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RESEARCH

(ASSIGNMENT 2)

TERM PAPER

GIS BASED VISUAL VALUE ANALYSIS FOR MAPPING


GREENWAYS

BY:
SHREYA SUNIL SHIRSATH
FIRST YEAR M.ARCH
BATCH: 2017-2018

D.Y PATIL SCHOOL OF ARCHITECTURE


DR. D.Y PATIL KNOWLEDGE CITY,
CHARHOLI-BK, LOHEGAON, PUNE

SAVITRIBAI PHULE PUNE UNIVERSITY

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Abstract
Visibility and scenic landscape analysis of a particular region or a state is an important field

of study with direct implications in urban and regional spatial planning, landscape planning

and management. More specifically, GIS-based landscape visibility analysis can be a tool to

protect, manage, and plan cultural urban landscapes, focusing on scenic and visual values.

Using visibility maps it is possible to predict the visual impact of transformations, locate

interventions on the basis of visual sensitivity, and protect landscape of bio-physical

importance, cultural heritage and significant landmarks visible from selected viewpoints. The

visual value is defined by biological and physical (or biophysical) values, while the

perception-based approach emphasizes the human view (subjective) of the landscape. This

paper outlines a methodology to identify and study of visual values of Charholi for

development of conservative zoning and conservation subdivision design, an approach we

call growing greener using GIS as a tool to identify the potential Viewshed from a potential

viewpoints.

1. INTRODUCTION

Charholi is an ancient village situated in Pune, Maharashtra near Alandi which is among one

of the most well-known places of pilgrimage for Hindus. It is settled under the foothills of

Wagheshwar hill in the west and Indrayani River to the north. Charholi village is been

documented in a book “ Aashi amchi Charholi” which states that Charholi was a small

village surrounded by a mass of fertile land, pastures and Indrayani river. The pastures were

surrounded by hills, mountains and forests. This makes Charholi a village a place of

significance with natural heritage which include wide expanse of ecosystems, providing

habitat to wildlife, rare plants, animal species, wetlands, streams, rivers, etc. In terms of smart

urban planning finding land resources with cultural and visual value and conservation of

these aspects are of prime importance before going ahead with any kind of urban

development. The wave of urban development from city has now approached this village‟s
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boundary therefore adoption of greenways as a key concept in the current scenario is of

utmost significance as an ecologically responsive alternative and adaptive planning.

Currently the village has extensive farmlands where farming is a source of income

for the people of Charholi. The undulating terrain with hills gives the village potential

viewpoints to look at the biophysical features of Charholi. Charholi being an ancient village,

the people residing here have strong religious belief therefore temples are seen closely knit

with the houses in the core of the village or a number of them are visible on hills. This

cultural belief can be seen at the ancient Wagheshwar Temple or shiv Temple which is

located on the highest hill in the village which is still the center of cultural and religious

belief of people of Charholi and other believers from distant places. Earlier Charholi Gaon

had a fortress around and an entry gate called as Ves in which houses or Wada‟s were built.

These old Wada‟s with timber and stone used as construction material are now prominent

man-made feature of Charholi. Although few houses have altered old houses by new multi-

floor houses but the ancient Wada‟s give a peculiar character here. Hence it is an important

task while deriving local zoning and subdivision ordinances for such community where

shaping growth around the special natural and cultural features found.

For the communities that have adopted some type of land-use plan and regulation

to control growth are the two additional choices faced by the local residents and officials.

Therefore, by greenway policies modification of conventional zoning and subdivision codes

to turn it into new conservation-based tools that can effectively protect the community‟s most

valued resources and special places, while still accommodating full-density growth.

As per greenway policy, the site views into and out from the site is a prime aspect

of site design from the perspective of both the developer and the general public. The

developers usually wish to maximize attractive views outward from potential house sites,

while the public typically desires that the new development be as visually inconspicuous as

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possible. Considering the visual values of both the parties, it is often possible for

development to be sited or buffered in such a way that everybody‟s principle visual interests

are accommodated.

2. VISUAL VALUE ASSESSMENT METHODOLOGY FOR CHARHOLI

 Existing environmental visual values

The methodology for the identification of the existing environmental values of the area

surrounding the site and the identification of the viewpoints is detailed below:

 The field visits and use of GIS datasets, aerial maps, photographs to generate

potential visual catchment areas.

 Identification of potentially affected receptors and viewpoints which are accessible

to the public for their respective use or purpose. Understanding the sensitivity of

visual receptor.

 Site verification of publicly accessible and respective viewpoints with

photographic records to provide representation of typical views possible from that

locality to the project. These viewing situations reflect particular landscape and/ or

visual features of importance within the visual environment and local landscape

character. Generally, they represent views from key visual receptors (residents and

recreation users) where a potentially change in view may occur.

 To understand the environmental Impact Assessment of visual aesthetics and its

human perception for visual aesthetics.

 To understand positive environmental behavior perceived by humans.

 Classification of Visual values.

STAGE 1- Study of visual values in terms of greenway ordinances


- Field visits and research papers.

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STAGE 2- Collection of data Preparation
- Identification of visual values in terms of views and viewpoints of overall Charholi area.
- Classification of visual values in terms of natural and man-made.

STAGE 3- Visual quality matrix and map generation process


- Classification of visual values or view point according to visual impact factors.

STAGE 4- Classification of visual impact factors to the visually influential factors

STAGE 5- Viewshed quality analysis


- Create Viewshed analysis according to visual influential factors distance and
calculate Viewshed scores using arc GIS as a tool for Viewshed analysis.

STAGE 6- Analysis of visual value and its cumulative impact

3. UNDERSTANDING GREENWAY REVIEW STANDARDS FOR VISUAL

VALUES

Delineation of vital resources that contribute to the visual aesthetics or values of a an area

to be studied for greenway policies-

a. Stream channels, floodplains, wet soils, swales, springs and other low lying areas,

including adjacent buffer areas that may be required to ensure protection.

b. Significant visually potential natural areas of species listed as endangered,

threatened, or of special concern.

c. Moderate to steep slopes, particularly those adjoining watercourses and ponds

where disturbance and resulting soil erosion and sedimentation could be

detrimental to water quality hence affecting visual quality of the sensitive

receptor.

d. Hedgerows, groups of trees, large individual trees of botanic significance, and

other vegetation features representing the site‟s rural past.

e. Historic structure and sites

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f. Existing trails connecting the tract to other locations in the municipality.

g. Visually prominent topographic features such as knolls, hilltops and ridges, and

scenic Viewsheds as seen from public roads (particularly those with historic

features).

4. DATA COLLECTION:

A. Visual value Inventory

Visual landscape inventory is used to delineate, classify, and record areas in the region that

are considered to be visually sensitive. This information is intended to assist land-use

planners and resource managers in deciding appropriate land uses, resource development

objectives, and management prescriptions.

- Landscape visual quality factor: Every visual biophysical feature in the landscape of

Charholi can be considered as a LVQ factor as shown in table1 and 2.

Farms, Topography or land form (hills and slopes), Vegetation, River Indrayani, Reserved

forest, etc. - It‟s not just the natural environments that need protection. Historic areas and

regions with traditional farming practices may also need protection to ensure that their

distinctive appearance is not spoilt by other developing projects and short term

considerations.

PLANNING

Where strategic land-use planning is initiated or under way, Ministry of Forests visual

landscape inventory mapping or Ministry of Small Business, Tourism and Culture tourism

capability mapping can provide the necessary information to identify the location of sensitive

landscapes and known scenic areas, as well as provide management direction.

Where landscape unit planning is initiated or under way, scenic areas may be identified and

made known and VQOs may be established through this planning process. In the absence of

higher-level plans, or for higher-level plans not specifically addressing the management of

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scenic areas and visual quality, district managers can use their own statutory authority to

identify and make scenic areas known, and establish VQOs.

Scenic quality

High Medium Low

Waterbodies Main river- Indrayani river. Water in the river for 4- No water or
Strong flow during monsoon. 6 months. dried river.
Scattered ponds and
lakes
Streams Flowing streams in monsoon Minor streams with Absence of
intermittent flow. streams
Pockets of water can be
seen or partially dry
Land form Hills and mountains Partially dry and less Completely
o High/ steep/undulating/ flat greenery. dried less
o Focal points vegetation
o Valley and ridge forms
o Irregular
o Dramatic seasonal colour
o Mountains and hills with
pastures and vegetation
during monsoon.

Farmlands o Farm Lands adjoining the o Green farmlands and o Green


river with high fertile soil. mountains with less farmlands with
o Green farmlands surrounded vegetation. no vegetation.
by the hills and mountains o Green farmlands with o Less vegetation
create visual contrast partially dried streams/ on farm lands
seasonally. water bodies. and no streams.

Table 1 showing LVO of Charholi

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MAN MADE ATTRIBUTES
Man-made visual quality

High Medium Low

Temples o Wagheshwar temple o Shrimant waghai o Sheetala devi


o Hiramata Mandir temple Mandir
o Maruti Mandir o Hanuman temple o Durga Mata
o Vitthal Rukmini Mandir o Jain Temple Temple
o Molani Masjid o Kadubai
o Pirbaba Darga Shree
o Laxmi mata mhasoba
Mandir mandir
o Shri ram mandir o

Houses Clustered old houses/ wadas Outside the ves, G+4 newly
inside the Ves. individual houses in constructed
Farmlands apartment
Others - Wagheshwar chowk - Shree wagheshwar - Swachh
- Tapkir Bhaji Market vidyalaya Public toilet
- Post office
- Sewage Treatement plant
- RMC plant

Table 2 showing Man-made LVQ of Charholi

5. VISTAS AND VIEWPOINTS


Vistas and viewpoints are notable points from where landscape can be appreciated. They

are connected to the landscape so the vista comprises the location of the viewer and the

view they can see from the point. They may be raised above the surrounding area, so the

viewer can see the long way or they may be easy to get to from a road. Identify the range of

vistas. Order classification- Arrange all the data aesthetical and visual values and their

characteristics in the order of vistas against their order of classification like, coherence,

dominance, containment, barriers and screens, etc. as shown in table 3.

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Table 3 showing matrix for vistas and viewpoints

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6. VIEWSHED ANALYSIS FOR VISUAL VALUES

Quantitative analysis for visual values or visual impact assessment includes Viewshed. Its

output can be projective maps, which are initiated from viewpoints within the development

(inside looking out), or reflective mappings, which are initiated from viewpoints in the

surrounding landscape (outside looking in). Objective of the former is to reveal the extent of

visibility of the existing visual amenities to its surroundings. And the latter's objective is to

determine whether the existing visual value of Charholi affected by sprawling urban

development as per PCMC development plans , and to what extent, the development is

visible from its surroundings.

A Viewshed is an area that is visible from a specific location. Viewshed analyses are a

common function and can be performed with geographic information system (GIS) software.

The analysis uses the elevation value of each cell of the digital elevation model (DEM) to

determine visibility to or from a particular cell. The location of this particular cell varies

depending on the needs of the analysis. For example, a Viewshed analysis is commonly used

to locate communication towers or determining the view from a road.

From visual value inventory, potential viewpoints where marked as observation points to

conduct Viewshed analysis as follows-

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DEM MAP OF CHARHOLI SHOWING OBSERVATION POINTS FOR VIEWSHED

ANALYSIS

WAGHJAI HILL PIRBABA HILL

VIEWSHED 1: FROM WAGHJAI HILL VIEWSHED 2: FROM PIRBABA HILL

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WAGHESHWAR HILL HIRAMATA HIRAMATA TEMPLE

VIEWSHED 3: FROM WAGHJAI HILL VIEWSHED 4: FROM HIRAMATA TEMPLE

CONCLUSION
The visual impact assessment for studying the visual values of Charholi by using GIS as a

tool for mapping greenways to propose a development integrating the city growth as well as

balancing the existing ecosystem addresses three types of issues: spatial, quantitative and

qualitative. Spatial issues include where the development is visible from or, more

specifically, what or whom it is visible to; quantitative issues include how much of the

development is visible, how much of the surrounding area is affected, and to what degree;

and qualitative issues include the visual character of the development and its compatibility

with its surroundings. The first two issues can be due to the changes of the indivisibility for

given development. The principle of indivisibility states that visibility is determined in two

ways either from the site or to the site. It includes both being viewed from outside of the

development's boundaries and the outside view from the developing site to adjacent areas. In

GIS's 3D analysis extension, they are both carried under the calculation of Viewshed.

Viewshed includes all visible or invisible area in the city from given viewpoints or

view corridor (ESRI, 1997). View corridor means the corridor from the viewpoint to the

scenery. Through this analysis these corridors are important to maintain as viewing and

viewed corridors as they have been created by natural terrain that the Charholi has. As per

greenway ordinances that have been studied here the wildlife or critical habitat, topography,

rivers, streams, watershed, etc. are a visual amenity that enhances visual absorption capability

of this area. These said layers are to be studied and analyzed simultaneously for derivation of

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high visual values for the project. For example in the urban context, view corridor often

follows the route of roads, sidewalk of rivers, or some other linear. In Charholi Gaon where

the visual landscape amenities are still untouched, visibilities between scenery can often be

maintained for good visual effects. It is also necessary to maintain some visual

interdependency between important layers of water bodies, vegetation, farmlands, wetlands,

etc. In order to form the whole visual landscape effects. These viewing corridors affect the

layout and height of buildings too. Besides the Viewshed and view corridor, there are also

some other factors should be considered in design a specific GIS for visual impact

assessment. In the city, areas show great differences in their magnitude of visual values. Even

when it comes to a same building, some façades contribute more to its visual character. Those

make it necessary to level constructions according to their visual values. And the visual

impact of new constructions should also involve the parts which intercept with those prior

parts.

Hence with the understanding of visual values proposed, visual study demands the visual

connectivity of green spaces or the interconnectivity of various layers of inventory to develop

a corridor which could be visually, ecologically, economically, politically balanced as per

greenway policies.

REFERENCES
- Growing greener- Randall Arendt.
- GIS for visual impact assessment- Zongyu Zhang, Jin Yeu Tsou, and Hui Lin,
Department of Architecture, Geography.
- GIS-based visual analysis for planning and designing historic urban landscapes
- Visual impact assessment scope and methodology Guidebook
- „WEDC‟ An Introduction to Visual impact assessment
- Landscape visual quality assessment using GIS in Washtenaw county, MI
- Swan hill bridge- Landscape and visual impact assessment.

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