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Grammar:

Definition of Grammar;

The set of rules that explain how words are used in a language.

PARTS OF SPEECH
According to their functions, words are divided into eight categories which are called parts of
speech.

THE NOUN: A word used as the name of a person, a place, a thing or an idea is called noun.

Examples: Boy, City, School, love.


THE PRONOUN: A word that is used in place of a noun is called pronoun.

Examples: He, She, They, You, It


THE VERB: A word that is used to describe an action, state or feeling is called verb.

Examples: You go. We eat food.


THE ADJECTIVE: A word that is used with a noun to add something to its meaning is called
adjective.

Examples: Small, Great, Honest , Beautiful


THE ADVERB: It is a word that adds something to the meaning of any part of speech except
noun or pronoun.

Examples: quickly, fast, always, slowly.


THE PREPOSITION: It is a word that shows the connection of a noun or pronoun with other
words in a sentence.

Examples: On, In, Above, Under, at, of


THE CONJUNCTION: It is a word that joins words or sentences.

Examples: and, but, as well as, because


THE INTERJECTION: It is a word that shows sudden feeling or emotion.

Examples: Ah, Alas, Hurrah, Oh, Ouch

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THE NOUN

Definition: A word used as the name of a person, an animal, a place, a thing or an idea is called noun.

Noun is a word which names a person, a place or a thing.

For example chair, table, book, New York, computer, cup, boy, John, hospital, Newton, garden,
room, man, Paris, doctor, and pen are nouns because each of these words is a name of a person,
a place or a thing.

Examples.

Chair, table, book, cup, computer, picture, (names of things)


New York, Paris, Canada, Toronto, school, hospital, cinema, garden, (names of places)
John, Newton, R.H Stephen, Einstein, man, boy, doctor (names of persons)

A noun can be a subject or an object of a verb.

Examples:

boy, city, school, love, pencil, happiness, table

KINDS OF NOUNS

(i) Proper Noun

Definition: The name of a particular or proper thing, place, person, is called proper noun.

Examples:

Lahore, Ali, London, Atlantic Ocean, Spain, the moon


Name of a particular or a specific thing, place or person is called proper Noun.

For example BMW Car, April, Monday, Oxford University, New York, America, John, Newton,
Einstein, R.H Stephen, are proper nouns because each of these nouns refers to a particular thing,
place or person.

If a common noun is specified it becomes a proper noun. For example day is a common noun but
if it is specified like Monday or Friday, it becomes proper noun. Similarly car is a common noun
but if it is specified like BMW Car, it becomes proper noun.

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Use of CAPITAL LETTER for proper noun.
The first letter of proper noun is always written in capital letter.

Examples.
He lives in Paris.
She studies in Oxford University.
Author of this book is John Stephen.
Laws of motion were presented by Newton
The richest person of the world is Bill Gates.

Use of “THE” for proper noun.


1. The article “the” is used before some proper nouns. Here are some rules for the use of

article “the” before proper nouns.

2. Article “the” is not used before the name of countries, cities, for example New York,
Mexico, Canada, Toronto, London, Paris, America. But if the name of country or city or
place expresses group of places or lands or states, then article “the” will be used before it.
For example, the Philippines, the Netherlands, the United States
3. Article “the” is not used before the name of universities, for example Oxford University,

Yale University, or Columbia University. But if the name of university is written in a


order that it includes the word “of” then article “the” will be used before it, for example,
the University of British Colombia, the university of Oxford, the University of Toronto.

4. Article “the” is used before names composed of both common noun and proper noun, for
example the New York city, the Dominion of Canada, the River Nile
5. “The” is used before the names of laws, principles, theories or devices, for example, the
Pythagorean Theorem, the Fahrenheit Scale, the Law of Newton, the Allais effect. But if
the proper noun is used in possessive form, no article will be used, for example Newton’s
Laws of Motion, Hooke’s Law of Elasticity, Dalton’s Law of Partial Pressures.
6. “The” used by the name of ocean, sea, river, dessert or forest (except lakes and fall) for
example the Pacific Ocean, the Mediterranean Sea, the Sahara, the Black Forests.
7. “The” is used before the names of buildings, hotels, libraries having particular names, for
example the Brunel Hotel, the Lahore Museum, the Library of Congress,
8. “The” is used before the name of a geographical region and points on globe, for example
the Middle East, the West, the Equator, the North Pole

“The” is usually used before the names of organizations for example, the Association of
Chartered Accountants, the World Health Organization

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(ii) Common Noun

Definition: A common noun is used for the name of a common thing, place, person and idea.
Name of a common or a non-specific thing, place, or person is called common noun.
Common noun refers to a non-specific or non-particular thing, place or person.
For example book, pen, room, garden man, girl, road, camera, month, day, chair, school, boy,
car, are common nouns because each of these nouns refers to a common thing, place or person.

Examples:

 People: man, girl, baby, son, policeman, teacher


 Animals: Cat, dog, fish, ant, snake
 Things: bear, book, boat, table, chair, phone
 Places: bank, school, city, building, shop
 Ideas: love, hate, idea, pride

(iii) Abstract Noun

Definition:The name of an idea, quality or such an object that does not have physical
existence is called abstract noun.

Examples:

friendship, peace, sorrow, love, happiness.

(iv) Collective Noun

Definition: A collective noun is the name given to a collection of things or a group of people
or animals regarded as one whole.

Examples:

team, class, committee, jury, army

(v) Concrete Noun

Definition: A concrete noun refers to objects and substances, including people and animals,
physical items that we can perceive through our senses.

Concrete nouns can be countable nouns or uncountable nouns, and singular nouns or plural
nouns. Concrete nouns can also be a common noun, proper nouns and collective nouns.

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Examples:

 Common concrete Noun:

boy, bat, , girl, water.

 Countable Concrete Nouns (Singular):

chair, computer, boy, book.

 Countable Concrete Nouns (Plural):

chairs, computers, boys , books.

 Uncountable Concrete Nouns:

sugar, rice, water, air, oil, salt, butter

 Proper Nouns:

Ali, Hina, Newton,

(vi) Compound Noun

Definition: The name of a person or thing that is a combination of two or more words is called
compound noun.

Examples:

Brother-in-law, Shopkeeper, Bus driver.

(vii) Countable Nouns

Definition: Countable nouns are the names of things or beings that can be counted.

Countable nouns have two forms; singular and plural.

Examples:

a book, a table, a car, Books, Men

A noun which can be counted is called countable noun.

Pen is countable noun because we can count it and can say one pen, two pens, three pens or more
pens. Pen, chair, cup, room, man, baby, bottle, dog, cat are examples countable nouns.

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Singular and Plural noun (Countable Noun)

A countable noun can be singular as well as plural. Article “a” or “an” is used before singular
noun but not before plural noun.

If a singular noun starts with consonant letter then “a” is used before it, i.e. a book, a cat, a pen.
If a singular noun starts with a vowel letter or with consonant which sounds like vowel in that
word, “an” is used before it i.e. an apple, an umbrella, an onion, an hour.

Plural noun (Countable Noun)


Plural noun means more than one person, place or thing. Word “chair” is a singular noun but
word “chairs” is plural noun.

1. Plurals are usually formed by adding –s or –es to singular noun for example book–books,
cat–cats, box–boxes, tax–taxes. If a word ends with “y”, the “y” is changed to “I” then –
es is added to make it plural, for example, baby–babies, lady–ladies. There may be some
exceptions.
2. Some plural are formed in different ways for example, man–men, child–children, leaf–
leaves, wife–wives, foot–feet, toot–teeth, datum–data, basis–bases. Such plurals are
called irregular plural forms.
3. Some nouns have same plural and singular form, for example, sheep–sheep, deer–deer,
swine–swine.

(viii) Uncountable Nouns

Definition: Uncountable nouns are the names of things or beings that can not be counted.

Mostly these nouns don’t have plural form.

Examples:

wood, rice, peace, happiness

Uncountable noun refers to substances which cannot be counted.

For example, water is an uncountable noun because we cannot count it. We cannot say, one
water or two water. Such substances which cannot be counted in terms of numbers are called
uncountable noun.
Examples: Water, milk, bread, honey, rain, furniture, news, information, pleasure, honesty,
courage, weather, music, preparation, warmth, wheat are examples of uncountable nouns.

Use of Uncountable Nouns.


Uncountable nouns are usually treated as singular noun for auxiliary verbs in sentence but
articles “a or an” are usually not used before uncountable nouns.

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Examples.
Water maintains its level.
Necessity is the mother of invention
His preparation was not good.
The Weather is very pleasant today.
This information is very helpful in solving the problem.
The warmth of sun causes evaporation of water.

Uncountable nouns may be used as countable noun when it refers to an individual thing. For
example life is uncountable noun but it be used as countable noun if refers to individual, lives.
Example.
It was feared that two lives had been lost.

We can also use word like “some, any, no, little, more etc” before uncountable nouns if needed
in sentence.
Examples.
They have no information about the accused.
There is little milk in the glass.

Changing Uncountable nouns into countable nouns.


We can change uncountable noun into countable noun if we specify a unit or measuring
standard for it. For example “water” is an uncountable noun but we can make it countable by
saying one glass of water or two glass of water etc. In this example we selected a unit that is
glass. We can also say one litre of water or one cup of water etc. By selecting such units or
measuring standards we can change uncountable noun in to countable which can be counted in
terms of numbers.
Examples.
Uncountable – countable
Bread – a piece of bread.
Wheat – a grain of wheat.
Milk – a glass of milk
Information – a piece of information

A) GENDER

Gender shows the difference of sex. It is of four kinds.

i) Masculine Gender

ii) Feminine Gender

iii) Common Gender

iv) Neuter Gender

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(I) The Masculine Gender

A noun denoting a male animal is said to be of the Masculine Gender; as,

boy, horse, king, Alamgir, lion

(II) The Feminine Gender

A noun denoting a female is said to be in the Feminine Gender; as,

girl, mare, queen, Mrs, Madam, lioness

(III) The Common Gender

A noun denoting an animal of either sex is said to be in the Common Gender; as,

student, baby, friend, pupil, parent.

(IV) The Neuter Gender

A noun denoting a lifeless thing is said to be in the Neuter Gender; as,

table, pen, book, knife, ticket, toy, apple.

THE PRONOUN
Definition: A word that is used in place of a noun is called pronoun.

Examples: He, She, They, You, It

Pronoun is a word that is used instead of a noun, e.g. he, she, it, they, his, her, him its etc.

Details.
John is an intelligent student. He goes to school daily. He studies a lot. He is making preparation
for examination. He will get high marks examination.

In the above paragraph pronoun “he” is used instead of noun “John”. If we do not use pronoun in
above paragraph we will have to use the noun “John” again and again in each sentence. So, the
purpose of pronoun is to avoid the repetition of a noun.

Examples. He, she, it, they, you, I, we, who, him, her, them, me, us, whom, his, its, their, your,
mine, our and whose, myself, himself, herself , yourself, which, this, that these, those, are the
pronouns which are mostly used.

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Pronoun can be divided into following groups.

 Personal Pronouns: e.g. I, you, He, she, it, they, who, me, him, her, them, whom
 Possessive Pronouns: e.g. yours, mine, his, hers, ours, theirs,
 Reflexive Pronouns: e.g. myself, himself, herself, itself, yourself, ourselves, themselves
 Reciprocal Pronoun: e.g. each other, one another
 Relative Pronouns: e.g. who, whom, whose, which, that
 Demonstrative Pronoun: e.g. this, these, that, those

KINDS OF PRONOUNS

(i) PERSONAL PRONOUN

Definition: A personal pronoun is used in the place of the name of a person or a thing.

Examples:

he, they, I, it, we, you

We can distinguish two types of personal pronouns: “Personal Subject Pronouns” and
“Personal Object Pronouns”.

Personal Pronouns
Subject form Object form
I Me

You You

He him

she her

it it

we us

You you

They them

Personal pronoun describes a particular person or thing or group.


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Personal pronoun describes the person speaking (I, me, we, us), the person spoken to (you), or
the person or thing spoken about (he, she, it, they, him, her, them).

Example.
He helps poor.

The pronoun “he” in above sentence describes a person who helps poor.

Use of Personal Pronouns.

Personal Pronoun
Number Person
Subject Object
1st Person I Me

Singular 2nd Person You You

3rd Person He, She, It Him, Her, It

1st Person We Us

Plural 2nd Person You You

3rd Person They Them

Examples.
She is intelligent
They are playing chess.
He sent me a letter.
It is raining.
We love our country.
The teacher appreciated them.
I met him yesterday.
He gave her a gift.
Did you go to home?

Personal Subject Pronouns

We use the Personal Subject Pronouns to refer to the person who is doing the action of the verb
or the verb speaks about. A subjective personal pronoun indicates that the pronoun is acting as
the subject of the sentence.
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 He listens to me.
 They play cricket daily.
 I read a book.

Personal Object Pronouns

We use the Personal Object Pronouns to refer to the person whom the action of the verbs affects.
An objective personal pronoun indicates that the pronoun is acting as an object of a verb.

 I like him.
 We always help them.
 He will invite you.

(ii) POSSESSIVE PRONOUN

Definition: A pronoun that is used to show possession over something is called possessive
pronoun.

Examples: My, His, Their, our

Certain pronouns called possessive pronouns show ownership. Some are used alone; some
describe a noun.

Used alone: mine, yours, his, hers, ours, theirs, whose

 That computer is hers.


 This computer is mine.

Modify noun: my, your, his, her, its, our, their, whose

 That is her computer.

This is my computer.

Possessive Pronoun indicates close possession or ownership or relationship of a thing/person to


another thing/person.
e.g. yours, mine, his, hers, ours, theirs, hers,

Example.
This book is mine.

The pronoun “mine” describes the relationship between book and a person (me) who possesses
this book or who is the owner of this book.

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Number Person Possessive Pronoun
1st Person Mine

Singular 2nd Person Yours

3rd Person Hers, his, its

1st Person Ours

Plural 2nd Person Yours

3rd Person Theirs

Examples.
That car is hers.
Your book is old. Mine is new.
The pen on the table is mine.
The smallest cup is yours.
The voice is hers.
The car is ours not theirs.
I have lost my camera. May I use yours?
They received your letter. Did you received theirs.

Note: Possessive adjectives (my, her, your) may be confused with possessive pronouns.
Possessive adjective modifies noun in terms of possession. Both possessive adjective and
possessive show possession or ownership, but possessive adjective is used (with noun) to modify
the noun while Possessive pronoun is used instead (in place of) a noun.

Examples.
This is my book. (Possessive adjective: “my” modifies the noun “book”)
This book is mine. (Possessive pronoun: “mine” is used instead of noun “to whom the book
belongs”)

(iii) DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUN

Definition: A demonstrative pronoun is used to point out a noun or nouns.


Demonstrative pronoun is a pronoun that points to a thing or things.
e.g. this, that, these, those, none, neither

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These pronouns point to thing or things in short distance/time or long distance/time.

Short distance or time: This, these.


Long distance or time: That, those.

Demonstrative pronouns “this and that” are used for singular thing while “these or those” are
used for plural things.

Examples
This is black.
That is heavy.
Can you see these?
Do you like this?
John brought these.
Those look attractive.
Have you tried this.

Examples: This, That, These, Those

 Ali wrote that. (That is the direct object of the sentence.)


 These look good. (These is the subject of the sentence.)
 Amjad brought this. (This is the direct object of the sentence.)

(iv) RELATIVE PRONOUN

Definition: A relative pronoun is used to connect a subordinate clause to the main clause, and
serve as conjunction also.
Relative Pronoun describes a noun which is mentioned before and more information is to be
given about it.
Or
Relative pronoun is a pronoun which joins relative clauses and relative sentences.

For example, It is the person, who helped her.


In this sentence the word “who” is a relative pronoun which refers to the noun (the person)
which is already mentioned in beginning of sentence (It is the person) and more information (he
helped her) is given after using a relative pronoun (who) for the noun (the person).
Similarly, in above sentence the pronoun “who” joins two clauses which are “it is the person”
and “who helped her”.

Examples. The most commonly used five relative pronouns are, who, whom, whose, which, that.
“Who” is for subject and “whom” is used for object. “who” and “whom” are used for people.
“Whose” is used to show possession and can be used for both people and things. “Which” is used
for things. “That” is used for people and things.

Examples.
It is the girl who got first position in class.

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Adjective is a word that modifies noun.
The man whom I met yesterday is a nice person.
It is the planning that makes succeed.
The boy who is laughing is my friend.
It is the boy whose father is doctor.
The car which I like is red.

Examples:

Who, Whom, That, Which, Whoever, Whomever, Whichever

 People who speak two languages are called bilingual.


 This is the book which I bought from the market.
 This is the same man that I saw in the street.

(v) INDEFINITE PRONOUN

Definition: A pronoun that does not refer to a particular noun but refers to an unspecified
noun or nouns.

Examples: Few, Some, Any, some one

(vi) Reflexive Pronoun

Definition: A reflexive pronoun is used when the subject and the object of the sentence are the
same or the action passes back to the subject.

Reflexive pronoun describes noun when subject’s action affects the subject itself.
e.g himself, yourself, herself, ourselves, themselves, itself are reflexive pronouns.

Reflexive pronouns always act as objects not subjects, and they require an interaction between
the subject and an object.

Namber Person Subject Reflive Pronoun


1st Person I Myself

Singular 2nd Person You Yourself

3rd Person He, she, it Himself, Herself, Itself

1st Person We Ourselves


Plural
2nd Person You Yourselves

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3rd Person They Themselves

Examples.
I looked at myself in the mirror.
You should think about yourself.
They prepared themselves for completion.
She pleases herself by think that she will win the prize.
He bought a car for himself.
He locked himself in the room.
He who loves only himself is a selfish.

Note: Reflexive noun can also be used to give more emphasis on subject or object. If a reflexive
pronoun is used to give more emphasis on a subject or an object, it is called “Intensive
Pronoun”. Usage and function of intensive pronoun are different from that of reflexive pronoun.

For example, she herself started to think about herself.


In the above sentence the first “herself” is used as intensive pronoun while the second “herself”
is used as reflexive pronoun.
See the following examples of intensive pronouns.

Examples. (Intensive Pronouns)


I did it myself. OR. I myself did it.
She herself washed the clothes.
He himself decided to go to New York.
She herself told me.

Examples: myself, ourselves, yourselves, themselves

Singular
I talk to myself when I am nervous or excited.
1st person
You cut yourself while cutting tomatoes.
2nd person
He hurt himself playing hockey.
3rd person (male)
3rd person She enjoyed herself at the party.
(female)
3rd person (non- It saw itself in the mirror.
person)
Plural
We blame ourselves for the results of the
1st person election.

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You helped yourselves to more ice cream.
2nd person
They believed in themselves.
3rd person

(vii) RECIPROCAL PRONOUN

Definition: A reciprocal pronoun is used in order to indicate persons or things mutually


affected. There are two reciprocal pronouns: each other, one another
Reciprocal Pronouns are used when each of two or more subjects reciprocate to the other.
or
Reciprocal pronouns are used when two subjects act in same way towards each other, or, more
subjects act in same way to one another.

For example, A loves B and B love A. we can say that A and B loves each other.

There are two reciprocal pronouns

 Each other
 One another.
Examples.
John and Marry are talking to each other.
The students gave cards to one another.
The people helped one another in hospital.
Two boys were pushing each other.
The car and the bus collided with each other.
The students in the class greeted one another.

 The students in this classroom cooperate with one another.


 Both the friends like each other.
 They care a lot for one another.

(viii) INTENSIVE/ EMPHATIC PRONOUN

Definition: An intensive pronoun is used to intensify or emphasize the proceeding noun or


pronoun.

Examples: himself, myself, herself

 She herself wanted to join the company.


 We ourselves believe that is true.
 She went to the door herself.

(ix) INTERROGATIVE PRONOUN

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Definition: An interrogative pronoun is used to ask a question.

Examples: who, whose, whom, what, which

 Who is this man?


 Whose shoes are those?
 Whom have you seen?

(x) DISTRIBUTIVE PRONOUN

Definition: The pronouns each, either and neither are called ‘Distributive Pronouns’ as they
denote all of a class taken separately.

Examples:

 Each of them has performed satisfactorily.


 Either of the two pencils will do.
 Neither of them came.

THE VERB

Definition: A word that is used to describe an action, state or feeling is called verb.

Examples:

 You go to school.
 We eat food.
 We play hockey and they enjoy it.

In the given examples the italicized words; go, eat, play and enjoy are verbs.

Verb is a word which shows action or state of something.

Examples. Write, run, eat, drink, catch, clean, speak, laugh, weep, are some verbs

He is writing a letter

In the above example, the verb “write” tells us about the action (writing) of the subject (he). A
verb has its subject in sentence and verb tells us what its subject does, did or will do.

Verbs describe action or state. Most verbs describe action, such verbs are called “dynamic verb”,
for example write, eat, run, speak. Some verbs describe state of something, such verbs are called
“stative verb” and are not usually used in continuous tense for example be, impress, please,
surprise, belong to, consist of, resemble, seem

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Examples.
He works in a factory(action)
I boughta computer. (action)
John seems happy. (state)
He resembles his brother (state)

Some verbs can be used as dynamic verb as well as stative verb.


Example.
She looks very beautiful. (look as stative verb)
She looked at black board. (look as dynamic verb)

CLASSIFICATION OF VERBS ACCORDING TO FUNCTION

Verbs may well be classified according to their function as well as their formation.

. (i) Transitive Verbs

Definition: These are the verbs which require an object to pass over the action from the
subject to the object.

Examples:

 We believe in one God.


 They built a house.
 They enjoyed music.

A verb which needs to have object in sentence is called transitive verb.


Transitive verbs should have an object in sentence because without subject it does not
covey complete meaning.
Example.
He bought ______.
There should be some object in this sentence for verb “buy”. Without an object the verb
“bought” does not give complete meaning. To make it more meaningful we use some
object for verb “bought” i.e book or computer or car.
 He bought a book.
or
He bought a computer.
or
He bought a car.
 More examples.
John is eating a mango.
He has completedhis work.
I caught a bird in bushes.
She wrote a story.

In the given examples, the italicized words; believe, built and enjoyed are transitive verbs

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(ii) Intransitive Verbs

Definition: These are the verbs which do not require an object to pass over the action from
subject to object.

Examples:

 He died.
 We slept.
 We laughed and they cried.

In the above given examples the underlined words; died, slept, laughed and cried are intransitive
verbs.

Note: A number of verbs can be used as both the kinds of verbs (either transitive or intransitive):

Examples:

Verb used as transitive


Verb used as intransitive
Fire burnt his finger. Fire burns.
See the fun. A blind person can’t see. A verb which does not need to
John drinks whisky. I never drink. have object in sentence is
called intransitive.
Mohan wrote a letter to his Intransitive verb can give
complete meaning with an
brother. object in sentence for it.
Ram writes well. Example.
He slept.
She is laughing.
It has rained.
He is running.
They arrived.

(iii) Ditransitive Verbs

Definition: A ditransitive verb is one that takes two complements, a direct object and an
indirect object at the same time.

Examples

 Ali gave Hina a book


 The teacher asked Ali a question.
 He told the children a story.

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(iv) Auxiliary/ Helping Verbs

Main Verbs and Auxiliary or Helping verbs


A sentence can have both main verb and helping verb (auxiliary verb).

Main verb: A verb which has major meaning in terms of action are called main verb, i.e. write,
buy, eat etc.

Helping verb: A verb which supports the main verb to form the structure of sentence, according
a specific tense, is called helping verb or auxiliary verb, i.e. is, am, have, was, had, is, will etc.

A sentence can have both main verb and helping verb (auxiliary verb).
A verb which supports the main verb to form the structure of sentence (according to a specific
tense) and give us information about the time of action expressed by main verb, is called helping
verb or auxiliary verb, i.e. is, am, have, was, had, is, will etc.

Main verb has real meaning and tells more about action while helping verb has no (or little)
meaning if it is alone but it adds time information about action if used with main verb to specify
the tense or time of the main verb. The examples below will help in better understanding.

She is eating an apple. (“eat” is main verb while “is” is helping verb)
She was eating an apple. (“eat” is main verb while “was” is helping verb)

The main verbs in these sentences “eat” convey the information about the action which is done
on an apple, while the helping verbs in these sentences "is, and was" tells us the about the time of
action by referring to specific tense. In first sentence with helping verb "is" action (eating an
apple) is being done right now in the present time while in the second sentence with hepling verb
"was" action (eating an apple) was being done in past.

It means the MAIN VERB CONVEYS the meaning of action with a little information about its
time, but the HELPING VERB (also called auxiliary Verb) tell us more about the time of action.
Helping verbs and main verbs together make a structure of sentence of a specific tense (action
and its time)

Use of helping verbs.


There are three primary helping verbs, be, do, and have, which are majorly used in tenses.

 Be (am, is, are). Forms of “be” are used for continuous tenses.

Example. She is laughing. (Present Continuous tense)

 Have (have, has, had). Forms of “have” are used in perfect tense.

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Example.
He has completed his work. (Present prefect tense)
He had bought a car. (Past perfect tense)

 Do (do, does, did). Forms of “do” are used in indefinite(simple) tenses i.e. present simple
tense or past simple tense.

Example.
They do not play chess. (Present simple tense)
I did not see him. (Past simple)

Definition: An auxiliary verb is a helping verb used to express tense, mood, or voice.

There are two groups – primary auxiliaries and modal auxiliaries.

Primary Auxiliaries :The primary auxiliaries are: be, have, and do.

Examples:

I am eating bread.
They have eaten bread.
You do eat bread.

Primary auxiliaries can also work as main verbs.

Examples:

I am happy to see these names included.


I have a new life now and new friends.
We do things that are controversial.

Modal Verbs (Modal auxiliaries)


Modal verbs are used to express ideas such as ability, possibility, intention or necessity.
Examples.

 Can, could (ability)


 May might (possibility)
 Will, shall, would (intention)
 Should (necessity)
 Must (necessity)
 Ought to

Modal verbs can be used before main verb as helping verbs.


Examples

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I can play violin.
It may rain today.
You must learn the test-taking strategies.
I will call you.

will, shall, may, might, can, could, must, ought to, should, would, used to, need

Examples:

I shall eat bread.


I might eat bread.
I could eat bread.

Modal auxiliaries cannot work as main verbs and normally appear with a main verb.

(vii) Infinitive

Definition: Infinitive is the base form of the verb. The infinitive form of a verb is the form
which follows “to”.

Examples:

(to) cry, (to) be,(to) go, (to) fight, (to) understand,

 The woman seemed to have been crying.


 She failed to explain the problem clearly
 I can’t afford to go out tonight.

(viii) Bare Infinitives

Infinitives may occur with or without the infinitive marker “to”. Infinitives without “to” are
known as bare infinitives.

Examples:

 Help me.
 Open the door.
 Follow the instructions.

Forms of verb according to tense or time of action.


Verb has three forms according to tense.

1. Base form 2. Past Simple 4. Past participle

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For example, go—went—gone. “Go” is base form, “went” is past simple form, and “gone” is
past participle form. These three form may also be named as 1st form, 2nd form and 3rd form of
verb, which are denoted by V1, V2 and V3 respectively. “ing” is added to base form verb to
make present participle which can be used with auxiliary verb “to be” in continuous tense, for
example, go—going, eat—eating, laugh—laughing.

Formation of past simple and past participle


KINDS OF VERB ACCORDING TO FORMATION

On the basis formation of past simple and past participle, verb is divided into

 Regular verbs
 Irregular verbs

Regular Verbs.
Some verbs form their past simple and past participle form by adding “-ed” to their base form,
such verbs are called regular verbs, for example laugh—laughed—laughed, look—looked—
looked.
Some examples

Base Past
Past simple Present
Verb form or participle
or V2 participle
V1 or V3
To advise advise Advised advised Advising
To allow allow Allowed allowed Allowing
To enjoy enjoy Enjoyed enjoyed Enjoying
To rain rain Rained rained Raining
To smile smile Smiled smiled Smiling

Irregular Verbs.
Some verbs form their past simple and participle in different ways for example, buy—bought—
bought, eat—ate—eaten, such verbs are called irregular verbs.

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Some examples

Past
Base form Past simple Present
Verb participle
or V1 or V2 participle
or V3
To know know Knew known Knowing
To go go Went gone Going
To drink drink Drank drunk Drinking
To hold hold Held held Holding
To write write Wrote written Writing

Some verbs remain same in past simple and past participle.

Some example

Past
Base form Past simple Present
Verb participle
or V1 or V2 participle
or V3
To cut cut Cut cut Cutting
To shut shut Shut shut Shutting
To spread spread Spread spread Spreading
To put put Put put Putting
To read read Read read reading

(ii) Regular Verbs

Definition: A verb that forms its past tense and past participle by adding -d or -ed (or in some
cases “t”) to the base form.

Present Past Past Participle

Act Acted Acted

Banish Banished Banished

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Carry Carried Carried

Reach Reached Reached

Borrow Borrowed Borrowed

Wish Wished Wished

Work Worked Worked

(ii) Irregular Verbs

The verb in which the past tense is not formed by adding the usual -ed ending for the Past Simple
and Past Participle forms. Some irregular verbs do not change; while others change completely.
Irregular verbs have no rules for conjugation. These can only be learnt in context.

Examples:

Present Past Past Participle

Awake Awoke Awoken

Bear Bore Borne

Beat Beat Beaten

Catch Caught Caught

Flee Fled Fled

Hide Hid Hidden

Meet Met Met

THE ADJECTIVE

Definition: A word that is used with a noun to add something to its meaning is called
adjective.

Examples:

 Small boy
 Great leader,

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 Ten rupees,
 English movies
 This boy

In the above given examples the italicized words are the adjectives.

Adjective is a word that modifies (gives more information about) a noun or pronoun.

For example, tall man, old house, red car. The words “tall, old, red” are adjectives which give
more information about nouns “man, house, and car” in these examples.

More than one adjective can also be used for a single noun in sentence.
Examples.
The beautiful girl entered into the room.
The tall, beautiful girl entered into the room.
The tall, thin, beautiful girl entered into the room.
The tall, thin, beautiful and intelligent girl entered into the room.

An adjective gives information about the colour, size, characteristic, quality, quantity or
personal traits of a noun or pronoun.

Some examples.

 White, red, black, green, purple, yellow, orange, brown, and black are adjectives because
they mention the colour of noun or pronoun.
 Beautiful, pretty, ugly, thin, slim, fat, tall, and short are adjectives and they describe
physical characteristic of a noun or pronoun.
 Intelligent, brave, courageous, determined, exuberant and diligent are adjective and they
describe the personal traits of a noun or pronoun.

 Use of adjective in sentence.


Adjective is used in sentence at two places depending upon the structure of sentence.

 Before noun
 After some verbs (After stative verbs like seem, look, be (when used as stative verb), feel
etc)

Use of adjective before noun (Examples)


He ate a delicious mango.
She bought a red car.

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A fat man was running in the street.
I saw a cute baby.
I don’t like hot tea.
They live in a small home.
Poor can’t afford expensive clothes.
Severe headache and fever are symptoms of malaria.
He is facing a difficult problem.

Use of adjective after verbs.


Adjectives may be used after static verbs (i.e. seem, look, sound, taste, appear, feel, be).
Adjective are used after such verbs which behaves like static verbs.
For example, Iron is hot
“Hot” is adjective in the above sentence which comes after “is” and “is” behaves like a static
verb in this sentence. “Hot” after verb “is” but it tells us about the noun (subject) “iron”

Examples.
Your problem seems difficult.
That book was good.
This pizza tastes delicious.
The story sounds interesting.
He is stupid.
The man became angry.
She looks attractive.

Degrees of Adjectives and their use.


There are three degrees of adjectives.

1. Positive Adjective 2. Comparative Adjective 3. Superlative Adjective

Some Examples:

Positive Comparative Superlative


Big Bigger Biggest
Great Greater Greatest
Short Shorter Shortest
Old Older Oldest
Large Larger Largest
Happy Happier Happiest
Lucky Luckier Luckiest
Heavy Heavier Heaviest
Beautiful More beautiful Most beautiful
Horrible More horrible Most horrible

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Good Better Best
Bad Worse Worst
Little Less Least
Many More Most

Use of comparative adjective.


Comparative adjectives are used to express characteristic of one thing in comparison to another
thing (one thing). It makes comparison between two things (only two things not more than two).
Word “than” is mostly used after comparative adjective but sometimes other words “to” may be
used after comparative adjective. See the following examples.

Examples.

She is taller than Mary.


A cup is smaller than a glass.
He is junior to me.
Chinese is more difficult than English.
Paris is more beautiful than New York.

Use of Superlative adjective.


Comparative adjectives are used to express characteristic of one thing in comparison to other
things (many things). It makes comparison among things more than two. Superlative is the
highest degree of a thing in comparison to other things. A superlative adjective means that a
object is surpassing all others (things in comparison) in quality or characteristic. For example,
John is the most intelligent student in his class. It means John is surpassing all other students in
his class and no other student in his class is as intelligent as John.

Article “the” is used before superlative degree. “In” or “of” etc is used after the superlative and
modifying noun in sentence.

Examples.

Bills Gate is the richest person in world.


Brunel is the most beautiful hotel in England.
Mount Everest is the highest mountain in world.
She is the tallest girl in class.
Our generation is the most modern.
His house is the biggest in the street.
The winter is the coldest time of year.

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KINDS OF ADJECTIVES
(i) Proper Adjective

Definition: An adjective that is formed by a proper noun is called a proper adjective.

Examples:

 I always enjoy Indian movies.


 He is a French boy.
 Russian wine is famous all over the world.

In the above given examples the italicized words are proper adjectives.

(ii) Adjective of Quality

Definition: An adjective of quality shows the kind , quality or state of a person or thing.

Examples:

 He lives in a big city.


 Ali is an honest fellow.
 Bad people always cheat others.

In the above given examples the italicized words are adjectives of quality.

(iii) Adjective of Quantity

Definition: An adjective of quantity shows how much of a thing is meant.

Examples:

 I bought some rice to cook.


 There is sufficient sugar in the pot.
 There is a little milk in the jug.

In the above given examples the italicized words are adjectives of quantity.

(iv) Numeral Adjective

Definition: A numerical adjective shows how many persons or things are meant.

Examples:

 I have three pens in my bag.


 There are seven students in the class.

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 He has ten rupees in his pocket.

In the above given examples the italicized words are numeral adjectives.

(v) Demonstrative Adjective

Definition: A demonstrative adjective points out which person or thing is meant.

Examples:

 This boy is my friend.


 These girls are students.
 I like that book which you gave me yesterday.

In the above given examples the italicized words are demonstrative adjectives.

(vi) Interrogative Adjective

Definition: An interrogative adjective is used with nouns to ask questions.

Examples:

 Which book is yours?


 Whose pen is this?

In the above given examples the italicized words are interrogative adjectives.

(vii) Possessive Adjective

Definition: A possessive adjective is used with nouns and does the work of an adjective.

Examples:

My ideas are criticized by others.

I appreciate his work.

Our school is famous in the city.

In the above given examples the italicized words are possessive adjectives.

THE ADVERB
Definition: An adverb is a word that modifies a verb, an adjective, or another adverb.

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Adverbs may indicate place or direction (where, whence), time (ever, immediately), degree
(very, almost), manner (thus, and words ending in-ly, such as wisely), and belief or doubt
(perhaps, no).

Adverb is a word which modifies (gives more information about) a verb or adjective or other
adverb.

For example,
He replied.
He replied quickly.

The word “quickly” is an adverb which gives more information about verb “reply” in the above
example. The adverb “quickly” in above example tells us about the verb “reply” that the reply
was given quickly or with no time delay.
Similarly an adverb may also modify adjective or other adverb or other part of speech except the
noun.

Examples (adverbs modifying verbs).


He was driving carelessly.
John can speak French fluently.
They live happily.
Marry is laughing loudly.
He goes to school daily.
We sometimes get confused.
He met me yesterday.
Guests will come here.

Examples (adverbs modifying adjectives).


Note: The bold words (in following examples) are adverbs and the underlined words are
adjectives.

It is a very difficult problem.


He is seriously ill.
This book is really nice.
The story of “crazy man” was truly funny.
You are too weak to walk.

Examples (adverbs modifying other adverbs).


Note: The bold word (in following examples) is an adverb and underlined word is the other
adverb.

John drives very slowly.


He was talking too much angrily.
He ran fast enough to catch the bus.
They live very happily.

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Formation of adverb
1. Most of adverbs are formed by adding “-ly” to adjectives. For example, happily, easily, quickly,
angrily, correctly, fluently, proudly, loudly, rapidly, immediately etc

1. A few adverbs exists without “-ly”. For example, fast, slow, deep, far, hard, high, wrong, right,
low, well, tight, straight, there, here, close, late, very, too, not

Examples.

Adverbs of Adverbs of Adverbs of Adverbs of


Manner Place Time Frequency
Happily Here Now Sometimes

Sadly There Then Often

Easily Near Yesterday Usually

Rudely Somewhere Today Seldom

Loudly Outside Tomorrow Frequently

Fluently Inside Late Daily

Rapidly Ahead Early Generally

Angrily High Again Occasionally

Greedily Top Tonight Again and again

Wildly Bottom Soon Never

Adverb modifies verb by giving us the following information.

Adverbs are categorized on the basis of it information it gives, into the following categories.

1. Adverbs of manner→→ How the action occurs


2. Adverb of place →→→ Where the action occurs
3. Adverb of time→→→→ At which time the action occurs
4. Adverb of frequency→→ How many times action occur
5. Adverb of Degree→→→ Intensity of action

KINDS OF ADVERBS WITH DETAILS

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(i) Adverbs of Manner
Definition: Adverbs of manner modify a verb to describe the way the action is done.

Examples:

 She did the work carefully.


 We writes neatly
 They work honestly

These adverbs tell us that in which manner the action occurs or how the action occurs or
occurred or will occur.

Examples.

She speaks loudly.


He was driving slowly.
You replied correctly.
He runs fast.
They solved the problem easily.
Listen to me carefully.

(ii) Adverbs of Place


Definition: Adverbs of place show where the action is done.

Examples:

They live locally.

Adverb of place tells us about the place of action or where action occurs/occurred/will occur.
e.g. here, there, near, somewhere, outside, ahead, on the top, at some place.

Examples.

He will come here.


The children are playing outside.
He was standing near the wall.
They were flying kites on the top of hill.
He lives somewhere in New York.
She went upstairs.

(ii) Adverbs of Time


Definition: Adverbs of time show when an action is done, or the duration or frequency.
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Examples:

He did it yesterday. (When)

They are permanently busy. (Duration)

These adverbs tell us about the time of action. e.g. now, then, soon, tomorrow, yesterday, today,
tonight, again, early, yesterday.

Examples.

I will buy a computer tomorrow.


The guest came yesterday.
Do it now.
She is still waiting for her brother.
He got up early in the morning.

(iv) Adverbs of Frequency


Definition: An adverb of frequency shows how frequently an action takes place.

Examples:

 He always tells a lie.

They often come here.

Adverbs of frequency tell us how many times the action occurs or occurred or will occur.
e.g. daily, sometimes, often, seldom, usually, frequently, always, ever, generally, rarely, monthly,
yearly.

Examples.

He goes to school daily.


She never smokes.
He is always late for class.
They always come in time.
Barking dogs seldom bite.
The employees are paid monthly.
The employees are paid every month.

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PLACEMENT OF ADVERBS

Adverbs of Manner: Adverbs of manner are placed after the verb or entire expression (at the
end of the sentence).

Examples:

 Their teacher speaks quickly.


 He writes neatly.
 They walk briskly.

Adverbs of Time: Adverbs of time are placed after the verb or entire expression (at the end of
the sentence).

Examples:

 I received the letter yesterday.


 She visited her school last year.
 They are permanently busy.

Adverbs of Frequency: Adverbs of frequency are placed before the main verb (not the auxiliary
verb).

Examples:

 He often goes to bed late.


 She always tells a lie.
 Do you sometimes get up early?

Adverbs of Degree: Adverbs of degree are placed after the verb or entire expression.

Examples:

 He is doing very well.


 Do you sometimes get up early?
 She’ll attend the meeting as well.

Adverbs of Comment: Adverbs of comment are placed at the beginning of a sentence.

Examples:

 Undoubtedly, Islam is a complete code of life.


 Luckily, I was able to attend the presentation.

Forming Comparative And Superlative Adverbs


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‘LY’ Adverbs

With LY adverbs (adverbs formed from adjectives by adding -ly to the end) we form the
comparative and superlative forms with more and most.

Superlative
Adjective Adverb Comparative Adverb
Adverb
quiet quietly more quietly most quietly
careful carefully more carefully most carefully
happy happily more happily most happily

 Ali works more quietly than Aslam does.


 She drives more carefully than he does.
 Of the three drivers, she drives the most carefully.
 She sings the most happily of all the girls in the group.

OTHER ADVERBS

For adverbs which retain the same form as the adjective form, we add -er to form the
comparative and -est to form the superlative.

Comparative Superlative
Adjective Adverb
Adverb Adverb

hard hard Harder hardest

fast fast Faster fastest

early early Earlier earliest

 Please work harder.


 He works the hardest.
 She runs faster than he does.
 Ali gets to work earlier than I do.

IRREGULAR ADVERBS
Comparative Superlative
Adjective Adverb
Adverb Adverb

good well Better best

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Comparative Superlative
Adjective Adverb
Adverb Adverb

bad badly Worse worst

far far farther/further farthest/furthest

 Ali plays tennis better than Aslam does.


 On our tennis team, Ali plays tennis the best.
 I did worse on the test than Bart did.
 On that test, I did the worst in the class.

THE USE OF SOME PARTICULAR ADVERBS

1. Very & Much:

“Very” is used (i) with Adjectives and Adverbs of the Positive Degree; as,

He was very happy. She runs very fast.

(ii) With Present Participles; as,

The scenery of Kashmir is very charming.

(iii) With the following Past Participles: –

Pleased. Surprised. Annoyed. Tied. Grieved. Pained. Delighted. Experienced. Contented.


Dejected.

“Much” is used

(i) with Adjectives and Adverbs of the comparative Degree; as,

The patient is much better today.

We reached the station much earlier.

(ii) With an Adjective in the Superlative Degree to intensify the meaning; as,

She is much the tallest girl in the class.

(iii) With Past Participles; as,

They were much surprised to see his tricks.

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2. Before & Ago:

“Before” means formerly, and is used in respect of a point of time; as,

It never happened before.

This is what we knew before.

“Ago” is used to denote a period of time from the present dating back wards; as,

She came here three years ago.

Long, long ago there lived a king.

3. Too, Very & Quite:

“Too” signifies more than enough, and should not be used instead of “Very” or “Much”. It is
used in a negative sense and is equal to “so that……..not”; as,

I shall be too glad to meet.

It is too hot to sit inside.

It is never too late to mend.

“Too” preceded by “only” has a positive sense; as,

He is only to glad to help the poor.

“Very” conveys the idea of high degree or extent; as,

It is very hot inside.

This building is very large.

“Quite” conveys the idea of completely or altogether; as

His work is quite satisfactory.

She was quite innocent.

4. Still & Yet:

“Still” lays emphasis on the continuance of a condition; as,

He is still in the bath-room.


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“Yet” lays emphasis on an expected even; as,

The rain has not yet stopped.

5. Hard & Hardly:

“Hard” is the real Adverb, not “Hardly”; as,

I work hard in winter.

“Hardly” means scarcely; as,

We can hardly work at nights in summer.

I had hardly left my room when its roof fell down.

6. At Present & Presently:

“At Present” means at the present time; as,

I am very busy at present.

At present he is out of work.

“Presently” means shortly or immediately after; as,

They will be back here presently.

I shall do it presently.

7. Dear & Dearly:

“Dear”, and not “Dearly”, is used after the Verbs like cost, sell, pay; as,

Rice sells dear now-a-days.

They paid dear for their folly.

It well cost you dear to plot against him.

“Dearly” is used in the sense of tenderly; as,

She loved her father dearly.

8. Of Course & Had Better:

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“Of Course” means in the course of nature or by a natural consequence; as,

I love my mother and, of course, she loves me.

“Had Better” is always followed is followed by a verb in the Present Tense; as,

You had better come to terms.

We had better hush up this matter.

9. Perhaps & Probably:

“Perhaps” means possibly; as,

Perhaps he has forgotten to attend the meeting.

“Probably” means likely or expected to happen; as,

Probably you will get the job.

THE PREPOSITION
Prepositions are the words which are used to show relationships between nouns, pronouns
and other words in a sentence.

Generally, they come before a noun and never change their form, regardless of the case, gender
etc. of the word they are referring to.

SOME COMMON PREPOSITIONS

About by outside
above despite over
across down past
after during since
against except through
along for throughout
among from till
around in to
at inside toward
before into under
behind like underneath
below near until
beneath of up
beside off upon

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between on with
beyond onto within
but out without.

Preposition is a word that shows relation between noun or pronoun and the other words in
sentence.

e.g. in, on, at, to, with, under, above, into, by, of etc

Preposition is always used before a noun or pronoun and shows the relation of the noun or
pronoun to the other words in sentence. The following examples will help in better
understanding.

Example.

Subject + Verb Preposition Noun


The cat was sleeping on table
He lives in Paris
She looked at Stranger.
He will come in January.
Wedding ceremony will be held on 20th December.
I was waiting for you
Someone is knocking at The door.
She came by bus.

Prepositions show many relations (for different nouns) in sentence. On the basis of relation they
show, preposition may be divided into following categories.

 Preposition for time e.g. in, on, at, etc.


 Preposition for place e.g. in, on, at, etc
 Preposition for direction e.g. to, towards, into, through etc.
 Preposition for agent e.g. by
 Preposition for device, instrument or machines. e.g. on, by, with, etc.
 Prepositions used after verbs to make prepositional verb. e.g. look at, look after, laugh at

Types of Preposition
The types of preposition are as follows:

1. Preposition for Time


2. Preposition for Place
3. Preposition for Direction
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4. Preposition for Agent
5. Preposition for Instrument
6. Prepositional Phrase

Prepositions for Time. (in, on, at)


Prepositions used for time of different natures are in, on at etc.

Prepositions of Time

English Usage Example

 on  days of the week  on Monday

 in  months / seasons  in August / in winter


 time of day  in the morning
 year  in 2006
 after a certain period of time (when?)  in an hour

 at  for night  at night


 for weekend  at the weekend
 a certain point of time (when?)  at half past nine

 since  from a certain point of time (past till  since 1980


now)

 for  over a certain period of time (past till  for 2 years


now)

 ago  a certain time in the past  2 years ago

 before  earlier than a certain point of time  before 2004

 to  telling the time  ten to six (5:50)

 past  telling the time  ten past six (6:10)

 to / till /  marking the beginning and end of a  from Monday to/till Friday
until period of time

 till / until  in the sense of how long something is  He is on holiday until


going to last Friday.

 by  in the sense of at the latest  I will be back by 6 o’clock.


 up to a certain time  By 11 o’clock, I had read

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five pages.

Preposition Time Nature


In 1. Month or Year.
e.g. in January, in 1985

2. Particular time of day or month or year


e.g. in morning, in evening, in first week of January, in summer, in winter

3. Century or specific time in past etc


e.g. in 21st century, in stone age, in past, in future, in present
On 1. Day
e.g. on Monday

2. Date
e.g. on 5th of March, March 5

3. Particular day
e.g. on Independence Day, on my birthday,
At 1. Time of clock
e.g. at 5 O’clock, at 7:30 PM

2. Short and precise time


e.g. at noon, at sunset, at lunch time, at bed time, at the moment, at the same
time

Examples.
He was born in 1945.
She will go to New York on 25th of March.
The concert will begin at 7 O’clock.
He gets up early in the morning.
We enjoyed a lot in the summer.
The president will deliver speech to public on Independence Day.
She received a lot gifts on her birthday.
Where were you at the lunchtime?
I will call you at 12 A.M

Preposition for Place. (in, on, at) Prepositions “in, on or at” are usually used for
different places.

 “In” is usually used for place which have some boundary (boundary may physical or
virtual).
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 “On” is used for surface
 “At” is used for specific place.

Prepositions of Place

English Usage Example

 in  room, building, street, town,  in the kitchen, in London


country  in the book
 book, paper etc.  in the car, in a taxi
 car, taxi  in the picture, in the world
 picture, world

 at  meaning next to, by an object  at the door, at the station


 for table  at the table
 for events  at a concert, at the party
 place where you are to do  at the cinema, at school, at
something typical (watch a film, work
study, work)

 on  attached  the picture on the wall


 for a place with a river  London lies on the Thames.
 being on a surface  on the table
 for a certain side (left, right)  on the left
 for a floor in a house  on the first floor
 for public transport  on the bus, on a plane
 for television, radio  on TV, on the radio

 by, next to,  left or right of somebody or  Jane is standing by / next to /


beside something beside the car.

 under  on the ground, lower than (or  the bag is under the table
covered by) something else

 below  lower than something else but  the fish are below the surface
above ground

 over  covered by something else  put a jacket over your shirt


 meaning more than  over 16 years of age
 getting to the other side (also  walk over the bridge
across)  climb over the wall
 overcoming an obstacle

 above  higher than something else, but  a path above the lake
not directly over it

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 across  getting to the other side (also over)  walk across the bridge
 getting to the other side  swim across the lake

 through  something with limits on top,  drive through the tunnel


bottom and the sides

 to  movement to person or building  go to the cinema


 movement to a place or country  go to London / Ireland
 for bed  go to bed

 into  enter a room / a building  go into the kitchen / the


house

 towards  movement in the direction of  go 5 steps towards the house


something (but not directly to it)

 onto  movement to the top of something  jump onto the table

 from  in the sense of where from  a flower from the garden

Preposition Place Nature


In Place having some boundary (physical or virtual boundary)
Examples.
In hall
In school
In a building
In a box
In a car
In library
In garden
In America
In room
In cupboard
On Surface of something.
Examples.
On a table
On blackboard
On a page
On the wall
On the roof
On a map
At Specific Place.

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Examples.
At the entrance
At the bottom of glass
At front of the chair
At bus stop
At the edge of roof

Examples
She lives in New York.
Students study in library.
The wedding ceremony will be held in the hall.
There are some books on the table.
The teacher wrote a sentence on blackboard.
He was flying kite on the roof.
Her parents were waiting for her at the entrance of school
There was a huge gathering at bus stop.
His house is at the end of street.

Preposition for Direction. (to, toward, through, into)


Prepositions like to, towards, through, into are used to describe the direction. Following
examples will help in better understanding.

Examples.
She went to the library.
He jumped into the river.
He ran away when he felt that someone was coming toward him.

Preposition for Agent. (By)


Preposition for agent is used for a thing which is cause of another thing in the sentence. Such
prepositions are by, with etc. Following examples will help in better understanding.

Examples.
This book is written by Shakespeare.
The work was completed by him.
The room was decorated by her.
The tub is filled with water.

Preposition for device, instrument or machine.

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Different preposition are used by different devices, instruments or machines. e.g. by, with, on etc.
Following examples will help in better understanding.

Examples.
She comes by bus daily.
He opened the lock with key.

Prepositional Verb
A prepositional phrase is a combination of a verb and a preposition. It is just a verb followed by
a preposition.

Prepositional Phrase = Verb + Preposition

Some verbs need particular prepositions to be used after them in sentences having a direct object.
Such a verb with its required preposition is called a prepositional phrase.

For example

He knocks at the door.

In above sentence “knock at” is prepositional phrase which contains a verb “knock” and a
preposition “at”. Without the use of correct preposition after a prepositional verb in a sentence,
the sentence is considered to be grammatically wrong. For example if we say, “he knocks the
door”, it is wrong because it lacks the required preposition “at”. So the correct sentence is “he
knocks at the door”.

Prepositional Verbs are transitive and they have a direct object in sentence. Some of the
frequently used preposition verb are, laugh at, knock at, listen to, look at, look for, look after,
wait for, agree to, agree with, talk about, talked to

Examples.
She is listening to music.
She looked at the blackboard.
We believe in God.
They were waiting for the teacher.
Do you agree with me?
Do you agree to my proposal?
Someone is knocking at the door.
You should not rely on her.

List of phrasal verbs

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1. To bear away
2. To blow out
3. To break down
4. To bring about
5. To bring forward
6. To call at
7. To carry out
8. To come off
9. To do away
10. To fall back
11. To get over
12. To give up
13. To go out
14. To bear with
15. To blow away
16. To break out
17. To bring up
18. To bring over
19. To call on
20. To cast aside
21. To cut down
22. To do up
23. To fall out
24. To get through
25. To give to
26. To hold back
27. To blow up
28. To break away
29. To break into
30. To bring forth
31. To call for
32. To call off
33. To come about
34. To cut in
35. To do without
36. To get away
37. To give in
38. To go off
39. To hold on
40. To hold with
41. To keep off
42. To lay down
43. To look over
44. To make out
45. To pass over
46. To put off
47. To put forward
48. To run over
49. To take down
50. To turn down

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51. To back out
52. To hand over
53. To let down
54. To tell upon
55. To carry on
56. To fall into
57. To keep back
58. To lay by
59. To look for
60. To make up
61. To pull down
62. To put out
63. To run after
64. To take after
65. To take to
66. To turn up
67. To deal with
68. To hang over
69. To see off
70. To work out
71. To cast away
72. To get away
73. To keep from
74. To look after
75. To make away
76. To pass away
77. To put by
78. To put up with
79. To run down
80. To take in
81. To take up
82. To turn to
83. To die out
84. To knock down
85. To stand out
86. To carry off
87. To cut off
88. To get off

KINDS OF PREPOSITIONS

Prepositions are classified as simple or compound.

(I) Simple Prepositions

A Simple preposition consists of a single word.

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Examples:

 The book is on the table.


 He is in the room.
 The train arrived at the station.

(II) Compound Prepositions

A compound preposition consists of more than one word.

Examples:

 He is sitting in front of me
 Fresh vegetables are available throughout the year.
 He jumps into the river.

Rules for Prepositions

The following table contains rules for some of the most frequently used prepositions in English:

THE CONJUNCTION

Definition: It is a word that joins words or sentences.

Examples:

 You and I play cricket.


 I could not come because I was ill.
 Ali is a student as well as a player.

In the above given examples, the words and, because and as well as are the conjunctions.

Note : Conjunctions must carefully be distinguished from relative pronoun and relative adverbs
on the one hand and from prepositions on the other, as

This is the house that was sold by me.

In this sentence the word that is relative pronoun. Conjunction

Conjunction is a word that connects words, phrases, clauses or sentences. e.g. and, but, or, nor,
for, yet, so, although, because, since, unless, when, while, where are some conjunctions.

Examples.

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She tried but did not succeed.
He does not go to school because he is ill.
John and Marry went to the cinema.
He thought for a moment and kicked the ball.
I waited for him but he didn’t come.
You will be ill unless you quit smoking.
We didn’t go to the market because it was raining outside.

Single word Conjunction: Conjunction having one word


e.g. and, but, yet, because etc.

Compound Conjunction: Conjunction having two or more words


e.g. as long as, as far as, as well as, in order that, even if, so that etc

Types of Conjunction.
There are three types of conjunctions

 Coordinating Conjunction
 Subordinate Conjunction
 Correlative Conjunction

Coordinating Conjunction.
Coordinating conjunction (called coordinators) joins words, phrases (which are similar in
importance and grammatical structure) or independent clauses.

Coordinating conjunctions are short words i.e. and, but, or, nor, for, so, yet.

Coordinating Conjunction.
Coordinating conjunctions (called coordinators) join words, phrases (which are similar in
importance and grammatical structure) or independent clauses.

Coordinating conjunctions are short words i.e. and, but, or, nor, for, so, yet.

Coordination conjunction joins two equal parts of a sentence,

 Word + word
 Phrase + phrase
 Clause + clause
 Independent clause + independent clause.

Examples.

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Word + word: She likes tea and coffee.
Phrase + phrase: He may be in the room or on the roof.
Clauses + clause: What you eat and what you drink affect your health.
Independent clause + independent clause: The cat jumped over the mouse and the
mouse ran away.

In the following examples, coordinating conjunctions join two words of same importance.

She likes pizza and cake. (pizza and cake)


I bought a table and a chair. (table and chair)
He may come by bus or car. (bus or car)

In the following examples, conjunction joins two independent clauses. Independent clause is a
clause which can stand alone as a sentence and have complete thought on its own.

I called him but he didn’t pick up the phone.


I advised him to quit smoking, but he didn’t act upon my advice.
He became ill, so he thought he should go to a doctor.
He shouted for help, but no body helped her.
He wants to become a doctor, so he is studying Biology.

Coordinating conjunctions always come between the words or clauses that they join. A comma is
used with conjunction if the clauses are long or not well balanced.

If both clauses have same subjects, the subject of 2nd clause may not be written again. See the
following examples

She worked hard and succeeded.


The player stopped and kicked the ball.
He became ill but didn’t go to doctor.
Marry opened the book and started to study.

Subordinating Conjunctions.
Subordinating conjunctions (called subordinators) join subordinate clause (dependent clause) to
main clause.

e.g. although, because, if, before, how, once, since, till, until, when, where, whether, while,
after, no matter how, provided that, as soon as, even if,

MAIN CLAUSE + SUBORDINATE CLAUSE


SUBORDINATE CLAUSE + MAIN CLAUSE

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Subordinate clause is combination of words (subject and verb) which cannot stand alone as a
complete sentence. Subordinate clause is also called dependent clause because it is dependent on
main clause. Subordinate clause usually starts with relative pronoun (which, who, that, whom
etc). Subordinate clause gives more information in relation to main clause to complete the
thought.

Subordinating conjunction joins subordinate clause to main clause. Subordinating conjunction


always come before the subordinate clause, no matter the subordinate clause is before main
clause or after the main clause.
Examples.
He does not go to school because he is ill.
I will call you after I reach my home.
I bought some cookies while I was coming from my office.
They played football although it was raining.
Although it was raining, they played foot ball.
As far as I know, this exam is very difficult.
I have gone to every concert since I have lived in New York.
You can get high grades in exam provided that you work hard for it.

Correlative Conjunction.
These are paired conjunctions which join words, phrases or clauses which have reciprocal or
complementary relationship.

The most commonly used correlative conjunctions are as follows

Either … or
Neither … nor
Whether … or
Both … and
Not only … but also

Examples.

Neither John nor Marry passed the exam.


Give me either a cup or a glass.
Both red and yellow are attractive colours.
I like neither tea nor coffee.
He will be either in the room or in the hall.
John can speak not only English but also French.

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Kinds of Conjunctions

Conjunctions are mainly divided into two main categories:

(i) Co-ordinating conjunctions

(ii) Subordinating conjunctions

(1) Co-ordinating Conjunctions

Co-ordinating conjunctions join the clauses of equal rank.

. Examples:

We play cricket and they play hockey.

It is time to go therefore let us start.

In the given examples and and therefore are the coordinating conjunctions. Coordinating
conjunctions are further divided into four kinds. Let’s discuss each kind with examples.

(i) CUMULATIVE CONJUNCTIONS

These conjunctions merely add one statement to other statement.

Cumulative conjunctions are; And, Both… and, Also, Not only … but also, As well as, Too

Examples :
Night came on. The room grew dark.
Night came on and the room grew dark.
He is a fool. He is a knave.
He is a fool and he is a knave.
He is not only a fool but also a knave.
He is a fool as well as a knave.

(ii) ALTERNATIVE CONJUNCTIONS

These conjunctions describe or express choice between two alternatives.

Alternative conjunctions are; Either … or, Else, Otherwise, Or

Examples :
Make haste. You will be late.
Make haste or you will be late.
Come in. Go out.
Come in or go out.
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Either come in or go out.
Do not be a borrower. Do not be a lender.
Be neither a borrower nor a lender.

(iii) ADVERSATIVE CONJUNCTIONS

These conjunctions describe or express opposition or contrast between two statements.


Alternative conjunctions are; But, Still, Yet, However, Only, Whereas, While

Examples:
He is slow. He is sure.
He is but he is sure.
I was annoyed. I kept quite.

I was annoyed, still I kept quite.


He failed. He persevered.

He failed, nevertheless he persevered.


He will not oppose my design. I can not approve of it.
He will not oppose my design; however, I can not approve of it.
He was all right. He was fatigued.
He was all right; only He was fatigued.

(iv) ILLATIVE CONJUNCTIONS

These conjunctions describe or express an inference.

Illative conjunctions are; For, So, Therefore, Then

Examples :

He was obstinate. He was punished.

He was obstinate; therefore he was punished.


I can not see. It is very dark
It is very dark so I can not see.
I can not see for it is very dark.
It is raining heavily. I will take an umbrella with me.
It is raining heavily, so I will take an umbrella with me.

(2) Subordinating Conjunctions

Subordinating conjunctions join the subordinate or dependent clause to a principal clause.

Subordinating conjunctions are; That, Unless, Before, If, As, etc

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THE INTERJECTION

It is a word that shows sudden feeling or emotions.

Examples: Ah, Alas, Hurrah, On.

Articles
English language has two articles, “the and a/an”. An article is used for a noun. An article like
an adjective modifies a noun.

For example, a book, the book, a cup, the cup, an umbrella, the umbrella
The article “the” is called definite article and the article “a/an” is called indefinite article.

Types of Articles
There are two articles in English language.

1. Indefinite article: a/an


2. Definite article: the

An article is used before a noun or an adjective modifying a noun.


Definite Article: (the)
The definite article "the" is used for a definite, specific or particular noun.

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Example. He bought the shirt.

The article “the” before the noun “shirt” in above sentence means that the shirt, he bought, is a
specific or particular shirt and not any shirt.

Indefinite Article: (a/an)


The definite article “a/an” is used for indefinite, non-specific or non-particular (common) noun.

Example. He bought a shirt.

The article “a” before shirt in above sentence means that the shirt he bought is any shirt and not a
specific shirt.

Rules for using Indefinite Article (a/an)


The article form “a” is used before a word (singular) beginning with a consonant, or a vowel
with a consonant sound.
e.g. a book, a cat, a camera, a university, a European

The article form “an” is used before a word (singular) beginning with a vowel (a, e, i, o, u) or
consonant with vowel sound (or beginning with mute h ).
e.g. an apple, an elephant, an umbrella, an hour,

1. Before a singular noun which is countable


e.g. He bought a book
She is eating an apple.

2. Before a singular noun which refers to a class of things.


e.g. An orange is rich in vitamins.

3. Before a name of a profession


e.g. She wants to be a doctor
He is an engineer.

4. For certain expressions of quantity


e.g. a lot of, a few, a couple, a dozen

5. For certain numbers.


e.g. a hundred, a thousand, a million

6. Before a singular, countable noun in exclamation.


e.g. What a beautiful flower!
What a nice shirt!

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7. Article a/ an is not used before uncountable nouns
e.g. water, milk, sand etc

Rules for using definite Article (the)


The article “the” can be used both before a singular and plural noun according to the following
grammatical rules. e.g. the book, the books

1. Before the place, object or group of object which is unique or considered to be unique and
geographical region and points on globe.
e.g. the earth, the moon, the sky, the stars, the north pole, the equator

2. For a noun which becomes definite or particular because it is already mentioned and is
being mentioned a second time.
e.g. The teacher helped a student and the student became happy.

3. For a noun made specific or definite in a clause or a phrase.


e.g. The old lady, The girl with blue eyes, The boy that I saw, The nice red shirt

4. Before superlatives, and first, second,.. etc, and only


e.g. The best day, The only method, the second month,

5. Before a phrase composed of a proper and common noun


e.g. The New York city, The river Nile, The library of Congress

6. Before the names of organizations


e.g. The Association of Chartered Accountants, The World Health Organization

7. Before names of scientific principles, theories, laws etc. e.g. the Pythagorean theorem, the
laws of Newton, The Fahrenheit Scale. But no article will be used for these names if written
in forms like, Newton’s Law, Dalton’s Law of Partial Pressures, Hook’s Law of Elasticity

8. Article “the” is not used for names of universities if written in forms like Oxford
University, Yale University, Columbia University. But article “the” is used if names of
university are written in forms like The University of Oxford, The University of Yale, The
University of Toronto.

9. Article “the” is not used for names of countries of places. e.g. New York, America,
Mexico, Japan, London. Butarticle “the” is used for a name, if it expresses a group of
place, states, or land. e.g. The United States, The Philippines, The Netherlands

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Word
noun \ˈwərd\

Simple Definition of word

 : a sound or combination of sounds that has a meaning and is spoken or written

Sentence:
A group of words which expresses a complete idea or thought is called a sentence.

Example

He bought a car.

The above group of word expresses a complete idea. Such combination of words is called a
sentence.

Now, look at another group of words “book a read him”. This group of words does not make a
complete sense so it cannot be called a sentence.

A sentence is a combination of words including a subject and a verb which express a complete
idea. A sentence begins with a capital letter and ends with a period, question mark or
exclamation mark.

Examples
He goes to school.
She is eating an apple.
My name is John.
What are you doing? Who are you?
What a beautiful flower!

Subject and Predicate


A sentence is group of words which expresses a complete thought
i.e. He ate an apple.

A sentence consists of two parts i.e. subject and predicate.


Sentence = Subject + Predicate

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Subject
The part of sentence which performs some action in a sentence is called Subject. A subject is
sometimes also defined as the part of sentence which is being spoken about in sentence
(especially in sentences having a static verb). A subject has a close relationship to what is being
discussed in sentence. A subject can be a noun, pronoun, noun clause or noun phrase.

Examples
He is flying a kite.
John is driving a car.
She ate an apple
I wrote him a letter.

(B) PARTS OF A SENTENCE

A sentence has two parts; Subject and Predicate. Ali goes to school.

Subject Predicate

Lahore is a big city.

Subject Predicate

1.

THE SUBJECT

Definition: A word or a group of words in a sentence about which any information is given
called subject.

Kinds of Subjects

(i) Complete Subject: The subject with all its words is called complete subject. A complete
subject may have one or more than one word. Examples:

 The Principal of our college is a rich man.


 The manager of our factory announces bonus for the labour.
 Lahore is called the city of gardens.

In the above given examples the italicized; The principal of our college, The manager of our
factory and Lahore are complete subjects. (ii) Simple Subjects Definition: The key word in the
complete subject is called simple subject. Examples:

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 The Principal of our college is a rich man.
 The manager of our factory announces bonus for the labour.

In the above given examples the italicized; The principal and The manager are simple subjects.

(iii) Compound Subject Def :

A compound subject consists of two or more words which are joined by using conjunction.
Examples:

 Ali and Aslam are good players.


 The principal and the members of staff are attending the meeting.
 Her shoes and ankles were covered with mud.

In the above given examples the italicized; Ali and Aslam, The principal and the members of
staff and Her shoes and ankles are compound subjects. 2.

THE PREDICATE Def : The part of the sentence that says something about the subject is
called predicate. Ali goes to school.Subject Predicate

Kinds of Predicates

(i) Complete Predicate Def : The Predicate with all its words is called complete predicate. A
complete predicate may have one or more than one word. Examples:

 They laughed.
 They built a new house.
 Ali wrote a letter.

In the above given examples the italicized laughed, built a new house and wrote a letter are
complete predicates.

(ii) Simple Predicate Def : The verb in the complete predicate is called simple predicate.
Examples:

 He prefers milk to tea.


 They built a new house.
 Ali wrote a letter.

In the above given examples the italicized; prefers, built and wrote are simple predicates.

(iii) Compound Predicate Definition: A compound predicate consists of two verbs which are
joined by conjunction. Examples :

 Ali wrote the letter and posted it.

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 We completed our work and went home.
 He wrote a book and published it.

In the above given examples the italicized wrote the letter and posted it, completed our work
and went home and wrote a book and published it are compound predicates.

The part of sentence which tells about the subject is called predicate.

Examples
He is flying a kite.
John is driving a car.
She ate an apple
I wrote him a letter.

Subject refers to the actor of a sentence. The part of a sentence about which something is
told in a sentence is the subject of sentence. While the part of a sentence that tells something
about subject is the predicate of sentence.

Example.

In the above example, “she” is a subject because it performs an action of washing clothes. We
can also say that “she” is a subject because something (that she is washing her clothes) is told
about it in sentence. While the rest part of the sentence “is washing her clothes” is predicate of
sentence because it tells something (washing her clothes) about the subject.

Sentence
A group of word that expresses a complete idea or thought is called a sentence.
Example.
He bought a book.
The above group of words “He bought a book” expresses a complete though hence it is a
sentence. A sentence begins with capital letter and ends with a period “ .”, question mark”?” or
exclamation mark. ” !”

CLASSIFICATION BY PURPOSE

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Your sentences reflect your purpose as a speaker or a writer. According to their purpose,
sentences may be classified as declarative, imperative, interrogative, negative, exclamatory and
optative.

(i) Declarative Sentence

Definition: A declarative sentence makes assertion or states an idea without expecting a reply.
Examples:

 He goes to school daily.


 We read a book.
 He offers his prayer.

A sentence that makes a statement or assertion is called an assertive or declarative sentence.


Assertive sentence ends with a period.

Examples
He goes to school
He likes to play chess.
They are singing a song.

Interrogative Sentence
A sentence that asks a question is called an interrogative sentence. Interrogative sentence ends
with question mark.

Examples.
Where are you going?
Do you use your laptop?

Interrogative Sentence

Definition: An interrogative sentence asks a question and is always followed by a question


mark. Examples:

 Where do you live?


 How does she touch you?

Have you attended the classes

Imperative Sentence
Imperative Sentence

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Definition: An imperative sentence gives a command, makes a request or expresses a piece of
advice. Examples:

 Polish the shoes.


 Open the door.
 Untie the knot.

A sentence that expresses a request, command or advice is called an imperative sentence.

Examples
Open the door. (an order)
Please help me. (a request)

Exclamatory Sentence
A sentence that expresses strong feelings or emotions is called an exclamatory sentence. These sentences
express surprise, joy, sorrow, appreciation, love excitement, frustration, anger etc. An exclamatory
sentence ends with exclamation mark.

Exclamatory Sentence Definition: An exclamatory sentence expresses strong feelings of joy,


sorrow and wonder.

Examples:

 Hurrah! We have won the match.


 Oh! Now the battery is dead.

Alas! He is dead.

Examples
What a beautiful flower it is!
How nicely she is singing!
That is fantastic!
Hurrah! We won the match!

Negative Sentence Definition: A negative sentence is used to negate something.


Examples:

 He is not reading a book.


 It is not my book.

We did not write a letter.

Optative Sentence

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Definition: An optative sentence is used to pray or wish. Examples:

 May God bless you!


 May you live long!
 Would that I were your friend.

Clause
“A clause is a group of related words containing a subject and a predicate”
For example, he laughed.

A clause refers to a group of related words (within a sentence or itself as an independent


sentence) which has both subject and predicate.

Example
I will meet him in office.

The part of above sentence “I will meet him” is a clause because it has a subject (I) and a
predicate (will meet him). On the other hand, the rest part of above sentence “in office” lacks
both subject and predicate (verb) such group of word is called phrase.

A clause may stand as a simple sentence or may join another clause to make a sentence.
Therefore, a sentence consists of one, two or more clauses.

Examples.
• He is sleeping. (One clause)
• The kids were laughing at the joker. (One clause)
• The teacher asked a question, but no one answered. (Two clauses)
• I am happy, because I won a prize. (Two clauses)
• I like Mathematics, but my brother likes Biology,
because he wants to become a doctor. (Three clauses)

Clauses are divided into main clause (also called independent clause) and subordinate clause
(also called dependent clauses).

Types of Clauses
There are two major types of clauses main (or independent) clause and subordinate (or
dependant) clause.

Main Clause and Subordinate Clause – Comparison

He is buying a shirt which looks very nice.


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The above sentence has two clauses “He is buying a shirt” and “which looks very nice”. The
clause “He is buying a shirt” expresses a complete thought and can alone stand as a sentence.
Such a clause is called main or independent clause.

While the clause “which looks very nice” does not express a complete thought and can’t stand as
a sentence. It depends on another clause (main clause) to express complete idea. Such a clause is
called subordinate or dependent clause.

Main or Independent Clause:


“Main (or independent) clause is a clause that expresses a complete thought and can stand as a
sentence.

Examples
I met the boy who had helped me.
She is wearing a shirt which looks nice.
The teacher asked a question but no one answered.
He takes medicine because he suffers from fever.
He became angry and smashed the vase into peaces.

In the above sentences each underlined part shows main clause. It expresses complete though
and can stand as a sentence that is why a main or an independent clause is normally referred as a
simple sentence.

Subordinate or dependent Clause


Subordinate (or independent) clause is a clause which does not express complete thought and
depends on another clause (main clause) to express complete thought. Subordinate clause does
not express complete idea and can’t stand as a sentence. A sentence having a subordinate clause
must have a main clause.

Example
He likes Chinese rice which tastes good.

The clause “which tastes good” in above sentence is a subordinate clause because it does not
express complete thought and can’t stand as a sentence. It depends on main clause (he likes
Chinese rise) to express complete thought.

Examples.
I met the boy who had helped me.
I bought a table that costs $ 100.
He takes medicine because he suffers from fever.
The teacher asked a question but no one answered.

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Subordinate (or dependent) clauses are further divided into tree types,
1. Noun Phrase, 2. Adjective Phrase, 3. Adverb Phrase

Types of Subordinate Clause


Functions of Subordinate Clause.

A subordinate (dependent) clause may function as a noun, an adjective or an adverb in sentence.


On the basis of their function in a sentence, subordinate clauses can be divided in to following
types.

1. Noun Clause
2. Adjective Clause.
3. Adverb Clause

Noun Clause
“A dependent clause that functions as a noun in a sentence is called noun clause.”
A noun clause performs same function like a noun in a sentence.

Example
What he did made a problem for his family.

In above sentence the clause “what he did” functions as a noun, hence it is a noun clause. A noun
clause works as a noun that acts as a subject, object, or predicate in a sentence. A noun clause
starts with words “that, what, whatever, who, whom, whoever, whomever”.

Examples
Whatever you learn will help you in future. (noun clause as a subject)
What you said made me laugh. (noun clause as a subject)
He knows that he will pass the test. (noun clause as an object)
Now I realize what he would have thought. (noun clause as an object)

Adjective Clause
“A dependent clause that functions as an adjective in a sentence is called adjective
clause.”
An adjective clause works like adjective in a sentence. The function of an adjective is to modify
(describe) a noun or a pronoun. Similarly a noun clause modifies a noun or a pronoun.

Example
He wears a shirt which looks nice.

The clause “which looks nice” in above sentence is an adjective clause because it modifies noun

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“shirt” in the sentence.
An adjective clause always precedes the noun it modifies.

Examples.
I met the boy who had helped me.
An apple that smells bad is rotten.
The book which I like is helpful in preparation for test.
The house where I live consists of four rooms.
The person who was shouting needed help.

Adjective clause begins with relative pronoun (that, who, whom, whose, which, or whose) and
is also relative clause.

Adjective (relative) clauses can be restrictive clause or nonrestrictive clause

Restrictive and Nonrestrictive Clauses


Adjective (relative) clauses can be restrictive clause or nonrestrictive clause. A
restrictive clause limits the meaning of preceding noun or pronoun. A nonrestrictive clause tells
us something about preceding noun or pronoun but does not limit the meaning of preceding noun
or pronoun.

Example

•The student in the class who studied a lot passed the test. (Restrictive clause)

•The student in the class, who had attended all the lectures, passed the test.
(Nonrestrictive clause)

In the first sentence the clause “who studied a lot” restrict information to preceding
noun(student), it means that there is only one student in the class who studied a lot, hence it is a
restrictive clause.

In the second sentence the clause “who had attended all the lectures” gives us information about
preceding noun but does not limit this information to the preceding noun. It means there can be
several other students in the class who had attended all the lectures.

A comma is always used before a restrictive clause in a sentence and also after nonrestrictive
clause if it is within a main clause. “That” is usually used to introduce a restrictive clause while
“which” is used to introduce a nonrestrictive clause.

Example
The table that costs $ 100 is made of steel. (Restrictive clause)
The table, which costs $ 100, is made of steel. (Nonrestrictive clause)

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Adverb Clause
“A dependent clause that functions as an adverb in a sentence is called adverb clause”
An adverb clause like an adverb modifies a verb, adjective clause or other adverb clause in a
sentence. It modifies (describes) the situation in main clause in terms of “time, frequency
(how often), cause and effect, contrast, condition, intensity (to what extent).”

The subordinating conjunctions used for adverb clauses are as follows.

Time: when, whenever, since, until, before, after, while, as, by the time, as soon as
Cause and effect: because, since, now that, as long as, so, so that,
Contrast: although, even, whereas, while, though
Condition: if, unless, only if, whether or not, even if, providing or provided that, in case

Examples,
Don’t go before he comes.
He takes medicine because he is ill.
Although he tried a lot, he couldn’t climb up the tree.
Unless you study for the test, you can’t pass it.
I will go to the school unless it rains.
You are safe as long as you drive carefully.
You can achieve anything provided that you struggle for it.

Phrase
“A phrase is defined as a group of related words that lacks both subject and verb.”

A phrase is a part of a sentence. It is a group of words (within a sentence) that does not contain
both subject and verb, and does not express a complete idea.

Example.
He is standing near a wall.

The part of above sentence “near a wall” is a phrase because it does not contain subject and verb,
and does not express a complete idea.

A phrase does not include both subject and verb at a same time and does not make a complete
sense, hence a phrase cannot stand as a sentence on its own.

If a group of words include both subject and verb then it becomes a clause, so the difference in a
clause and a phrase is that a clause contains subject and verb but a phrase does not contain
subject and verb.

Here are some examples of phrases.

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He is laughing at a joker.
She is making tea for the guests.
I saw a girl with blue eyes.
He always behaves in a strange way.
The boy in the red shirt is my cousin.
The boy, with a book in his hand, won a prize.

A sentence may consist of one or more phrases.

For example, The boy in the red shirt behaves in a strange way.

A phrase functions as a noun, adverb, or adjective in a sentence, therefore a phrase is also


defined as “a group of words (lacking subject and verb), that functions as a single part of speech,
in a sentence.”

Examples
He is wearing a nice read shirt. (as a noun/object)
The people at the party were dancing. (as a noun/subject)
The man in the room is our teacher. (as adjective, modifies noun man)
She gave me a glass full of water. (as adjective, modifies noun glass)
He always behaves in a strange way. (as adverb, modifies verb behave)
He returned in a short while. (as adverb, modifies verb return)

On the basis of their functions and constructions, phrases are divided into various types i.e. noun
phrase, verb phrase, adverb phrase, adjective phrase, appositive phrase, infinite phrase,
participle phrase and gerund phrase.

Types of Phrases
A phrase is a group of related words (within a sentence) without both subject and verb. For
example, He is laughing at the joker.

A phrase functions as a noun, verb, adverb, adjective or preposition in a sentence. The function
of a phrase depends on its construction (words it contains). On the basis of their functions and
constructions, phrases are divided into various types i.e. noun phrase, verb phrase, adverb
phrase, adjective phrase, appositive phrase, infinite phrase, participle phrase and gerund
phrase.

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Noun Phrase
A noun phrase consists of a noun and other related words (usually modifiers and determiners)
which modify the noun. It functions like a noun in a sentence.

A noun phrase consists of a noun as the head word and other words (usually modifiers and
determiners) which come after or before the noun. The whole phrase works as a noun in a
sentence.
Noun Phrase = noun + modifiers (the modifiers can be after or before noun)

Examples.
He is wearing a nice red shirt. (as noun/object)
She brought a glass full of water. (as noun/object)
The boy with brown hair is laughing. (as noun/subject)
A man on the roof was shouting. (as noun/subject)

A sentence can also contain more noun phrases.


For example. The girl with blue eyes bought a beautiful chair.

Prepositional phrase.
A prepositional phrase consists of a preposition, object of preposition(noun or pronoun) and
may also consist of other modifiers.
e.g. on a table, near a wall, in the room, at the door, under a tree

A prepositional phrase starts with a preposition and mostly ends with a noun or pronoun.
Whatever prepositional phrase ends with is called object of preposition. A prepositional phrase
functions as an adjective or adverb in a sentence.

Examples.
A boy on the roof is singing a song. (As adjective)
The man in the room is our teacher. (As adjective)
She is shouting in a loud voice. (As adverb)
He always behaves in a good manner. (As adverb)

Adjective Phrase.
An adjective phrase is a group of words that functions like an adjective in a sentence. It
consists of adjectives, modifier and any word that modifies a noun or pronoun.
An adjective phrase functions like an adjective to modify (or tell about) a noun or a pronoun in a
sentence.

Examples.
He is wearing a nice red shirt. (modifies shirt)

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The girl with brown hair is singing a song. (modifies girl)
He gave me a glass full of water. (modifies glass)
A boy from America won the race. (modifies boy)

Prepositional phrases and participle phrases also function as adjectives so we can also call them
adjective phrases when they function as adjective. In the above sentence “The girl with brown
hair is singing a song”, the phrase “with brown hair” is a prepositional phrase but it functions as
an adjective.

Adverb Phrase
An adverb phrase is a group of words that functions as an adverb in a sentence. It consists of
adverbs or other words (preposition, noun, verb, modifiers) that make a group with works like an
adverb in a sentence.
An adverb phrase functions like an adverb to modify a verb, an adjective or another adverb.

Examples
He always behaves in a good manner. (modifies verb behave)
They were shouting in a loud voice. (modifies verb shout)
She always drives with care. (modifies verb drive)
He sat in a corner of the room. (modifies verb sit)
He returned in a short while. (modifies verb return)

A prepositional phrase can also act as an adverb phrase. For example in above sentence “He
always behaves in a good manner”, the phrase “in a good manner” is a prepositional phrase but it
acts as adverb phrase here.

Verb Phrase
A verb phrase is a combination of main verb and its auxiliaries (helping verbs) in a sentence.

Examples.
He is eating an apple.
She has finished her work.
You should study for the exam.
She has been sleeping for two hours.

According to generative grammar, a verb phrase can consist of main verb, its auxiliaries, its
complements and other modifiers. Hence it can refer to the whole predicate of a sentence.
Example. You should study for the exam.

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Infinitive Phrase
An infinitive phrase consist of an infinitive(to + simple form of verb) and modifiers or other
words associated to the infinitive. An infinitive phrase always functions as an adjective, adverb
or a noun in a sentence.

Examples.
He likes to read books. (As noun/object)
To earn money is a desire of everyone. (As noun/subject)
He shouted to inform people about fire. (As adverb, modifies verb shout)
He made a plan to buy a car. (As adjective, modifies noun plan)

Gerund Phrase
A gerund phrase consists of a gerund (verb + ing) and modifiers or other words associated with
the gerund. A gerund phrase acts as a noun in a sentence.

Examples
I like writing good essays. (As noun/object)
She started thinking about the problem. (As noun/object)
Sleeping late in night is not a good habit. (As noun/subject)
Weeping of a baby woke him up. (As noun/subject)Participle Phrase

A participle phrase consists of a present participle (verb + ing), a past participle (verb
ending in -ed or other form in case of irregular verbs) and modifiers or other associate words. A
participle phrase is separated by commas. It always acts as an adjective in a sentence.

Examples
The kids, making a noise, need food. (Modifies kids)
I received a letter, mentioning about my exam. (Modifies letter)
The table, made of steel, is too expensive. (Modifies table)
We saw a car, damaged in an accident. (Modifies car)

Absolute Phrase
Absolute phrase (also called nominative phrase) is a group of words including a noun or pronoun
and a participle as well as any associated modifiers. Absolute phrase modifies (give information
about) the entire sentence. It resembles a clause but it lack a true finite verb. It is separated by a
comma or pairs of commas from the rest sentence.

Examples
He looks sad, his face expressing worry.
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She was waiting for her friend, her eyes on the clock.
John is painting a wall, his shirt dirty with paint

Phrase and Clause

Comparison

Definitions
A clause is defined as a group of related words that contains a subject and predicate (verb).
e.g. he came.

A phrase is defined as a group of related words that does not contain a subject and a verb.
e.g. on the table.

Consider the following example.

He is laughing at a joker.

The above sentence has two parts “he is laughing” and “at a joker”.

The first part of the sentence “he is laughing” is a clause because it has a subject (he) and a
predicate (is laughing).

The second part of the sentence “at a joker” is a phrase because it does not contain subject and
verb.

The difference between a clause and a phrase is that a clause consists of both subject and verb,
but a phrase lacks a subject and verb.

Examples.
The underlined part of each of following sentences shows a clause, while the rest part (non-
underlined) of each sentence shows a phrase.

He reached school in time.


I was standing near a wall.
They are singing in a loud voice.
She made tea for the guests.
He a bought a book for his friend.
I will meet him in my office.
You look handsome in this picture.

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Kinds of Sentences According to Structure
A sentence may consist of one clause (independent clause) or more clauses (independent and
dependent clauses). An independent clause is also called main clause. A dependent clause is also
called subordinate clause.

On the basis of numbers of clause and types of clauses present in a sentence, sentences are
divided in to four kinds.

According to structure we may classify sentences into four kinds, simple, compound, complex
and compound-complex.

(i) Simple Sentence


Definition: A simple sentence has one independent clause and no subordinate clause and it
has only one subject and one verb. Examples:

 He went to school.
 We played cricked.
 I wrote my first novel last year.

It has been raining since morning

A simple sentence consists of only one independent clause containing a subject and a verb
and it expresses complete thought. There is no dependent clause.
“An independent clause (also called main clause) is called a simple sentence.”

Examples.
He laughed.
She ate an apple.
They are sleeping.
I bought a book.

Compound Sentence
A compound sentence consists of at least two independent clauses joined by coordinating conjunctions.
There is no dependent clause in compound sentence. The coordinating conjunctions use to join
independent clauses are “for, and, nor, but, or, yet, so”. Independent clauses can also be joined by a
semicolon (;). A comma may or may not be used before the conjunction in compound sentence.

Definition: A compound sentence has two or more independent clauses but no subordinate
clause. A compound sentence contains two independent clauses joined by a coordinator. The
coordinators are as follows: for, and, nor, but, or, yet, so.

Examples:

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 I came and he went.
 We played hockey and they played cricket.
 Ali waited for the train, but the train was late.
 Consumers buy fewer goods when prices rise.

Examples
I like an apple but my brother likes a mango.
I helped him and he became happy.
He failed two times yet he is not disappointed.
I asked him a question; he replied correctly.

Complex Sentence
A complex sentence consists of one independent clause and at least one dependent clause joined by
subordinating conjunction (because, although, since, when, unless etc) or relative pronoun (that, who,
which etc).

Definition: A complex sentence has one independent clause and at least one subordinate
clause. A complex sentence always has a subordinator such as because, since, after, although, or
when or a relative pronoun such as that, who, or which.

Examples:

 He is the man who stole my pen.


 He said that he had never visited the zoo.

There are dreams that cannot die

Examples
I met the boy who had helped me.
She is wearing a shirt which looks nice.
You can’t pass the test unless you study for it.

If a complex sentence begins with an independent clause, a comma is not used between clauses
in a complex sentence. If a complex sentence begins with dependent clause then a comma is use
after dependent clause in a complex sentence. See the following example.

He is playing well although he is ill.


Although he is ill, he is playing well.

Complex - Compound Sentence


A complex-compound sentence consists of at least two independents and one or more dependent
clauses. It is also sometimes called compound-complex Sentence.

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Compound-Complex / Multiple Sentence

Definition: A compound complex sentence has at least two independent clauses and one or
more subordinate clauses. It is also called multiple sentences. Examples:

 I went to my village and met my old friends who reminded me my childhood.


 Life is a race and we are runners which most of us understand.
 When he opened the door, he found an old man there who asked her if she could give him
some money.

Examples
1. He went to college and I went to a market where I bought a book.
2. I like Mathematics but my bother likes Biology
because he wants to be a doctor.

In the first sentence of above sentence, there are two independent clauses “he went to college”
and “I went to a market”, and one dependent clause “where I bought a book”.

Interjection
Interjections are short words which show strong feeling or emotions.

e.g. oh, ah, wow, hurrah, alas, ouch, Oops, aha, hey, etc

Interjections are short exclamations which express strong or sudden feeling of

 • Joy
 • Sorrow
 • Wonder

Exclamation sign is used after interjections.

Examples.

Hurrah! We won the competition.


Ouch ! It hurts.
Wow! What a nice shirt.
Hey ! what are you doing?
Alas! My parents are dead.
Oh! I forgot to bring my purse.

Besides these specific interjections, a normal word can also be used as interjection if it is used to
express feeling or emotion.

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No! Don’t touch it, its hot.
What! I am selected for the job?
Help! I am about to fall.
Well ! I will try my level best.

Tenses ( Etymology, History)


The English noun tense comes from Old French tens "time" (spelled temps in modern French through
deliberate archaisation), from Latin tempus "time".It is not related to the adjective tense, which comes
from Latin tensus, the perfect passive participle of tendere "stretch".

Tense
Definition: An aspect of verb which tells the time of an action is called tense. Tenses have
certain rules, according to which a sentence is made.
There are mainly three kinds of tenses.

1. Present tense
2. Past tense
3. Future tense

Each of present, past and future tense is further divided into four kinds.

1. Simple (Indifinite)
2. Continuous (progressive)
3. Perfect
4. Perfect Continuous (Perfect progressive)

In this way, there are 12 kinds of tense, which are explained in detail as below

Present Simple Tense


It is used to express an action in present time, habitual or usual actions or daily event or universal
fact. It is used to express an action in present time which is usually done on a regular basis. For
example a student says, “I go to school”. It is a daily activity of a student to go to school, so such
actions are expressed by present simple tense. Another example is, “I work in a factory”. It tells
about a usual action of a person that he works in a factory on regular basis.

Rules. 1st form of verb or base verb is used as main verb in sentence.

Structure of sentence – Rules


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Positive Sentence
• Subject + Main verb + Object
• Subject + 1st form of verb (or base verb) + Object

Note: If the subject in a sentence is “he, she, it, singular or proper noun” then “s” or “es” is
added to the first form of verb or base form in the sentence.

Examples.
I write a letter.
He gets up early in the morning.
Sun rises in east.

Negative Sentences
• Subject + auxiliary verb +NOT + Main verb +object
• Subject + Do not/Does not + 1st form of verb (or base form) + object

Examples.
I do not write a letter.
He does not get up early in the morning.
Sun does not rise in east.

Note: In negative sentence auxiliary verb “do or does” along with “not” is used. If the subject in
a sentence is “he, she, it, singular or proper noun”, then “Does not” is used after subject in
sentence. If subject is “I, we, they, you or plural” then “Do not” is used after subject in sentence.
“s” or “es” is not added to main verb in negative sentence

Interrogative Sentence
• Auxiliary verb + Subject + Main verb + Object
• Do/Does + Subject + 1st for of verb (or base verb) + Object

Examples.
Do I write a letter?
Does he get up early in the morning?
Does sun rise in east?

Note: If the subject in a sentence is “he, she, it, singular or proper noun” the sentence is started
with Auxiliary verb “Does”. If the subject in a sentence is “I, we, they, you or plural” the
sentence is started with auxiliary verb “Do”. “s” or “es” is not added to main verb in
Interrogative sentence

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More Examples
Positive Sentences
I sing a song.
He drinks water
They read lessons
Birds chirp
John reaches home in time.
Water maintains its surface level.

Negative Sentences
I do not sing a song
He does not drink water
They do not read lessons
Birds do not chirp
John does not reach home in time.
Water does not maintain its surface level.

Interrogative Sentences
Do I sing a song?
Does he drink water?
Do they read lessons?
Do birds chirp?
Does John reach home in time?
Does water maintain its surface level?

Present Continuous Tense


It is used to express a continued or ongoing action at present time. It expresses an action which is
in progress at the time of speaking. For example, a person says, “I am writing a letter”. It means
that he is in the process of writing a letter right now. Such actions which are happening at time of
speaking are expressed by present continuous tense. Present Continuous tense is also called
Present progressive tense.
Rules. Auxiliary verb “am or is or are” is used in sentence. 1st form of verb or base verb + ing
(present participle) is used as main verb in sentence.

Structure of sentence
Positive Sentence
• Subject + auxiliary verb + main verb-ing (Present participle) + object
• Subject + am/is/are + (1st form of verb or base verb + ing) + object

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If the subject is “I” then auxiliary verb “am” is used after subject in sentence.
If the subject is “He, She, It, singular or proper name” then auxiliary verb “is” is used after
subject in sentence.
If subject is “You, They or plural” then auxiliary verb “are” is used after subject in sentence.
The participle “ing” is added to the 1st form of verb i.e. going (go) writing (write)

Examples
I am playing cricket.
He is driving a car
They are reading their lessons.

Negative Sentence
• Subject + auxiliary verb + not + main verb-ing (Present participle) + object
• Subject + am/is/are + not + (1st form of verb + ing) + object

Rules for using auxiliary verbs (am or is or are) after subject in negative sentences are same as
mentioned above.

Examples.
I am not playing cricket.
He is not driving a car
They are not reading their lessons.

Interrogative Sentences
• Auxiliary verb + Subject + main verb-ing (Present participle) + object
• Am/is/are + Subject + (1st form of verb or base verb + ing) + object

For making interrogative sentences, the sentence is started with auxiliary verb rather than putting
auxiliary verb inside the sentence. If the subject is “I” the sentence starts with auxiliary verb
“am”. If the subject is “He, She, It, singular or proper name” the sentence starts with auxiliary
verb “is”. If subject is “You, They or plural” the sentence starts with auxiliary verb “are”.

Examples.
Am I playing cricket?
Is he driving a car?
Are they reading their lessons?

More Examples
Positive Sentences
I am listening to the news
You are washing your clothes
She is riding on horse

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They are playing football.
It is raining

Negative Sentence
I am not listening to the news.
You are not washing your clothes.
She is not riding on a horse.
They are not playing football.
It is not raining.

Interrogative Sentences
Am I listening to the news?
Are you washing your clothes?
Is she riding on a horse?
Are they playing football?
Is it raining?

Present Perfect Tense


It is used to expressed an action which happened or completed in past but usually the action
which happened or completed at a short time before now (near past) not a very long time before
now. Specific time such as two years ago, last week or that day is usually not used in the
sentences of in this tense. It means that this tense expresses the action whose time when it
happened, is not exactly specified but it sounds to refer to some action that happened or
completed in near past.
Rules: Auxiliary verb “has or have” is used in sentence. 3rd form of verb (past participle) is used
as main verb in sentence.

Structure of Sentence
Positive Sentence
• Subject + Auxiliary verb + main verb (past participle) + object
• Subject + has/have + 3rd form of verb or past participle + object

If the subject is “He, She, It, singular or proper name” then auxiliary verb “has” is used after
subject in sentence.
If subject is “You, They or plural” then auxiliary verb “have” is used after subject in sentence.

Examples
I have eaten meal
She has learnt a lesson

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Negative Sentence
• Subject + Auxiliary verb + NOT + main verb (past participle) + Subject
• Subject + has/have + NOT + 3rd form of verb or past participle + subject

Rules for using auxiliary verb “has or have” in negative sentence are same as mentioned above.

Examples
I have not eaten meal.
She has not learnt a lesson.

Interrogative Sentences
• Auxiliary verb + Subject + main verb (past participle) + Subject
• Has/have + Su bject + 3rd form of verb or past participle + subject

Interrogative sentence starts with auxiliary verb. If the subject is “He, She, It, singular or proper
name” then the sentence starts with auxiliary verb “has”.
If subject is “You, They or plural” then the sentence starts with auxiliary verb “have”.

Examples
Have I eaten meal?
Has she learnt a lesson?

More Examples.
Positive Sentences
They have gone to school.
They have bought a new car.
I have started a job
It has rained.
The guests have arrived
John has left for home.
You have told a lie.

Negative Sentences
They have not gone to school.
They have not bought a new car.
I have not started a job
It has not rained.
The guests have not arrived.
John has not left for home.
You have not told a lie.

Negative Sentences
Have they gone to school?
Have they bought a new car?

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Have I started a job?
Has it rained?
Have the guests arrived?
Has John left for home?
Have you told a lie?

Present Perfect Continuous tense


It is used to express a continued or ongoing action that started in past and is continued until now.
There will be a time reference, such as “since 1980, for three hours etc” from which the action
has been started. A sense of time reference is found in these sentences which gives an idea that
action has been continued from some time in past till now. Such time reference or sense of time
reference is the identity of Present perfect continuous tense because it tells that action has started
from a particular time in past. For example, “He has been reading in this school since 2005”, so
the it means that he has started his education in this school in 2005 and he is studying in this
school till now.

Note: If there is not time reference or sense of time reference then it is not Present perfect
continuous tense because there is no hint about the time of action when it started in past and it
seems just an ongoing action at present time which resembles “present Continuous tense. So the
reference of time differentiates between Present perfect continuous tense and Present continuous
tense.

Rules: An auxiliary verb “has been or have been” is used in sentence. 1st form of verb (base
verb) +ing (present participle) is used as main verb in sentence. “Since” or “for” is used before
the “time reference” in sentence. If the time reference is exactly known such as 1995, 4 O’clock
then “since” is used before the time in sentence. If the time reference is not exactly known such
as three hours, six years, four days, then “for” is used before the time in sentence. Time reference
such as 3 hours or 5 days is not exactly known because we don’t know that about which three
hours a day is told in sentence or about which 5 days in a month is told in sentence. While the
1995 is exactly known time.

Structure of sentence.
Positive Sentence.
• Subject + Auxiliary verb + main verb (Present participle) + Object + Time reference
• Subject + has been/have been + (1st form of verb or base verb + ing) + object + time
reference

If the subject is “He, She, It, singular or proper name” then auxiliary verb “has been” is used

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after subject in sentence.
If subject is “You, They or plural” then auxiliary verb “have been” is used after subject in
sentence.

Examples.
He has been watering the plants for two hours.
I have been studying since 3 O’clock

Negative Sentence.
• Subject +”Not” between the Auxiliary verb + main verb (present participle) + Object + Time
reference

• Subject + has not been/have not been + (1st form of verb or base verb + ing) + object + time
reference

To make negative sentence, the word “not” is written between the auxiliary verbs, so it becomes
like “has not been or have not been”. The rule for using auxiliary verb “has been or have been”
in negative sentences is as same as mentioned above.

Examples.
He has not been watering the plants for two hours.
I have not been studying since 3 O’clock.

Interrogative Sentence.
• Auxiliary verb + Subject + Auxiliary verb + main verb (present participle) + object + time
reference

• Has/have + Subject + been + (1st form of verb or base verb+ing) + object + time reference

Interrogative sentence starts with auxiliary verb. If the subject is “He, She, It, singular or proper
name” then the sentence starts with auxiliary verb “has” and auxiliary verb “been” is used after
subject
If subject is “You, They or plural” then the sentence starts with auxiliary verb “have” and “been”
is used after subject

Examples.
Has he been watering the plants for two hours?
Have I been studying since 3 O’clock?

More examples.
Positive sentences
It has been raining for three days.
I have been living in America since 2003.
He has been playing cricket for two hours.

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They have been watching television since 6 O’clock.
She has been working in this office since 2007.

Negative sentences
It has not been raining for three days.
I have not been living in America since 2003.
He has not been playing cricket for two hours.
They have not been watching television since 6 O’clock.
She has not been working in this office since 2007.

Positive sentences
Has it been raining for three days?
Have I been living in America since 2003?
Has he been playing cricket for two hours.
Have they been watching television since 6 O’clock?
Has she been working in this office since 2007?

Past Simple Tense

It is used to express an action that happened or completed in past, usually a very little time
before speaking, or action which is just completed. Time of action is not specified in terms of
long time ago or short ago but it make a sense that the action has done a little time ago. For
example, a person says, “I watched a movie”, it means the speaker of this sentence watched a
movie a little time ago or little time ago in the same day.

Rules:2nd form of verb (past simple) is used as main verb in the positive sentences and base
form is used in negative and interrogative sentences.

Structure of sentences
Positive Sentence
• Subject + main verb (past simple) + object
• Subject + 2nd form of verb (past simple) + object

Examples
I killed a snake
He ate a mango.

Negative sentences
• Subject + (auxiliary verb + not) main verb (base form) + object
• Subject + did not + 1st form of verb or base form + object

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In negative sentence “did not” is written and the 1st form of verb (base verb) is used instead of
using 2nd form (or past simple verb).

Examples.
I did not kill a snake
He did not eat a mango

Interrogative sentences
• Auxiliary verb + subject + main verb (base verb) + object
• Did + subject + 1st form of verb (or base verb) + object

Interrogative sentence starts with “did” and the 1st form of verb (base verb) is used instead of
using 2nd form (or past simple verb).

Examples
Did I kill a snake?
Did he eat a mango?

More Examples
Negative sentences
He gave me a gift
They went to cinema.
She wrote a letter to him.
I made a table.
You answered correctly.

Negative sentences
He did not give me a gift
They did not go to cinema.
She did not write a letter to him.
I did not make a table.
You did not answer correctly.

Interrogative sentences
Did he give me a gift?
Did they go to cinema?
Did she write a letter to him?
Did I make a table?
Did you answer correctly?

More Examples.
Positive Sentences
They have gone to school.
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They have bought a new car.
I have started a job
It has rained.
The guests have arrived
John has left for home.
You have told a lie.

Negative Sentences
They have not gone to school.
They have not bought a new car.
I have not started a job
It has not rained.
The guests have not arrived.
John has not left for home.
You have not told a lie.

Negative Sentences
Have they gone to school?
Have they bought a new car?
Have I started a job?
Has it rained?
Have the guests arrived?
Has John left for home?
Have you told a lie?

Past Continuous tense


It is used to express a continued or ongoing action in past, an ongoing action which occurred in
past and completed at some point in past. It expresses an ongoing nature of an action in past. For
example, “he was laughing.” This sentence shows ongoing action (laughing) of a person which
occurred in past. Past continuous tense is also called past progressive.

Rules: Auxiliary verb “was or were” is used in sentence. 1st form of verb or base verb + ing
(present participle) is used as main verb in sentence.

Structure of sentence
Positive sentences
• Subject + auxiliary verb + Main Verb (present participle) + object
• Subject + was/were + (1st form of verb or base verb +ing) +object

If the subject is “he, she, It, I, singular or proper noun” then auxiliary verb “was” is used. If
subject is “you, we, they or plural” then auxiliary verb “were” is used.
Examples.

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She was crying yesterday.
They were climbing on a hill.

Negative sentences
• Subject + auxiliary verb + NOT + Main verb (present participle) + object
• Subject + was/were + NOT + (1st form of verb or base verb +ing) +object

Rules for using auxiliary verb after subject are same as mentioned above.
Examples.
She was not crying yesterday.
They were not climbing on a hill.

Interrogative sentences
• Auxiliary verb + Subject + Main verb (present participle) + object
• Was/were + Subject + (1st form of verb or base verb +ing) +object

The interrogative sentence starts with the auxiliary verb. If the subject is “he, she, It, I, singular
or proper noun” then the sentence starts with auxiliary verb “was”. If subject is “you, we, they or
plural” then the sentence starts with auxiliary verb “were”.
Examples.
Was she crying yesterday?
Were they climbing on a hill?

More Examples
Positive sentences
They were laughing at the joker.
He was taking exam last month
You waiting for him yesterday
She was working in a factory.
It was raining yesterday.

Negative sentences
They were not laughing at the joker.
He was not taking exam last month
You were not waiting for him yesterday
She was not working in a factory.
It was not raining yesterday.

Interrogative sentences
Were they laughing at the joker?
Was he taking exam last month?
Were you waiting for him yesterday?
Was she working in a factory?
Was it raining yesterday?

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Past perfect tense
It is used to express an action which has occurred in past (usually, a long time ago) and action
which has occurred in past before another action in past.

For example,
I had lived in America. (The sense of time in this sentence refers to a completed action in past
and especially a long time ago)

The students had gone before the teacher came. (The first part of sentence “The student has
gone” is sentence of past perfect tense, it says about an action which occurred before another
action in past which is “the teacher came”. The second part “the teacher came” is sentence of
past simple tense. So such a sentence which express an action in past before another action in
past comprises two parts where the first part of sentence is past perfect tense)

Rules. Auxiliary verb “had” is used in sentence. 3rd form of verb (past participle) is used as
main verb in sentence

Structure of sentence.
Positive sentence
• Subject + auxiliary verb + main verb (past participle) + object
• Subject + had + 3rd form of verb or past participle + object

Examples.
He had taken the exam last year
A thief had stolen my watch.

Negative sentence
• Subject + auxiliary verb + NOT + main verb (past participle) + object
•Subject + had + not + 3rd form of verb or past participle + object

“Not” is written after auxiliary verb in negative sentence.


Examples.
He had not taken the exam last year
A thief had not stolen my watch.

Interrogative sentence
• Auxiliary verb + subject + main verb (past participle) + object
• Had + subject + 3rd form of verb or past participle + object

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Interrogative sentence starts with auxiliary verb “had”
Examples.
Had he taken the exam last year
Had a thief stolen my watch?

More Examples

Positive sentences
They had visited a doctor.
He had slept.
I had finished my work last year.
It had rained heavily last month.
The film had started before we reached cinema.

Negative sentences
They had not visited a doctor.
He had not slept.
I had not finished my work last year.
It had not rained heavily last month.
The film had not started before we reached cinema.

Interrogative sentences
Had they visited a doctor?
Had he slept?
Had I finished my work last year?
Had it rained heavily last month?
Had the film started before we reached cinema.

Past Perfect continuous tense

It is used to express a continued or ongoing action that started in past and continued until
sometime in past. (Remember, an ongoing action in past which continued till some time in past)
There will be a time reference, such as “since 1980, for three hours etc” from which the action
had started. A sense of time reference is found in these sentences which shows that action had
started in past and continued till some time in past. Such time reference or sense of reference is
the identity of Present perfect continuous tense because it tells that action has started from a
particular time in past or for some time period. For example, “He had been studying in this

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school since 2005”, so the it means that he had started his education in this school in 2005 and he
studied in this school till sometime in past.

Note: If there is not time reference or sense of time reference, then it is not Past perfect
continuous tense because there is no hint about the time of action when it started in past or
continued for some time period, so it seems just an ongoing action in past which resembles “past
Continuous tense”. So the reference of time differentiates between Past perfect continuous tense
and past continuous tense.

Rules: An auxiliary verb “had been” is used in sentence. 1st form of verb (base verb) +ing
(present participle) is used as main verb in sentence. “Since” or “for” is used before the “time
reference” in sentence. If the time reference is exactly known such as 1995, 4 O’clock then
“since” is used before the time in sentence. If the time reference is not exactly known such as
three hours, six years, four days, then “for” is used before the time in sentence. Time reference
such as 3 hours or 5 days is not exactly known because we don’t know that about which three
hours a day is told in sentence or about which 5 days in a month is told in sentence. While the
1995 is exactly known time.

Structure of sentence.
Positive Sentence.
• Subject + Auxiliary verb + main verb (Present participle) + Object + Time reference
• Subject + had been + (1st form of verb or base verb + ing) + object + time reference

Examples.
I had been waiting for him for one hour.
She had been playing chess since 7 O’clock.

Negative Sentence.
• Subject +”Not” between the Auxiliary verbs + main verb (present participle) + Object +
Time reference
• Subject + had not been + (1st form of verb or base verb + ing) + object + time reference

To make negative sentence, the word “not” is added inside auxiliary verb, so it becomes “had not
been”.
Examples.
I had not been waiting for him for one hour.
She had not been playing chess since 7 O’clock.

Interrogative Sentence.
• Auxiliary verb+ Subject + Auxiliary verb + main verb (present participle) + object + time
reference

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• Had + Subject + been + (1st form of verb or base verb+ing) + object + time reference

Interrogative sentence starts with auxiliary verb “had” and auxiliary verb “been” is used after
subject in sentence.
Examples.
Had I been waiting for him for one hour?
Had she been playing chess 7 O’clock?

More examples.
Positive sentences
I had been living in America since 2003.
He had been playing cricket for two hours.
They had been watching television since 6 O’clock.
She had been working in this office since 2007.
It had been raining for three days.

Negative sentences
I had not been living in America since 2003.
He had not been playing cricket for two hours.
They had not been watching television since 6 O’clock.
She had not been working in this office since 2007.
It had not been raining for three days.

Positive sentences
Had I been living in America since 2003?
Had he been playing cricket for two hours.
Had they been watching television since 6 O’clock?
Had she been working in this office since 2007?
Had it been raining for three days?

Future simple tense


It is used to express an action which has not occurred yet and will occur after saying or in future.
For example, “I will go to zoo tomorrow”, in this sentence the person intend for tomorrow’s visit
to zoo. In short, these sentences express actions which will be done in future.

Rules. Auxiliary verb “will” is used in sentence. 1st form of verb or base form is used as main
verb in sentence.

Structure of sentence

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Positive sentence
• Subject + auxiliary verb + main verb (present participle) + object
•Subject + will + (1st form of verb or base form +ing) + object

Examples.
I will buy a computer tomorrow.
They will come here.

Negative sentence
• Subject + auxiliary verb+ not + main verb (present participle) + object
• Subject + will +not + (1st form of verb or base form +ing) + object

To make negative sentence “not” is written after auxiliary verb in sentence.


Examples.
I will not buy a computer tomorrow.
They will not come here.

Interrogative sentence
• Auxiliary verb + subject + main verb (present participle) + object
• Will + subject + (1st form of verb or base form +ing) + object

Interrogative sentence starts with auxiliary verb “will”


Examples.
Will I buy a computer tomorrow?
Will they come here?

More Examples
Positive sentences
He will start a business.
She will send me a letter.
I will give you a pen tomorrow
Students will take exams at the end of semester.
They will buy a new car.
The Pattern of exam will change next year.

Negative sentences
He will not start a business.
She will not send me a letter.
I will not give you a pen tomorrow
Students will not take exams at the end of semester.
They will not buy a new car.
The pattern of exam will not change next year.

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Interrogative sentences
Will he start a business?
Will she send me a letter?
Will I give you a pen tomorrow?
Will students take exams at the end of semester?
Will they buy a new car?
Will the Pattern of exam change next year?

Future Continuous tense


It is used to express a continued or an ongoing action in future. For example, “I will be waiting
for you tomorrow”, it conveys ongoing nature of an action (waiting) which will occur in future.

Rules. Auxiliary verb “will be” is used in sentence. 1st form of verb + ing (present participle) is
used as main verb in sentence.

Structure of sentence
Positive sentence
• Subject + auxiliary verb + main verb (present participle) + object
• Subject + will be+ 1st form of verb or base form+ing (present participle) + object

Examples.
I will be waiting for you.
You will be feeling well tomorrow.

Negative sentence
• Subject + not between auxiliary verbs+ not + main verb (present participle) +
object
• Subject + will not be + 1st form of verb or base form+ing (present participle) +
object

To make negative sentence “not” is written between auxiliary verbs “will and be” in sentence.

Examples.
I will not be waiting for you.
You will not be feeling well tomorrow.

Interrogative sentence
• Auxiliary verb + subject + auxiliary verb + main verb (present participle) + object
• Will + subject + be+ 1st form of verb or base form+ing (present participle) + object

Interrogative sentence starts with auxiliary verb “will” and auxiliary verb “be” comes after
subject in interrogative sentence

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Examples.
Will I be waiting for you?
Will you be feeling well tomorrow?
More Examples

Positive sentences
We will be shifting to a new home next year.
He will be flying a kite.
It will be raining tomorrow.
She will be enjoying her vacations.
He will be expecting honesty from his employees.
She will be delivering a speech to people.

Negative sentences
We will not be shifting to a new home next year.
He will not be flying a kite.
It will not be raining tomorrow.
She will not be enjoying her vacations.
He will not be expecting honesty from his employees.
She will not be delivering a speech to people.

Interrogative sentence
Will we be shifting to a new home next year?
Will he be flying a kite?
Will it be raining tomorrow?
Will she be enjoying her vacations?
Will he be expecting honesty from his employees?
Will she be delivering a speech to people?

Future Perfect tense


It is used to express an action which will occur in future and is thought to be completed in future.
It expresses a sense of completion of an action which will occur in future. For example, “John
will have gone tomorrow”. It shows a sense of completion of an action (go) which will occur in
future (tomorrow).

Rules. Auxiliary verb “will have” is used in sentence. 3rd form of verb or past participle form of
verb is used as main verb in sentence.

Structure of sentence
Positive sentence
• Subject + auxiliary verb + main verb (past participle) + object
• Subject + will have + 3rd form of verb or past participle + object

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Examples
She will have finished the work by Wednesday.
I will have left for home by the time he gets up.
You will have started a job.

Negative sentence
• Subject + Not between auxiliary verbs + main verb (past participle) + object
• Subject + will not have + 3rd form of verb or past participle + object

Examples
She will have finished the work by Wednesday.
I will have left for home by the time he gets up.
You will not have started a job.

Interrogative sentence
• Auxiliary verb + Subject + auxiliary verb + main verb (past participle) + object
• Will + Subject +have + 3rd form of verb or past participle + object

Examples
Will she have finished the work by Wednesday?
Will I have left for home by the time he gets up?
Will you have started a job?

More Examples
Positive sentences
He will have finished his work.
You will have made a new chair.
She will have decorated her home.
I will have bought a computer.
They will have shifted to a new home.
Students will have passed the examination.

Negative sentences
He will not have finished his work.
You will not have made a new chair.
She will not have decorated her home.
I will not have bought a computer.
They will not have shifted to a new home.
Students will not have passed the examination.

Interrogative sentences
Will he have finished his work?
Will you have made a new chair?

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Will she have decorated her home?
Will I have bought a computer?
Will they have shifted to a new home?
Will students have passed the examination?

Future Perfect Continuous tense


It is used to express a continued or ongoing action that will start in future and is thought to be
continued till sometime in future. (Remember, an ongoing action in future which will continue
till some time in future). There will be a time reference, such as “since 1980, for three hours”
from which the action will start in future and will continue. A sense of time reference is found
which gives an idea that action will start at some time in future and will continue for some time.
Such time reference or sense of time reference is the identity of Future perfect continuous tense
because it tells that action will start at a particular time in future. For example, “He will have
been studying in this school since 2005”, so the it means that he will start studying in this school
in 2005 and will study in this school till sometime in future.

Note: If there is not time reference or sense of time reference then it is not future perfect
continuous tense because there is no hint about the time of action when it will start in future and
it seems just an ongoing action in future which resembles “future Continuous tense. So the
reference of time differentiates between Future perfect continuous tense between future
continuous tense.

Rules: An auxiliary verb “will have been” is used in sentence. 1st form of verb (base verb) +ing
(present participle) is used as main verb in sentence. “Since” or “for” is used before the “time
reference” in sentence. If the time reference is exactly known such as 1995, 4 O’clock then
“since” is used before the time in sentence. If the time reference is not exactly known such as
three hours, six years, four days, then “for” is used before the time in sentence. Time reference
such as 3 hours or 5 days is not exactly known because we don’t know that about which three
hours a day is told in sentence or about which 5 days in a month is told in sentence. While the
1995 is exactly know time.

Structure of sentence.
Positive Sentence.
• Subject + Auxiliary verb + main verb (Present participle) + Object + Time reference
•Subject + will have been + (1st form of verb or base verb + ing) + object + time reference

Examples.
I will have been waiting for him for one hour.
She will have been playing football since 2015.

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Negative Sentence.
• Subject +”Not” inside Auxiliary verbs + main verb (present participle) + Object + Time
reference
• Subject + will not have been + (1st form of verb or base verb + ing) + object +
Time reference

To make negative sentence, the word “not” is added inside auxiliary verb, so it becomes “will
not have been”.

Examples.
I will not have been waiting for him for one hour.
She will not have been playing football since 2015.

Interrogative Sentence.
• Auxiliary verb + Subject + auxiliary verb + main verb (present participle) + object + time
reference

• Will + Subject + have been + (1st form of verb or base verb+ing) + object + time reference

Interrogative sentence starts with auxiliary verb “will” and auxiliary verb “have been” is used
after subject in sentence.

Examples.
Will I have been waiting for him for one hour?
Will she have been playing football since 2015?

More examples.
Positive sentences
I will have been living in America since 2003.
He will have been playing cricket for two hours.
They will have been watching television since 6 O’clock.
She will been working in this office since 2007.
It will have been raining for three days.

Negative sentences
I will not have been living in America since 2003.
He will not have been playing cricket for two hours.
They will not have been watching television since 6 O’clock?
She will have been working in this office since 2007.
It will not have been raining for three days.

Positive sentences
Will I have been living in America since 2003?
Will he have been playing cricket for two hours.

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Will they have been watching television since 6 O’clock?
Will she have been working in this office since 2007?
Will it have been raining for three days?

Active and Passive Voice


There are two ways to express an action of a subject in relation to its object

 • Active voice
 • Passive voice

In “active voice” subject acts upon object, while in “passive voice” object is acted upon by
subject. It can also be said, in “active voice” subject does a work on object, while in “passive
voice” object is worked on by subject. The normal structure of an active voice sentence is
subject+verb+object but in passive the normal structure of sentence is reversed according to
certain rules and becomes like object+verb+subject. The real meaning of a sentence does not
change if the sentence is expressed either by active voice or by passive voice. The active voice is
mostly used in writing because it gives a direct and more concise meaning. Passive voice is used
sometimes due to the following reasons.

1. When intentionally hiding the subject of sentence. For example, a student who failed in
exam might say, some chapters were not studied.
Another example. Women were not treated as equals
2. When passive voice better explain thought of sentence. For example, to say, cloth is sold
in yards, is more meaningful than to say, Shop keepers sell cloth in yards.
3. When passive voice better emphasizes the main though of the sentence. For example, a
man who is being teased by another person might say in anger, “you will be beaten by
me”
4. When subject is not exactly known. For example, His watch was stolen. It is not known
that who stole his watch, the subject (thief) is not exactly known so it is better to use
passive voice for such sentence.There are certain rules for expressing a thought in passive
voice or for changing a sentence from active voice to passive voice.

Fundamental Rules for changing from active voice to passive voice

1. The places of subject and object are interchanged i.e. the object shifts to the place of
subject and subject shifts to the place of object in passive voice. Example.
Active voice: I write a letter.
Passive voice: I letter is written by me.

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Subject (I) of sentence shifted to the place of object (letter) and object (letter) shifted to
the place of subject (I) in passive voice.

2. Sometimes subject of sentence is not used in passive voice. Subject of sentence can be
omitted in passive voice, if without subject it can give enough meaning in passive
voice.Examples.
Passive voice: cloth is sold in yards

3. 3rd form of verb (past participle) is always used as main verb in sentences of passive
voice for all tenses. Base form of verb or present participle will be never used in passive
voice.
The word “by” is used before subject in sentences in passive voice.Example.
Active voice: He sings a song.
Passive voice: A song is sung by him.

4. The word “by” is not always used before subject in passive voice. Sometimes words
“with, to, etc” may also be used before subject in passive voice.
Examples.
Active voice: The water fills the tub.
Passive voice: The tub is filled with water.
Active voice: He knows me.
Passive voice: I am known to him.

5. Auxiliary verbs are used passive voice according to the tense of sentence.

Note: First 5 rules are usually same for all tenses in passive voice. Rule No. 6 is about the
use of auxiliary verb in passive voice which differs for each tense. The auxiliary verbs of
passive voice are used according to tense of sentence of its active voice form. The
auxiliary verb for each tense is given in the following table with explanation and
examples. Click on the following links.

PASSIVE VOICE FOR ALL TENSES RULES


 The places of subject and object in sentence are inter-changed in passive voice.
 3rd form of verb (past participle) will be used only (as main verb) in passive voice.
 Auxiliary verbs for each tense are given below in the table.

Present Simple Tense (passive Voice)


Auxiliary verb in passive voice: am/is/are
Passive voice:
Active voice:
A song is sung by him.
He sings a song.
A song is not sung by him.
He does not sing a song.Does he sing a song?
Is a song sung by him?

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Present Continuous Tense (passive Voice)
Auxiliary verb in passive voice: am being/is being/are being
Active voice: Passive voice:
I am writing a letter A letter is being written by me.
I am not writing a letter. A letter is not being written by me.
Am I writing a letter? Is a letter being written by me?

Present Perfect Tense (passive Voice)


Auxiliary verb in passive voice: has been/have been
Active voice: Passive voice:
She has finished his work Her work has been finished by her.
She has not finished her work. Her work has not been finished by her.
Has she finished her work? Has her work been finished by her?

Past Simple Tense (passive Voice)


Auxiliary verb in passive voice: was/were
Active voice: Passive voice:
I killed a snake A snake was killed by me.
I did not kill a snake. A snake was not killed by me.
Did I kill a snake? Was a snake killed by me?

Past Continuous Tense (Passive Voice)


Auxiliary verb in passive voice: was being/were being
Active voice: Passive voice:
He was driving a car. A car was being driven by him.
He was not driving a car. A car was not being driven by him.
Was he driving a car? Was a car being driven by him?

Past Perfect Tense (Passive Voice)


Auxiliary verb in passive voice: had been
Active voice: Passive voice:
They had completed the assignment. The assignment had been completed by them.
They had not completed the assignment. The assignment had not been complete by them.
Had they completed the assignment? Had the assignment been completed by them?

Future Simple Tense (Passive Voice)


Auxiliary verb in passive voice: will be
Active voice: Passive voice:
She will buy a car. A car will be bought by her.
She will not buy a car. A car will not be bought by her.
Will she buy a car? Will a car be bought by her?

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Future Perfect Tense (passive Voice)
Auxiliary verb in passive voice: will have been
Active voice: Passive voice:
You will have started the job. The job will have been started by you.
You will have not started the job. The job will not have been started by you.
Will you have started the job? Will the job have been started by you?

Note: The following tenses cannot be changed into passive voice.

1. Present perfect continuous tense


2. Past perfect continuous tense
3. Future continuous tense
4. Future perfect continuous tense
5. Sentence having Intransitive verbs

Fundamental Rules
 The places of subject and object in sentence are inter-changed in passive voice.
 3rd form of verb (past participle) will be used only (as main verb) in passive voice.
 Auxiliary verbs for each tense are given below in the table.

Passive voice for Present/Future Modals


“CAN, MAY, MIGHT, SHOULD, MUST, OUGHT TO”
 The places of subject and object in sentence are inter-changed in passive voice.
 3rd form of verb (past participle) will be used only (as main verb) in passive voice.
 To change sentences having present/future modal into passive voice, auxiliary verb “be” is added
after modal in sentence.

Passive voice for Present/Future Modals

“CAN, MAY, MIGHT, SHOULD, MUST,


OUGHT TO”
Auxiliary verb in passive voice: be
Active voice: CAN Passive voice: CAN BE
She can play a violin. A violin can be played by her.
She cannot play a violin. A violin cannot be played by her.
Can she play a violin? Can a violin be played by her?
Active voice: MAY Active voice: MAY BE
I may buy the computer. The computer may be bought by me.
I may not buy the computer. The computer may not be bought by me.

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May I buy the computer? May the computer be bought by me?
Active voice: MIGHT Active voice: MIGHT BE
Guests might play chess. Chess might be played by guests.
Guests might not play chess. Chess might not be played guests.
Active voice: SHOULD Active voice: SHOULD BE
Students should study all lessons. All lessons should be studied by students.
Students should not study all lessons. All lessons should not be studied by students.
Should students study all lessons? Should all lessons be studied by students?
Active voice: MUST BE
Active voice: MUST
Test-taking strategies must be learnt by you.
You must learn the test-taking strategies.
Test-taking strategies must not be learned by
You must not learn the test-taking strategies.
you.
Active voice: OUGHT TO Active voice: OUGHT TO BE
They ought to take the examination. The examination ought to be taken by them.

Passive voice for Past Modals


“MAY HAVE, MIGHT HAVE, SHOULD HAVE, MUST HAVE,
OUGHT TO HAVE”
 The places of subject and object in sentence are inter-changed in passive voice.
 3rd form of verb (past participle) will be used only (as main verb) in passive voice.
 To change sentences having past modal into passive voice, auxiliary verb “been” is added after
modal in sentence.

Passive voice for Present/Future Modals


“MAY HAVE, MIGHT HAVE, SHOULD HAVE, MUST
HAVE, OUGHT HAVE TO”
Auxiliary verb in passive voice: been
Active voice: MAY HAVE BEEN
Active voice: MAY HAVE The opportunity may have been availed by
You may have availed the opportunity. you.
You may not have availed the opportunity. The opportunity may not have been availed
by you.
Active voice: MIGHT HAVE Active voice: MIGHT HAVE BEEN
He might have eaten meal. Meal might have been eaten by him.
He might not have eaten meal. Meal might not have been eaten by him.
Active voice: SHOULD HAVE Active voice: SHOULD HAVE BEEN
You should have studied the book. The book should have been studied by you.
You should not have studied the book. The book should have not been studied by you.

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Active voice: MUST HAVE Active voice: MUST HAVE BEEN
He must have started job. Job must have been started by you.
He must not have started job. Job must not have been started by you.
Active voice: OUGHT TO HAVE Active voice: OUGHT TO HAVE BEEN
You ought to have helped him. He ought to have been helped by you

Passive voice of imperative sentences

(command and request)


A sentence which expresses command or request or advice is called imperative sentence.

For example,

Open the door.


Turn off the television.
Learn your lesson.

For changing these sentences in to passive voice, auxiliary verb “be” is used. The word “Let” is
added before sentence in passive voice. Auxiliary verb “be” is added after object in sentence in
passive voice. Main verb (base form) of imperative sentence is changed to 3rd form of verb (past
participle) in passive voice. For best understand read the following examples.

Examples

Passive voice of “Imperative Sentences”


Active Voice Passive Voice
Open the door. Let the door be opened.
Complete the work. Let the worked be completed.
Turn off the television. Let the television be tuned off.
Learn your lesson. Let your lesson be learnt.
Kill the snake. Let the snake be killed.
Punish him. Let him be punished.
Speak the truth. Let the truth be spoken.
Help the poor. Let the poor be helped.
Revise your book. Let your book be revised.
Clean your room. Let your room be cleaned.

Sentences which cannot be changed into passive voice

Transitive and intransitive verb


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A verb can be either transitive or intransitive. A transitive verb needs an object (in sentence) to
give complete meaning while intransitive verb does need an object (in sentence) to give complete
meaning.
For example,

Transitive verb.
He sent a letter.
(Send is a transitive verb and it needs an object i.e. letter to express full meaning.)

Intransitive Verb.
He laughs.
(Laugh is an intransitive verb and it does not need object for expressing full meaning.)
e.g. Sleep, go, reach, sit, die, are examples of intransitive verbs.

Intransitive verb cannot be changed into passive voice


The sentences having intransitive verbs (belonging to any tense) cannot be changed into passive
voice. The reason is that there is not any object in such sentences and without object of sentence
passive voice is not possible.

A sentence can be changed into passive voice if it has subject and object. Sometimes subject may
not be written in passive voice but it does not mean that it has no subject. Such sentences have
subject but the subject is so common or familiar or known that if even it is not written in passive
voice, it gives full meaning.
For example
Cloth is sold in yards.

The following tenses can also not be changed into passive voice.

1. Present perfect continuous tense


2. Past perfect continuous tense
3. Future continuous tense
4. Future perfect continuous tense

Direct and indirect speech


Introduction.
There two ways to convey a message of a person, or the words spoken by a person to other
person.

1. Direct speech
2. Indirect speech

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Suppose your friend whose name is John tells you in school, “I will give you a pen”. You come
to home and you want to tell your brother what your friend told you. There are two ways to tell
him.

Direct speech: John said, “I will give you a pen”.


Indirect Speech: John said that he would give me a pen.

In direct speech the original words of person are narrated (no change is made) and are enclosed
in quotation mark. While in indirect speech some changes are made in original words of the
person because these words have been uttered in past so the tense will change accordingly and
pronoun may also be changed accordingly. In indirect speech the statement of the person is not
enclosed in quotation marks, the word “that” may be used before the statement to show that it is
indirect speech. Indirect speech is also called reported speech because reported speech refers to
the second part of indirect speech in which something has been told by a person.

Reporting verb: The verb first part of sentence (i.e. he said, she said, he says, they said, she
says,) before the statement of a person in sentence is called reporting verb.

Examples. In all of the following example the reporting verb is “said”.


He said, “I work in a factory” (Direct speech)
He said that he worked in a factory. (Indirect speech)
They said, “we are going to cinema” (Direct speech)
They said that they were going to cinema. (Indirect speech)

Reported Speech. The second part of indirect speech in which something has been told by a
person (which is enclosed in quotation marks in direct speech) is called reported speech. For
example, a sentence of indirect speech is, He said that he worked in a factory. In this sentence
the second part “he worked in a factory” is called reported speech and that is why the indirect
speech as a whole can also be called reported speech.

Fundamental rules for indirect speech.


1. Reported speech is not enclosed in quotation marks.
2. Use of word “that”: The word “that” is used as a conjunction between the reporting verb
and reported speech.
3. Change in pronoun: The pronoun (subject) of the reported speech is changed according
to the pronoun of reporting verb or object (person) of reporting verb (first part of
sentence). Sometimes the pronoun may not change.

In following example the pronoun of reported speech is “I” which will be changed in indirect
speech into the pronoun (Subject) of reporting verb that is “he”.

Example.

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Direct speech: He said, “I am happy”
Indirect Speech: He said that he was happy.
Direct speech: I said to him, “you are intelligent”
Indirect Speech: I said him that he was intelligent. (“You” changed to “he” the
person of object of reporting verb)

1. Change in time: Time is changed according to certain rules like now to then, today to
that day, tomorrow to next day and yesterday to previous day.

Examples.
Direct speech: He said, “I am happy today”
Indirect Speech: He said that he was happy that day.

1. Change in the tense of reported speech: If the first part of sentence (reporting verb
part) belongs to past tense the tense of reported speech will change. If the first part of
sentence (reporting verb part) belongs to present or future tense, the tense of reported
speech will not change.

Examples.
Direct speech: He said, “I am happy”
Indirect Speech: He said that he was happy. (Tense of reported speech changed)
Direct speech: He says, “I am happy”
Indirect Speech: He said that he is happy. (Tense of reported speech didn’t
change)

Change in tense is made according to rules of indirect speech which are given in table below.

Table for change in tense of reported speech for all TENSES.

TENSE CHANGE - IN - INDIRECT SPEECH


Present simple tense into Past simple
Present Continuous tense into Past continuous
Present Perfect tense into Pas perfect
Present Perfect Continuous into Past perfect continuous
Past simple into Past Perfect
Past Continuous into Past Perfect Continuous
Past Perfect into Past Perfect
Future simple, will into would
Future Continuous, will be into would be
Future Perfect, will have into would have

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Examples.

DIRECT SPEECH INDIRECT SPEECH


PRESENT TENSE
PRESENT SIMPLE changes into PAST SIMPLE

He said, “I write a letter” He said that he wrote a letter.

She said, “he goes to school daily” He said that she went to school daily.

They said, “we love our country” They said that they loved their country

He said that he did not like computer.


He said, “he does not like computer”

PRESENT CONTINUOUS changes into PAST CONTINUOUS


He said, “he is listening to the music” He said that he was listening to the music.

She said, “I am washing my clothes” She said that she was washing her clothes.

They said, “we are enjoying the weather” They said that they were not enjoying the
weather.
I said, “it is raining”
She said, “I am not laughing” She said that she was not laughing.

PRESENT PERFECT changes into PAST PERFECT

She said, “he has finished his work” She said that he had finished his work.

He said, “I have started a job” He said that he had started a job.

I said, “she have eaten the meal” I said that she had eaten the meal.

They said that they had not gone to New York.


They said, “we have not gone to New York.

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PRESENT PERFECT CONTINUOUS changes into PAST PERFECT CONTINUOUS
He said, “I have been studying since 3 He said that he had been studying since 3
O’clock” O’clock.

She said, “It has been raining for three days.” She said that it been raining for three days.

I said, “She has been working in this office I said that she had been working in this office
since 2007” since 2007.

PAST TENSE
PAST SIMPLE changes into PAST PERFECT
He said to me that I had answered correctly.
He said to me, “you answered correctly”
John said that they had gone to cinema.
John said, “they went to cinema”
He said that he had made a table.
He said, “I made a table”
She said, “I didn’t buy a car” She said that she had not bought a car.

PAST CONTINUOUS changes into PAST PERFECT CONTINUOUS


They said, “we were enjoying the weather” They said that they had been enjoying.

He said to me, “ I was waiting for you” He said to me that he had been waiting for me.
I said that it had been raining.
I said, “It was raining”
She said, “I was not laughing” She said that she not been laughing.

PAST PERFECT changes into PAST PERFECT (tense does not change)
She said, “She had visited a doctor” She said that she had visited a doctor.

He said, “I had started a business” He said that he had started a business.

I said, “she had eaten the meal” I said that she had eaten the meal.

They said, “we had not gone to New York. They said they had not gone to New York.

FUTURE TENSE

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FUTURE SIMPLE TENSE
WILL changes into WOULD
He said that he would study the book.
He said, “I will study the book”
She said that she would buy a computer.
She said, “I will buy a computer”
They said to me that they would send you
They said to me, “we will send you gifts” gifts.

I said, “I will not take the exam” I said that I would not take the exam.

FUTURE CONTINUOUS TENSE


WILL BE changes into WOULD BE
I said to him that I would be waiting for him.
I said to him, “ I will be waiting for him”
She said that she would be shifting to a new
She said,” I will be shifting to new home”
home.
He said, “I will be working hard”
He said that he would be working hard.
He said, “he will not be flying kite”
She said that he would not be flying kites.

FUTURE PERFECT TENSE


WILL HAVE changes into WOULD HAVE
He said, “I will have finished the work” He said that he would have finished the work.

She said, “they will have passed the She said that they would have passed the
examination” examination.

He said, “I will have gone” He said that he would have gone.

Note: The tense of reported speech may not change if reported speech is a universal truth though
its reporting verb belongs to past tense.

Examples.
Direct speech: He said, “Mathematics is a science”
Indirect Speech: He said that mathematics is a science.
Direct speech: He said, “Sun rises in east”
Indirect Speech: He said that sun rises in east. (Tense didn’t change because
reported speech is a universal truth thought its reporting verb
belongs to past tense)

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Indirect speech for Interrogative (question) sentence.
For changing interrogative (question) sentence into indirect speech we have to observe the nature
of question and then change it into indirect speech according to it rules for indirect speech. A
question can be of two types. One type which can be answered in only YES or NO and other
type which needs a little bit explanation for its answer and cannot be answered in only YES or
NO.

Examples
Do you like music? (It can be answered in YES or NO)
How are you? (It cannot be answered in YES or NO but it needs a little bit
explanation i.e, I am fine.)

Questions which can be answered in YES/NO.


To change questions (which can be answered in yes or no) into indirect speech, word “if” or
“whether” is used before the question in indirect speech. Rules for change in tense of question
sentences are same as for change in normal tenses in indirect speech but sentence will not start
with the auxiliary verb of the tense. The word “that” is not used between reporting verb and
reported speech as conjunction in indirect speech for question sentence. Question mark is not
used in indirect speech.

Examples.
Direct speech: He said to me, “do you like music?”
Indirect Speech: He asked me if I liked music. (Not, did I like music)
Or Indirect Speech: He asked me whether I liked music.

Direct speech: She said, “Will he participate in the quiz competition?”


Indirect Speech: She asked me if he would participate in quiz competition.
Direct speech: I said to him, “are you feeling well?”
Indirect Speech: I asked him if he was feeling well.
Direct speech: They said to me, “did u go to school?”
Indirect Speech: They asked me if I had gone to school.
Direct speech: He said to me, “Have you taken the breakfast?”
Indirect Speech: He asked me if I had taken the breakfast

Question which cannot be answered in YES/NO.

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To change such questions into indirect speech, the words “if” or “whether” is not used. The tense
of the question is changed according to the rules for change in normal tenses in indirect speech
but sentence will not start with the auxiliary verb of the tense. The word “that” is not used
between reporting verb and reported speech as conjunction, in indirect speech for question
sentence. Question mark is not used in indirect speech.

Examples.
Direct speech: He said to me, “how are you?”
Indirect speech: He asked me how I was. (Not, how was I)
Direct speech: Teacher said to him, “what is your name?”
Indirect speech: Teacher asked him what his name was.
Direct speech: She said to him, “why did you come late?”
Indirect speech: She asked him why he had come late.
Direct speech: He said, “when will they come?”
Indirect speech: He asked when they would come.
Direct speech: She asked his son, “why are you crying?”
Indirect speech: She asked her son why he was crying.

Indirect speech for sentence having MODALS, “can, may, must,


Present modals are changed to past modals

Direct Speech Indirect Speech


Indirect speech for sentence having MODALS,
“can, may, must, should, ought to”
CAN changes into COULD
He said, “I can drive a car” He said that he could drive a car.

She said, “he can play a violin.” She said that he could play a violin.

They said, “we can climb on a hill” They said that they can climb on a hill.

MAY changes into MIGHT


He said, “I may buy a computer” He said that he might buy a computer.

She said, “he may visit a doctor.” She said that he might visit a doctor.

They said, “they may go to zoo” They said that they might go to zoo.

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MUST changes into HAD TO
He said, “I must work hard” He said that he had to work hard.

She said, “they must carry on their work” She said that they had to carry on their work.

I said to him, “you must learn the test-taking I said to him that he had to learn the test-taking
strategies” strategies.

Indirect speech for sentence having MODALS, should, ought to, might, would, and could”

The modal will not change in indirect speech

Direct Speech Indirect Speech


THESE MODALS DO NOT CHANGE
Would, could, might, should, ought to”

Would
They said, “we would apply for a visa” They said that they would apply for visa.

He said, “I would start a business. He said that he would start a business.

She said, “I would appear in exam” She said that she would appear in the exam.

Could
She said, “she could play a piano” She said that she could play a violin.

They said, “we couldn’t learn the lesson” They said they couldn’t learn the lesson.

He said, “I could run faster” He said that he could run faster.

Might
He said, “guests might come” He said that guest might come.

She said, “it might rain” She said that it might rain.

John said, “I might meet him” John said that he might meet him.

Should
He said, “I should avail the opportunity” He said that he should avail the opportunity.

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She said, “I should help a him” She said that she should help him.

They said, “we should take the exam” They said that they should take the exam.

Ought to
He said to me that I ought to wait for him.
He said to me, “you ought to wait for him”
She said that she ought to learn method of
She said, “I ought to learn method of study” study.

They said, we ought to attend our classes” They said that they ought to attend their
classes.

Indirect speech for exclamatory and

Imperative sentences.

Indirect speech of imperative sentence.


A sentence which expresses command, request, advice or suggestion is called imperative
sentence.
For example,
• Open the door.
• Please help me.
• Learn your lesson.

To change such sentences into indirect speech, the word “ordered” or “requested” or “advised”
or “suggested” or “forbade” or “not to do” is added to reporting verb depending upon nature of
imperative sentence in reported speech.

Examples.
Direct speech: He said to me, “please help me”
Indirect Speech: He requested me to help him.
Direct speech: She said to him, “you should work hard for exam”
Indirect Speech: He suggested him to work hard for exam.
Direct speech: They said to him, “do not tell a lie”
Indirect Speech: They said to him not to tell a lie.
Direct speech: He said, “open the door”
Indirect Speech: He ordered to open the door.
Direct speech: The teacher said to student, “do not waste time”
Indirect Speech: The teacher advised the students not to waste time.
Direct speech: He said, “please give me glass of water”
Indirect Speech: He requested to give him a glass of water.

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Direct speech: Doctor said to me, “Do not smoke”
Indirect Speech: Doctor advised me not to smoke.
Direct speech: The teacher said to him, “Get out”
Indirect Speech: The teacher ordered him to get out.

Indirect speech of

Exclamatory sentences.
Sentence which expresses state of joy or sorrow or wonder is called exclamatory sentence.
For example.
• Hurrah! We won the match.
• Alas! I failed the test.
• Wow! What a nice shirt it is.

To change such sentences, the words “exclaimed with joy” or “exclaimed with sorrow” or
“exclaimed with wonder” is added in the reporting verb depending upon the nature of
exclamatory sentence in indirect speech.

Examples.
Direct speech: He said, “Hurrah! I won a prize”
Indirect Speech: He exclaimed with joy that he had won a prize.
Direct speech: She said, “Alas! I failed in exam”
Indirect Speech: She exclaimed with sorrow that she failed in the exam.
Direct speech: John said, “Wow! What a nice shirt it is”
Indirect Speech: John exclaimed with wonder that it was a nice shirt.
Direct speech: She said, “Hurrah! I am selected for the job”
Indirect Speech: She exclaimed with joy that she was selected for the job.
Direct speech: He said, “Oh no! I missed the train”
Indirect Speech: He exclaimed with sorrow that he had missed the train.
Direct speech: They said, “Wow! What a pleasant weather it is”
Indirect Speech: They exclaimed with wonder that it was a pleasant weather.

Changes in pronoun in Indirect Speech.


The pronoun (subject) of the reported speech is changed according to the

pronoun of reporting verb or object (person) of reporting verb (first part of sentence). Sometimes
the pronoun may not change.

1. First person pronoun in reported speech i.e. I, we, me, us, mine, or our, is changed
according to the pronoun of reporting verb if pronoun in reporting verb is third person
pronoun i.e. he, she, it, they, him, his, her, them or their.

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Examples.
Direct speech: He said, “I live in New York”
Indirect speech: He said that he lived in New York.
Direct speech: They said, “we love our country”
Indirect speech: They said that they loved their country

2. First person pronoun in reported speech i.e. I, we, me, us, mine, or our, is not changed if the
pronoun (Subject) of reporting is also first person pronoun i.e. I or we.

Examples.
Direct speech: I said, “I write a letter”
Indirect speech: I said that I wrote a letter.
Direct speech: We said, “we completed our work”
Indirect speech: We said that we completed our work.

3. Second person pronoun in reported speech i.e. you, yours is changed according to the
person of object of reporting verb.

Examples.
Direct speech: She said to him, “you are intelligent”
Indirect speech: She said to him that he was intelligent.
Direct speech: He said to me, “you are late for the party”
Indirect speech: He said to me that I was late for the party.

4. Third person pronoun in reported speech i.e. he, she, it, they, him, his, her, them or their, is
not changed in indirect speech.

Examples.
Direct speech: They said, “he will come”
Indirect speech: They said that he would come.
Direct speech: You said, “they are waiting for the bus”
Indirect speech: You said that they were waiting for the bus.

Changes in time and adverbs in indirect speech.


Time and adverbs are changed in indirect speech.

Examples.
Direct speech: He said, “I will buy a book tomorrow”
Indirect speech: He said that he would buy a book the next day.
Direct speech: She said, “I am happy now”
Indirect speech: She said that she was happy then.
Direct speech: He said, “I like this book”
Indirect speech: He said that he liked that book.

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Common Rules
Today changes to that day/the same day
Tomorrow changes to the next day/the following day
Yesterday changes to the day before/the previous day
Next week/month/year changes to the following week/month/year
Last week/month/year changes to the previous week/month/year
Now/just changes to then
Ago changes to before
Here changes to there
This changes to that

Words spoken by a person can be reported to another person in two ways. These two ways of
narration are called direct speech and indirect speech.

Direct speech

When we use direct speech we quote the actual words said by the speaker.

Examples are:
She said, ‘I am going to the market.’
John said, ‘I will be late today.’
Alice said, ‘Would you like to come with me?’

Indirect speech

When we use indirect speech, we do not quote the exact words said by the speaker. Instead, we
express the idea in our own words.

In order to report the words of the original speaker in our own language, we have to make
several changes in his/her sentence. The important rules are given below:

Rules regarding the Change of Personal Pronouns

First Personal I My Me
Pronoun
We Our Us

Second Personal You Your You


Pronoun

Third Personal He His Him

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Pronoun She Her Her Nor
mall
It Its It y
we
They Their Them mak
e
the following changes in the personal pronoun of the reported speech.

 First personal pronoun of the reporting speech changes according to the subject of the reported
speech.
 Second personal pronoun of the reporting speech changes according to the object of the reported
speech.
 Third personal pronoun of the reporting speech doesn’t undergo any change

Table for Personal Pronouns

Personal Pronouns of 1st 2nd 3rd


Reported Speech

Change according to Subject Object No Change


the Subject / Object of
the Reporting Speech

Rules regarding the Change in Tenses

When the reporting verb is in the present or future tense…

If the reporting verb is in the present or future tense, the tense of the verb in the direct speech
does not undergo any changes in the indirect speech.

She says, ‘I have done my duty.’ (Direct speech)


She says that she has done her duty. (Indirect speech)
Direct: He says to her, ‘I will wait for you at the railway station.’
Indirect: He tells her that he will wait for her at the railway station.
Direct: He says, ‘I am not coming.’
Indirect: He says that he is not coming.
Direct: She will say, ‘I don’t want to come.’
Indirect: She will say that she does not want to come.
Direct: He will say, ‘I cannot wait any longer.’
Indirect: He will say that he cannot wait any longer.

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When the reporting verb is in the past tense…

When the reporting verb is in the past tense, all present tenses inside the quotation marks will
change to their corresponding past tenses.

The simple present tense will change into the simple past tense.
The present continuous tense will change into the past continuous tense.
The past continuous tense will change into the past perfect continuous tense.

The present perfect tense will change into the past perfect tense.
The present perfect continuous tense will change into the past perfect continuous tense.

Past perfect and Past perfect continuous do not change.

1st form of the Verb → Changes into 2nd form of the Verb Changes into had + 3rd form of
→ the Verb

Do/Does → Did → Had + 3rd form

Is/am/are + 1st form+ing Change into Was/were + 1st Change into had been + 1st
→ form+ing → form+ing

Has/have +3rd form → Change into Had+3rd form → ‘Had’ doesn’t change (No
change)

Has/have been +1st Change into Had been +1st ‘Had been’ doesn’t change (No
form+ing → form+ing → change)

Shall/Will + 1st form → Would + 1st form

Here the reporting verb (said) is in the past tense. To change this sentence into indirect speech,
we have to change the present tense(s) inside the quotation marks into their corresponding past
tenses.

Direct and Indirect Speech:

Rules for the Change of Tenses


We have seen that when the reporting verb is in the past tense, all present tenses inside the
quotation marks will change into their corresponding past tenses in indirect speech. Study the
example sentences given below.

Direct: She said, ‘I don’t want to come with you.’


Indirect: She said that she didn’t want to come with me.

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Direct: He said, ‘I am writing a letter.’
Indirect: He said that he was writing a letter.
Direct: She said, ‘I have finished the work.’
Indirect: She said that she had finished the work.
Direct: He said, ‘I want some razors.’
Indirect: He said that he wanted some razors.
Direct: John said, ‘I have been living in this city for ten years.’
Indirect: John said that he had been living in that city for ten years.
Direct: He said, ‘I have been waiting here for several hours.’
Indirect: He said that he had been waiting there for several hours.

When the reporting verb is in the past tense, past tenses inside the quotation marks will change
into their corresponding past tenses.

The simple past will change into the past perfect.


The past continuous will change into the past perfect continuous.
The past perfect and past perfect continuous tenses will remain unchanged.

Direct: He said, ‘Burglars broke into my house last night.’


Indirect: He said that burglars had broken into his house the previous night.
Direct: She said to me, ‘I was waiting for my sister.’
Indirect: She told me that she had been waiting for her sister.
Direct: She said, ‘I had never met such people before.’
Indirect: She said that she had never met such people before.
Direct: John said, ‘I had been gardening for two hours.’
Indirect: John said that he had been gardening for two hours.

Note that sometimes we do not change a simple past tense into past perfect tense in the indirect
speech.

Direct: He said, ‘I lived many years in the US.’

Indirect: He said that he lived many years in the US. OR He said that he had lived many years in
the US.

Note that the past perfect tense is used to lay stress on the completion of one past action before
another past action.

When the reporting verb is in the past tense, shall will change into should in indirect speech.
Similarly, will will change into would, can into could and may into might.

Direct: She said, ‘I will work hard.’


Indirect: She said that she would work hard.
Direct: He said, ‘They will be arriving here by the next train.’
Indirect: He said that they would be arriving there by the next train.

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Direct: Alice said, ‘I will have finished the work by now.’
Indirect: Alice said that she would have finished the work by then.

Rules for the Change of Adverbs in Indirect Speech


Besides the changes in the tenses and the pronouns, words expressing nearness in direct speech
are changed into words expressing distance in indirect speech. The rules are as follows:

This will change into that.


These will change into those.
Here will change into there.
Now/just will change into then.
Today will change into that day.
Yesterday will change into the previous day or the day before.
Last night will change into the previous night or the night before.
Tomorrow will change into the next day.
Ago will change into before.
The next day/week/year will change into the following day/week/year.
Hence will change into thence.
Thus will change into so or in that way.

Direct: He said, ‘I am too weak to work now.’


Indirect: He said that he was too weak to work then.
Direct: She said, ‘I will leave for New York tomorrow.’
Indirect: She said that she would leave for New York the next day.
Direct: He said, ‘I visited them yesterday.’
Indirect: He said that he had visited them the previous day.
Direct: She said, ‘I liked this bag.’
Indirect: She said that she liked that bag.
Direct: I said, ‘I am leaving tomorrow.’
Indirect: She said that she was leaving the next day.
Direct: She said, ‘These mangoes are rotten.’
Indirect: She said that those mangoes were rotten.
Direct: He said, ‘These are our dogs.’
Indirect: He said that those were their dogs.

Notes:

Adverbs of time or place do not normally change if the reporting verb is in the present or future
tense.

Direct: She says, ‘My husband will come now.’


Indirect: She says that her husband will come now.
Direct: She will say, ‘I have to leave now.’
Indirect: She will say that she has to leave now.

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If the adverbs now, this, here etc., refer to objects present at the time of reporting the speech, or
to the place in which the reporter is at the time of the speech, they are not changed into then,
that, there etc.

John said to me, ‘I have no time to talk to you now.’


John told me that he had no time to talk to me now. (Here the report is made immediately.)
Alice said, ‘This is my basket.’
Alice said that this was her basket. (Here the basket is right before us.)
He said, ‘I will speak here.’
He said that he would speak here. (Here the report is made on the same spot.)

Types of Sentences

1: Declarative Sentences

Turn the following sentences into indirect speech.

1. John said, ‘I am very busy now.’


2. He said, ‘The horse has been fed.’
3. ‘I know her name and address,’ said John.
4. ‘German is easy to learn,’ she said.
5. He said, ‘I am writing letters.’
6. ‘It is too late to go out,’ Alice said.
7. He said to me, ‘I don’t believe you.’
8. He says, ‘I am glad to be here this evening.’
9. He said to me, ‘What are you doing?’
10. ‘Where is the post office?’ asked the stranger.
11. He said, ‘Will you listen to me?’
12. John said to Peter, ‘Go away.’
13. She said to me, ‘Please wait here till I return.’
14. ‘Call the witness,’ said the judge.
15. The speaker said, ‘Be quiet and listen to my words.’

Answers

1. John said that he was very busy then.


2. He said that the horse had been fed.
3. John said that he knew/knows her name and address. (Note that the tenses may not change if
the statement is still relevant or if it is a universal truth.)
4. She said that German is/was easy to learn.
5. He said that he was writing letters.
6. Alice said that it was too late to go out.
7. He told me that he didn’t believe me. OR He said he didn’t believe me.
8. He says that he is glad to be here this evening. (When the reporting verb is in the present
tense, adverbs of time and place do not normally change in indirect speech.)
9. He asked me what I was doing.
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10. The stranger asked where the post office is/was.
11. He asked me if I would listen to him.
12. John ordered Peter to go away.
13. She asked me to wait there till she returned.
14. The judge commanded them to call the first witness.
15. He urged them to be quiet and listen to them.

2: Interrogative Sentences
There are two main kinds of interrogative sentences. Those which start with an auxiliary verb
and those which start with a question word such as what, why, when, where, how etc.

The following changes occur when an interrogative sentence in the direct speech is changed to
the indirect speech.

Interrogative sentences beginning with an auxiliary verb are changed into the indirect speech by
using the connective if or whether.

The reporting verb said (or any other word used as the reporting verb) changes to asked,
queried, questioned, demanded of or enquired of in the indirect speech. Note that of is used
after enquired and demanded only when the reporting verb has an object.

The most common reporting verbs used to report a question are asked and enquired of. The
reporting verb queried is somewhat investigative. Demanded of is the strongest of all reporting
verbs mentioned above. It is used when an explanation is desired.

Note that the indirect narration is always in the assertive form. In other words, the interrogative
sentences in the direct speech will change into assertive sentences in the indirect speech.

Study the following examples carefully to understand the rules mentioned above.

Direct: She said to me, ‘Are you coming with us?’


Indirect: She asked me if I was going with them. OR She asked them if I was coming with them.
Direct: She said to me, ‘Are you unwell?’
Indirect: She asked me if I was unwell.
Direct: She said to him, ‘Am I to wait for you till eternity?’
Indirect: She enquired of him if she was to wait for him till eternity.
Direct: I said to him, ‘Were you present at the meeting yesterday?’
Indirect: I asked him whether he had been present at the meeting the day before (or the
previous day).
Direct: The woman asked the stranger, ‘Should I help you?’
Indirect: The woman asked the stranger whether she should help him.

Note that the auxiliary verbs should, could, would, ought to and might do not change in the
indirect speech.

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Direct: I said to him, ‘Who are you?’
Indirect: I asked him who he was.
Direct: The mother said to the daughter, ‘Do you know where John is?’
Indirect: The mother asked the daughter whether she knew where John was.
Direct: ‘Have you anything to say on behalf of the accused?,’ said the judge to the lawyer.
Indirect: The judge enquired of the lawyer if he had anything to say on behalf of the accused.

Change the following sentences into indirect speech.

1. ‘What do you want?’ she asked him.


2. ‘Are you coming with us?’ he asked me.
3. He asked, ‘When do you intend to make the payment?’
4. ‘Do you come from China?’ said the prince to the girl.
5. The poor man exclaimed, ‘Will none of you help me?’
6. ‘Which way should I go?’ asked the little girl.
7. Alladin said to the magician, ‘What have I done to deserve so severe a punishment?’
8. ‘Don’t you know the way home?’ I said to her.
9. ‘Do you write a good hand?’ the teacher said to the student.
10. ‘Have you anything to say on behalf of the accused?’ said the judge finally.
11. ‘Have you anything to tell me, little bird?’ asked Ulysses.
12. ‘Who are you, sir, and what do you want?’ they asked.
13. The king was impressed with the magician and asked, ‘What can I do for you?’
14. She asked, ‘What is it that makes you stronger and braver than other men?’
15. ‘Can you solve this problem?’ he asked me.

Answers

1. She asked him what he wanted.


2. He asked me if I was coming/going with them.
3. He enquired when I/he/she intended to make the payment.
4. The prince asked the girl if she came from China.
5. The poor man exclaimed whether none of them would help him.
6. The little girl asked which way she should go.
7. Alladin asked the magician what he had done to deserve so severe a punishment.
8. I asked her whether she did not know the way home.
9. The teacher asked the student if he/she wrote a good hand.
10. The judge finally asked whether he/she had anything to say on behalf of the accused.
11. Ulysses asked the little bird whether it had anything to tell him.
12. They asked who he was and what he wanted.
13. The king was impressed with the magician and asked what he could do for him.
14. She asked him what was it that made him stronger and braver than other men.
15. He asked me if I could solve that problem.

Interrogative Part II

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Direct: The Father said, ‘Son, did I not ask you to study hard?’
Indirect: The father enquired of his son if he had not asked him to study hard.
Direct: My father said to me, ‘Where were you last night?’
Indirect: My father demanded of me where I had been the previous night.
Direct: She said, ‘Friend, will you wait for a moment?’
Indirect: She asked her friend if she would wait for a moment.

Interrogative sentences beginning with a question word

When a question begins with a question word such as what, who, whom, when, where, why,
how etc., the same word is used to introduce the question in the indirect speech. In other words,
the question word becomes the joining word instead of that, if or whether.

Direct: Viola said to Rosalind, ‘Where are you going?’


Indirect: Viola asked Rosalind where she was going.
Direct: The teacher asked the new comer, ‘What is your name?’
Indirect: The teacher asked the new comer what his name was.
Direct: The wolf said to the lamps, ‘Why are you all so sad?’
Indirect: The wolf asked the lamps why they were all so sad.
Direct: The mother said to her daughter, ‘Dear, how have you fared in the examination?’
Indirect: The mother asked her daughter lovingly how she had fared in the examination.
Direct: The shopkeeper said to me, ‘Which bag do you want?’
Indirect: The shopkeeper asked me which bag I wanted.
Direct: She said to him, ‘Why are you disturbing me?’
Indirect: She asked him why he was disturbing her.
Direct: I said to the boys, ‘Who teaches you English?’
Indirect: I asked the boys who taught them English.
Direct: John said to Mary, ‘What are you doing?’
Indirect: John asked Mary what she was doing.
Direct: The old man said to himself, ‘Why did I come here?’
Indirect: The old man asked himself why he had come there.

3: Imperative Sentences
Imperative sentences do not normally have an expressed subject. This is because the
subject ‘you’ is usually understood. As a result of this, imperative sentences begin with a verb in
the simple present tense.

An imperative sentence expresses ideas such as advice, order, request, suggestion, instruction,
permission, allowance etc.

In order to change an imperative sentence into the indirect speech, we use a to-infinitive. A –
that clause is also possible in some cases. Note that instead of ‘said’ we use one of the
following reporting verbs:

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Advise, command, request, suggest, threaten, order, forbid, decree, propose, entreat, prompt,
counsel, pardon, beg, persuade, instruct etc.

Notes:

After suggest, we use a –that clause and not an infinitive.


The verb propose is not followed by an object.
The verb forbid itself conveys a negative sense. Therefore, we do not use not in the following
clause.

Study the following examples carefully.

Direct: The old woman said to the boy, ‘Please help me.’
Indirect: The old woman requested the boy to help her.
Direct: I said to him, ‘Love and obey your parents.’
Indirect: I advised him to love and obey his parents. OR I advised that he should love and
obey his parents.
Direct: The teacher said to the students, ‘Work hard.’
Indirect: The teacher advised the boys to work hard. OR The teacher suggested that the boys
should work hard.
Direct: The doctor said to the patient, ‘Quit smoking.’
Indirect: The doctor advised the patient to quit smoking. OR The doctor suggested that the
patient should quit smoking.
Direct: The officer said to the clerk, ‘Do it immediately.’
Indirect: The officer ordered the clerk to do it immediately.
Direct: The teacher said to the boy, ‘Come in, please.’
Indirect: The teacher allowed (or asked) the boy to come in.
Direct: He said to me, ‘Post this letter at once.’
Indirect: He ordered me to post that letter at once.
Direct: I said to the children, ‘Do not make a noise.’
Indirect: I forbade the children to make a noise. (NOT I forbade the children not to make a
noise.)
Direct: I said to her, ‘Don’t mention his name.’
Indirect: I forbade her to mention his name.
Direct: I said to the child, ‘Do not look down into the well.’
Indirect: I warned the child not to look down into the well.
Direct: He said to me, ‘Wait here till I return.’
Indirect: He asked me to wait there till he returned.

Indirect: He said that he was unwell

4: Optative Sentences
It is sentence that indicates a wish, pray or desire.

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If the reported speech begins with the word “may”, we change the reporting verb into
prayed.

She said, “May my son stand first in the class!”

She prayed that her son might stand first in the class.

He said to them, “May you catch the train today!”

He prayed for them that they might catch the train that day.

They said. “May the police arrest the thieves!”

They prayed that police might arrest the thieves.

If the reported speech begins with the word “would”, we change the reporting verb into
wished.

Mother said to me, “Would that your father were here today!”

Mother wished that my father had been there that day

The teacher said to the students, “Would that I were on leave today!”

The teacher wished that he had been on leave that day.

He said, “Would that I were rich!”

He wished that he had been rich.

5: Exclamatory Sentences

In reporting exclamations the indirect speech is introduced by some verb expressing


exclamation.

He said, “Alas! My brother has met an accident.”

He exclaimed with great sorrow that his brother had met with an accident.

He said, “Alas! I am undone.”

He exclaimed sadly that he was undone.

He said, “Bravo! You have done well.”

He applauded him, saying that he had done well.


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They said to us, “Hurrah! We have defeated your team.”

They exclaimed with great joy that they had defeated our team.

We said, “How old this woman is!”

We said in great surprise that that woman was very old.

Ali said, “How clever I am!”

Ali exclaimed that he was very clever.

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