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Journey Across the Life Span Human

Development and Health Promotion, 4th


Edition By Elaine
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Journey Across the Life Span Human Development and Health Promotion, 4th Edition By Elaine

Chapter 6: Prenatal Period to 1 Year

Multiple Choice

Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.

____ 1. A child’s inherited characteristics are determined:

a. At the time of conception

b. By the zygote

c. By karyotyping

d. At the time of implantation


____ 2. The zygote contains the genetic information from parents. It is represented by a total
of:

a. 23 chromosomes

b. 46 pairs of chromosomes

c. 46 chromosomes

d. 56 chromosomes

____ 3. The genetic information is encoded in:

a. RNA

b. DNA

c. Karotype

d. GNA

____ 4. The nurse is reviewing the client’s prenatal history. Which of the following would be
considered a teratogen?

a. A vegetarian diet

b. Swimming every day

c. Alcohol intake

d. Playing tennis
____ 5. The brown-eyed pregnant client asks the nurse if she could have a blue-eyed child.
The nurse is correct if she responds, “The brown-eyed gene is ____________________, and the
blue-eyed gene is ____________________.”

a. Dominant, dominant

b. Recessive, recessive

c. Recessive, dominant

d. Dominant, recessive

____ 6. The correct stages of prenatal development are as follows:

a. Embryonic, pre-embryonic, fetal

b. Fetal, embryonic, neonatal

c. Pre-embryonic, embryonic, fetal

d. Prenatal, neonatal, fetal

____ 7. During what stage of labor does the baby pass through the birth canal?

a. Dilation

b. Expulsion

c. Effacement

d. Placental stage
____ 8. If you stroke the newborn’s cheek, you will likely elicit which reflex:

a. Sucking

b. Moro

c. Tonic neck

d. Rooting

____ 9. The caregiver understands that the Apgar scale indicates:

a. Weight

b. Blood problems

c. Newborn’s overall status

d. Gastrointestinal functioning

____ 10. Mary Allridge gave birth 2 days ago to an 8-lb girl. She explains to the nurse that
each time the baby comes out to her from the nursery, the baby is crying. What will she do if this
happens at home? The nurse would best respond:

a. “Babies cry all the time.”

b. “Attempt to determine the reason for her crying.”

c. “Your baby is perfectly normal. There is nothing to worry about.”

d. “You don’t need to pay too much attention to these crying bouts.”

____ 11. The emotional bond between a mother and her newborn infant is called:
a. Attachment

b. Engrossment

c. Enhancement

d. Commitment

____ 12. On assessment of the newborn, which of the following findings would indicate
congenital hip dysplasia?

a. Symmetry of both legs

b. Displacement of the torso

c. An extra gluteal fold in the lower extremity

d. Absence of reflexes in the lower extremity

____ 13. Meconium is best described as:

a. Colorless, odorless fecal material

b. Stools having a light, seeded mustard color

c. Thick, green-black fecal material

d. Stools having a watery green color

____ 14. Emma Spence brings her 11-month-old infant to the health clinic with symptoms of
teething. The nurse would consider which symptom as abnormal?
a. Irritability

b. Drooling

c. Loose stools

d. Fever

____ 15. The nurse is performing a physical assessment on a 2-day-old newborn. Which of the
following findings should the nurse consider serious and warrant immediate reporting to the
doctor?

a. Crossed eyes while focusing on an object

b. No urinary output since birth

c. Slight yellow discoloration of the skin

d. Brief pinkish discharge from the vagina

____ 16. The testes descend into the scrotum normally:

a. During fetal descent through the pelvis

b. In the seventh month of fetal life

c. In the third month of fetal life

d. Immediately after delivery

____ 17. Two-day-old Samuel has been diagnosed as having physiological jaundice. His
parents ask the nurse what could cause this to happen. She would respond that this is caused by:
a. Plugging of the sebaceous gland

b. Destruction of platelets

c. Destruction of excess red blood cells

d. Immature blood cells

____ 18. David weighed 7 lb at birth, and by the fourth day he weighed 6 lb 3 oz. This weight
loss is due to:

a. An output that exceeds the intake

b. An intake that exceeds the output

c. Immature kidney function

d. Excessive sweating

____ 19. One-year-olds are usually:

a. One and one-half times their birth length

b. Able to point to objects in a picture

c. Able to make moral choices

d. Three times their birth weight

____ 20. In the newborn, the skull bones are separated by:

a. Fontanels
b. Sutures

c. Marrow

d. Ligaments

____ 21. After examination of the umbilical cord in the delivery room, the nurse considers it
normal if she finds:

a. Two arteries and one vein

b. Two veins and one artery

c. Two veins and two arteries

d. One vein and one artery

____ 22. The hormone oxytocin functions during pregnancy and the postpartum period to:

a. Suppress uterine contractions

b. Help to prepare for breastfeeding

c. Prevent premature placental separation

d. Prepare the pelvic muscles for labor

____ 23. When giving nutritional counseling to parents of an 11-month-old, you would tell
them to:

a. Add new foods to the diet one at a time


b. Add 2 tablespoons of food at a time

c. Provide at least 800 calories per day

d. Breastfeed until the child is at least 14 months

____ 24. The nurse evaluates the 1-year-old child and recognizes that one of the following is a
sign of concern and should be reported to the physician:

a. Smiling at 3 months of age

b. Four to six words at 1 year

c. Failure to sit at 7 months

d. Walking alone at 13 months

____ 25. The nurse should understand that the type of play important for the infant’s growth
and development is play that:

a. Encourages sharing with others

b. Promotes large and small motor coordination

c. Stimulates the senses

d. Promotes independence

____ 26. The nurse can anticipate that by ____________________, the infant will demonstrate
a social smile and begin making cooing sounds.

a. The first week


b. 3 weeks

c. 4 to 6 weeks

d. 3 months

____ 27. The mother of a 12-month-old tells the nurse that her baby does not like solid foods
and only drinks milk. The nurse is correct to be concerned that the baby may be deficient in:

a. Phosphorous

b. Iron

c. Amino acids

d. Proteins

True/False

Indicate whether the statement is true or false.

____ 28. The first solid food typically offered to the infant is single-grain cereal.

____ 29. To prevent the possibility of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS), the nurse instructs
her new parents to always put their baby to sleep on their back.

Multiple Response

Identify one or more choices that best complete the statement or answer the question.
____ 30. Within the first year, the infant should receive which immunizations? (Select all that
apply.)

a. Diphtheria, pertussis, tetanus (DPT)

b. Measles-mumps-rubella (MMR)

c. Hepatitis B vaccine (HBV)

d. Polio

Ch06

Answer Section

MULTIPLE CHOICE

1. ANS: A

All inherited characteristics are determined at the time of fertilization or conception.

PTS: 1

KEY: Integrated Processes: Nursing Process: Assessment | Client Needs: Physiological Integrity

2. ANS: C

Each sperm and ovum contributes 23 chromosomes at the time of fertilization.

PTS: 1

KEY: Integrated Processes: Nursing Process: Assessment | Client Needs: Health Promotion and
Maintenance
3. ANS: B

The genetic information is encoded in the DNA.

PTS: 1

KEY: Integrated Processes: Nursing Process: Assessment | Client Needs: Health Promotion and
Maintenance

4. ANS: C

A teratogen is a chemical or physical substance that adversely affects the unborn.

PTS: 1

KEY: Integrated Processes: Nursing Process: Assessment | Client Needs: Health Promotion and
Maintenance

5. ANS: D

Brown-eyed genes are dominant, whereas blue-eyed genes are recessive and show only if they
exist in a pair.

PTS: 1

KEY: Integrated Processes: Nursing Process: Implementation | Client Needs: Health Promotion
and Maintenance

6. ANS: C

The correct stages of prenatal development are pre-embryonic, embryonic, and fetal.
PTS: 1

KEY: Integrated Processes: Nursing Process: Assessment | Client Needs: Health Promotion and
Maintenance

7. ANS: B

The expulsion stage begins with full cervical dilation and ends with the birth of the baby.

PTS: 1

KEY: Integrated Processes: Nursing Process: Planning | Client Needs: Physiological Integrity

8. ANS: D

Rooting occurs when the newborn’s cheek is gently stroked.

PTS: 1

KEY: Integrated Processes: Nursing Process: Implementation | Client Needs: Physiological


Integrity

9. ANS: C

The Apgar scale gives the immediate clinical functioning of the newborn.

PTS: 1

KEY: Integrated Processes: Nursing Process: Assessment | Client Needs: Physiological Integrity
10. ANS: B

Babies have different cries for different messages.

PTS: 1

KEY: Integrated Processes: Nursing Process: Implementation | Client Needs: Psychosocial


Integrity

11. ANS: A

The newborn and mother quickly develop emotional bonds of attachment.

PTS: 1

KEY: Integrated Processes: Nursing Process: Assessment | Client Needs: Psychosocial Integrity

12. ANS: C

Unequal or asymmetric gluteal folds indicate congenital hip dysplasia.

PTS: 1

KEY: Integrated Processes: Nursing Process: Evaluation | Client Needs: Physiological Integrity

13. ANS: C

Meconium, or the first stool, is thick and green-black.

PTS: 1

KEY: Integrated Processes: Nursing Process: Assessment | Client Needs: Physiological Integrity
14. ANS: D

Fever is not usually present in teething.

PTS: 1

KEY: Integrated Processes: Nursing Process: Evaluation | Client Needs: Safe and Effective Care
Environment

15. ANS: B

Normally, the newborn voids within 24 hours after delivery and then 10 to 12 times a day.

PTS: 1

KEY: Integrated Processes: Nursing Process: Evaluation | Client Needs: Safe and Effective Care
Environment

16. ANS: B

The testes usually descend into the scrotum during the seventh month of fetal life.

PTS: 1

KEY: Integrated Processes: Nursing Process: Assessment | Client Needs: Physiological Integrity

17. ANS: C

Physiological jaundice is due to the destruction of excess red blood cells releasing bile pigments
into the skin.
PTS: 1

KEY: Integrated Processes: Nursing Process: Implementation | Client Needs: Physiological


Integrity

18. ANS: A

The newborn’s intake is minimal during the first hours of life, and output remains the same. This
causes a slight weight loss.

PTS: 1

KEY: Integrated Processes: Nursing Process: Assessment | Client Needs: Physiological Integrity

19. ANS: D

The general rule of thumb is that the newborn is expected to double his or her birth weight in 6
months and triple it in a year.

PTS: 1

KEY: Integrated Processes: Nursing Process: Assessment | Client Needs: Health Promotion and
Maintenance

20. ANS: B

The sutures are bands of connective tissue that separate the fetal skull bones. This feature permits
the skull to mold during passage in the birth canal.

PTS: 1

KEY: Integrated Processes: Nursing Process: Assessment | Client Needs: Physiological Integrity
21. ANS: B

The normal umbilical cord contains three vessels: one artery and two veins.

PTS: 1

KEY: Integrated Processes: Nursing Process: Assessment | Client Needs: Physiological Integrity

22. ANS: B

Oxytocin helps to prepare the breasts for breastfeeding, and it stimulates milk glands to contract
and release milk.

PTS: 1

KEY: Integrated Processes: Nursing Process: Assessment | Client Needs: Physiological Integrity

23. ANS: A

By introducing only one new food at a time, you can clearly identify any food reactions.

PTS: 1

KEY: Integrated Processes: Nursing Process: Implementation | Client Needs: Physiological


Integrity

24. ANS: C

Infants should sit with help at 6 months and sit alone by 7 months.

PTS: 1
KEY: Integrated Processes: Nursing Process: Evaluation | Client Needs: Health Promotion and
Maintenance

25. ANS: C

Infant play is solitary and should stimulate the infant’s senses and attention.

PTS: 1

KEY: Integrated Processes: Nursing Process: Planning | Client Needs: Psychosocial Integrity

26. ANS: C

Social smiles and cooing sounds appear at 4 to 6 weeks of age.

PTS: 1

KEY: Integrated Processes: Nursing Process: Planning | Client Needs: Physiological Integrity

27. ANS: B

After the first 5 months, the infant’s stored iron supply begins to decrease. Milk does not contain
iron; therefore, the infant’s diet must be supplemented.

PTS: 1

KEY: Integrated Processes: Nursing Process: Implementation | Client Needs: Physiological


Integrity

TRUE/FALSE
28. ANS: T

Single-grain iron-enriched cereal is offered first to avoid allergies.

PTS: 1

KEY: Integrated Processes: Nursing Process: Planning | Client Needs: Health Promotion and
Maintenance

29. ANS: T

Sleeping on the back is recommended to prevent SIDS.

PTS: 1

KEY: Integrated Processes: Nursing Process: Implementation | Client Needs: Health Promotion
and Maintenance

MULTIPLE RESPONSE

30. ANS: A, B, C, D

The infant should receive DPT, MMR, HBV, and polio vaccines within the first year.

PTS: 1

Chapter 7: Toddlerhood

Multiple Choice
Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.

____ 1. May is worried that 21/2-year-old Tracy has not grown in the past few months. You
would tell her:

a. It is normal for growth to be slowed at this time.

b. This could be a sign of bone disease.

c. This results from a poor state of nutrition.

d. She is expected to grow 4 to 5 inches during this period.

____ 2. To help increase visual acuity in 2-year-old Charles, you would have his parents:

a. Hold large objects at close range

b. Place color objects on the wall 19 feet away

c. Hold brightly colored paintings at close range

d. Hold large objects 6 feet away

____ 3. Bedtime rituals provide the child with a:

a. Sense of security

b. Sense of vulnerability

c. Feeling of panic

d. Sleepless night
____ 4. Children are prone to accidents because:

a. They act like grown-ups.

b. Of an inability to recognize danger

c. Of poor peripheral vision

d. Of muscle weakness

____ 5. The typical potbellied appearance of the toddler is due to:

a. Rapid growth in the limbs

b. Separation of the vertebrae

c. Weak abdominal muscles

d. A rounded chest wall

____ 6. In a greenstick fracture, the bone:

a. Breaks in two distinct pieces

b. Breaks in several small pieces

c. Breaks and punctures the skin

d. Bends but does not break

____ 7. Toddlers are more prone to ear infection because the:


a. Internal ear is larger than that in the adult

b. Bones in the inner ear have not fused.

c. Eustachian tube is shorter and wider

d. Ear fills more rapidly with wax

____ 8. At what age can a child climb the stairs two feet at a time?

a. 18 months

b. 12 months

c. 2 years

d. 3 years

____ 9. Hand dominance is not determined until:

a. 15 months

b. 12 months

c. 2 years

d. 3 years

____ 10. Bladder training can usually be accomplished by age:

a. 31/2 years
b. 18 months

c. 12 months

d. 2 years

____ 11. After and during toilet training, accidents should be handled:

a. By scolding the child

b. In a matter-of-fact way

c. Aggressively

d. By punishing the child

____ 12. Discipline in the toddler years is directed toward:

a. Denying the child freedom

b. Giving more opportunities to explore

c. Challenging creativity

d. Developing good behavior

____ 13. To reduce temper tantrums, the parent would best be instructed to:

a. Restrict the child’s movement

b. Punish the child


c. Allow the child more choices

d. Remove the child from the environment

____ 14. In object permanence, the toddler:

a. No longer believes objects will disappear

b. Is afraid that mother will abandon him or her

c. Believes objects change and disappear

d. Has paranoid tendencies

____ 15. The toddler’s eating habits are often influenced by:

a. Siblings

b. Reward

c. Instinct

d. Play

____ 16. The parent of 3-year-old Camille complains that she has eaten only a small amount of
food over the past week. She does not appear to be ill, and her mother would like to know how to
resolve the problem. You would advise her that:

a. In order to maintain her nutritional state, she must be force fed.

b. This is not an unusual pattern and will disappear without any intervention.
c. Allowing play at and close to mealtimes can stimulate the appetite.

d. Use of a stool softener or laxative at night can stimulate the appetite.

____ 17. To foster good eating habits, toddlers should have:

a. Large meals offered

b. At least three meals per day

c. Staggered mealtimes

d. An appetite stimulant

____ 18. Play that is symbolic means the child:

a. Engages in pretend play

b. Likes to squeeze soft toys

c. Must be placed in real play situations

d. Plays in isolation

____ 19. Toddlers generally prefer to:

a. Play with other children

b. Play alone

c. Play with grown-ups


d. Play alongside other children

____ 20. An example of play that fosters fine motor development is:

a. Push toys

b. Riding a bike

c. Playing with pots and pans

d. Building blocks

____ 21. Sheila Torres brings her 18-month-old toddler to the pediatric clinic. Which of the
following findings would represent normal growth?

a. The child can independently brush her teeth.

b. There is complete ossification of all the bones.

c. Language development is complete.

d. The anterior fontanel is closed.

____ 22. Mrs. King is concerned about what can be done to correct her toddler’s lazy eye.
Which of the following responses by the nurse practitioner would be correct?

a. Correction is spontaneous.

b. Patching the weaker eye will restore strength.

c. Patching the stronger eye forces use of the weaker eye.


d. Surgical correction will be necessary.

____ 23. At 21/2-years-old, which of the following vital signs would be considered normal?

a. Respiratory rate of 40

b. Temperature of 99.4°F

c. Heart rate of 110 bpm

d. Blood pressure of 110/60

____ 24. Given paper and pencil, a 3-year-old can draw:

a. Vertical strokes

b. A detailed face and body

c. A hand

d. A triangle

____ 25. To enhance food intake, toddlers need:

a. Snacks scheduled before meals

b. Consistent mealtimes

c. Food to soothe their crying

d. Decreased fluid intake


____ 26. Identify which eating habit is common to toddlers:

a. Consistency with the same foods

b. Food fads and fluctuating appetites

c. Dawdling, playing with their food

d. All of the above

____ 27. The nurse instructs the parents of a 21/2-year-old boy on dental health. The nurse is
correct to advise the parents to:

a. Offer carbohydrate snacks

b. Brush teeth once a day

c. Visit the dentist yearly

d. Use milk in the night bottle

____ 28. The parents of a 3-year-old and 5-month-old are concerned that their toddler is very
jealous when they are caring for the infant. The toddler becomes demanding and unreasonable.
The nurse is correct when she advises the parents that this is:

a. A sign of delayed development

b. A sign of emotional instability

c. An expected outcome

d. A delayed reaction to the birth


Completion

Complete each statement.

29. For toddlers, solitary play during infancy progresses to ____________________ play.

Multiple Response

Identify one or more choices that best complete the statement or answer the question.

____ 30. What gross motor skills are acquired during the toddler stage? (Select all that apply.)

a. Walking

b. Climbing stairs

c. Hopping

d. Standing on one foot

Ch07

Answer Section

MULTIPLE CHOICE

1. ANS: A

Growth is most rapid during infancy, and then it slows down during toddlerhood.
PTS: 1

KEY: Integrated Processes: Nursing Process: Implementation | Client Needs: Physiological


Integrity

2. ANS: D

Holding objects at a distance of 6 feet helps develop visual ability.

PTS: 1

KEY: Integrated Processes: Nursing Process: Planning | Client Needs: Physiological Integrity

3. ANS: A

Sameness and habits provide people with a sense of security.

PTS: 1

KEY: Integrated Processes: Nursing Process: Planning | Client Needs: Psychosocial Integrity

4. ANS: B

Toddlers have not yet become aware of what is not safe in their environments; therefore, they
need total adult supervision.

PTS: 1

KEY: Integrated Processes: Nursing Process: Planning | Client Needs: Safe and Effective Care
Environment
5. ANS: C

As toddlers learn to stand erect and walk, their abdominal muscles strengthen.

PTS: 1

KEY: Integrated Processes: Nursing Process: Assessment | Client Needs: Physiological Integrity

6. ANS: D

The bones of a toddler are soft and bend rather than break.

PTS: 1

KEY: Integrated Processes: Nursing Process: Assessment | Client Needs: Physiological Integrity

7. ANS: C

The eustachian tube is shorter and wider in a toddler than it is in the older individual.

PTS: 1

KEY: Integrated Processes: Nursing Process: Planning | Client Needs: Psychosocial Integrity

8. ANS: C

At 2 years, balance is not developed to the point where stairs can be managed using alternating
feet.

PTS: 1
KEY: Integrated Processes: Nursing Process: Planning | Client Needs: Safe and Effective Care
Environment

9. ANS: A

Hand preference does not mature until 15 months.

PTS: 1

KEY: Integrated Processes: Nursing Process: Assessment | Client Needs: Physiological Integrity

10. ANS: A

Bladder training occurs after muscle development takes place.

PTS: 1

KEY: Integrated Processes: Nursing Process: Assessment | Client Needs: Physiological Integrity

11. ANS: B

It is best not to stress the child by placing emphasis on accidents while learning to be toilet
trained.

PTS: 1

KEY: Integrated Processes: Nursing Process: Implementation | Client Needs: Psychosocial


Integrity

12. ANS: B

Toddlers learn by exploring their environments.


PTS: 1

KEY: Integrated Processes: Nursing Process: Planning | Client Needs: Psychosocial Integrity

13. ANS: D

Parents should remove the child from the source of the tantrum to a quiet zone.

PTS: 1 KEY: Integrated Processes: Nursing Process: Implementation

14. ANS: A

In the stage known as object permanence, the child realizes that just because the object is out of
sight does not mean that it no longer exists.

PTS: 1

KEY: Integrated Processes: Nursing Process: Assessment | Client Needs: Health Promotion and
Maintenance

15. ANS: A

Older siblings teach the toddler, and some behavior is copied.

PTS: 1

KEY: Integrated Processes: Nursing Process: Planning | Client Needs: Psychosocial Integrity

16. ANS: B
Toddlers have periods of eating jags, which will disappear if ignored.

PTS: 1

KEY: Integrated Processes: Nursing Process: Implementation | Client Needs: Health Promotion
and Maintenance

17. ANS: B

By the toddler period, the child is ready to eat three meals per day.

PTS: 1

KEY: Integrated Processes: Nursing Process: Planning | Client Needs: Physiological Integrity

18. ANS: A

Play style is imaginative and symbolic of roles and learning.

PTS: 1

KEY: Integrated Processes: Nursing Process: Assessment | Client Needs: Psychosocial Integrity

19. ANS: D

Toddler play style is known as parallel play.

PTS: 1

KEY: Integrated Processes: Nursing Process: Assessment | Client Needs: Psychosocial Integrity
20. ANS: D

Fine motor skills are those skills that use the hands.

PTS: 1

KEY: Integrated Processes: Nursing Process: Planning | Client Needs: Physiological Integrity

21. ANS: D

Between 12 and 18 months of age, the anterior fontanel closes.

PTS: 1

KEY: Integrated Processes: Nursing Process: Assessment | Client Needs: Physiological Integrity

22. ANS: C

Patching the stronger eye helps strengthen the muscles of the weaker eye.

PTS: 1

KEY: Integrated Processes: Nursing Process: Evaluation | Client Needs: Health Promotion and
Maintenance

23. ANS: D

This blood pressure is within the normal range for this age.

PTS: 1

KEY: Integrated Processes: Nursing Process: Evaluation | Client Needs: Physiological Integrity
24. ANS: A

Vertical strokes can be drawn by a 3-year-old.

PTS: 1

KEY: Integrated Processes: Nursing Process: Evaluation | Client Needs: Physiological Integrity

25. ANS: B

Consistent mealtimes help the toddler develop an appetite.

PTS: 1

KEY: Integrated Processes: Nursing Process: Planning | Client Needs: Psychosocial Integrity

26. ANS: D

Toddlers like consistency with the same foods, they develop food fads, their appetites fluctuate,
and they play with their food and dawdle.

PTS: 1

KEY: Integrated Processes: Nursing Process: Planning | Client Needs: Psychosocial Integrity

27. ANS: C

Yearly visits to the dentist are recommended for the toddler to maintain good dental health.

PTS: 1
KEY: Integrated Processes: Nursing Process: Implementation | Client Needs: Health Promotion
and Maintenance

28. ANS: C

Sibling rivalry is an expected behavior at this stage of development.

PTS: 1

KEY: Integrated Processes: Nursing Process: Implementation | Client Needs: Psychosocial


Integrity

COMPLETION

29. ANS:

parallel

Parallel play is the style of toddlers

PTS: 1

KEY: Integrated Processes: Nursing Process: Assessment | Client Needs: Psychosocial Integrity

MULTIPLE RESPONSE

30. ANS: A, B, C, D

Toddlers acquire gross motor skills including walking and stair climbing.
PTS: 1

KEY: Integrated Processes: Nursing Process: Assessment | Client Needs: Physiological Integrity