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INTEllMEDlATE PROJECT

will not interfere with these components. should be at 24 V d.c.; all others pins on the wires. Be careful not to nick the fine-strand
Next, fit resistors Rzs-R4o- Clip away the two sockets should be 0 V. eonductors. Twtst theconductors togetherand
excess lead length from these components Insert S4 into its socket with the ON side lightly tin the wires: take care not to darnage
after they are soldered in. Inspeer YOUT work located towards R~R32. Closealltheswitches, the cable insulation with heat from the sol-
as you progress, look for bad sold er joints or whereupon pins 2, 4, 6, 8,11,13,15, and 17, dering irön. Separate the eable along the cen-
solder bridges between any of the closely of TC3should be at 5 V d.c. Open all the tre conductors in the cable to a length of 3 in.
spaced pads er circuit tracks, switches, whereupon these pins should be (7.5cm) from theend. Next,separateeach con-
lnstall D~D13' Use heat sparingly on these at 0 V. The level at pin 1 may be high or low, ductor in the ribbon over about 1 in. (2.5 crn)
devices when soldering them to the board. depending on the position of change-over from the end. Insert the wires frorn each
Also, observe correct polarity. When you are switch 55, connected to points X, Y and Z. cha.nnel into the corresponding pad of the
certain that the devices are properly ori- Pin 20 should be at 5 V d.c. all the time. All main logic board. Note that channels 7 and
ented, solder them to the board and clip other pins should be at 0 V all the time. 8 are not in order and must be given a 'half
away the excess lead lengths. Pins 2, 4, 5, 7, 9, 12, and 16, of 1C4 should twist".
Fit capacitors C2-C7- Note that sorne of be at 5 V d.c. All other pins should be at 0 V Attach a relay or solenoid coil, or any
these ccmponents are polarized electrolytic all the time. other suitable type of load, tothe load potnts
types; make sure that COTTect polarity is ob- Pin 14 of IC5and rC6shouid be at5 V d.c.; on the logie board. Mount the sensor detec-
served. When the capacitors are fitted cor- all other pins on these sockets should be at tor/amplifier array, the rnain legte board
rectlyon the board, sold er thern into place. o V. and the output loads in an appropriate en-
Prepare the foUowing front solid 22 AWG [f you measure any levels other than the closure. Set switch Ssso that pin 1oflC3is low
(0.6 mm dia.) circu.it wire: two e-in. (15 cm) ones stated, stop and find the reason for the to enable the lock driver.
lengths, stripped 1/4 in. (6 mrn) at each end incorrect reading. Onee this has been found, Install 1C3-ICS into their respective sock-
for the alarm reset switch, 53, and three 8-in. retest the board as outliued. ets: make sure that they are correctly ori-
(20 cm) lengths for lock enable switch 55· Next, remove the power from the circuit. ented and that all pins insert correctly be-
Solder these wires to the appropriate locations Attach the ribbon cable between the sensor fore pushing them horne. Note that JC3, ICs,
on the board and then attach them to the rel- array board (completed earlier) and the main 1C7, and ICs, are sensitive to electrostatic en-
evant lugs on the switches. Iogic board. The letters on the main logie ergy so take the a ppropriate precautions when
Test the board by applying 24 V d.c. and board eorrespond to the channel letter output handling these devices. •
5 V d.c. to the appropriate pointa on the board of the sensor deteetor/arnplifier array.
(observe polarity) and make the following Prepare thecable for assembly bycarefully Next month's final par! of this «niete will deot
measurements: pins 7 and 8 of IC7 and rcs stripping tbe insularion fr0111 the ends of the witll progrnlllllli/1g end testi/lg the opticalock.

DESIGN IDEAS
The contents of this column are based solelyon information supplied by
the author and do not imply practical experience by Elektor Electronics

Keyboard circuit
by D. Nelson

HERE are many chips on the market that has been operated is also required. quired by the following circuit , it is in-
T may be used in a keyboard circuit, but
many of these are Fixed and do not provide
In the diagram. les, 1C6. and leg are all
C04051 single 8-channelmultiplexers. The
verted by an additional transistor.
To give the conventional keyboard the
all the keys required. For example, RCA's strobe is generated by stopping the clock that functions of shift and contral keys, extra gat-
COP 1871 is an excellent device, CMOS drives seven-stage ripple counter fC2 via ing is required, and that is the purpose of
logic and low power requirement, but it does an AND gare, because the battery on pin 9 the rest ofthe circuit. Control has precedence
not provide for the backspace key to be coded is earthed via the matrix and two of the and, by means of two AND gates, forces bits
as hex 08. Instead, it uses the delete key, multiplexers. 6 and 7 low. The control key is non-Iock-
coded as hex 7F. Although it is possible to The key code is contained in the outpur ing.
change the software to recognize the differ- of the ripple counter and the strobe is pro- The shift key is arranged toconvert lower
ent code, this is not always easy. The airn of vided by the Schrnitrrrigger NANO gate that ease letters to upper ease so rhat it is nec-
the design offered here is a keyboard that will oscillate with an unequal mark-space essary to wire the alpha keys in the lower
can produce every code but is also able to ratio, since the diode used is a germanium ease matrix posirions, This key is conven-
be hooked up as a standard keyboard. type. A silicon diode would, of course, do tional non-locking and invens bits 6 and 5
To provide a matrix that will encode the as weil, provided it is shunted by a high value of the output code. The shift-Iock is cou-
128 combinations of the ASCll code, 16x8 resisror. The oscillation provides a repeat pled capacitively to the same ANO gare as
lines are needed. Tf all 128 keys are [0 be function of the key that is pressed. Since the shift key, so that the gate is toggled by
used, a strobe outpur to signal that a key the srrobe is in the wrang sense lO that re- the shift-Iock key and will stay with the

ELEKTOR ELECTRONICS SEPTEMBER 1991


KEYBOARD CIRCUlT

output low when the shift-Iock is released. alpha key is released by operating the shift- Two further features of the circuit require
The shift-Iock is released by pressing the lock. amention. One is the transistor feeding
shift key and releasing it again. Only one key now remains an enigma: the most significanr bit 8.lfthis is connected
One other feature has been included to the space bar. Without any extra gating, to its own key, it can be used in conjunc-
make the keyboard friendly to computers: this gives a 0 if the shift or shift-Iock is op- tion with other keys 10 give hex codes from
the alpha key. This changes lower ease 10 erated, and this is clearly not acceptable. 80 to FF. The oiher is tied up with the clock
upper ease without shifting the keys with To correct this, five diodes have been added, and strobe. A diode is fed back from the
an ASCII code between 20 and 3F hex, that one each from the four least significant output of the repeat strobe oscillator to the
is, the numbers row on a standard key- lines and one between the two inputs of main clock, This is necessary to prevent a
board. This key is locking and implemented the XOR gate in bit 5, so that aspace re- false output if a second key is pressed be-
in the same way as the shift-Iock key. The mains aspace, shifted or not. fore the first one is released. •

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ELEKTOR ELECTRONICS SEPTEMBER 1991