z = 0.34.
0.3669

75. Assuming a standard normal distribution, determine P(z -0.75).


0.2266
76. Determine P(-2.45 z 1.69), assuming a standard normal distribution.
0.9474

77. Determine P(-2.45 z 0), assuming a standard normal distribution.


0.4929

78. Assume the standard normal curve and determine the probability or area between z = -1.28 and
z = 1.28.
0.7994

79. Find z1 if the area to the left of a positive z1 is 0.9131.


1.36

80. Find the z-score that determines that the area to the left of z is 0.9292.
1.47

81. Find the z-score that determines that the area to the right of z is 0.8264.
-0.94

82. A continuous random variable x is normally distributed with a mean of 120 grams and a
standard deviation of 30 grams. Convert x = 106 into its corresponding z-score.
-0.47

83. A continuous random variable x is normally distributed with a mean of $250 and a standard
deviation of $50. Find the z-score for x = 175.
-1.50
84. A continuous random variable x is normally distributed with a mean of $250 and a standard
deviation of $50. Find the z-score for x = 285.
0.70

85. For a normal curve, if the mean is 20 minutes and the standard deviation is 5 minutes, find the
area to the left of 10 minutes.
0.0228

86. For a normal curve, if the mean is 20 minutes and the standard deviation is 5 minutes, find the
area to the right of 12 minutes.
0.9452

87. The age of customers for a particular retail store follows a normal distribution with a mean of
37.5 years and a standard deviation of 7.6 years. What is the probability that the next customer
who enters the store will be more than 31 years old?
0.8051

88. The age of customers for a particular retail store follows a normal distribution with a mean of
37.5 years and a standard deviation of 7.6 years. What is the probability that the next customer
who enters the store will be less than 42 years old?
0.7224

89. The age of customers for a particular retail store follows a normal distribution with a mean of
37.5 years and a standard deviation of 7.6 years. What is the probability that the next customer
who enters the store will be between 40 and 45 years old?
0.2096

90. The average waiting time at the checkout counter for a large grocery chain is 2.45 minutes with
a standard deviation of 24 seconds (0.40 minutes). Assume that the distribution of waiting time
is normal. What is the probability that a customer must wait more than 3 minutes for check out?
0.0838
91. The average waiting time at the checkout counter for a large grocery chain is 2.45 minutes with
a standard deviation of 24 seconds (0.40 minutes). Assume that the distribution of waiting time
is normal. What proportion of the customers are served in between 1 minute and 2.5 minutes?
0.5517

92. Suppose the monthly demand for automobile tires at a tire dealer is normally distributed with a
mean of 250 tires and a standard deviation of 50 tires. How many tires must the store have in
inventory at the beginning of each month in order to meet demand 95 percent of the time?
332

93. A company sells toothpaste in a tube advertised to contain 8 ounces. The tube filling process is
set with a mean of 8.21 ounces. In this continuous production process, the amount of
toothpaste put in a tube is normally distributed with a mean of 8.21 ounces and a standard
deviation of 0.09 ounces. If the actual capacity of the tubes used is 8.45 ounces, what
proportion of the tubes will be filled beyond capacity?
0.0038

94. A manufacturer of nails packages 16-penny nails in 25-pound boxes. Filling of the boxes is
automated with the dispenser set to an average of 25.1 pounds with a standard deviation of
0.25 pounds. One 25-pound box of 16-penny nails is included in the estimate for a remodeling
contract by a local builder. What is the probability that the box purchased will have less than the
required 25 pounds?
0.3446

95. The Independent Bank surveyed the status of student accounts and found that the average
overdraft was $21.22 with a standard deviation of $5.49. If the distribution is normal, find the
probability of a student being overdrawn by more than $18.75.
0.6736

96. A circus performer who gets shot from a cannon is supposed to land in a safety net positioned at
the other end of the arena. The distance he travels is normally distributed with a mean of 175
feet and a standard deviation of 15 feet. His landing net is 50 feet long and the mid-point of the
net is positioned 175 feet from the cannon. What is the probability that the performer will hit
the net on a given night?
0.9050
97. A circus performer who gets shot from a cannon is supposed to land in a safety net positioned at
the other end of the arena. The distance he travels is normally distributed with a mean of 175
feet and a standard deviation of 15 feet. His landing net is 50 feet long and the mid-point of the
net is positioned 175 feet from the cannon. What is the probability that the performer will miss
the net on a given night?
0.0950

98. The recent average starting salary for new college graduates in computer information systems is
$47,500. Assume salaries are normally distributed with a standard deviation of $4,500. What is
the probability of a new graduate receiving a salary between $45,000 and $50,000?
0.4246

99. The speed of cars passing through a checkpoint follows a normal distribution with a mean of
62.6 miles per hour and a standard deviation of 3.7 miles per hour. What is the probability that
the next car passing by will be exceeding 65.5 miles per hour?
0.2177

100. The speed of cars passing through a checkpoint follows a normal distribution with a
mean of 62.6 miles per hour and a standard deviation of 3.7 miles per hour. What is the
probability that the next car passing by will be exceeding 58.1 miles per hour?
0.8880

101. The speed of cars passing through a checkpoint follows a normal distribution with a
mean of 62.6 miles per hour and a standard deviation of 3.7 miles per hour. What is the
probability that the next car passing by will be traveling between 61 and 70 miles per hour?
0.6436

102. The recent average starting salary for new college graduates in computer information
systems is $47,500. Assume salaries are normally distributed with a standard deviation of
$4,500. What is the probability of a new graduate receiving a salary between $45,000 and
$50,000?
0.4246

103. A manufacturer of washing machines has experienced a 2% repair rate. In a city where
120,000 of its machines are located, the company plans to open its own repair service and
needs to determine the number of repair workers to hire. Each worker can handle calls for 1000
machine repairs. If the company wants to cover calls 90% of the time, how many workers must
it hire for the new repair facility?
2.46

104. An elementary school teacher learned that 40 percent of school age children have at
least 3 cavities. The teacher has 30 students in his class. How many students would he expect in
his class to have at least three cavities?
12

105. An elementary school teacher learned that 40 percent of school age children have at
least 3 cavities. The teacher has 30 students in his class. What is the standard deviation for the
number of school age children that have at least 3 cavities?
2.683

106. The selling price of various homes in a community follows the normal distribution with a
mean of $176,000 and a standard deviation of $22,300. What is the probability that the next
house will sell for less than $190,000?
0.7357

107. The selling price of various homes in a community follows the normal distribution with a
mean of $176,000 and a standard deviation of $22,300. What is the probability that the next
house will sell for less than $158,000?
0.2090

108. The selling price of various homes in a community follows the normal distribution with a
mean of $176,000 and a standard deviation of $22,300. What is the probability that the next
house will sell for between $150,000 and $168,000?
0.2384

109. An elementary school teacher learned that 40 percent of school age children have at
least 3 cavities. The teacher has 30 students in his class. What is the probability that 10 students
from this class have at least 3 cavities?
0.1115
110. Suppose that x is a binomial random variable with n = 100 and = 0.18. Employ the
normal approximation to find P(15 x 21).
0.6976

111. Let x be a binomial random variable. Find P(x 40) if n = 100 and = 0.32.
0.0537

112. Women make up 58% of the U. S. civilian workforce of 124 million. The U. S.
Department of Commerce randomly selects 100 workers for a conference on national health
care. What is the probability that more than 20 of these workers are female?
0.9999 or approximately 1

113. Women make up 58% of the U. S. civilian workforce of 124 million. The U. S.
Department of Commerce randomly selects 100 workers for a conference on national health
care. If there are fewer than 45 or more than 65 females invited, severe political ramifications
are possible. What is the probability that the conference planners will be criticized for the
representation by women at the conference?
0.0674

114. A coin is flipped 14 times. Using the normal distribution, calculate the probability of
observing either 4, 5, or 6 heads.
0.3629

115. An efficiency expert makes periodic checks for weighting errors for a long distance
shipping firm. The expert inspects for errors in weighing, in recording weights, and errors in
processing the bills of lading. Based on past records, the number of weekly errors for all
shipments averages 5.30 with a standard deviation of 1.23, and the frequency histogram
approximates a normal distribution. Suppose x is the number of weighing errors that will occur
next week. Compute the approximate probability for (x = 6).
0.2729

116. A statistics class is composed of 60 percent females. If 15 students are selected


randomly, what is the probability that this group will include either 8, 9, 10, or 11 females? Use
the normal distribution.
0.6916

117. An efficiency expert makes periodic checks for weighting errors for a long distance
shipping firm. The expert inspects for errors in weighing, in recording weights, and errors in
processing the bills of lading. Based on past records, the number of weekly errors for all
shipments averages 5.30 with a standard deviation of 1.23, and the frequency histogram
approximates a normal distribution. Suppose x is the number of weighing errors that will occur
next week.

Compute the approximate probability for (4 x 7).


0.8912

118. An efficiency expert makes periodic checks for weighting errors for a long distance
shipping firm. The expert inspects for errors in weighing, in recording weights, and errors in
processing the bills of lading. Based on past records, the number of weekly errors for all
shipments averages 5.30 with a standard deviation of 1.23, and the frequency histogram
approximates a normal distribution. Suppose x is the number of weighing errors that will occur
next week.

Compute the approximate probability for (x 2).


0.0113

119. In a paper mill, which produces newsprint from Southern Pine, the production manager
finds a flaw for each 1000 feet of newsprint. He knows that the outcome is a Poisson process
with a continuous distribution. If x = feet between flaws, what is the probability of finding 600 or
more feet between the next two flaws?
0.5488

120. In a paper mill, which produces newsprint from Southern Pine, the production manager
finds a flaw for each 1000 feet of newsprint. He knows that the outcome is a Poisson process
with a continuous distribution. A group of visitors is touring the plant. After arriving at the final
stage of production, if they remain long enough to observe 330 feet of newsprint produced,
what is the probability that they will miss seeing the next defect?
0.2811
121. In 1997, private planes had 1.5 fatal crashes per 100 thousand flying hours. For a
continuous random variable with an exponential distribution: What is the probability that the
time between the next two crashes will fall between 50 and 70 thousands hours, i.e. P(50 x 70);
x = thousands of flying hours between fatal crashes.
0.1224

122. In 1997, private planes had 1.5 fatal crashes per 100 thousand flying hours. Assume a
continuous random variable with a exponential distribution. A national association of private
plane owners has 560 members who fly 1.5 million miles each year. The mileage crash rate has
been estimated to be 20 per 100 million miles of air travel. What is the probability that the next
crash by a member of the association will not occur until more than one year from now?
0.2592

123. Grades for a statistics exam for a certain class follow the normal probability distribution
with a mean of 82 and a standard deviation of 12. What percentage of the students in the class
had a grade 81 or more?
0.5319

124. Grades for a statistics exam for a certain class follow the normal probability distribution
with a mean of 82 and a standard deviation of 12. What percentage of the students in the class
earned a C grade (70-79)?
0.2426

125. Grades for a statistics exam for a certain class follow the normal probability distribution
with a mean of 82 and a standard deviation of 12. What percentage of the students in the class
earned a B grade (80-89)?
0.2865

126. The time it takes a technician to fix a computer problem is exponentially distributed
with a mean of 15 minutes. What is the probability that it will take a technician less than 10
minutes to fix a computer problem?
0.4866

127. The time it takes a technician to fix a computer problem is exponentially distributed
with a mean of 15 minutes. What is the probability that it will take a technician between 10 to
15 minutes to fix a computer problem?
0.1455

128. A manufacturer produces Walkman tap players/radios. The electronic components are
positioned in the outer case after the case has been given an epoxy finish. The production
manager must time the drying process with the total assembly line and therefore must
determine the appropriate drying time. An intensive cost analysis indicated that a risk of just
0.3% of the cases being wet and therefore smudged was acceptable. If drying times are normally
distributed with a mean of 3.6 minutes and a standard deviation of 0.6 minutes, what time
setting should the production manager set for the automatic timer which controls the
production line?

____________________ minutes
5.25

129. The time it takes a technician to fix a computer problem is exponentially distributed
with a mean of 15 minutes. What is the variance of the time it takes a technician to fix a
computer problem?

____________________ minutes
225

130. The total area beneath the curve of any continuous distribution is
____________________.
1.0

131. The probability that any continuous random variable x will take on any specific value
along an interval is ____________________.
0.0

132. In the normal distribution, the total area under the curve is equal to
____________________.
oneor
1
133. In the normal distribution, the right half of the curve is a mirror image of the
_________________________, since the distribution is ____________________.
left half; symmetric

134. If we ____________________ the normal curve, we express the original x values in


terms of their number of standard deviations away from the mean.
standardize

135. The binomial distribution is symmetrical whenever the population proportion is


____________________, and approaches symmetry for values that are close to
____________________.
0.5; 0.5

136. For a Poisson process, the ____________________ distribution describes the


continuous random variable x, where x is the amount of time, space, or distance between
occurrences of these rare events.
exponential

137. In 2000, the average charge of tax preparation was $95. Assuming a normal distribution
and a standard deviation of $10, use the approximate areas beneath the normal curve, as
discussed in this section, to answer: What proportion of tax preparation fees were exactly $100?

P(x = 100) = 0

138. If z is a standard normal random variable, find the value z1 for which:

A) P(0 zz1) = 0 .276

B) P(zz1) = 0.341

C) P(zz1) = 0.819

D) P(-z1 Zz1) = 0.785

0.76; 0.41; -0.91; 1.24


139. If x is a normal random variable with a mean of 100 and a standard deviation of 10, find
the following probabilities:

A) P(x 128)

B) P(x 113)

C) P(87 x 98)

0.0026; 0.9032; 0.3239

140. A computer statistical package has simulated 1000 random observations from a normal
distribution with mean m = 50 and standard deviation s = 10. Sketch the approximate box-and-
whisker plot for the resulting data.

141. If a computer statistical package were to simulate 500 random observations from a
normal distribution with mean = 100 and standard deviation = 50, what percentage of these
observations would you expect to have a value of 200 or more? Do you think the actual number
in the ” 200″ range would equal the expected number in this range? If so, why? If not, why not?

2.28%; No. We would expect 11.4 of the 500 observations (2.28%) to have a value of 200 or
more. The actual number would not be equal to the expected number. However, the more
observations we select, the closer we will tend to come to what we expect.

142. Scores of high school students on a national mathematics exam in Egypt were normally
distributed with a mean of 86 and a standard deviation of 4.

A) What is the probability that a randomly selected student will have a score of 80 or
higher?
B) If there were 97,680 students with scores higher than 91, how many students took the
test?

____________________ (Remove all commas from your answer before submitting).

0.9332; 925000

143. The time it takes a technician to fix a computer problem is exponentially distributed
with a mean of 15 minutes. What is the probability density function for the time it takes a
technician to fix a computer problem?
f(x) = (1/15) e-x/15, x ³ 0

144. What are the mean and standard deviation of a normally distributed random variable,
which has been “standardized”?

Mean = ____________________

SD = ____________________

0.0; 1

145. A certain brand of flood lamps has a lifetime that is normally distributed with a mean of
3,750 hours and a standard deviation of 300 hours.

A). What proportion of these lamps will last for more than 4,000 hours?

What lifetime should the manufacturer advertise for these lamps in order that only 2% of the
B).
lamps will burn out before the advertised lifetime?

____________________ hours (Remove all commas from your answer before submitting).

0.2033; 3132

146. The normal distribution is a very good approximation to the binomial distribution
whenever ____________________ and ____________________ are 5.

np; n(1-p)

147. Complete the following table indicating which procedure to use in calculating binomial
probabilities:

n p Procedure

Large 0.2 £ p £ 0.8


Large 0.0 £ p £ 0.1

Large 0.9 £ p £ 1.0

Small 0.0 £ p £ 1.0

n p Procedure

Large 0.2 £ p £ 0.8 Use the normal approximation

Large 0.0 £ p £ 0.1 Use the Poisson approximation

Large 0.9 £ p £ 1.0 Use the Poisson approximation

Small 0.0 £ p £ 1.0 Use the binomial probability formula

148. Although the binomial distribution is discrete and the normal distribution is continuous,
the normal distribution is a good approximation to the binomial whenever both
____________________ and ____________________ are 5, where n = number of trials, and =
the probability of success in any given trial, are the parameters of the binomial distribution.

np; n(1-p)

149. Regardless of the shape of a particular normal curve, about what percentage of the area
is within m ± 3s, respectively, where m is the mean and s is the standard deviation.

95.5% and 99.7% respectively

150. What are continuous probability distributions?

Continuous probability distributions describe probabilities associated with random variables that
are able to assume any of an infinite number of values along an interval.
151. Why is the probability that a continuous random variable takes on any specific value
equal to zero?

The probability that a continuous random variable takes on any specific value is equal to zero
because there is an infinite number of possible values.

152. Explain why the total area beneath a probability density function is equal to 1.0.

The area beneath the probability density function represents the probability of the random
variable, x, being between . Since x must be between (this is a certain event), the area must be
equal to 1.0.

153. Identify the distribution shown in the following graph. Indicate the approximate areas
that will lie beneath the curve for the intervals shown.

154. What does it mean when we say a random variable is standardized?

A random variable x is standardized when each value of x has (the mean of x) subtracted from it,
and the difference is divided by (the standard deviation of x.)

155. Explain what we mean by saying a random variable is approximately normally


distributed.

If the probabilities for the outcomes of the random variable are approximately equal to the areas
under the normal curve, its distribution is approximately normal.

156. Express in your own words the procedure for finding the area under the standard
normal curve between z = 0 and z = 1.53.

Use the standard normal table in text. Trace down the left hand column to “1.5” and go across
the row until reaching the column headed at the top with “.03”. The value is 0.4370, which is the
area between z = 0 and z = 1.53.
157. Describe the method of finding the area under the standard normal curve between z = 0
and z =- 1.33.

Recall the property of symmetry. The area to the left of 0 to – 1.33 is the same as for the area to
the right of 0 to 1.33. Go down the left most column of the standard normal table to the row with
“1.3” and right across the rows until in the column headed at the top with “.03”. The value is
0.4082, which is the area between z = 0 and z = -1.33.

158. Use the properties of the standard normal curve to describe the method of finding the
area to the right of z = 1.42.

Since the standard normal table in text gives areas between 0 and positive values of z, to find the
area to the right of a z value requires the use of the symmetry property which places .5 of the
whole area to the right of z = 0. Trace down the left most column to the value “1.4” and across
the row to the column headed by the value “.02”. The value is 0.4222, which is the area between
z = 0 and z = 1.42. Subtract this area from 0.5 to obtain the desired area of 0.0778.

159. For a value of z = -1.59, explain the steps needed to find the area to the left of this
value.

By symmetry the area to the right of 0 is the same as the area to the left of 0 for values of z. In
finding the area to the left of a negative value of z use the symmetry property to reason that .5 of
the area lies to the left of 0. Go down the left most column to the value “1.5” and across the row
until reaching the column headed by “9”. The value is 0.4441, which is the area between z = 0
and z = -1.59. Subtract this area from 0.5 to obtain the desired area of 0.0559.

160. Why is it important to use the correction for continuity when approximating binomial
probabilities with the normal distribution?

Because the binomial distribution has gaps between possible values of x (since it is discrete),
while the normal distribution is continuous, the normal approximation to the binomial involves a
correction for continuity. The correction consists of expanding each possible value of the discrete
random variable x by 0.5 in each direction.

161. A continuous random variable x has the following probability density function:

f(x) = 2e-2x , x 0
What is the distribution of the random variable x?

Exponential distribution with = 2